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1

Discovery and research on jiahu bone flutes in wuyang, china.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The site of Jiahu is located in Jiahu village, Wuyang County, Henan province, on the Western edge of the broad plain of Huanhuaihai. On its north the site borders the Sha River, in the upper reaches of the Huai River; its latitude is 33(degree) 36 minutes...

Z. Juzhong G. Harbottle X. Xinghua W. Changsui

2000-01-01

2

Patterns of osseointegration and remodeling in femoral revision with bone loss using modular, tapered, fluted, titanium stems.  

PubMed

Radiographic signs of osseointegration with the use of fluted, tapered, modular, titanium stems in revision hip arthroplasty with bone loss have not been previously categorized. Serial radiographs of 64 consecutive hips with mean follow-up of 6.2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Bone loss was classified as per Paprosky classification, osseointegration was assessed according to a modified system of Engh et al, and Harris Hip Score was used to document pain and function. Seventy-four percent of the hips had type 3 or 4 bone loss. All stems were radiographically osseointegrated. Early minor subsidence was seen in 6.2% of the hips; definite bony regeneration, 73% of the hips; and stress shielding, 26% of the hips. These osseointegration patterns were different from those described for extensively porous-coated cobalt-chromium stems and had a bearing on the evaluation of fixation of these stems. PMID:21855273

Rodriguez, Jose A; Deshmukh, Ajit J; Klauser, Wolfgang U; Rasquinha, Vijay J; Lubinus, Philipp; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

2011-12-01

3

Managing femoral bone loss in revision total hip replacement: fluted tapered modular stems.  

PubMed

If a surgeon is faced with altered lesser trochanter anatomy when revising the femoral component in revision total hip replacement, a peri-prosthetic fracture, or Paprosky type IIIb or type IV femoral bone loss, a modular tapered stem offers the advantages of accurately controlling femoral version and length. The splines of the taper allow rotational control, and improve the fit in femoral canals with diaphyseal bone loss. In general, two centimetres of diaphyseal contact is all that is needed to gain stability with modular tapered stems. By allowing the proximal body trial to rotate on a well-fixed distal segment during trial reduction, appropriate anteversion can be obtained in order to improve intra-operative stability, and decrease the dislocation risk. However, modular stems should not be used for all femoral revisions, as implant fracture and corrosion at modular junctions can still occur. PMID:24187363

Cross, M B; Paprosky, W G

2013-11-01

4

Flute Choir Fundamentals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The flute is one of the more accessible instruments for beginners and is a popular choice for many elementary and middle school students. It is relatively easy to create a decent, usable sound with a flute, and it is more portable than most instruments. While starting a flute choir has a lot of benefits, arranging a band has a lot of challenges.…

Chappell, Jon

2007-01-01

5

Laurence Sherr: Chamber Music for Flute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurence Sherr is a contemporary American composer with his own unique and recognizable compositional voice. His three chamber works for flute, Dhammapada Verses (1990, rev. 2001) for soprano, flute, percussion, and piano; Journeys Within: Concerto for Flute and Chamber Ensemble (1994); and Duo Concertante for flute and percussion (2003), are valuable contributions to the repertoire that present a challenge to

Christina Maria Guenther

2005-01-01

6

Dayton C. Miller Flute Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The online presentation of the Miller Flute Collection in the Music Division of the Library of Congress has images of over 1,500 instruments, as well as a 17th-century flageolet tutorial. There is also an impressive array of "Special Presentations", which vary from an explanation what constitutes a flute, in "Flute Misnomers" and "Fife vs. Band Flute" to "Books, Tutors and Patents", which has a link to the images of the book "The Pleasant Companion: Or New Lessons and Instructions for the Flagelet". In the "Understanding the Collection" section of the homepage, there is the "Catalog of the Wind Instruments in the Dayton C. Miller Collection", which helpfully offers "Conventions and Definitions", "Transverse Flute Elements Named in This Catalog" and "Key and Key Mounting Nomenclature" to help researchers and the public better understand the materials available in this great collection. The "Collection Connections" link, also in "Understanding the Collection", is a resource for teachers that, among other things, names the historical eras that are represented in the flute collection, and provides links to "Related Collections and Exhibits" on the American Memory website.

7

Localized flute vortices in plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of localized vortex solutions of the nonlinear flute mode equations are investigated. It is shown that such solutions must satisfy the condition that the integral of the density perturbation over the plane transverse to the magnetic field must vanish. Monopole vortex solutions with discontinuous vorticity are obtained by perturbation analysis, treating the plasma inhomogeneities as small parameters of

Jonas Nycander; Vladimir P. Pavlenko

1991-01-01

8

The impact of a modified cutting flute implant design on osseointegration.  

PubMed

Information concerning the effects of the implant cutting flute design on initial stability and its influence on osseointegration in vivo is limited. This study evaluated the early effects of implants with a specific cutting flute design placed in the sheep mandible. Forty-eight dental implants with two different macro-geometries (24 with a specific cutting flute design - Blossom group; 24 with a self-tapping design - DT group) were inserted into the mandibular bodies of six sheep; the maximum insertion torque was recorded. Samples were retrieved and processed for histomorphometric analysis after 3 and 6 weeks. The mean insertion torque was lower for Blossom implants (P<0.001). No differences in histomorphometric results were observed between the groups. At 3 weeks, P=0.58 for bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and P=0.52 for bone area fraction occupied (BAFO); at 6 weeks, P=0.55 for BIC and P=0.45 for BAFO. While no histomorphometric differences were observed, ground sections showed different healing patterns between the implants, with better peri-implant bone organization around those with the specific cutting flute design (Blossom group). Implants with the modified cutting flute design had a significantly reduced insertion torque compared to the DT implants with a traditional cutting thread, and resulted in a different healing pattern. PMID:24583140

Jimbo, R; Tovar, N; Marin, C; Teixeira, H S; Anchieta, R B; Silveira, L M; Janal, M N; Shibli, J A; Coelho, P G

2014-07-01

9

ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCES OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN FLUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments in the flute family, unlike most wind instruments, are played with the input of the instrument open to the atmosphere. Consequently, they operate at minima in the spectrum of acoustic input impedance. Detailed examination of these minima requires measurements with large dynamic range, which is why the flute has not been hitherto investigated in detail. We report the application

Joe Wolfe; John Smith; John Tann; Neville H. Fletcher

10

Dissipative amplification of flute vortices in plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stability region of flute waves, two-dimensional vortices can exist whose velocity is less than ion drift velocity. It is shown that, with the viscosity taken into account, the slow vortices can be amplified. It follows that, even in the stability region of an ideal plasma, flute oscillations can significantly contribute to anomalous heat and particle transfer by means

V. P. Pavlenko; V. I. Petviashvili; V. B. Taranov

1989-01-01

11

Effect of Corrugated Flute Shape on Fibreboard Edgewise Crush Strength and Bending Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of corrugated fibreboard fluting geometry on strength and stiffness is modelled and a method to optimize flute profile is presented. The fluted medium in a corrugated fibreboard is modelled as a connection of curved arc and straight flank segments. Flute pitch, flute height, flank length, arc radius and angle of wrap are normalized to form a set of

T. J. URBANIK

12

ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE SPECTRA OF CLASSICAL AND MODERN FLUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments in the flute family, unlike most wind instruments, are played with the input of the instrument open to the atmosphere. Consequently, they operate at minima in the spectrum of acoustic input impedance. Detailed examination of these minima requires measurements with large dynamic range, which is why the flute has not been hitherto investigated in detail. We report the application

J. Wolfe; J. Smith; J. Tann; N. H. FLETCHER

2001-01-01

13

Determination and Automated Classification of Sax - Flute Timbre  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach for saxophone and flute timbre determination and classification is introduced. A set of original experiments including perceptual judgments is presented, that lead to the determination of a minimal ensemble of physical characteristics to which the instrument timbre can be attributed. Using these features, a powerful saxophone - flute timbre discrimination criterion is introduced, offering

D. FRAGOULIS; M. EXARHOS; C. PAPAODYSSEUS; A. SKEMBRIS; P. ROUSSOPOULOS; M. PANAGOPOULOS; G. ROUSSOPOULOS

14

Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma  

SciTech Connect

Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

Dominguez, R.R.

1980-01-01

15

Detailed simulation of fluted tube water heating condensers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluted tube-in-tube condensers are key components in advanced energy efficient water heating heat pumps. Therefore, there exists a need for a computer design tool that incorporates all the essential features of these heat exchangers. This paper describes the development of a detailed model to simulate fluted tube refrigerant-to-water condensers. The model allows the surface area to be divided into any

P. G. Rousseau; M. van Eldik; G. P. Greyvenstein

2003-01-01

16

Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute": Negotiating Multiple Aesthetic Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integration of photographs and text in fictional works specifically regarding Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute." Introduces the story and explores questions in detail regarding the presentation of its photographs in American publications. Attempts to make the readers become aware of alternative reading strategies that expand schemata and…

Day, Karen S.

2000-01-01

17

Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan

2011-01-01

18

Current gradient driven flute vortices in magnetized plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that an external electron current gradient in a nonuniform magnetized plasma can drive a purely growing instability involving coupled convective cells and magnetostatic modes. Accounting for the mode coupling, it is demonstrated that the quasi-stationary state of the unstable flute modes can lead to a spatially ordered dipolar vortex structure. The latter could alter the transport properties

P. K. Shukla

1987-01-01

19

Dissipative amplification of flute vortices in a plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional vortices which move at a velocity below the ion drift velocity can exist in the stability region of flute waves. Such vortices may be amplified by a dissipation due to ions. As a result, convection in the plasma will be intensified.

V. P. Pavlenko; V. I. Petviashvili; V. B. Taranov

1989-01-01

20

Finite Larmor radius flute mode theory with end loss  

SciTech Connect

The theory of flute mode stability is developed for a two-energy- component plasma partially terminated by a conducting limiter. The formalism is developed as a preliminary study of the effect of end-loss in open-ended mirror machines where large Larmor radius effects are important.

Kotelnikov, I.A. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

1993-08-01

21

Compression Behavior of Fluted-Core Composite Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, fiber-reinforced composites have become more accepted for aerospace applications. Specifically, during NASA s recent efforts to develop new launch vehicles, composite materials were considered and baselined for a number of structures. Because of mass and stiffness requirements, sandwich composites are often selected for many applications. However, there are a number of manufacturing and in-service concerns associated with traditional honeycomb-core sandwich composites that in certain instances may be alleviated through the use of other core materials or construction methods. Fluted-core, which consists of integral angled web members with structural radius fillers spaced between laminate face sheets, is one such construction alternative and is considered herein. Two different fluted-core designs were considered: a subscale design and a full-scale design sized for a heavy-lift-launch-vehicle interstage. In particular, axial compression of fluted-core composites was evaluated with experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA); axial compression is the primary loading condition in dry launch-vehicle barrel sections. Detailed finite-element models were developed to represent all components of the fluted-core construction, and geometrically nonlinear analyses were conducted to predict both buckling and material failures. Good agreement was obtained between test data and analyses, for both local buckling and ultimate material failure. Though the local buckling events are not catastrophic, the resulting deformations contribute to material failures. Consequently, an important observation is that the material failure loads and modes would not be captured by either linear analyses or nonlinear smeared-shell analyses. Compression-after-impact (CAI) performance of fluted core composites was also investigated by experimentally testing samples impacted with 6 ft.-lb. impact energies. It was found that such impacts reduced the ultimate load carrying capability by approximately 40% on the subscale test articles and by less than 20% on the full-scale test articles. Nondestructive inspection of the damage zones indicated that the detectable damage was limited to no more than one flute on either side of any given impact. More study is needed, but this may indicate that an inherent damage-arrest capability of fluted core could provide benefits over traditional sandwich designs in certain weight-critical applications.

Schultz, Marc R.; Oremont, Leonard; Guzman, J. Carlos; McCarville, Douglas; Rose, Cheryl A.; Hilburger, Mark W.

2011-01-01

22

Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in

Zh. N. Andrushchenko; V. P. Pavlenko; O. K. Cheremnykh

1992-01-01

23

Modulational Instability and Electromagnetic Wave Scattering of Plasma Flute Modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulation instability of the plasma electromagnetic flute modes has been derived and investigated for two different cases. In the first case, the modulational instability of the ute modes for finite beta plasmas, where the plasma pressure is comparable to that of the external magnetic field one, has been derived. While in the second case, the modulational instability of the flute modes for low beta plasmas, where the plasma dynamics are dominated by the external magnetic field, with the effects of the ion temperature gradient has been derived. It is shown through numerical code, called Flute which was developed by Dr. Leboeuf for the NTF, that these ute modes are responsible for the generation of large scale structures in the plasma (the zonal flows), which in turn are responsible for transferring the energy to higher values of the wave vectors through the four wave interaction which has been shown through the modulational instability. In the second part of this dissertation, the scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma ute vortices has been studied. The scattering cross section has been calculated for the incident S-wave, using MATHEMATICA in order to obtain the angle distribution of scattering cross section and the total scattering cross section numerically. It is found that the scattering cross-section decreases as the incident wave frequency increases and the scattering cross-section increases as the vortex radius increases.

Yasin, Essam

24

Sedimentary anisotropy diverges from flute trends in south-east Finnish Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial flutes are parallel-to-ice flow lineations indicative of glacial streamlining, yet their depositional/erosional origin or sedimentary anisotropy is not fully understood. The flutes, aligned NW-SE with a flow direction to the SE, are superimposed on westerly oriented drumlins, in Kuusamo, south-eastern Finnish Lapland (65°45'N and 29°40'E) and reflect ice stream flow pattern towards the Younger Dryas End Moraines (YDEMs) in Russian Karelia. We investigated bedform morphology (flutes, drumlins and crescentic troughs), as well as sedimentary anisotropy of flute ridges and troughs using digital elevation models (DEMs), airborne radiometric (AR) data, and measurements of azimuthal electrical conductivity ( ?a). The DEM-AR revealed elongation ratios ( L/ W) from 2:1 to 25:1, yet the highest ratios reached L/ W = 48:1. Flutes in the study area fan towards the east and south-east, whereas the drumlins on which they are superimposed show ice flow from the west (280°). The ?a-anisotropy of the flute ridges and troughs indicates sedimentation from 340° to 350°, diagonal with respect to both drumlins and flutes. We found erosional crescentic troughs with down-flow rims indicative of both phases, but failed to find evidence for subglacial meltwater boulder lags or ice-flow erosional bedrock bump sticky spots. We contend that the studied flutes are erosional and date to the YDEM-phase, yet the origin of the precursory sediments may date to Early Weichselian.

Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Närhi, Paavo; Haavikko, Paula; Piekkari, Matti; Middleton, Maarit

2010-12-01

25

Bearing fluting in AC motors, DC motors and rolls on paper machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

When unexpected bearing losses were questioned at a paper mill, work began at the mill that led to a long-term investigation to determine the causes and incidence of a type of bearing damage called “bearing fluting.” It was discovered that many paper machines have bearing fluting and that this has caused significant down time and increased maintenance costs. Additionally, bearing

H. E. Boyanton; G. Hodges

2001-01-01

26

Treatment of Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femur fractures with a fluted tapered stem.  

PubMed

Periprosthetic femur fractures around a hip arthroplasty associated with a loose stem and severely deficient or comminuted bone typically have been treated with substitution for the proximal femur using an allograft prosthetic composite or a tumor prosthesis. Eight patients (mean age, 68 years; range, 34-80 years) with Vancouver Type B3 femur fractures were treated with revision using a long modular fluted tapered uncemented stem with retention of the proximal femur. Access to the failed prosthesis and joint was gained through the fracture or osteotomy and soft tissue attachments to the fracture fragments were maintained. One patient died within 1 week. The remaining patients were followed up 1 to 2 years (mean, 1.5 years). At final followup, all patients had stable implants and all acute fractures were healed. Marked reconstitution of proximal femoral bone stock was observed consistently. All surviving patients were ambulatory and none had more than mild pain. The preliminary results of this method show a high rate of stable implant fixation and fracture healing with preservation and reconstitution of the host femur. PMID:14646721

Berry, Daniel J

2003-12-01

27

A three-dimensional turbulent compressible flow model for ejector and fluted mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three dimensional finite element computer code was developed to analyze ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixer systems whose flow fields are not significantly influenced by streamwise diffusion effects. A two equation turbulence model was used to make comparisons between theory and data for various flow fields which are components of the ejector system, i.e., (1) turbulent boundary layer in a duct; (2) rectangular nozzle (free jet); (3) axisymmetric nozzle (free jet); (4) hypermixing nozzle (free jet); and (5) plane wall jet. Likewise, comparisons of the code with analytical results and/or other numerical solutions were made for components of the axisymmetric fluted mixer system. These included: (1) developing pipe flow; (2) developing flow in an annular pipe; (3) developing flow in an axisymmetric pipe with conical center body and no fluting and (4) developing fluted pipe flow. Finally, two demonstration cases are presented which show the code's ability to analyze both the ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixers.

Rushmore, W. L.; Zelazny, S. W.

1978-01-01

28

Utilization of fluted pumpkin fruit (Telfairia occidentalis) in marmalade manufacturing.  

PubMed

Marmalade was produced from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) fruit. The fruit was pulped, boiled and filtered to obtain pectin extract. The extract was boiled at 102 degrees C for 30 min with the pH and sugar levels adjusted to 3.2 and 68.5 degrees Brix, respectively. Fruit shreds were added towards the end of boiling. Results of analyses showed that the pulp is rich in Na, K, Fe, P, Mn and pectin (1.01%), but low in protein (0.86%). The marmalade had a firm gel and was acidic (pH 3.15). Mold was absent and syneresis did not occur. The marmalade contained 68.5% total soluble solids and set at 52-56 degrees C. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference (p = 0.05) in taste, consistency, spreadability and overall acceptability between fluted pumpkin marmalade and commercial orange marmalade. Both chemical and sensory results denote that the marmalade was highly desirable and compared favourably with similar preserves produced in Nigeria. PMID:9839816

Egbekun, M K; Nda-Suleiman, E O; Akinyeye, O

1998-01-01

29

Excitation of collective modes in a quantum flute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a generalized master equation (GME) formalism to describe the nonequilibrium time-dependent transport of Coulomb interacting electrons through a short quantum wire connected to semi-infinite biased leads. The contact strength between the leads and the wire is modulated by out-of-phase time-dependent potentials that simulate a turnstile device. We explore this setup by keeping the contact with one lead at a fixed location at one end of the wire, whereas the contact with the other lead is placed on various sites along the length of the wire. We study the propagation of sinusoidal and rectangular pulses. We find that the current profiles in both leads depend not only on the shape of the pulses, but also on the position of the second contact. The current reflects standing waves created by the contact potentials, like in a wind musical instrument (for example, a flute), but occurring on the background of the equilibrium charge distribution. The number of electrons in our quantum “flute” device varies between two and three. We find that for rectangular pulses the currents in the leads may flow against the bias for short time intervals, due to the higher harmonics of the charge response. The GME is solved numerically in small time steps without resorting to the traditional Markov and rotating wave approximations. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons in the sample is included via the exact diagonalization method. The system (leads plus sample wire) is described by a lattice model.

Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei; Molodoveanu, Valeriu; Gudmundsson, Vidar

2012-06-01

30

FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source  

SciTech Connect

A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-02-15

31

Flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales  

SciTech Connect

The theory of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is discussed. Modified linear kinetic theory allows us to investigate RTI and flute waves with arbitrary perpendicular spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that in the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to results of the kinetic theory. This analysis represents an extension of the previous study of the magnetic RTI obtained in the large wave scale approximation. It is shown that incorporation of the effects associated with wave scales of the order of the ion Larmor radius leads to a broader wave number range of the magnetic RTI.

Onishchenko, O. G. [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-12-14

32

CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: flute versus coupe.  

PubMed

Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from glasses containing a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11.5 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, during the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at room temperature, with a flute and a coupe, respectively. The progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time was found to be significantly higher in the coupe than in the flute, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that the flute prolongs the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence in contrast with the coupe. Moreover, CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the coupe were found to be much higher in the coupe than in the flute in the early moments following pouring, whereas this tendency reverses from about 3 min after pouring. Correlations were proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute and the coupe and their continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. The contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by use of results developed over recent years. Due to a much shallower liquid level in the coupe, bubbles collapsing at the free surface of the coupe were found to be significantly smaller than those collapsing at the free surface of the flute, and CO(2) volume fluxes released by collapsing bubbles only were found to be approximately 60% smaller in the coupe than in the flute. Finally, the contributions of gas discharge by invisible diffusion through the free surface areas of the flute and coupe were also approached and compared for each type of drinking vessel. PMID:19419170

Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

2009-06-10

33

Experimental Study of the Compression Response of Fluted-Core Composite Panels with Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluted-core sandwich composites consist of integral angled web members spaced between laminate face sheets, and may have the potential to provide benefits over traditional sandwich composites for certain aerospace applications. However, fabrication of large autoclave-cured fluted-core cylindrical shells with existing autoclaves will require that the shells be fabricated in segments, and joined longitudinally to form a complete barrel. Two different longitudinal fluted-core joint designs were considered experimentally in this study. In particular, jointed fluted-core-composite panels were tested in longitudinal compression because longitudinal compression is the primary loading condition in dry launch-vehicle barrel sections. One of the joint designs performed well in comparison with unjointed test articles, and the other joint design failed at loads approximately 14% lower than unjointed test articles. The compression-after-impact (CAI) performance of jointed fluted-core composites was also investigated by testing test articles that had been subjected to 6 ft-lb impacts. It was found that such impacts reduced the load-carrying capability by 9% to 40%. This reduction is dependent on the joint concept, component flute size, and facesheet thickness.

Schultz, Marc R.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Guzman, J. Carlos; McCarville, Douglas; Hilburger, Mark W.

2012-01-01

34

Mid term results with the curved modular tapered, fluted titanium Revitan stem in revision hip replacement.  

PubMed

We report our experience of revision total hip replacement (THR) using the Revitan curved modular titanium fluted revision stem in patients with a full spectrum of proximal femoral defects. A total of 112 patients (116 revisions) with a mean age of 73.4 years (39 to 90) were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 7.5 years (5.3 to 9.1). A total of 12 patients (12 hips) died but their data were included in the survival analysis, and four patients (4 hips) were lost to follow-up. The clinical outcome, proximal bone regeneration and subsidence were assessed for 101 hips. The mean Harris Hip Score was 88.2 (45.8 to 100) after five years and there was an increase of the mean Barnett and Nordin-Score, a measure of the proximal bone regeneration, of 20.8 (-3.1 to 52.7). Five stems had to be revised (4.3%), three (2.9%) showed subsidence, five (4.3%) a dislocation and two of 85 aseptic revisions (2.3%) a periprosthetic infection. At the latest follow-up, the survival with revision of the stem as the endpoint was 95.7% (95% confidence interval 91.9% to 99.4%) and with aseptic loosening as the endpoint, was 100%. Peri-prosthetic fractures were not observed. We report excellent results with respect to subsidence, the risk of fracture, and loosening after femoral revision using a modular curved revision stem with distal cone-in-cone fixation. A successful outcome depends on careful pre-operative planning and the use of a transfemoral approach when the anatomy is distorted or a fracture is imminent, or residual cement or a partially-secured existing stem cannot be removed. The shortest appropriate stem should, in our opinion, be used and secured with > 3 cm fixation at the femoral isthmus, and distal interlocking screws should be used for additional stability when this goal cannot be realised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:889-95. PMID:24986941

Fink, B; Urbansky, K; Schuster, P

2014-07-01

35

A study of the structural efficiency of fluted core graphite-epoxy panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural efficiency of compression-loaded graphite-epoxy sandwich panels with fluted cores is studied to determine their weight saving potential. Graphite-epoxy equilateral triangular elements are used to construct the fluted cores for the sandwich panels. Two panel configurations are considered. One configuration has two layers of triangular elements in the fluted core and the second configuration has only one layer of triangular elements in the core. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight design for each panel configuration. Laminate ply orientations are limited to approx. 45, 0, and 90 deg. A constraint on the axial stiffness is included in the design process so the panel will conform to typical constraints for aircraft wing structures. Minimum thickness requirements for each laminate and maximum allowable strains are also included. A comparison is made of the calculated structural efficiency of the fluted core panels to the structural efficiency of aluminum transport aircraft structures and simple blade-stiffened graphite-epoxy panels. Limited experimental results are also included for comparison with the analytical predictions and to identify the critical failure mechanisms of graphite-epoxy fluted-core sandwich panels.

Jegley, Dawn C.

1990-01-01

36

Generation and saturation of large-scale flows in flute turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The excitation and suppression of large-scale anisotropic modes during the temporal evolution of a magnetic-curvature-driven electrostatic flute instability are numerically investigated. The formation of streamerlike structures is attributed to the linear development of the instability while the subsequent excitation of the zonal modes is the result of the nonlinear coupling between linearly grown flute modes. When the amplitudes of the zonal modes become of the same order as that of the streamer modes, the flute instabilities get suppressed and poloidal (zonal) flows dominate. In the saturated state that follows, the dominant large-scale modes of the potential and the density are self-organized in different ways, depending on the value of the ion temperature.

Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 515, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2005-03-01

37

The sedimentological and glaciological relationships between tills, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges during a surge, Eyjabakkaj  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other landforms and landform assemblages in glacier forelands, limited research has been carried out into crevasse-fill ridges and their relationship to flutes and the sediments below them. This is partly due to the ephemeral nature of the features and the effect of dead ice decay, but also the restrictions caused by the inaccessibility of potential sites. Eyjabakkajökull is a surging glacier situated on the North Eastern margin of Vatnajökull, Iceland, where as a consequence of recent surges, a variety of landforms, including crevasse-fill ridges and flutes, have been superimposed on the pre-existing landscape. At Eyjabakkajökull the crevasse-fill ridges appear to be draped across the flutes; this observation contradicts with previously published models which suggest that flutes indicate coupling to the bed whilst the crevasse-fill ridges are taken to reflect de-coupling from the bed. Sedimentological and micromorphological analysis of these landforms, individually and at points of intersection, have identified characteristic structures associated with them. Initial results suggest that the flutes and crevasse-fill ridges at Eyjabakkajökull appear to have formed from two tills. The crevasse-fill ridges suggest de-coupling from the bed has occurred and the till has been squeezed up. Where a crevasse-fill ridge intersects with a flute the till is forced up through the flute, but the cross-section through the crevasse-fill ridges shows little evidence of the flute's existence. Although these landforms developed in the same surge it does suggest that they did not form concurrently; instead the flute appears to have formed before the crevasse-fill ridge squeezed up and pushed through it. The present contribution discusses how flutes and crevasse-fill ridges relate to each other and thus adds a new layer of information to our understanding of modern glacial environments which is crucial for realistic palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Quaternary glacial landforms and landform assemblages.

Ferguson, A.; van der Meer, J. J. M.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Schomacker, A.; Andersson, T.

2009-04-01

38

Active feedback stabilization of multimode flute instability in a mirror trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flute instability in a table-top mirror machine has been stabilized by a feedback system consisting of optical sensors, a digital signal processor and charge-injecting electrodes. The use of multiple sensors and actuators enable the feedback to simultaneously stabilize two modes of the fast-growing, slowly rotating flute instability. Step function response and magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy indicate a smooth frequency response and an inherent delayed response of the plasma drift due to the sheath resistivity. The measured feedback power is very small relative to the heating power of the plasma.

Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.; Fisher, A.

2014-07-01

39

Flute instability in the presence of non-uniform electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general equation describing the flute instability in a low-? plasma, in the presence of a non-uniform electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field, is derived from guiding centre equations. The equations obtained by Rosenbluth and Simon and by Damm et al. correspond to two different limiting cases of this more general equation. The physical significance of various stabilizing terms

T. E. Stringer; G. Schmidt

1967-01-01

40

THE EFFECTS OF PLACEMENT OF THE HEAD JOINT STOPPER ON THE IMPEDANCE SPECTRA OF TRANSVERSE FLUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stopper that seals one end of a transverse flute is typically set at 17 mm from the embouchure hole. This defines an acoustic volume element between embouchure hole and cork that may be considered to act as the 'spring' or compliance of a Helmholtz resonator at low frequencies. The frequency dependent impedance of this element adjusts the intonation over

Joe WOLFE; John SMITH; Michael GREEN

41

Heat sinks with fluted and wavy fins in natural and low-velocity forced convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel heat sinks with fluted and wavy fin configurations are designed and fabricated together with conventional longitudinal-plate and pin fin heat sinks. The experimental apparatus, consisting of the guard heater assembly, isolation chamber, wind tunnel and data acquisition instrumentation, is described. The thermal performance of the novel and conventional heat sinks is measured and compared for the horizontal and vertical

K. K. Sikka; K. E. Torrance; C. U. Scholler; P. I. Salanova

2000-01-01

42

Heat sinks with fluted and wavy plate fins in natural and low-velocity forced convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on heat transfer of geometrically rearranging the surface area of a finned heat sink is investigated. Novel heat sinks with fluted and wavy plate fin configurations are designed and fabricated together with conventional longitudinal-plate and pin fin heat sinks. The experimental apparatus, consisting of the guard heater assembly, isolation chamber, wind tunnel, and data acquisition instrumentation, is described.

Kamal K. Sikka; Kenneth E. Torrance; C. U. Scholler; P. I. Salanova

2002-01-01

43

Movement and aggregation in the fluted giant clam ( Tridacna squamosa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture has been the traditional focus of tridacnid giant clam research whereas their ecology and behaviour have received much less attention. This study was based on the observation that juvenile fluted giant clams (Tridacna squamosa), when evenly distributed in a tank, will move and aggregate over time. We observed movement in clams ranging from 10 to 313 mm in shell length

Danwei Huang; Peter A. Todd; James R. Guest

2007-01-01

44

Design and Analysis of a 5-MW Vertical-Fluted-Tube Condenser for Geothermal Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and analysis of an industtial-sized vertical-fluted-tube condenser. The condenser is used to condense superheated isobutane vapor discharged from a power turbine in a geothermal test facility operated for the US Department of Energy. The 5-MW c...

G. H. Llewellyn

1982-01-01

45

Solo and Collaborative Piano Chamber Recital with Dr. Melissa Colgin-Abelne, flute, Dr. Alicia Doyle, lecturer, and Dr. Elisa Wilson, mezzo-soprano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Works Performed: Poem for Flute and Orchestra (piano reduction) by Charles Griffes, with Dr. Colgin-Abeln, flute\\u000aClair de Lune, arrangement for flute and piano by Claude Debussy\\u000aSelect Vocal Works by Gabriel Faure and Select Vocal Works by Charles Ives with Dr. Elisa Wilson, mezzo-soprano\\u000aFrom Goyescas, the Maiden and the Nightingale by Enrique Granados\\u000aA la sombra de Torre

Dena K Jones

2003-01-01

46

Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

2013-07-01

47

HEAD JOINT, EMBOUCHURE HOLE AND FILTERING EFFECTS ON THE INPUT IMPEDANCE OF FLUTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of Z(f), the input impedance of the Boehm flute, measured from 200 Hz to 12.5 kHz shows the expected set of strong resonances in the frequency range that corresponds to fundamental frequencies of the playing regime. These frequencies are below the expected cut-off frequency (due to an array of open tone holes) for propagation along the bore of

John Smith; Joe Wolfe; Michael Green

2003-01-01

48

OTEC performance tests of the Carnegie-Melon University vertical fluted-tube condenser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests results on a vertical fluted-tube condenser are reported. The condenser was free of operational problems and performed in a stable and repeatable manner. At nominal design conditions (a heat duty of 3.2 million Btu\\/hr and a water flow rate of 3200 gpm), the overall heat transfer coefficient (U sub zero) was 1040 Btu\\/hr sq ft F and the

L. G. Lewis; N. F. Sather

1979-01-01

49

Pitted and fluted rocks in the Western Desert of Egypt - Viking comparisons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Western Desert of Egypt is one of the most arid regions on earth and is probably the closest terrestrial analog to the surface of Mars. An expedition to the area in 1978 revealed an abundance of quartzite and basalt rocks that have been pitted and fluted by wind erosion and deflation of the desert surface. These pitted rocks are internally homogeneous, show no internal holes or vesicles, and are considered an important but neglected type of ventifact. They bear a striking resemblance to the pitted and fluted rocks seen by the Viking Landers, rocks that have generally been interpreted as vesicular basalts only slightly modified by wind erosion. Wind tunnel studies of the air flow over and around nonstreamlined hand specimens from the Western Desert show that windward abrasion coupled with negative flow, secondary flow, and vorticity in a unidirectional wind can explain the complex arrays of pits and flutes. These field and laboratory observations suggest that the pitted rocks at the Viking Lander sites are also ventifacts, and thus the Martian surface may be far more wind eroded than previously thought.

Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Grolier, M. J.; El-Baz, F.; Whitney, M. I.; Ward, A. W.

1979-01-01

50

Studies of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) Seed Oil and Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappia L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils from the seeds of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) and Tropical almond (Terminalia catappia L.) were extracted with petroleum ether. The ether extract was evaluated for Wijs iodine value, saponification value, acid value and specific gravity. The result of the evaluation was compared with that of palm oil (Eloesis guineensis). The acid value of fluted pumpkin and Tropical

2006-01-01

51

Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.

Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.

1982-01-01

52

Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.

Festa, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Grazzi, F.; Sutton, L. F.; Scherillo, A.; Bognetti, L.; Bini, A.; Barzagli, E.; Schooneveld, E.; Andreani, C.

2013-09-01

53

Flute-model acoustic metamaterials with simultaneously negative bulk modulus and mass density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally constructed a three-dimensional flute-model meta-molecule structure acoustic metamaterial (AM) from a periodic array of perforated hollow steel tubes (PHSTs) and investigated its transmission and reflection behaviors in an impedance tube system. The AM exhibited a peak and dip, and an inverse phase, thus exhibiting the local resonance of the PHSTs. Based on the homogeneous media theory, the effective bulk modulus and mass density of the AM were calculated to be simultaneously negative; the refractive index was also negative. PHST AM slab focusing experiments showed that the medium with a resonant structure exhibited a distinct metamaterial property.

Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Luo, Chun-Rong; Chen, Huai-Jun; Zhai, Shi-Long; Ding, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Xiao-Peng

2013-11-01

54

Individuality of movements in music - Finger and body movements during playing of the flute.  

PubMed

The achievement of mastery in playing a composition by means of a musical instrument typically requires numerous repetitions and corrections according to the keys and notations of the music piece. Nevertheless, differences in the interpretation of the same music piece by highly skilled musicians seem to be recognizable. The present study investigated differences within and between skilled flute players in their finger and body movements playing the same piece several times on the same and on different days. Six semiprofessional and four professional musicians played an excerpt of Mozart's Flute Concerto No. 2 several times on three different days. Finger and body movements were recorded by 3D motion capture and analyzed by linear and nonlinear classification approaches. The findings showed that the discrete and continuous movement timing data correctly identified individuals up to 100% by means of their finger movements and up to 94% by means of their body movements. These robust examples of identifying individual movement patterns contradict the prevailing models of small, economic finger movements that are favored in the didactic literature for woodwind players and question traditional recommendations for teaching the learning of motor skills. PMID:24767961

Albrecht, Stefan; Janssen, Daniel; Quarz, Esther; Newell, Karl M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

2014-06-01

55

The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability and flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales  

SciTech Connect

The theory of flute waves (with arbitrary spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius) driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is developed. Both the kinetic and hydrodynamic models are considered. In this way we have extended the previous analysis of RTI carried out in the long wavelength limit. It is found that complete finite ion Larmor radius stabilization is absent when the ion diamagnetic velocity attains the ion gravitation drift velocity. The hydrodynamic approach allowed us to deduce a new set of nonlinear equations for flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales. It is shown that the previously deduced equations are inadequate when the wavelength becomes of the order of the ion Larmor radius. In the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to the results of the fully kinetic treatment. The development of such a theory gives us enough grounds for an adequate description of the RTI stabilization by the finite ion Larmor radius effect.

Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A. [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Shukla, P. K. [RUB International Chair, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2011-02-15

56

Kinetics of ascorbic acid loss during hot water blanching of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The kinetics of thermal degradation of ascorbic acid in fluted pumpkin leaves were investigated from 60 to 90°C (pH 5.0 to 6.5). Ascorbic acid degradation was modeled as a first order rate reaction with the rate constants increasing with increase in pH of the medium. The pH and temperature dependence of the rates of destruction gave highly significant correlations when analyzed by the thermal resistance and activated complex reaction rate methods. Activation energy (Ea) ranged from 41.2 to 18.2 kJ/mol while D-values ranged from 103.3 to 22.4 min. The changes in activation energy affected Ko values which ranged from 5.98?×?10(4) to 41.7 min(-1). PMID:23572770

Ariahu, Charles C; Abashi, Diana K; Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya

2011-08-01

57

Adsorption of transition metals in aqueous solutions by fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f) waste.  

PubMed

The adsorption of some divalent transition metal (Hg, Rh, Pt, and Pd) ions in aqueous solution onto fluted pumpkin waste biomass has been investigated. The data were discussed in terms of ionic radii, surface area, and the hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concept. The monolayer sorption capacities as obtained by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model were determined to be ca. 9.89 mg/g, 9.81 mg/g, 10.59 mg/g, and 6.84 mg/g for for Hg(II), Rh(II), Pt(II), and Pd(II), respectively. The results are relevant for the optimal design of a wastewater treatment plant and for prediction of model parameters of sorbate-sorbent interactions. PMID:17193209

Horsfall, Michael; Spiff, Ayebaemi Ibuteme

2005-09-01

58

Flute instability in the tandem mirror with the divertor/dipole regions  

SciTech Connect

The numerical simulation is performed in GAMMA10 A-divertor magnetic configuration, which is a candidate of remodeled device of the GAMMA10 tandem mirror [M. Inutake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985)]. Both divertor and dipole regions are included in the numerical calculation, which is a new point. The electron short circuit effect along x-point, therefore, is not assumed so that it is not used the boundary condition of the electrostatic perturbations being zero at the separatrix on which the magnetic field lines pass through x-point. The simulation results reveal that the dipole field plays a role of a good magnetic field line curvature to the GAMMA10 A-divertor, and so the flute modes are stabilized without help of electron short circuit effects.

Katanuma, I.; Masaki, S.; Sato, S.; Sekiya, K.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2011-11-15

59

A model for spiral flows in basal ice and the formation of subglacial flutes based on a Reiner-Rivlin rheology for glacial ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flutes are elongated sediment ridges formed at the base of glaciers and ice sheets. In this paper, we show that flutes can be the product of a corkscrew-like spiral flow in basal ice that removes sediment from troughs between flutes and deposits it at their crests, as first suggested by Shaw and Freschauf. In order to generate the type of basal ice flow required for this mechanism, the viscous rheology of ice must allow for the generation of deviatoric normal stresses transverse to the main flow direction. This type of behavior, which is commonly observed in real nonlinearly viscous and viscoelastic fluids, can be described by a Reiner-Rivlin rheology. Here, we develop a mathematical model that describes the role of these transverse stresses in generating spiral flows in basal ice and investigate how these flows lead to the amplification of initially small basal topography and the eventual formation of assemblies of evenly spaced subglacial flutes.

Schoof, Christian G.; Clarke, Garry K. C.

2008-05-01

60

Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

61

Cutoff frequencies and cross fingerings in baroque, classical, and modern flutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baroque, classical, and modern flutes have successively more and larger tone holes. This paper reports measurements of the standing waves in the bores of instruments representing these three classes. It presents the frequency dependence of propagation of standing waves in lattices of open tone holes and compares these measurements with the cutoff frequency: the frequency at which, in an idealized system, the standing waves propagate without loss in such a lattice. It also reports the dependence of the sound field in the bore of the instrument as a function of both frequency and position along the bore for both simple and ``cross fingerings'' (configurations in which one or more tone holes are closed below an open hole). These measurements show how ``cross fingerings'' produce a longer standing wave, a technique used to produce the nondiatonic notes on instruments with a small number of tone holes closed only by the unaided fingers. They also show why the changes from baroque to classical to modern gave the instruments a louder, brighter sound and a greater range.

Wolfe, Joe; Smith, John

2003-10-01

62

Hypolipidemic effect of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.  

PubMed

Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) is one of the commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Nigeria. In order to justify its inclusion in herbal preparations in African traditional medicine, the possible hypolipidemic effect of this vegetable was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. The ability of Questran, a hypolipidemic drug, to attenuate hypercholesterolemia was also examined. Rats were fed with either a basal diet containing cholic acid (0.2%) or a supplemented diet with T. occidentalis at the 3% and 6% levels. Oral administration of cholesterol for 9 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < .001) in the relative weight of the heart of cholesterol-fed rats. However, supplemented diets significantly (P < .001) ameliorated the cholesterol-induced enlargement of the heart. Rats fed on supplemented diets had a dose-dependent reduction in plasma and postmitochondrial supernatant fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels. In particular, supplemented diets containing 3% and 6% T. occidentalis decreased plasma and PMF cholesterol levels by 20% and 30% and by 30% and 45%, respectively. A similar decrease in plasma and PMF cholesterol levels was obtained in Questran-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Furthermore, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets significantly (P < .05) decreased the cholesterol-induced increase in plasma and PMF low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 24% and 48% and by 28% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, there was no significant difference (P > .05) in plasma and PMF triglyceride levels of rats fed on supplemented diets when compared with cholesterol-fed rats. There were significant decreases (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation levels in rats fed on the supplemented diets. Specifically, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets decreased plasma and PMF lipid peroxidation by 24% and 20% and by 42% and 21%, respectively. This study demonstrates that T. occidentalis may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress and cholesterol levels. PMID:17651070

Adaramoye, O A; Achem, J; Akintayo, O O; Fafunso, M A

2007-06-01

63

Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population--A dispersal model approach  

PubMed Central

Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1–68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m2). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks.

Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L. A.; van Beek, Jan K. L.; van Maren, Dirk S.; Teo, Serena L-M.; Todd, Peter A.

2013-01-01

64

Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population--a dispersal model approach.  

PubMed

Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1-68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m(2)). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks. PMID:23555597

Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L A; van Beek, Jan K L; van Maren, Dirk S; Teo, Serena L-M; Todd, Peter A

2013-01-01

65

Massive bone loss: allograft-prosthetic composites and beyond.  

PubMed

Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is projected to increase by 137% from the years 2005 to 2030. Reconstruction of the femur with massive bone loss can be a formidable undertaking. The goals of revision surgery are to create a stable construct, preserve bone and soft tissues, augment deficient host bone, improve function, provide a foundation for future surgery, and create a biomechanically restored hip. Options for treatment of the compromised femur include: resection arthroplasty, allograft prosthetic composite (APC), proximal femoral replacement, cementless fixation with a modular tapered fluted stem, and impaction grafting. The purpose of this article is to review the treatment options along with their associated outcomes in the more severe femoral defects (Paprosky types IIIb and IV) in revision THA. PMID:23118384

Mayle, R E; Paprosky, W G

2012-11-01

66

Preparation and properties of flours and protein concentrates from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds.  

PubMed

In vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition and selected functional properties of flours and protein concentrates prepared from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds were studied. Protein concentrates prepared by an alkaline extraction process had increased crude protein contents (61.5-70.8%) compared to flour samples (46.4-52.7%). The yields of protein concentrates ranged from 24.5% to 29.4% while values for protein recoveries varied between 64.8% and 65.2%. Protein concentrates also had increased foam volume and decreased foam stability (100% decrease over a 2 h period), compared to flour samples. Fermentation and germination were observed to significantly (p < 0.05) lower polyphenol and phytic acid contents, but increased protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin seed flours and concentrates. Both raw flour and concentrate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in water absorption capacity than germinated or fermented flours and concentrates. Protein concentrates had comparatively better fat absorption properties than the flour samples. Hence protein concentrates may prove to have useful applications in ground meat formulations. PMID:10646631

Giami, S Y; Isichei, I

1999-01-01

67

Monitoring Gaseous CO2 and Ethanol above Champagne Glasses: Flute versus Coupe, and the Role of Temperature  

PubMed Central

In champagne tasting, gaseous CO2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (?GC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

Liger-Belair, Gerard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Herve; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

2012-01-01

68

Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.  

PubMed

In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (?GC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles. PMID:22347390

Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

2012-01-01

69

Slippage between screwdriver and bone screw.  

PubMed

Cortical 3.5-mm stainless steel screws with hexagonal heads and corresponding screwdrivers from two manufacturers were investigated. Measurement of dimensions and torsional testing were done to study slippage between the screw and the driver bit. There were only small differences in dimensions between the manufacturers. Ultimate torque values obtained were at the level of 2.7 N-m where reaming of the screw socket took place. Additional rotation resulted in approximately (1/2) of the maximum torque. Subsequent torque testing in the opposite direction, corresponding to removal of the screw, revealed that the torque values were equally low in that direction. Additional insertion and removal of bone screws with hexagonal sockets are hampered after only one episode of slippage. It is justified to consider new shapes of drive bits and corresponding screw head sockets, such as a fluted multiedge configuration. PMID:12439282

Behring, Jon K; Gjerdet, Nils R; Mølster, Anders

2002-11-01

70

Your Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... like other parts of your body. Calcium builds strong bones, so what's your favorite way to get ... as compact bone, but it is still very strong. In many bones, the cancellous bone protects the ...

71

Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed.  

PubMed

The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds, constituting about 58.6% of the total protein of the ungerminated (raw) seeds. The protein fractions, albumin and glutelin, were observed to increase by 61.5% and 57.0%, respectively, while a 54.6% decrease was noted in the prolamine fraction. The globulin fraction increased at the beginning of germination but decreased at the end. Germination significantly (p< or =0.05) increased the crude protein, nitrogen solubility and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased the fat, phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the seeds. PMID:10540985

Giami, S Y; Chibor, B S; Edebiri, K E; Achinewhu, S C

1999-01-01

72

Sorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc on sulfur-containing chemically modified wastes of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.).  

PubMed

We have tested the applicability of regular as well as sulfanylacetic acid (SA) modified fluted pumpkin waste biomass as adsorbents for Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ aqueous solutions by means of the batch-sorption technique. The data revealed that SA modification produces a larger surface area, enhancing the metal-ion binding capacity of the biomass. The sorption process was examined by means of Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study showed that the sorption rates can be described by a pseudo-second-order process. The rate constants for the control biomass (CB) were 2.2x10(-2), 4.4x10(-2), and 1.6x10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1) for Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively; and the corresponding rate constants for the SA-modified biomass were 4.0x10(-2), 4.7x10(-2), and 1.7x10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic considerations indicated a spontaneous exothermic process, which implies that physisorption is the main mechanism in the sorption process. PMID:17191986

Horsfall, Michael; Spiff, Ayebaemi I

2005-03-01

73

Time-domain simulation of flute-like instruments: Comparison of jet-drive and discrete-vortex models.  

PubMed

This paper presents two models of sound production in flute-like instruments that allow time-domain simulations. The models are based on different descriptions of the jet flow within the window of the instrument. The jet-drive model depicts the jet by its transverse perturbation that interacts with the labium to produce sound. The discrete-vortex model depicts the jet as two independent shear layers along which vortices are convected and interact with the acoustic field within the window. The limit of validity between both models is usually discussed according to the aspect ratio of the jet W/h, with [Formula: see text] the window length and [Formula: see text] the flue channel height. The present simulations, compared with experimental data gathered on a recorder, allow to extend the aspect ratio criterion to the notion of dynamic aspect ratio defined as [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the hydrodynamic wavelength that now accounts for geometrical properties, such as W/h, as well as for dynamic properties, such as the Strouhal number. The two models are found to be applicable over neighboring values of geometry and blowing pressure. PMID:24993223

Auvray, Roman; Ernoult, Augustin; Fabre, Benoît; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

2014-07-01

74

Whale bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

N/A N/A (Go Card USA;)

2007-12-21

75

Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

76

Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. PMID:16379574

Oboh, Ganiyu

2005-01-01

77

Living Bones, Strong Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

78

Broken bone  

MedlinePLUS

... However, DO NOT move the person if a head, neck, or back injury is suspected. CHECK BLOOD CIRCULATION ... There is a suspected broken bone in the head, neck, or back. There is a suspected broken bone ...

79

Bone Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... the bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ... risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

80

Bone Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

81

Bone Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

1985-01-01

82

Bone Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... 70 years old. Any bone can be involved. Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It occurs in two or three new people ... opinion to con? rm it. If you have bone cancer, the treatment team may include several specialists. These ...

83

The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

Saktanli, S. Cem

2011-01-01

84

Bendy Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.

Omsi

2004-01-01

85

Talking Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

2002-01-01

86

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

87

Talking Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bones reveal many facts about the animals from which they come, making them a great hands-on educational tool. For several years, the Saint Louis Zoo has offered a summer course on bones, where children in grades three to five learn how animals move, what

Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

2002-09-01

88

Healthy Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... Next>> Page 1 of 21 Healthy Bones This decision aid is for you only if you are a ... can break more easily. The information in this decision aid is presented in five sections. Each new section ...

89

Bone scan  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal scan will show “hot spots” and/or “cold spots” as compared to surrounding bone. Hot spots are ... is an increased accumulation of the radioactive material. Cold spots are areas that have taken up less of ...

90

Nutrition and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

Gail Goldberg

2004-01-01

91

Bone lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... as: Coccidiomycosis Histoplasmosis Mycobacteria infection Osteitis fibrosa Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Rickets ... Bone fracture Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Damage to surrounding ... Infection near the biopsy area Note: Some people with bone ...

92

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

93

Buried Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about paleontology with a hands-on activity. The activity opens with an explanation covering how fossilized bones are usually very delicate and buried deeply in rock fossils. Students are then given step-by-step directions for working with a friend to create two make-believe dig sites by burying bones in plaster of Paris. The activity ends with three discussion questions: What was surprising about excavating the bones? What strategies did you find worked well for removing the plaster? How would you have worked differently if you had no idea what was buried inside? Adult supervision is recommended.

94

Your Bones: Hard Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... campaign for girls and their BFFs to "grow strong together and stay strong forever!" Home | girlshealth.gov Your Bones Your Bones ... Collagen and calcium work together to make bones strong and flexible. All together, the bones in your ...

95

Bone Graft Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... or during a surgical procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone ... bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous bone grafts for spinal ...

96

The fate of beta-carotene in processed leaves of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis hook. f.): a popular vegetable in Nigerian diet.  

PubMed

The effects of blanching, sun-oven-drying and storage conditions on beta-carotene content of the fresh leaves of fluted pumpkin were investigated. The beta-carotene (mg/100 g) of fresh leaves (unblanched) was 98.9 whereas on blanching the value was reduced to 86.3 for steam blanch and 83.8 for water blanch. After dehydration the losses in the beta-carotene were in the ranges of 37.6 to 48.8%, 40.5 to 51.3% and 68.8-72.0% for the steam-, water-blanched and unblanched leaves, respectively. The lower limit loss values were for the oven-dried leaves whereas the upper limit values were obtained from sundried ones. The ambient (30 +/- 2 degrees C) and refrigeration (7 +/- 1 degree C) storage conditions showed some slight changes in beta-carotene contents of the leaves. The losses were in the ranges of 2.0 to 25.7% (refrigeration) and 9.2 to 36.3% (ambient) conditions. Blancing and storage conditions affected the organoleptic characteristics of the leaves. PMID:8837873

Badifu, G I; Akpapunam, M A; Mgbemere, V M

1995-09-01

97

Bone substitutes: new concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filling of bone defects resulting from trauma or surgical resections of tumors requires bone grafts or bone substitutes. Bone substitute must be biocompatible, osteoconductive, and must present good mechanical properties. Among biomaterials classicaly used, calcium phosphate ceramic appear to be suitable alternatives to bone grafts. Calcium phosphate are known able to promote new bone formation on contact and have

D. Heymann; N. Passuti

1999-01-01

98

Bone substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramics has been used for several years in orthopeadic surgery. We have been using two new synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (BCP) since September 1996 for bone defect filling in any orthopaedic or trauma operation where autograft use was not possible or even wanted. The first, Eurocer 400® has 300 to 500 micron wide macropores with a

C. Schwartz; P. Lecestre; P. Frayssinet; P. Liss

1999-01-01

99

Dem Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students enter the world of a forensic anthropologist who must determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Students, in turn, simulate some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, exa

Bruce, Alease

2001-09-01

100

Bone marrow and bone: a functional unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone and bone marrow, although often regarded as separate systems, function as a single unit. Cells in the bone marrow are the precursors of bone remodelling cells and exert an important regulatory role both on their own development and the remodelling process, acting as me- diators for the effects of systemic and local factors. Other cells, such as immune cells

J E Compston

2002-01-01

101

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Importance: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign bone neoplasms which typically involve the spine and long bones. We present a rare case of an ABC in the temporal bone with significant cerebellar compression. Clinical Presentation: The patient was a young boy who presented with several weeks of left posterior auricular pain. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiogram

Caleb R. Lippman; George I. Jallo; Joseph G. Feghali; Elpidio Jimenez; Fred Epstein

1999-01-01

102

From Bone Biology to Bone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has great potential to enhance our understanding of bone development. The usefulness of densitometry in children and adolescents would be increased

E. Schoenau; G. Saggese; F. Peter; G. I. Baroncelli; N. J. Shaw; N. J. Crabtree; Z. Zadik; C. M. Neu; C. Noordam; G. Radetti; Z. Hochberg

2004-01-01

103

Children's Bone Health and Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... is bone health and how do you build strong bones? Overall Bone Health Healthy bones enable children ... of the key dietary building blocks to develop strong bones. Because bone growth is rapid during the ...

104

Buried Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, pairs of learners will create two make-believe dig sites by burying chicken bones in plaster of Paris--a powder that hardens when wet. Then, learners try to excavate (dig out) their partner's "fossils." Learners will discover that excavating fossils requires skill, patience, and the right tools. Note: this activity requires adult supervision as working with plaster of Paris can be dangerous if not done properly.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

105

Distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of a cementless revision total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose According to the manual of the cementless Link MP reconstruction prosthesis, a distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm is necessary to gain implant stability. There have been no in vivo studies showing that this distance is either achieved in clinical practice or needed for clinically satisfying results. Thus, we assessed the femoral stem-bone anchorage of the MP prosthesis using CT. Methods 14 patients with the MP stem were evaluated by CT scans at a median follow-up time of 12 months postoperatively. Femoral stem-bone anchorage was defined as adequate if 50% of the stem flutes or more had cortical bone contact. The length of anchorage was derived from the number of slices with adequate anchorage. Clinical outcome was assessed with VAS for pain and Harris hip score (HHS), both at 1 and 5 years of follow-up. Results The median length of stem-bone anchorage was 33 mm (interquartile range 10–60), which was shorter than recommended (p = 0.002). Still, at the 1-year control, all patients were fully weight-bearing and only 1/14 complained about mild thigh pain. 7/14 patients did not experience any pain in the affected hip. The patients had a median of 85 points in the HHS. The clinical outcome at 5 years was unchanged. Interpretation We found that it can be difficult to achieve a stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm for the MP Link prosthesis. However, this does not appear to be necessary to obtain stability and to achieve clinically satisfying results.

Stromwall, Fredrik; Beckman, Mats O; Hansson, Karl A; Stark, Andre

2009-01-01

106

[Biomarkers of bone remodelling].  

PubMed

Bone is a frequent site for metastases patients with advanced solid tumors. Metastatic bone disease alters bone homeostasis and biochemical markers of bone turnover are studied in patients with cancer. These markers include bone matrix synthesis and degradation products, or enzymes expressed by osteoblasts or osteoclasts. Thus, the use of these biochemical markers of bone metabolism is being evaluated in screening for development of bone metastases, in predicting risk of skeletal-related events and survival in patients with bone metastases, and in monitoring response to antiresorptive therapy. Bone markers have potential to provide information, but their routine use in the clinic cannot be recommended yet. PMID:24158641

Debiais, Françoise

2013-11-01

107

Disorders of Bone Remodeling  

PubMed Central

The skeleton provides mechanical support for stature and locomotion, protects vital organs, and controls mineral homeostasis. A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling to carry out these crucial functions throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent replacement of new bone formed by osteoblasts (bone formation). Normal bone remodeling requires a tight coupling of bone resorption to bone formation to guarantee no alteration in bone mass or quality after each remodeling cycle. However, this important physiological process can be derailed by a variety of factors, including menopause-associated hormonal changes, age-related factors, changes in physical activity, drugs, and secondary diseases, which lead to the development of various bone disorders in both women and men. We review the major diseases of bone remodeling, emphasizing our current understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

Feng, Xu; McDonald, Jay M.

2013-01-01

108

Bone Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone is a complex, living, constantly changing tissue. Bone consists of cancellous and cortical bone. This architecture allows\\u000a the skeleton to perform its essential mechanical functions.

J. C. Reichert; D. W. Hutmacher; E Potier; D Hannouche; D Logeart-Avramoglou

2008-01-01

109

Bone marrow biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... the bone. This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are removed. Pressure and a bandage are applied to the biopsy site. A bone marrow aspirate may also be ...

110

Dinosaur Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

Science, Lawrence H.

2005-01-01

111

Building Your Best Bones Forever  

MedlinePLUS

... o make them stronger. Calcium makes bones as strong as steel! When your body makes new bone ... some best-for-bones activities too. Ingredients for Strong Bones Strong bones need calcium , vitamin D , and ...

112

Influence of the cutting edge angle of a titanium instrument on chip formation in the machining of trabecular and cortical bone.  

PubMed

Purpose: The placement of self-tapping implants is associated with microfractures and the formation of bone chips along the cutting flutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different cutting edge angles on chip formation during the machining of trabecular and cortical bone using instruments with a rough titanium surface. Materials and Methods: Mandibular cortical and trabecular bone specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered domestic pigs. A predefined thrust force was applied to the specimens. Four specially designed cutting instruments that simulated dental implants and had a rough titanium surface were allowed to complete one full revolution at cutting edge angles of 55, 65, 75, and 85 degrees, respectively. Torque and thrust were measured during the cutting process. Bone chips were measured and weighed under a microscope. Results: Different cutting edge angles did not lead to significant differences in torque. The lowest torque values were measured when the cutting edges were positioned at 65 degrees in trabecular bone and at 85 degrees in cortical bone. Bone chips were significantly larger and heavier at angles of 55 and 65 degrees than at angles of 75 and 85 degrees in trabecular bone. Conclusion: Instruments with a rough titanium surface show considerable angle-dependent differences in chip formation. In addition to bone density, the angle of the cutting edges should be taken into consideration during the placement of dental implants. Good results were obtained when the cutting edges were positioned at an angle of 65 degrees. This angle can have positive effects on osseointegration. PMID:25032776

von See, Constantin; Stoetzer, Marcus; Ruecker, Martin; Wagner, Max; Schumann, Paul; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

2014-01-01

113

Bone grafts in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

Kumar, Prasanna; Vinitha, Belliappa; Fathima, Ghousia

2013-01-01

114

[Menopause and bone metabolism].  

PubMed

Hypoestrogenemia in climacterium causes high turnover bone metabolism, relative dominance of bone resorption, and osteopenia. Women have severe bone loss in climacterium. The objective for the prevention of osteoporosis in this period is to detect the high risk women of osteoporosis with bone mineral densitometry or bone metabolic markers and to start the preventive therapy, i. e. food, exercise and drug, as soon as possible. Therefore, menopause is very important period to prevent osteoporosis in future. PMID:15775424

Kurabayashi, Takumi; Kato, Nozomi; Nagata, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi

2002-09-01

115

Basic bone radiology  

SciTech Connect

This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

Griffiths, H.J.

1987-01-01

116

Pathophysiology of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a very common site for cancer metastasis and may be the only site of metastasis in patients with breast cancer or\\u000a prostate cancer. The exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, but it has been estimated that approximately 300,000–400,000\\u000a people in the United States die from bone metastasis each year. Bone metastasis can involve any bone but has

G. David. Roodman

117

Anorexia nervosa and bone.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

2014-06-01

118

The Bone Zone: Bone Construction Ahead  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a bone model and simulate changes that occur during the healing process and growth of a bone. Using pre-made or homemade play dough (recipe included) and other everyday items, learners reconstruct a cross-section model of a bone. Time estimate is based on time required when using pre-made play dough. This activity is featured on pp.16-17 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.

2012-06-26

119

Senior Flute Recital: Program Notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

My honors thesis consists of program notes for my senior recital. I performed the following pieces: Sonata in A Minor, Wq 132 (Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach); Suite de Trois Marceaux, Op. 116 (Benjamin Godard); Rafflesia: Colossal Flower of the Rairiforest (Benjamin Boone); Sonata Latino (Mike Mower); and Scars and Scrapes Forever! (Kenneth Laufer, arranged by Steve Grugin). The program notes

Corinne Marie Galligan

2012-01-01

120

Bone Builders: The Science of Grafts, Biomaterials and Bone Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Every year, more than 800,000 people in the United States receive bone biomaterials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Bone is the most commonly transplanted tissue after blood transfusions. Unlike most tissues, bone is able to regenerate and reform without scarring, given the proper conditions and materials. Researchers and scientists have learned to exploit this property over many centuries to create modern day bone grafts and bone biomaterials used as substitutes for bone grafts.

Steven Stocker (x)

2009-07-22

121

Porous Surface Modified Bioactive Bone Cement for Enhanced Bone Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPolymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low

Qiang He; Huiling Chen; Li Huang; Jingjing Dong; Dagang Guo; Mengmeng Mao; Liang Kong; Yang Li; Zixiang Wu; Wei Lei

2012-01-01

122

Local communication on and within bone controls bone remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone remodeling is required for healthy calcium homeostasis and for repair of damage occurring with stress and age. Osteoclasts resorb bone and osteoblasts form bone. These processes normally occur in a tightly regulated sequence of events, where the amount of formed bone equals the amount of resorbed bone, thereby restoring the removed bone completely. Osteocytes are the third cell type

Kim Henriksen; Anita V. Neutzsky-Wulff; Lynda F. Bonewald; Morten A. Karsdal

2009-01-01

123

Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief  

MedlinePLUS

... even osteoporosis. How Can I Keep My Bones Strong? There are things you should do at any ... are the best ways to keep your bones strong and healthy. Calcium. Getting enough calcium all through ...

124

Fat and bone interactions.  

PubMed

Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:24599601

Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo

2014-06-01

125

Mechanobiology of bone.  

PubMed

Bone is a tissue that dynamically adapts mass and architecture to the mechanical loads that occur in daily life in a world with gravity. Bone architecture and mass are influenced by the applied tension peak, whereas the bone formation rate is modulated by the stimulus frequency. In bone tissue, osteocytes govern the detection of mechanical afferents and their transformation into biochemical messages, therefore these cells can be considered a mechanosensor that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed to increase bone strength. The stimulation of osteocytes occurs with several modalities: shear stress and stretch, extracellular pressure modifications, strains, variations of electric field in and around osteocytes lacunae. The osteocyte network, under physiological conditions, activates osteoclastogenesis and suppresses osteoblast function enhancing bone resorption and inhibiting bone formation. In the unloaded condition, the functions of the osteocyte network are augmented, whereas exercise could decrease inhibitory effects on bone mass by reducing both osteoclastogenesis and inhibition on osteoblast function. PMID:24046028

Iolascon, G; Resmini, G; Tarantino, U

2013-10-01

126

Calcium and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... in life is important in reaching peak bone mass. Weight-bearing physical activities cause muscles and bones to work against gravity. Some examples of weight bearing physical activities include ...

127

Adenosine and Bone Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bone is a dynamic organ that undergoes continuous remodeling whilst maintaining a balance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts, which synthesize and mineralize new bone, and osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone, act in concert to maintain bone homeostasis. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of purinergic regulation of bone metabolism. Adenosine, released locally, mediates its physiologic and pharmacologic actions via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors and recent work has indicated that these receptors are involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, adenosine receptors also regulate chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis. These recent findings underscore the potential therapeutic importance of adenosine receptors in regulating bone physiology and pathology.

Mediero, Aranzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N.

2013-01-01

128

Bone and Tissue Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... graft after transplantation? Once the transplanted bone or soft tissue graft is accepted by the body, it is slowly converted into new living bone or soft tissue and incorporated into the body as a ...

129

Bone Reconstruction with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow stromal\\/stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells and have become the important cell source for cell therapy and engineered tissue repair. Their osteogenic differentiation potential has been well characterized in many in vitro studies. In addition, small animal model–based studies also reveal their capability of bone formation in vivo when implanted with biodegradable scaffold, indicating the great

Wei Liu; Lei Cui; Yilin Cao

2006-01-01

130

Central control of bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrates constantly remodel bone to maintain a constant bone mass. Bone remodeling comprises two phases: bone resorption\\u000a by the osteoclasts followed by bone formation by the osteoblasts. Although the prevailing view about the control of bone remodeling\\u000a is that it is an autocrine\\/paracrine phenomenon, the bone resorption arm of bone remodeling is under a tight endocrine control.\\u000a To date little

Shu Takeda; Gerard Karsenty

2001-01-01

131

Bone in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chronic inflammation and malabsorption in celiac disease (CD) can cause bone metabolism alterations and bone mineral loss\\u000a in children and adults. Bone status before and after gluten-free diet, epidemiology of fractures, and possible treatment options\\u000a for CD-related osteoporosis are presented. Controversial aspects of this complication of CD are discussed.\\u000a \\u000a The relationship between bone derangements and celiac disease (CD) was recognized

M.-L. Bianchi; M. T. Bardella

2008-01-01

132

Gracile bone dysplasias.  

PubMed

Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. PMID:12195301

Kozlowski, Kazimierz; Masel, John; Sillence, David O; Arbuckle, Susan; Juttnerova, Vera

2002-09-01

133

Tumor metastasis to bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)\\/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis

Mandeep S Virk; Jay R Lieberman

2007-01-01

134

Facts about Broken Bones  

MedlinePLUS

Your bones are tough stuff — but even tough stuff can break. Like a wooden pencil, bones will bend under strain. But if the pressure is ... that? Get a lot of physical activity, especially stuff like jumping and running. Feed your bones the ...

135

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

136

Bone marrow plays a role in bone metabolism: Histomorphometry of iliac bone in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a histomorphometrical study on the role of the bone marrow in cancellous bone metabolism using iliac bone specimens from 79 postmenopausal women. A gradual decrease in hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow was proportionate to the decrease in cancellous bone and the ratio of osteoid perimeter\\/bone perimeter regardless of age. On the other hand, the ratio of eroded

Toru Hirano; Katsuro Iwasaki

1992-01-01

137

Bone regeneration in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction.

Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolo; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

2011-01-01

138

Bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics  

PubMed Central

The biology of fracture healing is better understood than ever before, with advancements such as the locking screw leading to more predictable and less eventful osseous healing. However, at times one’s intrinsic biological response, and even concurrent surgical stabilization, is inadequate. In hopes of facilitating osseous union, bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics are being relied on more than ever before. The osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenic properties of these substrates have been elucidated in the basic science literature and validated in clinical orthopaedic practice. Furthermore, an industry built around these items is more successful and in demand than ever before. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic science, clinical utility and economics of bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics.

Roberts, Timothy T.; Rosenbaum, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

139

Mandibular Bone Crafts with Surface Decalcified Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on dogs are reported, comparing autologous marrow grafts with surface decalcified allogenic grafts and surface decalcified allogenic grafts with autologous marrow fragments. Findings indicate that mandibular bone grafts composed of a ...

D. B. Osbon G. E. Lilly J. C. Jones P. B. Hackett

1972-01-01

140

Bone Conduction Head Sensitivity Mapping: Bone Vibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military is interested in ways to incorporate radio communication in a multi-tasking environment. Bone conduction (BC) radio communication is an attractive means to communicate because it offers the ability to transmit and receive radio communication ...

M. McBride T. R. Letowski P. K. Tran

2005-01-01

141

Tissue engineering of bone.  

PubMed

Despite well-established bone-grafting techniques, large bone defects still represent a challenge for orthopaedic and reconstructive surgeons. Efforts have therefore been made to develop osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenic bone-replacement systems. According to its original definition, tissue engineering is an 'interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and the life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function'. It is based on the understanding of tissue formation and regeneration, and aims to grow new functional tissues rather than to build new spare parts. This review focuses on the principles of tissue engineering applied to the creation of bioartificial bone tissue. Important aspects, such as osteogenic cells, matrix materials, inter- and intra-cellular communication, growth factors, gene therapy and current concepts of bone tissue engineering are reviewed. First clinical applications are discussed. An outlook provides insight into the possible future perspectives of bone tissue engineering. PMID:16754059

2002-05-01

142

Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.

Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; Suraya, A; Tan, SP

2011-01-01

143

Nanocomposites and bone regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

2011-12-01

144

Postradiation sarcomas of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-nine patients with osteogenic sarcomas arising in bones following exposure to x rays and 20 patients with postradiation malignant fibrous histiocytomas of bone arising as a direct consequence of irradiation were studied. These represent 5.5% of all osteogenic sarcomas and 4.9% of all malignant fibrous histiocytomas of bones. The sarcomas may affect any skeletal site, but most commonly they arose

Andrew G. Huvos; Helen Q. Woodard

1988-01-01

145

Bone scanning in otolaryngology.  

PubMed

Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described. PMID:470539

Noyek, A M

1979-09-01

146

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

147

Dinosaur Flesh and Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore dinosaur skeletons. First, learners listen to "Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones" by Byron Barton to learn about the difference between pictures of dinosaurs that have skin and muscle (fleshed-out) and those that show skeletons. Then, learners match pictures of dinosaurs to pictures of the dinosaurs' skeletons. Learners can also explore other animal bones and skeletons online and/or reassemble paper dinosaur skeletons. This activity can also be used to help learners explore scale as they realize that large dinosaurs had large skeletons and small dinosaurs had small skeletons. This activity is featured on page 37 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2004-01-01

148

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

1996-03-12

149

Hypercalciuric Bone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

Favus, Murray J.

2008-09-01

150

Aging and Bone  

PubMed Central

Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes.

Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.

2010-01-01

151

Separation of newly formed bone from older compact bone reveals clear compositional differences in bone matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long bone diaphyses, woven bone forms first and then transitions into a more mineralized compact bone tissue. Prior evidence suggests that the non-collagenous protein composition of woven bone may be distinct from that of more mature bone tissue, particularly with respect to a diverse group of phosphorylated, extracellular matrix proteins. To critically test this hypothesis, we developed an in

Ronald J. Midura; Sharon B. Midura; Xiaowei Su; Jeffrey P. Gorski

152

Spatial modeling of bone microarchitecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and evaluate a novel 3D computational bone framework, which is capable of enabling quantitative assessment of bone micro-architecture, bone mineral density and fracture risks. Our model for bone mineral is developed and its parameters are estimated from imaging data obtained with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and x-ray imaging methods. Using these parameters, we propose a proper 3D microstructure bone model. The research starts by developing a spatio-temporal 3D microstructure bone model using Voronoi tessellation. Then, we simulate and analyze the architecture of human normal bone network and osteoporotic bone network with edge pruning process in an appropriate ratio. Finally, we design several measurements to analyze Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and bone strength based on our model. The validation results clearly demonstrate our 3D Microstructure Bone Model is robust to reflect the properties of bone in the real world.

Li, Hui; Li, Kang; Kim, Taehyong; Zhang, Aidong; Ramanathan, Murali

2012-02-01

153

How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... appearance under a microscope. Since a single bone metastasis can have the same signs and symptoms as ... a biopsy to diagnose a patient’s first bone metastasis. After that, additional bone metastases can usually be ...

154

Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... bone cancer Next Topic Chemotherapy for bone cancer Radiation therapy for bone cancer Radiation therapy uses high- ... control symptoms like pain and swelling. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an ...

155

Bone Anatomy, Physiology and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastases depend on reciprocal interactions between malignant cells and bones that will determine the homing and growth\\u000a of malignant cells in the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the final step of bone metastasis (bone destruction or production)\\u000a that determines the clinical phenotype of the metastatic foci (osteolytic or osteoblastic metastasis, respectively) is actually\\u000a mediated by the bone cells under the influence

Vassiliki Tzelepi; Athanassios C. Tsamandas; Vassiliki Zolota; Chrisoula D. Scopa

156

Calcium and bones  

MedlinePLUS

... body gets the calcium it needs through the food you eat. If you do not get enough calcium in your diet or if your body does not absorb enough, your bones can get weak or not grow properly. Bone density refers to how much calcium and other types ...

157

Depression and Bone Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are data to suggest low bone mineral density is disproportionately prevalent among those with psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review the current evidence on the relationship between depression and bone mineral density, and identify potential mechanisms. Methods: Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and Web of Science (ISI) databases from the first relevant publication in 1994

Lana J. Williams; Julie A. Pasco; Felice N. Jacka; Margaret J. Henry; Seetal Dodd; Michael Berk

2009-01-01

158

Biodegradable synthetic bone composites  

DOEpatents

The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2013-01-01

159

Angiogenesis in bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is a key component of bone repair. New blood vessels bring oxygen and nutrients to the highly metabolically active regenerating callus and serve as a route for inflammatory cells and cartilage and bone precursor cells to reach the injury site. Angiogenesis is regulated by a variety of growth factors, notably vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are produced by

Kurt D. Hankenson; Michael Dishowitz; Chancellor Gray; Mara Schenker

2011-01-01

160

Bone and Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Bone and Cancer Foundation, PO Box 287452 New York, NY 10128-0025 Email: bcfdn@aol.com Information for Patients List of Patient Publications ... HIGHER) Welcome Welcome to the Bone and Cancer Foundation, a new information resource for patients and health ...

161

Aging and Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter will provide a general overview of the aging process followed by the potential effect that aging may have in\\u000a bone biology. Three important aspects will be considered: decreased number of osteoblasts, increasing adipogenesis, and signifi-cant\\u000a osteoblast\\/osteocytes apoptosis during the aging process in bone.

Jeffrey M. Gimble; Z. Elizabeth Floyd; Moustapha Kassem; Mark E. Nuttall

162

Solid aneurysmal bone cyst with pathologic bone fracture.  

PubMed

A patient is presented with solid aneurysmal bone cyst of the left proximal femur and a pathologic bone fracture in this region. The radiological and histological features of this lesion are described. While a conventional aneurysmal bone cyst is an expanding osteolytic lesion consisting of blood-filled spaces of variable size, separated by connective tissue containing bone trabeculae or osteoid tissue and many osteoclastic giant cells, a solid aneurysmal bone cyst is an unusual solid bone lesion with fibroblastic, osteoclastic, osteoblastic, aneurysmal, and fibromyoxid elements. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor and fibroblastic osteosarcoma as well as specific bone reactions (bone fracture, reparative giant cell granuloma in hyperparathyroidism, giant cell reaction of short tubular bones). Solid aneurysmal bone cyst is a tumor-like lesion and probably a special bone reaction to damage; it has a good prognosis. Usually curettage is curative. PMID:7610415

Adler, C P

1995-04-01

163

Mechanical optimization of bone.  

PubMed

In bending, the mechanical strength of tubular bone can be estimated by the area moment of inertia (I) = 1/4 x pi x (R4 - r4) (R: external radius, and r: internal radius). Mechanical strength of bone is dissociated from bone density, since radiological density is different from inertia. When the cross-sectional area is constant (C = R2 - r2) in this equation, inertia can be expressed by the equation of (I) = 1/4 x pi x (2Cr2 + C2). Inertia increases with increases of the external and internal radii. According to the above equation, increase of inertia depending on the expansion of radii is inevitable 'optimization' of bone mass. Expansion of the radii of tubular bone with the decrease of wall thickness is an adaptation process rather than the 'decompensation' called osteoporosis. Senescence of individuals as manifested in conditions such as osteoporosis is a stampede of adaptations rather than decompensation of it. PMID:8733159

Chigira, M

1996-04-01

164

Bone and Brain  

PubMed Central

Nerves have been identified in bone. Their function has recently become the focus of intense study. Metabolic control of bone is influenced by the nervous system. Potential transmitters of this influence include glutamate, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), leptin, and catecholamines. Disorders of nerves - central or peripheral - can have substantial influence on bone health and repair. Specifically considered are the potential neural influences at work in such conditions as osteoporosis, fracture healing, Charcot osteoarthropathy, musculoskeletal pain syndromes, heterotopic ossification, skeletal growth and development, and obesity-related increased bone density. In this article, we review the current state of experimental and clinical evidence implicating the role of nervous tissue in regulating bone biology and discuss the current understanding of molecular signaling between nervous and osseus tissue in the homeostatic maintenance of the skeleton.

Jones, Kevin B; Mollano, Anthony V; Morcuende, Jose A; Cooper, Reginald R; Saltzman, Charles L

2004-01-01

165

Ultrasonic bone densitometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

Hoop, J. M. (inventor)

1974-01-01

166

Porcine Bone Marrow: Extraction Procedure and Characterization by Bone Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on porcine and bovine bone marrow composition indicate high calcium content, which may be erroneously elevated owing to the marrow recovery process. A method of bone marrow recovery was developed that involved passing marrow extracted from bone through a filter-press mechanism to remove very fine bone particles and dust, allowing a more accurate analysis of marrow. Calcium values were

C. M. Calhoun; T. D. Schnell; R. W. Mandigo

1998-01-01

167

SILICON AND BONE HEALTH  

PubMed Central

Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health.

JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

2009-01-01

168

Bone hydatid disease  

PubMed Central

Bone hydatid disease lacks a typical clinical appearance and image characteristics on x ray or CT are similar to those of tuberculosis, metastases and giant cell tumour or bone cysts. However, MRI does show distinctive diagnostic features of bone hydatid disease, especially in the spine. Until recently, treatment of osseous hydatid disease has been entirely surgical. Effective chemotherapy using benzimidazoles, particularly mebendazole, albendazole and combination treatments, has now been achieved in experimental studies and clinical practice. However, most of these drugs are still in the experimental stage or are in the early stages of clinical use.

Song, X H; Ding, L W

2007-01-01

169

American Society for Bone and Mineral Research: Bone Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Education Committee of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), this Bone Curriculum website "is intended for use by students from high school to medical school." The website features sections on Bone Cells, Exercise and Nutrition, Hormones that Effect Bone, Collagen and Bone Matrix, and more. The brief text sections are interspersed with great images, diagrams, slide shows, and animations. The site also contains links for related websites, textbooks, and journals.

170

Dependence of Long Bone Flexural Properties on Bone Mineral Distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to assess whether a non-invasive determination of long bone cross-sectional areal properties using bone densitometry accurately estimates true long bone flexural properties. In this study, section properties of two pairs of human female embalmed tibiae were compared using two methods: special analysis of bone densitometry data, and experimental determination of flexural regidities from bone surface strain measurements during controlled loading.

Katz, BethAnn; Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Connolly, James P. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

171

What Makes our Bones Strong?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use this activity to determine what keeps our bones strong. Soaking the bones in vinegar will remove the calcium from the bones causing them to become soft and rubbery. Students will find that when we age, calcium is depleted from our bones faster than we can restore it. They will then determine what complications can arise from it.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

172

Petrous bone cholesteatoma.  

PubMed

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. PMID:17170912

Sanna, M; Zini, C; Gamoletti, R; Frau, N; Taibah, A K; Russo, A; Pasanisi, E

1993-01-01

173

Immunoregulation of bone remodelling  

PubMed Central

Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also.

Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

2012-01-01

174

[Allergy towards bone cement].  

PubMed

Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate are typically used for fixation of artificial joints. Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses not explained by infection or mechanical failure may lead to allergological diagnostics, which mostly focuses on metal allergy. However, also bone cement components may provoke hypersensitivity reactions leading to eczema, implant loosening, or fistula formation. Elicitors of such reactions encompass acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, or antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). Upon repeated contact with bone cement components, e.g., acrylate monomers, also in medical personnel occasionally hand eczema or even asthma may develop. Therefore, in the case of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty, the allergological diagnostics should include bone cement components. PMID:16865384

Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Summer, B; Mazoochian, F; Thomsen, M

2006-09-01

175

Bone mineral density test  

MedlinePLUS

... density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. DEXA uses low- ...

176

Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma  

PubMed Central

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18

Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolo; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

1993-01-01

177

Fractures of Facial Bones  

PubMed Central

A detailed review was made of 1025 consecutive patients with “face-bone” fractures admitted to four Montreal hospitals over the five-year period 1958-1962, inclusive. In addition a survey was carried out of the other general hospitals in Greater Montreal in order to obtain admission figures for facial-bone fractures and for total hospital cases. In the study group the common causes of face-bone fractures were found to be fights, traffic accidents, falls, and athletic pursuits. Very few of these injuries occurred in industrial settings. A distinctly vulnerable group is made up of males between ages 16 and 35 years. In order of frequency of occurrence these injuries involve the nose, lower jaw, cheekbone, upper jaw, and zygomatic arch. The experience throughout metropolitan Montreal indicated that more persons with face-bone fractures require hospital treatment each year, but the increase is approximately parallel to the upward trend of total hospital admissions.

Gerrie, John W.; Hakstian, Robert W.

1964-01-01

178

Alcohol and bone.  

PubMed

Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

Mikosch, Peter

2014-01-01

179

Bone Loss in IBD  

MedlinePLUS

... a daily log of your disease and see trends over time to share with your healthcare team. ... than younger and heavier patients. Smoking and alcohol consumption increase that risk. DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis of bone loss ...

180

Electrochemical Deposition of Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method of improving orthopedic implant materials by the simultaneous electrodeposition of bone and collagen onto a prosthesis. Collagen fibrils are dispensed in a gelatin medium and the gelled collagen is dissolved in a ...

D. C. Phillips

1974-01-01

181

Healthy Bones Matter  

MedlinePLUS

... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

182

Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... will order lab tests to be sure your liver, kidney, and bone marrow (which produces the cells in ... Some drugs used in chemotherapy can damage the kidneys and liver. If a drug can damage hearing, the doctor ...

183

Boon for Bone Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA studies for astronaut health in long-term space missions led to the development of the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), a research tool for astronaut disuse, osteoporosis and related bone disorders among the general population. Ames Resear...

1996-01-01

184

What Is Bone?  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Bone Diseases ~ NIH National Resource Center Search Bookmark and Share | this page Tweet about this page ... MySpace Add this page to my browser Favorites Bookmark this page on Google Submit this page to ...

185

Extraosseous aneurysmal bone cyst.  

PubMed

A 73-year-old man developed an enlarged cystic lesion located in the soft tissues surrounding the left hip. The lesion was surgically removed. The patient was well 1 year after surgery. The lesion was histologically identical to an aneurysmal bone cyst, therefore it was diagnosed as an extraosseous aneurysmal bone cyst. The differential diagnoses and a review of the literature are presented. PMID:9063529

Riccioni, L; Foschini, M P

1996-01-01

186

A wandering fish bone  

PubMed Central

A unique case is described of an ingested fish bone migrating into the common hepatic duct, without perforation. Most foreign bodies are known to pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. Sharper objects such as fish bones have been known to cause perforation. This is more common, in countries where fish consumption is considerably higher, such as, south east Asia. However, even in these regions there have been no reports of such a proximal migration.

Patel, V M; Barai, R S; Thomas, P R

2006-01-01

187

[Gastrointestinal diseases and bone].  

PubMed

Bone mineral density is decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases, which are intractable inflammation in the digestive tract. The causes of decreased bone mineral density are multifactorial including steroid use, insufficiency of nutritional intake, malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract and activation of mucosal immune system. Insufficient levels of vitamins D and K are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and are also suggested to be involved in acceleration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23354092

Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo

2013-02-01

188

Review How can bone turnover modify bone strength independent of bone mass?  

PubMed Central

The amount of bone turnover in the skeleton is has been identified as a predictor of fracture risk independent of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and is increasingly cited as an explanation for discrepancies between areal bone mineral density and fracture risk. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how bone turnover influences bone biomechanics, including regulation of tissue degree of mineralization, the disconnection or fenestration of individual trabeculae by remodeling cavities, and the ability of cavities formed during the remodeling process to act as stress risers. While these mechanisms can influence bone biomechanics, they also modify bone mass. If bone turnover is to explain any of the observed discrepancies between fracture risk and areal bone mineral density, however, it must not only modify bone strength but modify bone strength in excess of what would be expected from the associated change in bone mass. This article summarizes biomechanical studies of how tissue mineralization, trabecular disconnection and the presence of remodeling cavities might have an effect on cancellous bone strength independent of bone mass. Existing data support the idea that all of these factors may have a disproportionate effect on bone stiffness and/or strength, with the exception of average tissue degree of mineralization, which is unlikely to have an effect on bone strength that is independent of aBMD. Disproportionate effects of mineral content on bone biomechanics may instead come from variation in tissue degree of mineralization at the micro-structural level. The biomechanical explanation for the relationship between bone turnover and fracture incidence remains to be determined but must be examined not in terms of bone strength but in terms of bone strength relative to bone mass.

Hernandez, C. J.

2008-01-01

189

SEPARATION OF NEWLY FORMED BONE FROM OLDER COMPACT BONE REVEALS CLEAR COMPOSITIONAL DIFFERENCES IN BONE MATRIX  

PubMed Central

In long bone diaphyses, woven bone forms first and then transitions into a more mineralized compact bone tissue. Prior evidence suggests that the non-collagenous protein composition of woven bone may be distinct from that of more mature bone tissue, particularly with respect to a diverse group of phosphorylated, extracellular matrix proteins. To critically test this hypothesis, we developed an in situ approach to isolate newly formed bone from more mature bone within the same long bone, and combine this anatomical approach with Western blotting to make relative comparisons of 7 phosphorylated matrix proteins important for bone physiology and biomineralization. Interestingly, 75 kDa bone sialoprotein (BSP), 63 kDa osteopontin, and the 75 kDa form of bone acidic glycoprotein-75 (BAG-75) were enriched in primary bone as opposed to more mature cortical bone, while osteonectin, fetuin A, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) appeared to be equally distributed between these two bone tissue compartments. Analyses also revealed the presence of larger sized forms of osteopontin (and to a lesser degree BSP) mostly in newly formed bone, while larger forms of BAG-75 were mostly detected in more mature cortical bone. Smaller sized forms of DMP-1 and BAG-75 were detected in both newly formed and more mature bone tissue extracts, and they are likely the result of proteolytic processing in vivo. Intact DMP-1 (97 kDa) was only detected in unmineralized matrix extracts. These findings indicate that newly formed bone exhibits a non-collagenous matrix protein composition distinct from that of more mature compact bone even within the same long bone, and suggest that the temporal fate of individual non-collagenous proteins is variable in growing bone.

Midura, Ronald J.; Midura, Sharon B.; Su, Xiaowei; Gorski, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

190

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid bone.  

PubMed

A 90-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia, and a mass in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was found on CT scan. The patient underwent examination under anaesthesia showing a mass arising from the ethmoid, apparently from the nasal septum. Biopsies taken showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient opted against surgery and has been managed conservatively. A second CT scan 4 years later showed significant increase in size. PMID:24706701

Janjua, Noor; Cresswell, Manuela; Sharma, Rishi; Maheshwar, Arcot

2014-01-01

191

Systems Analysis of Bone  

PubMed Central

The genetic variants contributing to variability in skeletal traits has been well studied, and several hundred QTLs have been mapped and several genes contributing to trait variation have been identified. However, many questions remain unanswered. In particular, it is unclear whether variation in a single gene leads to alterations in function. Bone is a highly adaptive system and genetic variants affecting one trait are often accompanied by compensatory changes in other traits. The functional interactions among traits, which is known as phenotypic integration, has been observed in many biological systems, including bone. Phenotypic integration is a property of bone that is critically important for establishing a mechanically functional structure that is capable of supporting the forces imparted during daily activities. In this paper, bone is reviewed as a system and primarily in the context of functionality. A better understanding of the system properties of bone will lead to novel targets for future genetic analyses and the identification of genes that are directly responsible for regulating bone strength. This systems analysis has the added benefit of leaving a trail of valuable information about how the skeletal system works. This information will provide novel approaches to assessing skeletal health during growth and aging and for developing novel treatment strategies to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with fragility fractures.

Jepsen, Karl J.

2009-01-01

192

GENE DELIVERY TO BONE  

PubMed Central

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis.

Evans, C. H.

2012-01-01

193

Ghrelin and bone.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is a gut-derived peptide hormone, first isolated from the stomach. Ghrelin was initially characterized as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, but it plays a more important role as a potent orexigen and modulator of whole-body energy homeostasis. Ghrelin itself is closely regulated by metabolic status. Bone remodeling constantly renews the skeleton in a highly energy-dependent fashion. Accordingly, bone metabolism is tightly coupled to energy metabolism through the integration of peripheral and central mechanisms, involving the sympathetic nervous system and factors such as leptin. Ghrelin has been shown to modulate osteoblast differentiation and function, both directly and perhaps also through regulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor axis. However, recently it has also been shown that ghrelin interacts with leptin in modulating bone structure, constituting a new mechanism that couples bone metabolism with energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role that ghrelin plays modulating bone cell function, and its integrative role in coupling bone metabolism with energy metabolism. PMID:23804549

Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

2014-01-01

194

Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt

2000-01-01

195

Porous Surface Modified Bioactive Bone Cement for Enhanced Bone Bonding  

PubMed Central

Background Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. Materials and Methods The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant–bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. Results The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony defect. Conclusions Our findings suggested a new bioactive bone cement for prosthetic fixation in total joint replacement.

Huang, Li; Dong, Jingjing; Guo, Dagang; Mao, Mengmeng; Kong, Liang; Li, Yang; Wu, Zixiang; Lei, Wei

2012-01-01

196

Bone metastases: When and how lung cancer interacts with bone  

PubMed Central

Bone metastasis is a common and debilitating consequence of lung cancer: 30%-40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer develop bone metastases during the course of their disease. Lung cancer cells find a favorable soil in the bone microenvironment due to factors released by the bone matrix, the immune system cells, and the same cancer cells. Many aspects of the cross-talk among lung tumor cells, the immune system, and bone cells are not clear, but this review aims to summarize the recent findings in this field, with particular attention to studies conducted to identify biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer bone metastases.

Roato, Ilaria

2014-01-01

197

Temporal Bone Meningiomas  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas involving the temporal bone may originate from arachnoid cell nests present within the temporal bone (intratemporal), but more frequently originate from arachnoid cell nests of the posterior or middle cranial fossa with secondary invasion of the TB (extratemporal). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of 13 patients with meningiomas involving the temporal bone who underwent surgery. Tumors of the posterior fossa with only temporal bone hyperostosis, but without invasion, were excluded. Patients presented primarily with otologic symptoms and signs. The tumors originated in the temporal bone (5/13), jugular foramen (4/13), petroclival region (2/13), the asterion (1/13) or the internal auditory meatus (1/13). All of the intratemporal meningiomas had the radiological appearance of en-plaque menigiomas. The tumor extended into the middle ear (11/13), eustachian tube (5/13), and/or the labyrinth (3/13). A gross total resection was achieved in 11 patients and a subtotal resection in 2 patients. The lower cranial nerves were infiltrated by tumor in 4 patients, and were sacrificed. At a mean follow-up of approximately 6 years, 12 patients are currently alive and doing well and 1 died from tumor progression. Six patients showed tumor recurrence and were reoperated on (5/6) or followed conservatively (1/6). Surgical treatment of temporal bone meningiomas is associated with high recurrence rate due to indiscreet tumor margins. Combined surgical approaches (temporal craniotomy and mastoidectomy) by neurosurgical and otological teams are recommended for meningiomas originating in the temporal bone. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3p134-aFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

Vrionis, Fotios D.; Robertson, Jon H.; Gardner, Gale; Heilman, Carl B.

1999-01-01

198

Aging mechanisms in bone.  

PubMed

Advancing age and loss of bone mass and strength are closely linked. Elevated osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoblast number characterize the age-related skeletal changes in humans and rodents. Similar to other tissues, oxidative stress increases in bone with age. This article reviews current knowledge on the effects of the aging process on bone and its cellular constituents, with particular emphasis on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FoxOs, sirtuins and the p53/p66(shc) signaling cascade alter osteoblast number and bone formation via ROS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Specifically, activation of the p53/p66(shc) signaling increases osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis in the aged skeleton and decreases bone mass. FoxO activation in osteoblasts prevents oxidative stress to preserve skeletal homeostasis. However, while defending against stress FoxOs bind to ?-catenin and attenuate Wnt/T-cell cell factor transcriptional activity and osteoblast generation. Thus, pathways that impact longevity and several diseases of ageing might also contribute to age-related osteoporosis. PMID:23705067

Almeida, Maria

2012-07-01

199

The virtual temporal bone.  

PubMed

The human temporal bone is a 3-dimensionally complex portion of the skull that contains delicate and vital anatomic structures imbedded within dense bone. Current teaching tools have proven to be only marginally adequate for the needs of the aspiring otologic surgeon in learning this anatomy. A variety of image processing and reconstruction techniques were used to reconstruct an anatomically accurate 3-dimensional model of the human temporal bone from serial histologic sections. Using CAVE technology, the model can be manipulated in a stereoscopic virtual environment so that it can be studied from any viewpoint, greatly simplifying the task of learning this anatomy. Applications in surgical planning and Internet based teaching are discussed. PMID:10180566

Mason, T P; Applebaum, E L; Rasmussen, M; Millman, A; Evenhouse, R; Panko, W

1998-01-01

200

Diabetes and bone health.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes worldwide is indisputable. Diabetics suffer increased morbidity and mortality, compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, not only because of vascular complications, but also because of an increased fracture incidence. Both types 1 and 2 diabetes and some medications used to treat it are associated with osteoporotic fractures. The responsible mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. In this review, we evaluate the role of glycemic control in bone health, and the effect of anti-diabetic medications such as thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 agonists. In addition, we examine the possible role of insulin and metformin as anabolic agents for bone. Lastly, we identify the current and future screening tools that help evaluate bone health in diabetics and their limitations. In this way we can offer individualized treatment, to the at-risk diabetic population. PMID:23628280

Antonopoulou, Marianna; Bahtiyar, Gül; Banerji, Mary Ann; Sacerdote, Alan S

2013-11-01

201

Tiludronate: bone pharmacology and safety.  

PubMed

The pharmacological properties of tiludronate (4-chlorophenyl)thiomethylene bisphosphonate), a sulfured bisphosphonate, have been characterized in a series of preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo, tiludronate exerts a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on bone resorption. This property was demonstrated in several animal models, including rats, ewes, and dogs, when bone resorption was induced by administration of retinoid acid or parathyroid hormone, or by immobilization, ovariectomy or orchidectomy. By uncoupling bone resorption from bone formation, tiludronate can induce a positive calcium and phosphate balance. When administered either continuously or intermittently to ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, tiludronate promotes a significant increase in bone mass. This positive effect is associated with an increase in mechanical resistance. Bone tolerance studies indicate that tiludronate is a safe compound with an appreciable therapeutic margin since it can effectively inhibit bone resorption without reducing bone mineralization and strength. In vitro, tiludronate added to bone tissue culture inhibits calcium release, lysosomal enzyme secretion and collagen matrix degradation when induced by various stimulators of bone resorption. At the cellular level, tiludronate does not appear to exert its inhibitory effect on bone resorption by impairing either the recruitment, the migration or the fusion of osteoclast precursors. Tiludronate could act on mature osteoclasts by reducing their capacity to secrete proton into the resorption space and also by favoring their detachment from the bone matrix. The available preclinical data indicate that tiludronate should be an efficacious bisphosphonate in the management of clinical conditions characterized by excessive bone resorption. PMID:8573421

Bonjour, J P; Ammann, P; Barbier, A; Caverzasio, J; Rizzoli, R

1995-11-01

202

STUDIES ON BONE MATRIX IN NORMAL AND OSTEOPOROTIC BONE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control specimens-Pieces of bone were taken from the femur. Cortical bone was used for chemical analysis, and both cortical and cancellous bone for electron microscopy. Fresh bone (taken at necropsy) was used for chemical analysis, and at least three specimens were taken from subjects in each of the following age groups: under 2, 2-10, 1 1-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60,

M. KELLY; A. COURTS; British Gelatine

203

Detecting microdamage in bone  

PubMed Central

Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and careful observation under transmitted light, or epifluorescence microscopy, is required. Fuchsin lodges in cracks, but is not site-specific. Cracks are discontinuities in the calcium-rich bone matrix and chelating agents, which bind calcium, can selectively label them. Oxytetracycline, alizarin complexone, calcein, calcein blue and xylenol orange all selectively bind microcracks and, as they fluoresce at different wavelengths and colours, can be used in sequence to label microcrack growth. New agents that only fluoresce when involved in a chelate are currently being developed – fluorescent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) sensors. Such agents enable microdamage to be quantified and crack growth to be measured and are useful histological tools in providing data for modelling the material behaviour of bone. However, a non-invasive method is needed to measure microdamage in patients. Micro-CT is being studied and initial work with iodine dyes linked to a chelating group has shown some promise. In the long term, it is hoped that repeated measurements can be made at critical sites and microdamage accumulation monitored. Quantification of microdamage, together with bone mass measurements, will help in predicting and preventing bone fracture failure in patients with osteoporosis.

Lee, TC; Mohsin, S; Taylor, D; Parkesh, R; Gunnlaugsson, T; O'Brien, FJ; Giehl, M; Gowin, W

2003-01-01

204

[Advances in bone dysplasias].  

PubMed

The prevalence of bone dysplasias is estimated to be one case per 1,000 inhabitants, which suggests that, at some point in the career of an orthopaedic surgeon, he will face with one of these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the general aspects of bone dysplasias and focus on those, which due to their frequency and importance, we consider most relevant (achondroplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta), reviewing their fundamental features and the latest therapeutic advances. There is no cure for these diseases, so early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management, becomes the key to improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:24731388

Borrego, E; Farrington, D M; Downey, F J

2014-01-01

205

Bone Density Challenge Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the challenge question, which revolves around proving that a cabinet X-ray system can produce bone mineral density images. Students work independently to generate ideas from the questions provided then share with partners and then with the class as part of Multiple Perspectives. As part of the associated Activity 1, students then explore multiple websites to gather information about Bone Mineral Density and answer questions on a worksheet, then later take a quiz on the material covered in the articles.

Vu Bioenegineering Ret Program

206

Imaging pediatric bone sarcomas.  

PubMed

Primary malignant bone tumors are rare and account for about 6% of all new pediatric cancer cases per year in the United States. Identification of the lesion not uncommonly occurs as a result of imaging performed for trauma. Clinical and standard imaging characteristics of the various tumor types are evolving in concert with treatment advancements and clinical trial regimens. This article reviews the 3 most common pediatric bone sarcomas-osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chondrosarcoma-and their imaging as applicable to contemporary disease staging and monitoring, and explores the roles of evolving imaging techniques. PMID:21807172

Kaste, Sue C

2011-07-01

207

Graphite-reinforced bone cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

Knoell, A. C.

1976-01-01

208

Cutting thin sections of bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

Ashley, W. W.

1972-01-01

209

Bone mineralization: Water brings order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the structure and organization of intact bone samples show that water plays a significant role in orienting bone apatite crystals, and that such ordering is mediated by an amorphous mineral coating layer.

Duer, Melinda; Veis, Arthur

2013-12-01

210

Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral differences in murine bone.

Maher, Jason R.

211

[Bone substitutes: Classification and concerns].  

PubMed

Autograft is considered as the "gold standard" for bone reconstruction. It provides osteoinductive factors, osteogenic cells, and appropriate osteoconductive scaffold. Donor site morbidity is the main limitation of autograft. Donor disease transmission limits the use of allograft. Synthetic bone substitutes still lack osteoinductive or osteogenic properties. Composite bone substitutes combining synthetic scaffold and biochemical substances initiating proliferation and cell differentiation, and possibly osteogenesis. Bone substitutes and grafts intended for clinical use are listed. PMID:21783214

Chai, F; Raoul, G; Wiss, A; Ferri, J; Hildebrand, H F

2011-09-01

212

Bone formation by cancer metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of heterotopic bone tissue in malignant tumors or in their metastases is extremely rare. In a 60 years old male patient with bronchogenic carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) extensive bone formation was observed within multiple metastases in the skeletal muscles. On the basis of the microscopic findings, the mechanism of bone formation by malignant tumors is discussed. Obviously, proliferation of local

U. Bettendorf; W. Remmele; H. Laaff

1976-01-01

213

Fibromatosis of bone in children  

SciTech Connect

Radiographs, computed tomograms, and radionuclide bone scans were obtained preoperatively in three children with fibromatosis involving the bones and soft tissues of the extremities. Two of the children had identical scar-like bone lesions of the proximal tibia, which, to the author's knowledge, have not been reported before in this disease. The lesions recurred in two children.

Capusten, B.M.; Azouz, E.M.; Rosman, M.A.

1984-09-01

214

Space Stations: Bones of Contention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

215

Mechanical Test to Bovine Bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Young modulus in compression of fresh and inorganic bovine bone was obtained, in the longitudinal and transversal directions of the trabeculae, using an Instron universal machine. It was found that the elastic properties of the bone depend strongly on the orientation of the force regarding the direction of the trabeculae, specially for fresh bone.

Presbítero Espinosa, Gerardo; Maciel Cerda, Alfredo; Tejeda Cruz, Adriana; Piña Barba, Cristina

2006-09-01

216

Female Reproductive System and Bone  

PubMed Central

The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

2010-01-01

217

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

218

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Child If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ... crest) is used. Why It's Done Doctors perform bone marrow aspirations and biopsies when they're concerned about a problem in ...

219

Rat Models of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastases occur frequently in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer. Bone metastases can be predominantly osteolytic, osteoblastic or mixed. Studies with animal models allow advances in understanding the molecular basis for bone metastases and provide new targets for therapy. Several animal models have been developed in rat with different pathophysiologies; they required injection or implantation of neoplastic cells

Stéphane Blouin; Michel Félix Baslé; Daniel Chappard

2005-01-01

220

Scaffold Design for Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The use of bone grafts is the standard to treat skeletal fractures, or to replace and regenerate lost bone, as demonstrated by the large number of bone graft procedures performed worldwide. The most common of these is the autograft, however, its use can lead to complications such as pain, infection, scarring, blood loss, and donor-site morbidity. The alternative is allografts, but they lack the osteoactive capacity of autografts and carry the risk of carrying infectious agents or immune rejection. Other approaches, such as the bone graft substitutes, have focused on improving the efficacy of bone grafts or other scaffolds by incorporating bone progenitor cells and growth factors to stimulate cells. An ideal bone graft or scaffold should be made of biomaterials that imitate the structure and properties of natural bone ECM, include osteoprogenitor cells and provide all the necessary environmental cues found in natural bone. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. This focus of this review is on the evolution of these scaffolds as bone graft substitutes in the process of recreating the bone tissue microenvironment, including biochemical and biophysical cues.

Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.

2014-01-01

221

Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9?m. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

2014-03-01

222

Breast cancer metastasis to the bone: mechanisms of bone loss  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton, interrupting the normal bone remodeling process and causing bone degradation. Osteolytic lesions are the end result of osteoclast activity; however, osteoclast differentiation and activation are mediated by osteoblast production of RANKL (receptor activator for NF?B ligand) and several osteoclastogenic cytokines. Osteoblasts themselves are negatively affected by cancer cells as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proteins required for new bone formation. Thus, bone loss is due to both increased activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts. This review summarizes the current understanding of the osteolytic mechanisms of bone metastases, including a discussion of current therapies.

2010-01-01

223

Pathogenesis of Paget's disease of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paget's disease of bone is a common condition characterised by increased and disorganised bone turnover which can affect one or several bones throughout the skeleton. These abnormalities disrupt normal bone architecture and lead to various complications such as bone pain osteoarthritis, pathological fracture, bone deformity, deafness, and nerve compression syndromes. Genetic factors play an important role in PDB and mutations

Stuart H. Ralston

2008-01-01

224

Bones Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Bones, Joints, And Articular Cartilage C400–C419 Peripheral Nerves And Autonomic Nervous System C470–C479 Connective, Subcutaneous, And Other Soft Tissues C490–C499 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

225

Bone Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BONES, JOINTS, AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE C400–C419 PERIPHERAL NERVES AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM C470–C479 CONNECTIVE, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND OTHER SOFT TISSUES C490–C499 (Except for M9750, 9760-9764, 9800-9820, 9826, 9831-9920, 9931-9992)

226

[Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].  

PubMed

Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

Reuss-Borst, M A

2014-05-01

227

Bone and joint infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections involving bone and joint are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. They can result in prolonged hospital stays, long courses of systemic antibiotics and frequently will require surgical intervention. In this review we will cover the commonest infections seen clinically. We have also chosen to divide the review into two sections; infections involving native tissue\\/joints and infections relating

Tom Darton; Robert Townsend

2010-01-01

228

Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

one metastases are a frequent complication of cancer, occur- ring in up to 70 percent of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer 1 and in approximately 15 to 30 percent of patients with carcinoma of the lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterus, rectum, thyroid, or kidney. The exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, but it is estimated that 350,000

G. David Roodman

2004-01-01

229

Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

one metastases are a frequent complication of cancer, occur- ring in up to 70 percent of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer 1 and in approximately 15 to 30 percent of patients with carcinoma of the lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterus, rectum, thyroid, or kidney. The exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, but it is estimated that 350,000

G. David Roodman

2010-01-01

230

Are bones alive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by ‘alive’, but also requires ‘informed thinking’ leading to an understanding of the concept of life itself. This study is part

Silvia Caravita; Elisabetta Falchetti

2005-01-01

231

Transdifferentiation between bone and fat on bone metabolism  

PubMed Central

The transdifferentiation of bone and fat is a new insight in studying the increasingly bone marrow fat in the process of osteoporosis of elderly or menopause crowd which is increasing in prevalence. The loss of bone mass in osteoporosis is multifactorially determined and includes genetic, hormonal and environmental determinants. Although it has long been considered whether the transdifferentiation process does exist in vivo and whether it could be find in the same individual, interaction between skeleton and adipose tissue has been proved pre-clinically and clinically by increasing evidence. Here we focus on the current understanding of the transdifferentiation between bone and fat, the molecular interactions and future clinical implications of recent studies linking the transdifferentiation to bone metabolism diseases. Furthermore, a set of recommendations of bone and fat transdifferentiation on bone metabolism are also presented to facilitate evaluation of this magic process.

Gao, Bo; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

2014-01-01

232

The sinking bone syndrome?  

PubMed

Bone resorption is a known complication of cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC). A peculiar group of insidious, progressive, invalidating neurological symptoms was observed in patients presenting with incomplete resorption and abnormal mobility of the re-implanted bone. Such symptoms were similar, but with time more severe, to those encountered in the sinking flap syndrome. Are we facing a sort of Sinking Bone Syndrome? We accurately analyze these cases and review the literature. Over a 7-years period, 312 DCs were performed at our Institution. In 7 patients, headache, vertigo, gait ataxia, confusion, blurred speech, short-term memory impairment, hemiparesis, sudden loss of consciousness, and third cranial nerve palsy were observed in a time period ranging from 18 months to 5 years after cranioplasty. Clinical and neuroradiological examinations were performed to disclose the possible etiopathogenesis of this condition. Collected data showed partial resorption of the repositioned bone and its unnatural inward movements during postural changes. Bone movements were interpreted as the major cause of the symptoms. A new cranioplasty was then performed in every case, using porous hydroxyapatite in 6 patients and polyetherketone implant in the other. Full resolution of symptoms was always obtained 3 to 20 days after the second surgery. No further complications were reported. We believe that long-term follow up in patients operated on by cranioplasty after DC will be needed regularly for years after skull reconstruction and that newly appearing symptoms should never go underestimated or simply interpreted as a long-term consequence of previous brain damage. PMID:23708225

Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Dobran, Mauro; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Moriconi, Elisa; Scerrati, Massimo

2013-01-01

233

Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones  

PubMed Central

Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness.

Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analia M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2013-01-01

234

Bone fragility: current reviews and clinical features  

PubMed Central

Bone strength is determined by a number of important factors, including bone mass and bone shape. A reduction in bone strength is clearly related to fracture. Bone fragility results from a reduction in bone mass and density. If there is a reduction in the connectivity of bone and impact from a mechanical load occurs, bone will fracture. Rather than considering bone fragility as being the result of a reduced amount of bone, we recognize that bone fragility is the result of changes in the material and structural properties of bone. A better understanding of the contribution of each component of the material composition and structure, and how these interact to maintain whole bone strength is obtained by the study of metabolic bone diseases. Disorders of collagen, of mineral content composition and distribution, disorders of remodelling and other diseases produce abnormalities in the material composition and structure that lead to bone fragility.

Tranquilli Leali, Paolo; Doria, Carlo; Zachos, Alexandros; Ruggiu, Adriano; Milia, Fabio; Barca, Francesca

2009-01-01

235

Predicting bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in reduced bone width.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to predict time-dependent bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in patients with reduced bone width. The remodeling of bone around titanium tissue-level, and titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implants was studied under 100 N oblique load for one month by implementing the Stanford theory into three-dimensional finite element models. Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, and strain energy density in peri-implant bone and displacement in x- and y- axes of the implant were evaluated. Maximum and minimum principal stresses around tissue-level implant were higher than bone-level implants and both bone-level implants experienced comparable stresses. Total strain energy density in bone around titanium implants slightly decreased during the first two weeks of loading followed by a recovery, and the titanium-zirconium implant showed minor changes in the axial plane. Total strain energy density changes in the loading and contralateral sides were higher in tissue-level implant than other implants in the cortical bone at the horizontal plane. The displacement values of the implants were almost constant over time. Tissue-level implants were associated with higher stresses than bone-level implants. The time-dependent biomechanical outcome of titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implant was comparable to the titanium implant. PMID:23876712

Eser, Atilim; Tonuk, Ergin; Akca, Kivanc; Dard, Michel M; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

2013-09-01

236

Bone quality and bone strength: benefits of the bone-forming approach  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability of bone to resist fracture depends on the intrinsic properties of the materials that comprise the bone matrix mineralization, the amount of bone (i.e. mass), and the spatial distribution of the bone mass (i.e. microarchitecture). Antiresorptive agents may prevent the decay of cancellous bone and cortical thinning, with no improvement of bone microstructure, leading to a partial correction of the principal bone quality defect in osteoporosis, the disruption of trabecular microarchitecture. Anabolic agents promote bone formation at both trabecular and endocortical surfaces, resulting in an increase of cancellous bone volume and cortical thickness. The improvement of cortical bone strength may be limited by an increase in cortical porosity. strontium ranelate improves trabecular network and cortical thickness that will contribute to anti-fracture efficacy at both vertebral and non-vertebral sites. The results of clinical and experimental studies are consistent with the mode of action of strontium involving dissociation between bone formation and resorption leading to a stimulation both trabecular and cortical bone formation without increasing cortical porosity.

Iolascon, Giovanni; Frizzi, Laura; Di Pietro, Gioconda; Capaldo, Annarita; Luciano, Fabrizio; Gimigliano, Francesca

2014-01-01

237

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

238

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-05-09

239

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The technetium-99m(/sup 99m/Tc)-labelled diphosophonate bone scan remains the most frequently requested investigation in any nuclear medicine department because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection. It has a wide, and apparently ever-increasing, range of applications in clinical practice and the purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of bone scanning. In addition, important topics of current interest, such as single photon emission computed tomography, quantitation of bone uptake of diphosphonate and bone mineral measurements by photon absorptiometry, are included. The emphasis is on the clinical use of bone scanning.

Fogelman, I.

1987-01-01

240

Opposite Bone Remodeling Effects of Teriparatide and Alendronate in Increasing Bone Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Antiresorptive agents for the treatment of osteoporosis suppress bone remodeling and reestablish bone turnover at a lower rate to reduce bone loss. Re- combinant teriparatide (human parathyroid hormone 1-34) stimulates bone formation, increases bone mass, and improves bone microarchitecture. We contrasted the effects of once-daily doses of 20 µg of teriparatide and 10 mg of alendronate sodium on bone

Michael R. McClung; Javier San Martin; Paul D. Miller; Roberto Civitelli; Francisco Bandeira; Molly Omizo; David W. Donley; Gail P. Dalsky; Erik F. Eriksen

2005-01-01

241

Bone Magnesium Pools in Uremia  

PubMed Central

Bone magnesium pools were studied in vitro in bone specimens obtained from control subjects, from patients with chronic renal failure before and after renal transplantation, and in a patient with chronic hypomagnesemia. 30% of bone magnesium is in a surface limited pool present either within the hydration shell or else on the crystal surface. The larger fraction of bone magnesium was shown not to be associated with bone matrix but rather to be an integral part of the bone crystal. With incineration this pool was mobilized at the same temperature that sudden enlargement of bone crystal size occurred. It is suggested that heating causes surface calcium to displace magnesium from the apatite crystal. Both magnesium pools are increased in patients with chronic renal failure. The major factor determining magnesium concentration in bone would appear to be the serum magnesium level. Following renal transplantation, in association with the fall in serum magnesium, surface magnesium was within the normal range; whereas, residual magnesium was not different from the other urenic bones. Both magnesium pools were significantly reduced in a patient with chronic hypomagnesemia. The in vitro studies would suggest that surface magnesium should rapidly reflect changes in serum magnesium levels, whereas, the deeper magnesium pool is probably deposited at time of bone formation with mobilization being dependent upon the resorptive processes. Since magnesium can influence crystal size and stability it seems possible that excess bone magnesium may play a role in renal osteodystrophy.

Alfrey, Allen C.; Miller, Nancy L.

1973-01-01

242

Space flight and bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

Doty, St B.

2004-01-01

243

TARGETING POLYMER THERAPEUTICS TO BONE  

PubMed Central

An aging population in the developing world has led to an increase in musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and bone metastases. Left untreated many bone diseases cause debilitating pain and in the case of cancer, death. Many potential drugs are effective in treating diseases but result in side effects preventing their efficacy in the clinic. Bone, however, provides an unique environment of inorganic solids, which can be exploited in order to effectively target drugs to diseased tissue. By integration of bone targeting moieties to drug-carrying water-soluble polymers, the payload to diseased area can be increased while side effects decreased. The realization of clinically relevant bone targeted polymer therapeutics depends on (1) understanding bone targeting moiety interactions, (2) development of controlled drug delivery systems, as well as (3) understanding drug interactions. The latter makes it possible to develop bone targeted synergistic drug delivery systems.

Low, Stewart; Kopecek, Jindrich

2012-01-01

244

Radio-opaque agents in bone cement increase bone resorption.  

PubMed

A heavy infiltrate of foreign-body macrophages is commonly seen in the fibrous membrane which surrounds an aseptically loose cemented implant. This is in response to particles of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and other biomaterials. We have previously shown that monocytes and macrophages responding to particles of bone cement are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic cells which resorb bone. To determine whether the radio-opaque additives barium sulphate (BaSO4) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) influence this process, particles of PMMA with and without these agents were added to mouse monocytes and cocultured with osteoblast-like cells on bone slices. Osteoclast differentiation, as shown by the presence of the osteoclast-associated enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and lacunar bone resorption, was observed in all cocultures. The addition of PMMA alone to these cocultures caused no increase in TRAP expression or bone resorption relative to control cocultures. Adding PMMA particles containing BaSO4 or ZrO2, however, caused an increase in TRAP expression and a highly significant increase in bone resorption. Particles containing BaSO4 were associated with 50% more bone resorption than those containing ZrO2. Our results suggest that radio-opaque agents in bone cement may contribute to the bone resorption of aseptic loosening by enhancing macrophage-osteoclast differentiation, and that PMMA containing BaSO4 is likely to be associated with more osteolysis than that containing ZrO2. PMID:9020461

Sabokbar, A; Fujikawa, Y; Murray, D W; Athanasou, N A

1997-01-01

245

[Biological activities of bone morphological protein in bone regeneration].  

PubMed

Bone matrix contents various development factors which control structuring and absorption and those factors play important role in bone and cartilage development. Bone morphological proteins are members of TGF-beta super family and their activity is certain becoming from the bone. This activity leads to the serial development processes which include chemo taxis, proliferation and differentiation which results in trans resistant formation of cartilage as well as production of life cells of a bone tissue. Biological activities of re combinative human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). induction bone formation of non critical size mandible defect of New Zealand rabbits were researched in the study. Markers of osteoblastic differential in the study included ALP specific activity. Histological analysis performed 7, 14, 30, 60 postoperative days, C-T analysis with determination Bone Mineral Density value of new structured tissue within the defect was done 30 days. Results indicate that ectopic bone formation has been inducted with rhBMP-7 and histological analysis shown mature bone with collagen and ostheociti 60th day. Early 7 day granulocyte tissue with angiogenesis was detected, and after 30 days ostheoblastsis shown with a lot of vascular and mezenhimal tissue. Ostheogenetic processes were characteristic for typical inter membraneous ossification without cartilage tissue. ALP activity was significantly increased 21 days. C-T and Bone Mineral Density value shown density of new structured tissue determinate as bone (413 mg/cm3 and 519 mg/cm3). Studies showed that concentration of 100 mg rhBMP-7 in collagen as career had strong ostheo inductive capacity. Conditions which module BMP depend ostheo induction should be considered in the future. Information could lead to improvements of rhBMP as substitution for bone graft in clinical practice. PMID:15875464

Smajilagi?, Amer; Redzic, Amira; Filipovi?, S; Hadzihasanovi?, B

2005-01-01

246

Osteopontin Deficiency Increases Bone Fragility but Preserves Bone Mass  

PubMed Central

The ability of bone to resist catastrophic failure is critically dependent upon the material properties of bone matrix, a composite of hydroxyapatite, collagen type I, and noncollagenous proteins. These properties include elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. Like other aspects of bone quality, matrix material properties are biologically-defined and can be disrupted in skeletal disease. While mineral and collagen have been investigated in greater detail, the contribution of noncollagenous proteins such as osteopontin to bone matrix material properties remains unclear. Several roles have been ascribed to osteopontin in bone, many of which have the potential to impact material properties. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in bone quality, we evaluated the structure, composition, and material properties of bone from osteopontin-deficient mice and wild-type littermates at several length scales. Most importantly, the results show that osteopontin deficiency causes a 30% decrease in fracture toughness, suggesting an important role for OPN in preventing crack propagation. This significant decline in fracture toughness is independent of changes in whole bone mass, structure, or matrix porosity. Using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to evaluate osteopontin-deficient bone matrix at the micrometer level, we observed a significant reduction in elastic modulus and increased variability in calcium concentration. Matrix heterogeneity was also apparent at the ultrastructural level. In conclusion, we find that osteopontin is essential for the fracture toughness of bone, and reduced toughness in osteopontin-deficient bone may be related to the increased matrix heterogeneity observed at the micro-scale. By exploring the effects of osteopontin-deficiency on bone matrix material properties, composition and organization, this study suggests that reduced fracture toughness is one mechanism by which loss of noncollagenous proteins contribute to bone fragility.

Thurner, Philipp J.; Chen, Carol G.; Ionova-Martin, Sophi; Sun, Luling; Harman, Adam; Porter, Alexandra; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Alliston, Tamara

2010-01-01

247

Vitamin D: beyond bone.  

PubMed

In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and bone health, including skin, placenta, pancreas, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, and activated T cells. However, the biological significance of the expression of the VDR in different tissues is not fully understood, and the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal health has been a matter of debate. This report summarizes recent research on the roles for vitamin D in cancer, immunity and autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory health, pregnancy, obesity, erythropoiesis, diabetes, muscle function, and aging. PMID:23682710

Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G; Wagner, Carol L; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G; Boland, Ricardo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bikle, Daniel D

2013-05-01

248

Directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone to augment bone formation and increase bone mass  

PubMed Central

Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by attaching a synthetic high affinity and specific peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) against integrin ?4?1 on the MSC surface, to a bisphosphonate (alendronate, Ale) that has high affinity for bone. LLP2A-Ale increased MSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. A single intravenous injection of LLP2A-Ale increased trabecular bone formation and bone mass in both xenotransplantation and immune competent mice. Additionally, LLP2A-Ale prevented trabecular bone loss after peak bone acquisition was achieved or following estrogen deficiency. These results provide a proof of principle that LLP2A-Ale can direct MSCs to the bone to form new bone and increase bone strength.

Guan, Min; Yao, Wei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.; Nolta, Jan; Jia, Junjing; Panganiban, Brian; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Ping; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Ritchie, Robert O.; Lane, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

249

Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

250

Infrared laser bone ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone ablation characteristics of five infrared lasers, including three pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, lambda = 1064 micron; Hol:YSGG, lambda = 2.10 micron; and Erb:YAG, lambda = 2.94 micron) and two continuous-wave lasers (Nd:YAG, lambda = 1.064 micron; and COâ, lambda = 10.6 micron), were studied. All laser ablations were performed in vitro, using moist, freshly dissected calvarium of guinea pig

Roger C. Nuss; Richard L. Fabian; Rajabrata Sarkar; Carmen A. Puliafito

1988-01-01

251

Percutaneous bone lesion ablation.  

PubMed

Benign tumors and metastatic bone lesions can be treated by ablation techniques performed either alone or in combination with other percutaneous techniques. Ablation techniques include ethanol or acetic acid injection and thermal ablation by means of energy deposition [including laser, radiofrequency, microwave, cryoablation, radiofrequency ionization and magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)]. Goal definition of the therapy is crucial: ablation techniques can be proposed as curative treatments in benign bone tumors or oligometastatic disease (<3 lesions). Alternatively, these techniques can be proposed as palliative treatments aiming at reduction of pain, local control of the disease and tumor decompression. Depending on the lesion's location ablation can be combined with cementation with or without further metallic augmentation; local tumor control can be enhanced by combining ablation with transarterial bland embolization or chemoembolization. Thermal ablation of bone and soft tissues is characterized by high success and relatively low rates of potential complications, mainly iatrogenic thermal damage of surrounding sensitive structures. Successful thermal ablation requires a sufficient ablation volume and thermal protection of the surrounding vulnerable structures. This article will describe the general principles governing ablation and the mechanism of action for each technique and in addition will review the literature about safety and effectiveness of percutaneous imaging-guided ablation for benign and malignant (primary and metastatic) lesions. PMID:24894924

Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Tutton, Sean; Kelekis, Alexis

2014-07-01

252

Battling Brittle Bones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuDEXA(R) Bone Mineral Density Assessment System, manufactured by Schick Technologies, Inc., utilizes "camera on a chip" sensor technology invented and developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Schick's accuDEXA system offers several advantages over traditional osteoporosis tests, which assess bone density loss in the hip and spine, and require specialized personnel to conduct. With accuDEXA, physicians can test the entire body's bone density at a peripheral site, such as the finger, without applying gels or having patients remove garments. Results are achieved in 30 seconds and printed out in less than a minute, compared to the estimated exam time of 15 minutes for hip and spine density analyses. Schick has also applied the CMOS APS technology to a new software product that performs dental radiography using up to 90 percent less radiation exposure than conventional X-rays. Called Computed Dental Radiography(R), the new digital imaging product utilizes an electronic sensor in place of X-ray film to generate sharp and clear images that appear on a computer screen within 3 seconds, and can be enlarged and enhanced to identify problems.

2002-01-01

253

Modular adaptive bone plate for humerus bone osteosynthesis.  

PubMed

The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the doctor to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT-realistic numerical humerus bone model, the mechanical simulation of the osteosyntesis process for humerus bone using staples made out of Nitinol. The stress and displacements diagrams for bone, for plate modules and for staples, are presented. PMID:19690773

Tarni??, Daniela; Tarni??, D N; Bîzdoac?, N; Tarni??, Corina; Berceanu, C; Boborelu, C

2009-01-01

254

Cellular mechanisms of bone remodeling  

PubMed Central

Bone remodeling is a tightly regulated process securing repair of microdamage (targeted remodeling) and replacement of old bone with new bone through sequential osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. The rate of remodeling is regulated by a wide variety of calcitropic hormones (PTH, thyroid hormone, sex steroids etc.). In recent years we have come to appreciate that bone remodeling proceeds in a specialized vascular structure,—the Bone Remodeling Compartment (BRC). The outer lining of this compartment is made up of flattened cells, displaying all the characteristics of lining cells in bone including expression of OPG and RANKL. Reduced bone turnover leads to a decrease in the number of BRCs, while increased turnover causes an increase in the number of BRCs. The secretion of regulatory factors inside a confined space separated from the bone marrow would facilitate local regulation of the remodeling process without interference from growth factors secreted by blood cells in the marrow space. The BRC also creates an environment where cells inside the structure are exposed to denuded bone, which may enable direct cellular interactions with integrins and other matrix factors known to regulate osteoclast/osteoblast activity. However, the denuded bone surface inside the BRC also constitutes an ideal environment for the seeding of bone metastases, known to have high affinity for bone matrix. Circulating osteoclast- and osteoblast precursor cells have been demonstrated in peripheral blood. The dominant pathway regulating osteoclast recruitment is the RANKL/OPG system, while many different factors (RUNX, Osterix) are involved in osteoblast differentiation. Both pathways are modulated by calcitropic hormones.

2010-01-01

255

Cell therapy for bone repair.  

PubMed

When natural bone repair mechanisms fail, autologous bone grafting is the current standard of care. The osteogenic cells and bone matrix in the graft provide the osteo-inductive and osteo-conductive properties required for successful bone repair. Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into osteogenic cells. MSC-based cell therapy holds promise for promoting bone repair. The amount of MSCs available from iliac-crest aspirates is too small to be clinically useful, and either concentration or culture must therefore be used to expand the MSC population. MSCs can be administered alone via percutaneous injection or implanted during open surgery with a biomaterial, usually biphasic hydroxyapatite/?-calcium-triphosphate granules. Encouraging preliminary results have been obtained in patients with delayed healing of long bone fractures or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Bone tissue engineering involves in vitro MSC culturing on biomaterials to obtain colonisation of the biomaterial and differentiation of the cells. The biomaterial-cell construct is then implanted into the zone to be treated. Few published data are available on bone tissue engineering. Much work remains to be done before determining whether this method is suitable for the routine filling of bone tissue defects. Increasing cell survival and promoting implant vascularisation are major challenges. Improved expertise with culturing techniques, together with the incorporation of regulatory requirements, will open the way to high-quality clinical trials investigating the usefulness of cell therapy as a method for achieving bone repair. Cell therapy avoids the drawbacks of autologous bone grafting, preserving the bone stock and diminishing treatment invasiveness. PMID:24411717

Rosset, P; Deschaseaux, F; Layrolle, P

2014-02-01

256

Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites.  

PubMed

Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the time of grafting as compared to the reference iliac crest site. These data have important clinical implications concerning the potential benefit of enriching both bone-poor and bone-rich sites. PMID:11716007

Delécrin, J; Deschamps, C; Romih, M; Heymann, D; Passuti, N

2001-10-01

257

Major bone defect treatment with an osteoconductive bone substitute.  

PubMed

A bone defect can be provoked by several pathological conditions (e.g. bone tumours, infections, major trauma with bone stock loss) or by surgical procedures, required for the appropriate treatment. Surgical techniques currently used for treating bone defects may count on different alternatives, including autologous vascularized bone grafts, homologous bone graft provided by musculoskeletal tissue bank, heterologous bone graft (xenograft), or prostheses, each one of them dealing with both specific advantages and complications and drawbacks. The main concerns related to these techniques respectively are: donor site morbidity and limited available amount; possible immune response and viral transmission; possible animal-derived pathogen transmission and risk of immunogenic rejection; high invasiveness and surgery-related systemic risks, long post-operative. physical recovery and prostheses revision need. Nowadays, an ideal alternative is the use of osteoconductive synthetic bone substitutes. Many synthetic substitutes are available, used either alone or in combination with other bone graft. Synthetic bone graft materials available as alternatives to autogeneous bone include calcium sulphates, special glass ceramics (bioactive glasses) and calcium phosphates (calcium hydroxyapatite, HA; tricalcium phosphate, TCP; and biphasic calcium phosphate, BCP). These materials differ in composition and physical properties fro each other and from bone (De Groot in Bioceramics of calcium phosphate, pp 100-114, 1983; Hench in J Am Ceram Soc 74:1487-1510, 1994; Jarcho in Clin Orthop 157:259-278, 1981; Daculsi et al. in Int Rev Cytol 172:129-191, 1996). Both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HA-based substitutes represent the current first choice in orthopedic surgery, in that they provide an osteoconductive scaffold to which chemotactic, circulating proteins and cells (e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, osteoinductive growth factors) can migrate and adhere, and within which progenitor cells can differentiate into functioning osteoblasts (Szpalski and Gunzburg in Orthopedics 25S:601-609, 2002). Indeed, HA may be extemporarily combined either with whole autologous bone marrow or PRP (platelet rich plasma) gel inside surgical theatre in order to favour and accelerate bone regeneration. A case of bifocal ulnar bone defect treated with stoichiometric HA-based bone substitute combined with PRP is reported in here, with a 12-month-radiographic follow-up. PMID:19711008

Paderni, Stefania; Terzi, S; Amendola, L

2009-09-01

258

Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

1980-08-01

259

Automated implantable bone distractor for incremental bone adjustment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An implantable distractor that provides controlled forceful movement either to facing bone ends created by osteotomy or across cranial sutures for the purpose of fostering bone deposition to support bone growth (distraction osteogenesis). The improved Distractor adjusts separation of such through precise, forceful, incremental movements. The mechanism has an actuator powered by intermittent electrical current flow through a shape-memory-effect (SME) actuation component. The SME component deforms forcefully. This force is amplified to result in incremental separation of two plates affixed to bone on either side of the osteotomy or suture.

2000-03-07

260

Electromechanical Properties of Bone Tissue.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrepancies between calculated and empirical properties of bone are thought to be due to a general lack of consideration for the extent and manner(s) with which bone components interact at the molecular level. For a bone component in physiological fluid or whenever two phases are in contact, there is a region between the bulk phases called the electrical double layer which is marked by a separation of electric charges. For the purpose of studying electrical double layer interactions, the method of particle microelectrophoresis was used to characterize bone and its major constituents on the basis of the net charge they bear when suspended in ionic media of physiological relevance. With the data presented as pH versus zeta (zeta ) potential, the figures reveal an isoelectric point (IEP) for bone mineral near pH 8.6, whereas intact and EDTA demineralized bone tissue both exhibit IEPs near pH 5.1. While these data demonstrate the potential for a significant degree of coulombic interaction between the bone mineral and organic constituent double layers, it was also observed that use of inorganic phosphate buffers, as a specific marker for bone mineral, resulted in (1) an immediate reversal, from positive to negative, of the bone mineral zeta potential (2) rendered the zeta potential of intact bone more negative in a manner linearly dependent on both time and temperature and (3) had no affect on demineralized bone (P < 0.01). In agreement with that shown in model protein-hydroxyapatite systems, it is suggested here that inorganic phosphate ions in solution compete with organic acid groups (e.g. carboxyl and phosphate of collagen, sialoprotein, ...) for positively charged sites on the bone mineral surface and effectively uncouple the bone mineral and organic phase double layers. Mechanically, this uncoupling is manifested as a loss of tissue rigidity when monitoring the midspan deflection of bone beams subject to constant load for a 3 day period. While it is thus demonstrated that the major inorganic and organic phases of bone are electromechanically coupled, a thermodynamic consideration of the data suggests that the nature of the bond is to preserve mineral and organic phase electroneutralities by participating in electrical double layer interactions. The results are discussed in terms of bone mechanical modeling, electrokinetic properties, aging, tissue-implant compatibility and the etiologies of bone pathologic conditions.

Regimbal, Raymond L.

261

Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

2003-10-01

262

Optimal Principle of Bone Structure  

PubMed Central

Bone modeling and remodeling is an optimization process where no agreement has been reached regarding a unified theory or model. We measured 384 pieces of bone in vivo by 64-slice CT and discovered that the bone's center of mass approximately superposes its centroid of shape. This phenomenon indicates that the optimization process of non-homogeneous materials such as bone follows the same law of superposition of center of mass and centroid of shape as that of homogeneous materials. Based upon this principle, an index revealing the relationship between the center of mass and centroid of shape of the compact bone is proposed. Another index revealing the relationship between tissue density and distribution radius is followed. Applying these indexes to evaluate the strength of bone, we have some new findings.

Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Loan, Mushtaq; Lv, Changsheng; Bo, Zhang

2011-01-01

263

Fabric dependence of bone ultrasound.  

PubMed

Current diagnosis of bone loss and osteoporosis is based on the measurement of the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) or the apparent mass density. Unfortunately, in most clinical ultrasound densitometers: 1) measurements are often performed in a single anatomical direction, 2) only the first wave arriving to the ultrasound probe is characterized, and 3) the analysis of bone status is based on empirical relationships between measurable quantities such as Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and the density of the porous medium. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported, which is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media, as predicted by Biot's poroelastic wave propagation theory. A fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic approach is empolyed as a theoretical framework to describe the microarchitectural-dependent relationship between measurable wave properties and the elastic constants of trabecular bone, and thus represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD alone. PMID:20882938

Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

2010-01-01

264

New biomaterials for bone regeneration  

PubMed Central

Bone-grafting techniques either with autografts or allografts still represent a challenge for reconstructive surgery. Allografts and autografts are the current strategies for filling bone defects and subsequent repair but each have drawbacks. Synthetic bone-graft substitutes, developed in an effort to overcome the inherent limitations of autograft and allograft, represent an alternative strategy. Synthetic bone graft substitutes have the goal of mimicking the physical and mechanical nature of native tissue and to promote osteoconduction for bone regeneration. In addition these substitutes are capable to release drugs or growth factors in a temporally and spatially manner. Some biomaterials are employed to design biomimetic scaffold such as natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, metallics and composites. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the main biomaterials used for bone reconstruction.

Matassi, Fabrizio; Nistri, Lorenzo; Chicon Paez, Diana; Innocenti, Massimo

2011-01-01

265

Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Bone sarcomas include a very large number of tumour subtypes, which originate form bone and more particularly from mesenchymal stem cell lineage. Osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the three main bone sarcoma entities develop in a favourable microenvironment composed by bone cells, blood vessels, immune cells, based on the ‘seed and soil theory'. Current therapy associates surgery and chemotherapy, however, bone sarcomas remain diseases with high morbidity and mortality especially in children and adolescents. In the past decade, various new therapeutic approaches emerged and target the tumour niche or/and directly the tumour cells by acting on signalling/metabolic pathways involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis or drug resistance. The present review gives a brief overview from basic to clinical assessment of the main targeted therapies of bone sarcoma cells.

Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Francoise

2013-01-01

266

Foam bones. Experimental teaching aid.  

PubMed

The teaching of surgical anatomy is an important aspect of an orthopedic training program. The fabrication of polyurethane bones by the authors' staff has proved to be a simple, inexpensive, and rapid means of duplicating bones, permitting the orthopedic surgeons to experiment with new surgical techniques as well as to teach surgical skills. Polyurethane bones may be purchased commercially but are much less costly and more instructive when made by staff members. PMID:6194926

Neimkin, R J; Barrett, G R; Meyer, L C

1983-11-01

267

Stress fractures and bone pain  

SciTech Connect

Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method.

Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

1984-01-01

268

Bone Health in The Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our bones are continuously being remodeled through repeated cycles of destruction and rebuilding. By some estimates, this remodeling process is so extensive that it completely regenerates the adult skeleton every 10 years. Remodeling most likely serves a repair function, especially in bones subjected to mechanical stress. This article introduces a special issue of Science on recent advances in our understanding of the cell and molecular biology of bone remodeling and how these advances are being applied to the development of new therapeutics.

Paula Kiberstis (AAAS;); Orla Smith (AAAS;); Colin Norman (AAAS;)

2000-09-01

269

[Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy].  

PubMed

The definitive diagnosis of several hematological diseases, as for instance leukaemias, unexplained pancytopenias and other bone marrow disorders, requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Not only haematologists, but also internists, need to master this rather invasive procedure. The knowledge of indications, contra-indications, potential complications and their prevention of its complications is of utmost importance. This article reviews these topics about bone marrow biopsy, giving some practical advices on this procedure. PMID:19055151

Moix, Paul-André; Favre, Lucie; Rosselet, Anne; Monti, Matteo

2008-10-29

270

Angiosarcomas associated with bone infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A bone infarct may occasionally dedifferentiate to osteogenic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. However,\\u000a the association of an angiosarcoma with a bone infarct is extremely rare. Such an association is presented in three patients.\\u000a Their clinical course is compared with that of patients with bone infarcts associated with other sarcomas. Design and patients. The three patients were men

I. F. Abdelwahab; Michael J. Klein; George Hermann; Dempsey Springfield

1998-01-01

271

Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. Metastasizing tumour cells mobilize and sculpt the bone microenvironment to enhance tumour growth and to promote bone invasion. Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components

Theresa A. Guise; Laurie K. McCauley; Katherine N. Weilbaecher

2011-01-01

272

Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

1982-08-01

273

It pays to look after your bones!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis, defined as abnormally low bone density, results in increased risk of fractures with consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. An important determinant of age-related fractures is low bone density. Current public health strategies aim to maximize bone mass in elderly people, yet the bone mass obtained in the first three decades of life is a major determinant of bone

Emma J. E. Jenkins; Carol Jones

1996-01-01

274

Symmetry analysis of talus bone  

PubMed Central

Objective The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Methods Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Results Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. Conclusions We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139–45.

Islam, K.; Dobbe, A.; Komeili, A.; Duke, K.; El-Rich, M.; Dhillon, S.; Adeeb, S.; Jomha, N. M.

2014-01-01

275

Segmentation accuracy of long bones.  

PubMed

The use of three-dimensional imaging methodologies in new applications in the orthopaedic field has introduced a need for high accuracy, in addition to a correct diagnosis. The aim of this study was to quantify the absolute dimensional errors between models reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images compared to a ground truth for various regions of the bone. Clinical CT and MRI scans were acquired from nine lower leg cadavers and the bones were subsequently cleaned from soft tissues. 3D models of the tibia were created from the segmented CT and MRI images and compared to optical scans of the cleaned bones (considered as ground truth). The 3D reconstruction using CT images resulted in an RMS error of 0.55mm, corresponding to an overestimated CT bone model compared to the cleaned bone. MR imaging resulted in an RMS error of 0.56mm; however, the MRI bone model was on average a small underestimation of the cleaned bone. Different regions of the bones were analysed, indicating a difference in accuracy between diaphysis and epiphysis. This study demonstrates a high accuracy for both CT and MRI imaging, supporting the feasibility of using MRI technology for the 3D reconstruction of bones in medical applications. PMID:24768087

Van den Broeck, Joyce; Vereecke, Evie; Wirix-Speetjens, Roel; Vander Sloten, Jos

2014-07-01

276

Bone Disease and Idiopathic Hypercalciuria  

PubMed Central

Observational and epidemiological studies alike have demonstrated that idiopathic hypercalciuric (IH) stone-forming patients typically demonstrate bone mineral density scores significantly less than those observed for age- and gender-matched normal subjects or those for non-hypercalciuric stone-forming patients. Most of these studies have relied on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and have not explored the mechanism(s) involved. There have been a small number of studies that have relied on dynamic bone histomorphometry to ascertain the nature of the bone defect in IH patients. When performed, these studies have clearly demonstrated increased bone resorption and high bone turnover in patients with fasting hypercalciuria while suppressed bone formation indices are the most consistent finding in patients with the absorptive variant of IH. The causes of this apparent difference in bone remodeling between the two variants of IH is still uncertain. Available evidence suggests that potential mechanisms may be dependent in large part to genetic, metabolic, and nutritional causes of hypercalciuria and bone loss in patients with IH.

Zerwekh, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

277

Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

278

Dilatational band formation in bone  

PubMed Central

Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone.

Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

2012-01-01

279

Biomechanical properties of bone allografts  

SciTech Connect

The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation.

Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

1983-04-01

280

Bovine bone implant with bovine bone morphogenetic protein in healing a canine ulnar defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenograft is considered an alternative material for bone transplantation, but its bone healing capacity is inferior compared to that of autografts and allografts. Here, we tested whether bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) addition enhances the suitability of demineralized xenogeneic bovine bone for bone grafting in dogs, and whether xenogeneic bone is a suitable carrier material for BMPs. The capacity of demineralized

T. Tuominen; T. Jämsä; J. Tuukkanen; A. Marttinen; T. S. Lindholm; P. Jalovaara

2001-01-01

281

Elastic intramedullary nailing and DBM-Bone marrow injection for the treatment of simple bone cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Simple or unicameral bone cysts are common benign fluid-filled lesions usually located at the long bones of children before skeletal maturity. METHODS: We performed demineralized bone matrix and iliac crest bone marrow injection combined with elastic intramedullary nailing for the treatment of simple bone cysts in long bones of 9 children with a mean age of 12.6 years (range,

Anastasios D Kanellopoulos; Andreas F Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos; Panayotis N Soucacos

2007-01-01

282

Bone reconstruction of large defects using bone marrow derived autologous stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue that has the ability to heal itself when fractured. Occasionally, a critical defect can be formed when part of the bone is lost or excised, in this case the bone fails to heal and requires bone reconstruction to prevent a non-union defect. Autogenous cancellous bone is the current gold standard treatment in bone loss. Because the

Enrico Lucarelli; Davide Donati; Annarita Cenacchi; Pier Maria Fornasari

2004-01-01

283

Bones in Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Our bones change throughout our lives, building and increasing in density to our 30's and then decreasing in density thereafter. People who don't get exercise, such as those who must remain in bed for long periods of time, can suffer early osteoporosis. But why don't bears, who hibernate for half a year, experience the same problem?

2009-10-05

284

Primary lymphomas of bone.  

PubMed

Primary bone lymphoma is rare. The majority of cases are diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Classification, staging, and treatment are controversial. The relatively small number of cases has led to many case reports and series describing institutional experiences but precludes the use of randomized clinical trials to address the question of optimal management. This article will review clinical and radiologic presentations, diagnostic techniques, and histologic characteristics. Most important, it will present what limited information we do have regarding effective treatment options for this unusual type of lymphoma. PMID:16231853

Gill, Paula; Wenger, Doris E; Inwards, David J

2005-09-01

285

Breast cancer metastasis to the bone: mechanisms of bone loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton, interrupting the normal bone remodeling process and causing bone degradation. Osteolytic lesions are the end result of osteoclast activity; however, osteoclast differentiation and activation are mediated by osteoblast production of RANKL (receptor activator for NF?B ligand) and several osteoclastogenic cytokines. Osteoblasts themselves are negatively affected by cancer cells as evidenced by an

Yu-Chi Chen; Donna M Sosnoski; Andrea M Mastro

2010-01-01

286

Interrelationship Between Bone and Other Tissues: Brain–Bone Axis and Bone-Adipo Axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It has been widely assumed that bone metabolism is controlled mostly by the local environment and does not affect the metabolism\\u000a of other tissues. In other words, bone was thought to constitute an independent domain from the rest of the body. However,\\u000a the discovery of neuronal control of bone mass by leptin has shed light on a novel pathway that

Shu Takeda

287

Eldecalcitol and calcitriol stimulates 'bone minimodeling,' focal bone formation without prior bone resorption, in rat trabecular bone.  

PubMed

Vitamin D is known as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. The active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), stimulates release of calcium (Ca) from bone in ex vivo organ culture, and treatment with large amounts of an active vitamin D3 analog induces hypercalcemia and bone resorption in mice in vivo. Calcitriol strongly induces both receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoblasts in vitro. On the other hand, it has been reported that active vitamin D3 inhibits bone resorption in various experimental animal models. We previously showed that eldecalcitol [1?,25-dihydroxy-2?-(3-hydroxy-propyloxy)vitamin D3; ED-71] suppresses bone resorption and increases bone mineral density (BMD) to a greater extent than alfacalcidol (1?-hydroxyvitamin D3) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats in vivo. To elucidate the histological events that follow administration of eldecalcitol compared to calcitriol, OVX rats were given either vehicle, eldecalcitol (10, 30, or 90ng/kg), or calcitriol (33.3, 100, 300, or 900ng/kg), and sham-operated control animals were given vehicle, 5-times per week for 12 weeks. The lumbar spine and femur were removed and processed for bone mineral density (BMD) assessments and the femur for histomorphometrical analyzes. Both eldecalcitol and calcitriol increased the lumbar and femoral BMD in a dose dependent manner. Bone histomorphometry revealed that osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and eroded surface (ES/BS) were dose-dependently suppressed in the trabecular region of the femur. Both calcitriol and eldecalcitol dose-dependently stimulated focal bone formation that started without prior bone resorption, a process known as bone minimodeling. Both reduction of bone resorption and stimulation of focal bone formation were more clearly observed in the eldecalcitol-treated rats than in the calcitriol-treated rats. Taken together, these findings suggest that eldecalcitol is a more potent vitamin D3 analog that stimulates focal bone formation (minimodeling) and suppresses bone resorption more strongly than does calcitriol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23069645

Saito, Hitoshi; Takeda, Satoshi; Amizuka, Norio

2013-07-01

288

Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

2012-02-01

289

Bone disease in primary hyperparathyrodism  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is mostly a mild disease. Overt skeletal manifestations are rare but decreased bone mineral density (BMD) can still be demonstrated. Even in mild cases, excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone turnover leading to bone loss particularly at cortical sites. Conversely, a relative preservation of cancellous bone has been shown by histomorphometric analyses and advanced imaging techniques. An increased fracture rate has been demonstrated in untreated patients with PHPT at peripheral sites and in the spine. Parathyroidectomy (PTx) is the definitive cure for PHPT. With the restoration of normal PTH, bone resorption is quickly tapered down, while bone formation proceeds at the level of bone multicellular units, which were activated prior to PTx. The rapid refilling of the enlarged remodeling space and the subsequent matrix mineralization will result in an increase in BMD at sites rich in trabecular bone, such as lumbar spine and hip, which mainly occurs during the first 6–12 months after PTx. Cortical bone is less responsive to PTX because of the low rate of bone turnover, but sensible increases in BMD at the distal third of the radius can be observed in the long term. PTx seems to decrease the risk of fractures but more data are needed before a definitive conclusion on this important matter can be reached. Treatment with bisphosphonates can be considered for patients with low BMD who do not undergo PTx. Two-year treatment with alendronate has been shown to decrease bone turnover markers and increase BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, but not at the distal radius. Cinacalcet stably decreased serum calcium levels across a broad range of PHPT severity, but no change in BMD occurred in patients treated for up to 5.5 years.

Cianferotti, Luisella; Cetani, Filomena

2012-01-01

290

[Bone and Stem Cells. Intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment].  

PubMed

Various kinds of cell types, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic cells, and mesenchymal cells, have been reported to exist in the bone marrow and communicate with each other. Although there have been many previous studies about bone marrow microenvironment, most of them were analyzed by conventional methods such as histological analysis and flow cytometry. These methods could not observe the dynamic cell movement in living bone marrow. Recently rapid development of fluorescent imaging techniques enables us to understand the cellular dynamics in vivo . That's why we have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital two-photon microscopy. Here we show the latest data and the detailed methodology of intravital imaging of bone marrow microenvironment, and also discuss its further application. PMID:24681500

Mizuno, Hiroki; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

2014-04-01

291

Vascularized bone transfer: evaluation of viability by postoperative bone scan.  

PubMed

Postoperative assessment of the viability of vascularized bone transfer was done in 23 patients by using radionuclide imaging within the first postoperative week. Follow-up ranged from six to 45 months. The results of bone scans in the region of the vascularized bone transfer were positive in 16 patients. Of these, over 60 percent went on to uncomplicated union and a successful clinical outcome, with no frank failures. The results of scans were negative or equivocal in seven patients. Only 1 of these went on to uncomplicated healing and two cases (almost 30 percent) resulted in frank failure, necessitating removal of the transferred bone. Radionuclide imaging in the first postoperative week after vascularized bone transfer appears to be a useful monitor and prognostic indicator of the subsequent clinical course. PMID:3916852

Zinberg, E M; Wood, M B; Brown, M L

1985-10-01

292

Bone Density Testing (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... most important. T-scores are usually in the negative or minus range. The lower the bone density ... indicate lower bone density because this is a negative number. The lower the bone density, the greater ...

293

Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last  

MedlinePLUS

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Building bone as ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

294

Medicines That May Cause Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home » Medicines that May Cause Bone Loss Medicines that May Cause Bone Loss Some medicines can ... that may cause bone loss. Osteoporosis and Steroid Medicines While steroid medicines can be lifesaving treatments for ...

295

Comparison of Bone-Conduction Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bone-conduction technologies have been proposed for use with radio communication for the military. Three manufacturers have made commercially available bone-conduction systems that transmit and receive radio signals through bone conduction. The purpose of...

P. Henry P. Tran T. Letowski

2009-01-01

296

Bone-on-bone forces during loaded and unloaded walking.  

PubMed

Joint moments and bone-on-bone forces in the ankle, knee and hip joint were studied in 7 healthy male subjects during unloaded and loaded walking. The subjects walked across a force platform while they were filmed at 200 Hz. Loaded walking was examined at 10 and 20 kg load carried symmetrically in the hands. Peak joint moments and peak bone-on-bone forces increased from unloaded to loaded walking for the ankle and hip joint (p < 0.05). The lowest bone-on-bone forces were found at the ankle joint (3,318 +/- 390 N) during unloaded walking and the highest at the hip joint (6,399 +/- 1,517 N) during 20 kg loading. Expressed relative to body weight (BW) these values corresponded to 4.2 +/- 0.50 and 8.0 +/- 1.78 BW). However, the individual values showed that 2 of the 7 subjects differed remarkably from the other 5, especially with respect to the hip joint loadings. During loaded walking (20 kg) these 2 subjects showed 14.4 and 15.1 BW peak compression force in the hip joint while the remaining subjects were all below 6.3 BW, which could be explained by the 2 subjects' low ankle joint moments and higher knee and hip joint moments. Apparently, a total 'leg moment' formed by the three major joints is required to support the body and maintain the locomotion, although the relative contribution from each joint can differ among individuals. The peak joint moments were the most dominant contributor to the peak bone-on-bone forces. Therefore, it is concluded that interindividual differences in walking style can lead to pronounced differences in peak bone-on-bone forces. It remains unclear how these interindividual differences are related to joint degradation. PMID:7660757

Simonsen, E B; Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Voigt, M; Aagaard, P; Sjøgaard, G; Bojsen-Møller, F

1995-01-01

297

Modulation of Bone Resorption by Phosphorylation State of Bone Sialoprotein  

PubMed Central

We have determined transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphorylation (outside-in signaling) in cultured osteoclasts and macrophages in response to added native purified BSP (nBSP) and its dephosphorylated form (dBSP). There were selective/differential and potent inhibitory effects by dBSP and minimal effect by nBSP on intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages and osteoclasts. Further studies on the down-stream gene expression effects led to identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes in response to nBSP relative to dBSP in both macrophages and osteoclasts. These studies were extended to bone resorption model using live mouse neonatal calvarial bone organ cultures stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) to undergo bone resorption. Inclusion of nBSP in such cultures showed no effect on type I collagen telopeptide fragment release, hence overall bone resorption, whereas addition of dBSP abolished the PTH-induced bone resorption. The inhibition of bone resorption by dBSP was shown to be unique since in complementary experiments use of integrin receptor binding ligand, GRGDS peptide, offered only partial reduction on overall bone resorption. Quantitative RANKL analysis indicated that mechanistically the PTH-induced bone resorption was inhibited by dBSP via down-regulation of the osteoblastic RANKL production. This conclusion was supported by the RANKL analysis in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. Overall, these studies provided direct evidence for the involvement of covalently-bound phosphates on BSP in receptor mediated ‘outside-in’ signaling via transmembrane tyrosine phosphorylation with concurrent effects on down-stream gene expressions. The use of a live bone organ culture system augmented these results with further evidence that links the observed in vivo variable state of phosphorylation with bone remodeling.

Curtin, Paul; McHugh, Kevin P.; Zhou, Hia-Yan; Fluckiger, Rudolf; Goldhaber, Paul; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Salih, Erdjan

2009-01-01

298

Transiliac hernia after bone graft.  

PubMed

Lumbar hernias, namely transiliac hernias, are not frequent events and are almost always associated with bone graft harvesting from the iliac crest. We describe a case of transiliac hernia 10 years after bone graft harvest, the patient presenting with right colon incarceration. Diagnosis was made by CT scan. The hernia was repaired with a composite polypropylene-PTFE mesh (Bard(®)). PMID:24269126

Kunin, N; Gancel, C-H; Foret, A; Gayet, C; Letoquart, J-P; Daaboul, M

2013-12-01

299

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

300

Pathophysiology of Bone Cancer Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cancers, such as those affecting the breast, prostate, and lung have a strong predilection to metastasize to bone. Bone metastasis frequently results in pain, pathologic fractures, hypercal- cemia, and spinal cord compression. Pain can have a devastating effect on the quality of life in advanced cancer patients and is a serious complica- tion of cancer. Although significant

Mary Ann; C. Sabino; Patrick W. Mantyh

2005-01-01

301

Ultrasonic guided waves in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties

Petro Moilanen

2008-01-01

302

Not Bare Bones at All  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students examine the literal, physiological and figurative significance of bones through experimentation, then create their own skeleton-related exhibits for a âBone and Skeleton Museum.â The suggested time allowance for this lesson is 1-2 class periods.

Hutchings, Catherine

2009-05-05

303

Renal bone disease: Radiological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal bone disease: Radiological investigation. The bone disease associated with chronic renal impairment is complex and multifactorial, and has changed over past decades. Whereas originally features of vitamin D deficiency (rickets\\/osteomalacia) and secondary hyperparathroidism (erosions, osteosclerosis, brown cysts) predominated, improvement in management and therapy have resulted in such readiographic features being present in a minority of patients. Metastatic calcification and

Judith E. Adams

1999-01-01

304

Successful Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found that a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction exists between pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (P-HSCs) and stromal cells. Based on this finding, we have recently found using chimerism-resistant mouse combinations that successful allogeneic (allo) BMT can be executed by recruiting donor bone marrow stromal cells. The strategies include donor bone grafts under the skin, injection of whole

Susumu Ikehara

2001-01-01

305

Flavonoid Intake and Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being

Connie M. Weaver; D. Lee Alekel; Wendy E. Ward; Martin J. Ronis

2012-01-01

306

Nell-1 Enhanced Bone Mineralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to the discovery that the human NELL-1 gene induces or upregulates bone mineralization. The NELL-1 gene or gene product thus provides a convenient target for screening for modulators of bone mineralization. In addition, NELL-1 can ...

K. Ting

2003-01-01

307

Interaction between Muscle and Bone  

PubMed Central

The clinical significance of sarcopenia and osteoporosis has increased with the increase in the population of older people. Sarcopenia is defined by decreased muscle mass and impaired muscle function, which is related to osteoporosis independently and dependently. Numerous lines of clinical evidence suggest that lean body mass is positively related to bone mass, which leads to reduced fracture risk. Genetic, endocrine and mechanical factors affect both muscle and bone simultaneously. Vitamin D, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis and testosterone are physiologically and pathologically important as endocrine factors. These findings suggest the presence of interactions between muscle and bone, which might be very important for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Muscle/bone relationships include two factors: local control of muscle to bone and systemic humoral interactions between muscle and bone. As a putative local inducer of muscle ossification, we found Tmem119, a parathyroid hormone-responsive osteoblast differentiation factor. Moreover, osteoglycin might be one of the muscle-derived humoral bone anabolic factors. This issue may be important for the development of novel drugs and biomarkers for osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Further research will be necessary to clarify the details of the linkage of muscle and bone.

2014-01-01

308

How Is Bone Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... the bone or nearby lymph nodes M1: Distant metastasis (the cancer has spread) M1a: The cancer has spread only to the lung M1b: The cancer has spread to other sites (like the brain, the liver, etc.) Grades of bone cancer G1- ...

309

Bone as an Endocrine Organ  

PubMed Central

Bone has classically been viewed as an inert structure that is necessary for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and maintenance of the hematopoietic niche. Recent advances in bone biology using complex genetic manipulations in mice have highlighted the importance of bone not only as a structural scaffold to support the human body, but also as a regulator of a number of metabolic processes that are independent of mineral metabolism. These advances point to the skeleton as an endocrine organ that modulates glucose tolerance and testosterone production by secretion of a bone-specific protein, osteocalcin. This review will detail how bone has emerged as a bona-fide endocrine “gland”, and with that, the potential therapeutic implications that could be realized for this hormone-secreting tissue.

Guntur, Anyonya R; Rosen, Clifford J

2013-01-01

310

Antiepileptic drugs and bone metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anti-epileptic medications encompass a wide range of drugs including anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, enzyme inducers or inhibitors, with a variety effects, including induction of cytochrome P450 and other enzyme, which may lead to catabolism of vitamin D and hypocalcemia and other effects that may significantly effect the risk for low bone mass and fractures. With the current estimates of 50 million people worldwide with epilepsy together with the rapid increase in utilization of these medications for other indications, bone disease associated with the use of anti-epileptic medications is emerging as a serious health threat for millions of people. Nevertheless, it usually goes unrecognized and untreated. In this review we discuss the pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone disease associated with anti-epileptic use, including effect of anti-epileptic agents on bone turnover and fracture risk, highlighting various strategies for prevention of bone loss and associated fractures a rapidly increasing vulnerable population.

Valsamis, Helen A; Arora, Surender K; Labban, Barbara; McFarlane, Samy I

2006-01-01

311

[Trauma of the temporal bone].  

PubMed

Temporal bone fractures are mostly due to high-energy head trauma with high rates of concurrent intracranial and cervical spine injuries and belong to the wider spectrum of lateral skull base trauma. Given that the temporal bone represents the most complex bone structure in the human body, containing a multitude of vital neurovascular structures, variable clinical presentations may arise from such fractures, ranging from asymptomatic courses to serious consequences, such as conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss, vascular and/or cranial nerve injury as well as cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The present paper presents typical clinical sequelae and provides a detailed illustration of characteristic imaging findings related to temporal bone injury. Last but not least, in the final section of the manuscript the focus is placed on distinct anatomic structures which may mimic fracture lines and, thus, entail a high potential for misclassification as temporal bone fractures. PMID:24706249

Zimmer, A; Reith, W

2014-04-01

312

Update in Serotonin and Bone  

PubMed Central

Context: Serotonin (5-HT) may be an important regulatory agent in bone, and agents that modify 5-HT signaling, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are in widespread clinical use. Evidence Acquisition: Evidence was obtained by PubMed search and the author’s knowledge of the field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent data suggest that gut-derived 5-HT may mediate the skeletal effects of LDL receptor-related protein 5, stimulating intense interest in a novel mechanism for regulating bone mass. However, the specific biochemical nature of serotonergic pathways influencing bone and their direct and/or indirect effects on bone metabolism are still unclear. The weight of epidemiological evidence suggests that SSRIs are associated with reduced bone mass, increased bone loss, and increased risk of fractures. Interpretation of these studies is complicated by the confounding effects of depression, the usual indication for treatment with SSRIs. The mechanisms for putative SSRI-induced deleterious effects on the skeleton are unknown, and are likely multifactorial. Conclusions: 5-HT may have regulatory effects on bone. Initial preclinical data suggest that its effects may be deleterious and may be regulated by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5. These studies need confirmation, as well as elucidation, of the biochemical pathways utilized and the feedback loops involved among bone, gut, and perhaps brain. Paradoxically, targeting of 5-HT synthesis and/or signaling in selective tissues may hold promise as an anabolic intervention for bone. Epidemiological data suggest that clinicians should be vigilant about detection of bone disease in patients who are using SSRIs.

Bliziotes, Michael

2010-01-01

313

Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women  

PubMed Central

Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2) and formation (P4). We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2) and onset of ovulation (P4) both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD) related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs). Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Prior, Jerilynn C.

2010-01-01

314

Bisphosphonates in bone cement inhibit PMMA particle induced bone resorption  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Wear particle induced bone resorption is thought to be one of the mechanisms that contribute to implant loosening. It has previously been shown that macrophages, in response to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, differentiate into bone resorbing osteoclasts, and that this process is inhibited by a bisphosphonate, etidronate (EHDP). The aim of this study was to determine whether incorporating EHDP in bone cement could reduce PMMA associated bone resorption.?METHODS—Two concentrations of EHDP were mixed with PMMA monomer before polymerisation. Particles of PMMA (1-10 µm) were generated then added to mouse monocytes cocultured with UMR106 rat osteoblast-like cells and the extent of osteoclast differentiation was determined by assessing the extent of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and measuring the amount of lacunar bone resorption.?RESULTS—The addition of PMMA to monocyte-UMR106 cocultures resulted in a marked increase in the number of TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells and a significant increase in the number of lacunar resorption pits compared with control cultures to which no particles had been added. After the addition of particles of PMMA + 20 mg EHDP, significantly fewer lacunar pits (p=0.00006) and fewer TRAP positive cells were noted compared with cocultures containing PMMA particles alone.?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that by mixing a bisphosphonate with bone cement, it is possible to inhibit PMMA particle induced bone resorption. This bisphosphonate inhibition of PMMA biomaterial wear particle containing macrophage-osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may provide a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent or to control the osteolysis of aseptic loosening.?? Keywords: bisphosphonate; bone resorption; aseptic loosening; macrophages

Sabokbar, A.; Fujikawa, Y.; Murray, D.; Athanasou, N.

1998-01-01

315

[Management of bone metastases].  

PubMed

The skeleton is the most common site to be affected by advanced breast, prostatic, lung, kidney, thyroid and other solid tumors (in addition to myeloma multiplex). Bone metastases cause significant morbidity with nearly always fatal outcome. Over 600 000 new patients diagnosed in the developed countries yearly. On average every 4-6 months patients suffer from series of severe skeletal complications such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemic events, etc., besides the permanent pain. Local external beam radiotherapy, systemic radioisotope-, endocrine-, and chemotherapy, oral and i.v. bisphosphonates and recently s.c. denosumab are the mainstays of treatment, in addition to pain-killers and other usual "classical" interventions. The modern treatments singificantly reduce the probability of skeletal complications and improve the patients' quality of life and, sometimes, they extend the survival as well. The authors briefly summarize the available treatment options. PMID:24486845

Nagykálnai, Tamás; Landherr, László

2014-02-01

316

Diabetes, collagen, and bone quality.  

PubMed

Diabetes increases risk of fracture, although type 2 diabetes is characterized by normal or high bone mineral density (BMD) compared with the patients without diabetes. The fracture risk of type 1 diabetes as well as type 2 diabetes increases beyond an explained by a decrease of BMD. Thus, diabetes may reduce bone strength without change in BMD. Whole bone strength is determined by bone density, structure, and quality, which encompass the micro-structural and tissue material properties. Recent literature showed that diabetes reduces bone material properties rather than BMD. Collagen intermolecular cross-linking plays an important role in the expression of bone strength. Collagen cross-links can be divided into beneficial enzymatic immature divalent and mature trivalent cross-links and disadvantageous nonenzymatic cross-links (Advanced glycation end products: AGEs) induced by glycation and oxidation. The formation pathway and biological function are quite different. Not only hyperglycemia, but also oxidative stress induces the reduction in enzymatic cross-links and the formation of AGEs. In this review, we describe the mechanism of low bone quality in diabetes and the usefulness of the measurement of plasma or urinary level of AGEs for estimation of fracture risk. PMID:24623537

Saito, Mitsuru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Kato, Soki; Marumo, Keishi

2014-06-01

317

Diet, nutrition, and bone health.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects many older people. Fragility fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis. Although nutrition is only 1 of many factors that influence bone mass and fragility fractures, there is an urgent need to develop and implement nutritional approaches and policies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis that could, with time, offer a foundation for population-based preventive strategies. However, to develop efficient and precocious strategies in the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to determine which modifiable factors, especially nutritional factors, are able to improve bone health throughout life. There are potentially numerous nutrients and dietary components that can influence bone health, and these range from the macronutrients to micronutrients as well as bioactive food ingredients. The evidence-base to support the role of nutrients and food components in bone health ranges from very firm to scant, depending on the nutrient/component. This article initially overviews osteoporosis, including its definition, etiology, and incidence, and then provides some information on possible dietary strategies for optimizing bone health and preventing osteoporosis. The potential benefits of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K(1), phytoestrogens, and nondigestible oligosaccharides are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the evidence base for their benefits to bone. It also briefly considers some of the recent findings that highlight the importance of some dietary factors for bone health in childhood and adolescence. PMID:17951494

Cashman, Kevin D

2007-11-01

318

Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases. PMID:24071501

Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

2014-02-01

319

Raman Assessment of Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Progress in the diagnosis and prediction of fragility fractures depends on improvements to the understating of the compositional\\u000a contributors of bone quality to mechanical competence. Raman spectroscopy has been used to evaluate alterations to bone composition\\u000a associated with aging, disease, or injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  In this survey we will (1) review the use of Raman-based compositional measures of bone quality, including mineral-to-matrix

Michael D. Morris; Gurjit S. Mandair

320

Myxoid chondrosarcoma of sphenoid bone  

PubMed Central

The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry.

Chowhan, Amit K; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Bodapati, Chandra Mouliswara Prasad; Bodagala, Vijaya Laxmi; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

2012-01-01

321

A Boon for Bone Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA studies for astronaut health in long-term space missions led to the development of the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), a research tool for astronaut disuse, osteoporosis and related bone disorders among the general population. Ames Research Center and Stanford University generated a workable device and with Gait Scan, Inc., refined and commercialized it. The MRTA is a portable dsinstrument that measures the bending stiffness of bones using electrically-induced vibration and detects and analyzes the frequencies of the resonating bone. Unlike some other methods, the MRTA uses no radiation and is fast, simple and relatively inexpensive.

1996-01-01

322

[Allergy to bone cement components].  

PubMed

Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses may lead to allergological diagnostics, which focus mainly on metal allergy. However, bone cement may also contain potential allergens, e.g. acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide (BPO), N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, and antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). In the Munich implant allergy clinic, we found that 28 of 113 patients (24.8%) with cemented prostheses had contact allergies to bone cement components, mostly to gentamicin (16.8%) and BPO (8.0%). The clinical significance of test results cannot always be shown, but we still recommend including bone cement components in the allergological diagnostics of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty. PMID:18227996

Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Eben, R; Thomsen, M

2008-02-01

323

Primary bone tumors of adulthood  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of primary bone tumors in adults. Initial radiographic evaluation is indicated in all cases with suspected primary bone tumors. Radiographs are useful for providing the diagnosis, a short list of differential diagnosis or at least indicating the degree of aggressiveness of the lesion. More detailed information about the lesion, such as cortical destruction or local spread, can be obtained using cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the characteristic features of the more common primary bone tumors of adulthood, and also the pre-treatment evaluation and staging of these lesions using imaging techniques.

Teo, Harvey E L; Peh, Wilfred C G

2004-01-01

324

Bone wax in dermatologic surgery.  

PubMed

Bone wax is an inert, malleable material used as a hemostatic agent in treating surgical defects. Healing by secondary intention is an appropriate approach for certain situations in dermatologic surgery. When surgical wounds are deep enough for such tissues as bone or cartilage to be exposed, dressings may adhere to granulation tissue, making removal and subsequent wound care difficult and painful. In such cases bone wax can be molded around deep tissues to create an ideal occlusive, hemostatic microenvironment that facilitates second-intention wound healing. PMID:23582299

Alegre, M; Garcés, J R; Puig, L

2013-05-01

325

[Pathological assessment of bone sarcomas].  

PubMed

Bone tumors are very rare. Diagnosis and treatment is an interdisciplinary task for experienced radiologists, pathologist, and surgeons that is ideally performed in specialized centers. For optimal processing of bone specimens, basic laboratory equipment and special techniques are required. The cornerstone of the histological diagnosis remains H&E staining, supplemented by special stains, immunohistochemistry, and molecular techniques. For an appropriate diagnosis, data on clinical history, age, location, topography within bone, and imaging are required. Major differences between histological and radiological diagnosis have to be clarified before starting treatment (e.g., by involving a reference registry). PMID:24903501

Jundt, G; Baumhoer, D

2014-06-01

326

Where did bone come from?  

PubMed Central

Bone is specific to vertebrates, and originated as mineralization around the basal membrane of the throat or skin, giving rise to tooth-like structures and protective shields in animals with a soft cartilage-like endoskeleton. A combination of fossil anatomy and genetic information from modern species has improved our understanding of the evolution of bone. Thus, even in man, there are still similarities in the molecular regulation of skin appendages and bone. This article gives a brief overview of the major milestones in skeletal evolution. Some molecular machineries involving members of core genetic networks and their interactions are described in the context of both old theories and modern genetic approaches.

2011-01-01

327

Bone cell kinetics during longitudinal bone growth in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this work was to provide further knowledge about bone cell kinetics in the metaphysis of the growing long bone.\\u000a Seventy rats were sacrificed from 1 to 120 h after injection of tritiated thymidine. Autoradiographs of 3 µm thick sections\\u000a of the proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in a manner which allowed evaluation of labeled cell nuclei as

Donald B. Kimmel; Webster S. S. Jee

1980-01-01

328

update article Paget's Disease of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paget's disease of bone is a focal disorder of bone remodeling accom- panied initially by an increase in bone resorption, followed by a disorga- nized and excessive formation of bone, leading to pain, fractures and deformities. It exhibits a marked geographical variation in its prevalence. In Brazil it predominantly affects persons of European descent. The major- ity of the reported

Luiz Griz; Gustavo Caldas; Cristina Bandeira; Viviane Assunção; Francisco Bandeira

2006-01-01

329

Osteoprotegerin Diminishes Advanced Bone Cancer Pain1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone cancer pain most commonly occurs when tumors originating in breast, prostate, or lung metastasize to long bones, spinal vertebrae, and\\/or pelvis. Primary and metastatic cancers involving bone account for approximately 400,000 new cancer cases per year in the United States alone, and >70% of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer have skeletal metastases. Whereas pain resulting from bone

Nancy M. Luger; Prisca Honore; Mary Ann; C. Sabino; Matthew J. Schwei; Scott D. Rogers; David B. Mach; Denis R. Clohisy; Patrick W. Mantyh

2001-01-01

330

Characterization of Osteocrin Expression in Human Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteocrin (Ostn), a bone-active molecule, has been shown in animals to be highly expressed in cells of the osteoblast lineage. We have characterized this protein in human cultured primary human osteoblasts, in developing human neonatal bone, and in iliac crest bone biopsies from adult women. In vivo, Ostn expression was localized in developing human neonatal rib bone, with intense immunoreactivity

Sharyn Bord; Deborah C. Ireland; Pierre Moffatt; Gethin P. Thomas; Juliet E. Compston

2005-01-01

331

BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF BANGLADESHI PEOPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is aimed to know about bone mineral density and its influence on bone health. For a preliminary study 30 patients of Nuclear Medicine Centre at Comilla, Bangladesh were chosen. After thorough physical observation and medical examination, their bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at different sites were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA). Correlations

Dilruba Akhter Banu

2009-01-01

332

Role of carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including beta (?)-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, ?-carotene, astaxanthin, and rutin), ?-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), has been found to have a stimulatory effect on bone calcification in vitro. ?-cryptoxanthin has stimulatory effects on osteoblastic bone formation and inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. ?-cryptoxanthin has an effect on the gene expression of various proteins that are related osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resororption in vitro. The intake of ?-cryptoxanthin may have a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human or postmenopausal women. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role of ?-cryptoxanthin as a sustainable nutritional approach to improving bone health of human subjects. ?-Cryptoxanthin may be an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects.

2012-01-01

333

Orientation of Apatite Crystals in Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

FROM the earliest experiments on X-ray diffraction by specimens of bone, it has been well known that in long bones, for example, femora, the c-axes of the hexagonal apatite crystals are preferentially orientated parallel to the long axis of the bone. In regard to sections of bones cut normal to the long axis, no one has reported any preferential orientation

Sheena M. Clark; John Iball

1954-01-01

334

Marine worms (genus Osedax ) colonize cow bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and

William J. Jones; Shannon B. Johnson; Greg W. Rouse; Robert C. Vrijenhoek

2008-01-01

335

Investigation of using bone texture analysis on bone densitometry images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously developed bone texture analysis methods to assess bone strength on digitized radiographs. Here, we compare the analyses performed on digitized screen-film to those obtained on peripheral bone densitometry images. A leg phantom was imaged with both a PIXI (GE Medical Systems; Milwaukee, WI) bone densitometer (0.200-mm pixel size) and a screen-film system, with the films being subsequently digitized by a laser film digitizer (0.100-mm pixel size). The phantom was radiographically scanned multiple times with the densitometer at the default parameters and for increasing exposure times. Fourier-based texture features were calculated from regions of interest from images from both modalities. The bone densitometry images contained more quantum noise than the radiographs resulting in increased values for the first moment of the power spectrum texture feature (1.22 times higher than from the standard radiograph). Presence of such noise may adversely affect the texture feature's ability to distinguish between strong and weak bone. By either increasing the exposure time or averaging multiple scans in the spatial frequency domain, we showed a reduction in the effect of the quantum mottle on the first moment of the power spectrum.

Chinander, Michael R.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Shah, Ruchi D.; Vokes, Tamara

2002-05-01

336

Markers of bone turnover for the management of patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increased bone formation is a prominent feature of patients with osteosclerotic metastases from prostate cancer, there is also some evidence for increased bone resorption. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of new bone resorption markers to that of bone formation in patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer before and after bisphosphonate treatment. Thirty-nine

P Garnero; N Buchs; J Zekri; R Rizzoli; R E Coleman; P D Delmas

2000-01-01

337

Local bone formation by injection of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 contained in polymer carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerating potential of human bone is limited. The repair of large bone defects often associated with bone tumor resections is not observed, and nonunion or delayed union of bone is a serious problem for fracture treatment. In these cases, autogeneic or allogeneic bone grafting has been routinely indicated, but these approaches require invasive surgical procedures. An alternative approach described

N Saito; T Okada; H Horiuchi; H Ota; J Takahashi; N Murakami; M Nawata; S Kojima; K Nozaki; K Takaoka

2003-01-01

338

Ultrasound to assess bone quality.  

PubMed

Bone quality is determined by a variety of compositional, micro- and ultrastructural properties of the mineralized tissue matrix. In contrast to X-ray-based methods, the interaction of acoustic waves with bone tissue carries information about elastic and structural properties of the tissue. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods represent powerful alternatives to ionizing x-ray based assessment of fracture risk. New in vivo applicable methods permit measurements of fracture-relevant properties, [eg, cortical thickness and stiffness at fragile anatomic regions (eg, the distal radius and the proximal femur)]. Experimentally, resonance ultrasound spectroscopy and acoustic microscopy can be used to assess the mesoscale stiffness tensor and elastic maps of the tissue matrix at microscale resolution, respectively. QUS methods, thus, currently represent the most promising approach for noninvasive assessment of components of fragility beyond bone mass and bone microstructure providing prospects for improved assessment of fracture risk. PMID:24652476

Raum, Kay; Grimal, Quentin; Varga, Peter; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C; Laugier, Pascal

2014-06-01

339

Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Cornell University (New York) Many other hospitals are satellite centers affiliated with these Centers. Please contact the Cooley’s Anemia Foundation for a list of these satellite enters. Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia 4 Published ...

340

Healthy Bones at Every Age  

MedlinePLUS

... Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children — from infancy through adolescence — take Vitamin D supplements. Ages 4 ... maximum bone strength. Examples of weightbearing exercise include walking and running, as well as team sports like ...

341

Bone Metabolism in Chronic Uremia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed biochemical and biophysical analyses of skeletal tissue during the genesis of the chronic uremic state in rats have uncovered a maturational defect in the biosynthesis of collagen and in the transitional states of bone mineral. These changes deve...

L. V. Acioli J. E. Russell

1973-01-01

342

Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (233 ... Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources An Easy Guide to Breastfeeding (OWH) Breastfeeding (OWH) Pregnancy and Medications (OWH) Prenatal ...

343

Metallic materials stimulating bone formation.  

PubMed

Metallic materials implanted into bone defects are generally encapsulated by a fibrous tissue. Some metallic materials such as titanium and tantalum, however, have been revealed to bond to the living bone without forming the fibrous tissue, when they were subjected to NaOH solution and heat treatments. Thus treated metals form bone tissue around them even in muscle, when they take a porous form. This kind of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are attributed to sodium titanate or tantalate layer on their surfaces formed by the NaOH and heat treatments. These layers induce the deposition of bonelike apatite on the surface of the metals in the living body. This kind of bioactive metals are useful as bone substitutes even highly loaded portions, such as hip joint, spine and tooth root. PMID:15468833

Kokubo, T

2004-05-01

344

Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

345

Biophysical Evaluation of Healing Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic process of nondestructive determination of physical properties of bone by measurement of the velocity of ultrasound through the material has been established during the grant period. In standardized specimens of human tibial cortex and in fractu...

G. W. Hyatt W. F. Abendschein W. J. Thaler P. C. Hilaire

1972-01-01

346

Vitamin A and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Bone Diseases ~ NIH National Resource Center Search Bookmark and Share | this page Tweet about this page ... MySpace Add this page to my browser Favorites Bookmark this page on Google Submit this page to ...

347

JAMA Patient Page: Bone Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Ring Fixator With Pins and Wires Intramedullary Nail Cast Internal Fixation External Fixation Simple Fracture, Displaced Comminuted Fracture Simple Fracture, Undisplaced Long-Leg Plaster Cast Types of Treatment for Bone Fractures B O ...

348

Flavonoid intake and bone health.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to have a stronger association with bone than general fruit and vegetable consumption. Bioactive flavonoids are being assessed for properties beyond their chemical antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some have been reported to enhance bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption through their action on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Future research is needed to determine which of the flavonoids and their metabolites are most effective and at what dose, as well as the mechanism of modulating cellular events, in order to set priorities for clinical trials. PMID:22888840

Weaver, Connie M; Alekel, D Lee; Ward, Wendy E; Ronis, Martin J

2012-01-01

349

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

350

Guided Waves in Cortical Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the last decade, several experimental studies have shown that long cortical bones act as a natural waveguide at ultrasonic\\u000a frequencies despite attenuation in bone material and heterogeneity in elastic and geometrical properties. Propagation in waveguides\\u000a consists in a variety of dispersive waves, each one with its own frequency-dependent field distribution across the section\\u000a of the waveguide. Guided waves are

Maryline Talmant; Josquin Foiret; Jean-Gabriel Minonzio

351

Parathyroid hormone and bone biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment, either in the form of teriparatide or recombinant human PTH(1–34), reduces the fracture\\u000a risk of osteoporotic women by enhancing both structural and material biomechanical properties. Cortical bone thickness and\\u000a cross-sectional moment of inertia increase because of new bone formation on periosteal and endocortical surfaces. Intracortical\\u000a porosity is increased yet preferential localization near the endocortical surface limits

Matthew R. Allen; David B. Burr

2006-01-01

352

The cartilage-bone interface.  

PubMed

In the knee joint, the purpose of the cartilage-bone interface is to maintain structural integrity of the osteochondral unit during walking, kneeling, pivoting, and jumping--during which tensile, compressive, and shear forces are transmitted from the viscoelastic articular cartilage layer to the much stiffer mineralized end of the long bone. Mature articular cartilage is integrated with subchondral bone through a approximately 20 to approximately 250 microm thick layer of calcified cartilage. Inside the calcified cartilage layer, perpendicular chondrocyte-derived collagen type II fibers become structurally cemented to collagen type I osteoid deposited by osteoblasts. The mature mineralization front is delineated by a thin approximately 5 microm undulating tidemark structure that forms at the base of articular cartilage. Growth plate cartilage is anchored to epiphyseal bone, sometimes via a thin layer of calcified cartilage and tidemark, while the hypertrophic edge does not form a tidemark and undergoes continual vascular invasion and endochondral ossification (EO) until skeletal maturity upon which the growth plates are fully resorbed and replaced by bone. In this review, the formation of the cartilage-bone interface during skeletal development and cartilage repair, and its structure and composition are presented. Animal models and human anatomical studies show that the tidemark is a dynamic structure that forms within a purely collagen type II-positive and collagen type I-negative hyaline cartilage matrix. Cartilage repair strategies that elicit fibrocartilage, a mixture of collagen type I and type II, are predicted to show little tidemark/calcified cartilage regeneration and to develop a less stable repair tissue-bone interface. The tidemark can be regenerated through a bone marrow-driven growth process of EO near the articular surface. PMID:22928426

Hoemann, Caroline D; Lafantaisie-Favreau, Charles-Hubert; Lascau-Coman, Viorica; Chen, Gaoping; Guzmán-Morales, Jessica

2012-05-01

353

Nanostructural analysis of trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of bone are dictated by the size, shape and organization of the mineral and matrix phases at multiple\\u000a levels of hierarchy. While much is known about structure–function relations at the macroscopic level, less is known at the\\u000a nanoscale, especially for trabecular bone. In this study, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was carried\\u000a out to analyze shape

Sun Ig Hong; Soon Ku Hong; David H. Kohn

2009-01-01

354

Hemivertebral ''disappearance'' on bone scan  

SciTech Connect

Two cases are described in which there was absence of uptake in hemivertebra on a Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. In one of these patients, the bone image had been normal 56 days previously. Radiographs of the vertebrae were normal in both cases. Data are presented suggesting that the findings can most probably be explained in terms of compromise of blood supply to the hemivertebra; each half of a vertebra usually has a separate arterial contribution.

Spencer, R.P.; Sziklas, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.; Yoo, J.H.; Weidner, F.A.

1981-05-01

355

[Diet, exercise and bone metabolism].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major public health issue in Japan, and key factors for its prevention are diet and exercise. Vitamin D and K are strongly associated with bone metabolism. The recommended daily vitamin D and K requirements are 400-800 IU and 250-300?g, respectively. In addition, exercise is effective for the improvement of bone mineral density in the elderly. Regular exercise and improvement of diet are important for the prevention of osteoporosis in the aging society. PMID:21532122

Muraki, Shigeyuki

2011-05-01

356

Bone involvement and osteoporosis in mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Bone involvement is frequent in patients with systemic mastocytosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone manifestation, but diffuse osteosclerosis or focal osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesions are not infrequent. The risk of osteoporotic fractures is high, especially at the spine and in men. Routine measurements of bone mineral density and vertebral morphometry are warranted. The bone turnover markers indicate the involvement of complex bone metabolism in mastocytosis-related manifestations. Bisphosphonates represent the first-line treatment for osteoporosis-related mastocytosis. PMID:24745681

Rossini, Maurizio; Zanotti, Roberta; Viapiana, Ombretta; Tripi, Gaia; Orsolini, Giovanni; Idolazzi, Luca; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Schena, Donatella; Escribano, Luis; Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide

2014-05-01

357

Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive\\u000a alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts\\u000a could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of

Darja Marolt; Miomir Knezevic; Gordana Vunjak Novakovic

2010-01-01

358

Cellular communications in bone homeostasis and repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular communication between the bone component cells osteoblasts, osteocytes and (pre-)osteoclasts is essential for bone\\u000a remodeling which maintains bone integrity. As in the remodeling of other organs, cell death is a trigger for remodeling of\\u000a bone. During the systematic process of bone remodeling, direct or indirect cell–cell communication is indispensable. Thus,\\u000a osteoblasts induce migration and differentiation of preosteoclasts, which is

Ken-ichi Nakahama

2010-01-01

359

Research opportunities in bone demineralization, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of bone demineralization during space flight, observations in bone demineralization and experiments related to bone loss planned for Spacelab flights, and suggestions for further research are investigated. The observations of the working group focused upon the following topics: (1) pathogenesis of bone demineralization, (2) potential for occurrence of renal stones consequent to prolonged hypercalciuria, (3) development of appropriate ground based and inflight models to study bone demineralization, (4) integration of research efforts, and (5) development of effective countermeasures.

Anderson, S. A. (editor); Cohn, S. H. (editor)

1984-01-01

360

Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

361

Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats  

SciTech Connect

During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

Nurmio, Mirja, E-mail: Mirja.Nurmio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Joki, Henna, E-mail: Henna.Joki@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Kallio, Jenny, E-mail: Jenny.Kallio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Maeaettae, Jorma A., E-mail: jorma.maatta@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku (Finland); Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo, E-mail: kalervo.vaananen@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toppari, Jorma, E-mail: Jorma.Toppari@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Jahnukainen, Kirsi, E-mail: Kirsi.Jahnukainen@utu.fi [Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina, E-mail: tilale@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland)

2011-08-01

362

Vitamin D and Bone Disease  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D is important for normal development and maintenance of the skeleton. Hypovitaminosis D adversely affects calcium metabolism, osteoblastic activity, matrix ossification, bone remodeling and bone density. It is well known that Vit. D deficiency in the developing skeleton is related to rickets, while in adults is related to osteomalacia. The causes of rickets include conditions that lead to hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia, either isolated or secondary to vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, Vit. D deficiency leads to impairment of the mineralisation phase of bone remodeling and thus an increasing amount of the skeleton being replaced by unmineralized osteoid. The relationship between Vit. D and bone mineral density and osteoporosis are still controversial while new evidence suggests that Vit. D may play a role in other bone conditions such as osteoarthritis and stress fractures. In order to maintain a “good bone health” guidelines concerning the recommended dietary intakes should be followed and screening for Vit. D deficiency in individuals at risk for deficiency is required, followed by the appropriate action.

Christodoulou, S.; Goula, T.; Ververidis, A.; Drosos, G.

2013-01-01

363

Green Tea and Bone metabolism  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

2009-01-01

364

Multicentric epithelioid angiosarcoma of bone.  

PubMed

Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is rare and generally shows positive immunostaining for epithelial markers. Multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is easily misdiagnosed as carcinoma, including metastatic carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and multiple lymphoma of bone. This article describes a case of multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was first misdiagnosed as having metastatic carcinoma. Examination showed osteolytic lesions in the bilateral heels and the lower left humerus. The diagnosis was confirmed postoperatively and corrected after immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsy. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor mass was strongly positive for CD31, factor VIII, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. The patient refused chemotherapy and died of lung metastasis 4 months postoperatively.Most bone epithelioid angiosarcomas are immunopositive for epithelial markers (ie, keratin, cytokeratin, high-molecular-weight keratin, and epithelial membrane antigen), vascular endothelial markers (ie, CD31, CD34, and von Willebrand factor), and factor VIII-associated antigen. Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma shows a relatively high degree of malignancy. Patients often die of distant metastasis, including those found in the lung and lymph node tissue. A wide excision of epithelioid angiosarcoma should be performed during the operation of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the clinicopathologic features of this disease may help to clarify the confusion, provide better treatment, and improve the clinical prognosis. PMID:22868625

Yang, Zhengming; Tao, Huimin; Ye, Zhaoming; Yang, Disheng

2012-08-01

365

Bone culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

Partridge, Nicola C.

1993-01-01

366

Metastatic bone disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic bone disease (MBD) have been available to the orthopaedic community for more than a decade, with little improvement in service provision to this increasingly large patient group. Improvements in adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatments have increased both the number and overall survival of patients living with MBD. As a consequence the incidence of complications of MBD presenting to surgeons has increased and is set to increase further. The British Orthopaedic Oncology Society (BOOS) are to publish more revised detailed guidelines on what represents ‘best practice’ in managing patients with MBD. This article is designed to coincide with and publicise new BOOS guidelines and once again champion the cause of patients with MBD. Methods A series of short cases highlight common errors frequently being made in managing patients with MBD despite the availability of guidelines. Results Despite guidelines for the management of patients with MBD being available for more than a decade basic errors in management continue to be made, affecting patient survival and quality of life. Conclusions It is hoped that by publicising the new BOOS guidelines the management of patients with MBD will improve over the next decade, significantly more than it has over the last decade.

Harvie, P.; Whitwell, D.

2013-01-01

367

Bone marrow-targeted liposomal carriers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bone marrow targeted drug delivery systems appear to offer a promising strategy for advancing diagnostic, protective, and/or therapeutic medicine for the hematopoietic system. Liposome technology can provide a drug delivery system with high bone marrow targeting that is mediated by specific phagocytosis in bone marrow. Area covered This review focuses on a bone marrow specific liposome formulation labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc). Interspecies differences in bone marrow distribution of the bone marrow targeted formulation are emphasized. This review provides a liposome technology to target bone marrow. In addition, the selection of proper species for the investigation of bone marrow targeting is suggested. Expert opinion It can be speculated that the bone marrow macrophages have a role in the delivery of lipids to the bone marrow as a source of energy and for membrane biosynthesis or in the delivery of fat soluble vitamins for hematopoiesis. This homeostatic system offers a potent pathway to deliver drugs selectively into bone marrow tissues from blood. High selectivity of the present BMT-liposome formulation for bone marrow suggests the presence of an active and specific mechanism, but specific factors affecting the uptake of the bone marrow MPS are still unknown. Further investigation of this mechanism will increase our understanding of factors required for effective transport of agents to the bone marrow, and may provide an efficient system for bone marrow delivery for therapeutic purposes.

Sou, Keitaro; Goins, Beth; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Travi, Bruno L.; Phillips, William T.

2011-01-01

368

Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.  

PubMed

Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life. PMID:24695889

Rizzoli, René

2014-05-01

369

Comparable bone healing capacity of different bone graft matrices in a rabbit segmental defect model  

PubMed Central

We compared the bone healing capacity of three different demineralized bone matrix (DBM) products applied using different carrier molecules (hyaluronic acid [HA] vs. carboxymethylcellulose [CMC]) or bone compositions (cortical bone vs. cortical bone and cancellous bone) in a rabbit segmental defect model. Overall, 15-mm segmental defects in the left and right radiuses were created in 36 New Zealand White rabbits and filled with HA-based demineralized cortical bone matrix (DBX), CMC-based demineralized cortical bone matrix (DB) or CMC-based demineralized cortical bone with cancellous bone (NDDB), and the wound area was evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. DBX showed significantly lower radiopacity, bone volume fraction, and bone mineral density than DB and NDDB before implantation. However, bone healing score, bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and residual bone area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation revealed no significant differences in bone healing capacity. Overall, three DBM products with different carrier molecules or bone compositions showed similar bone healing capacity.

Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Gonhyung

2014-01-01

370

[Bone and Stem Cells. Cellular network in bone micro-environment - histological and ultrastructural aspects -].  

PubMed

Bone micro-environment appears to reflect bone turnover, i.e., frequency of bone remodeling. There are many bone-synthesizing mature osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts, and a thick cell layer of preosteoblasts overlying mature osteoblasts in the region which shows active bone remodeling. Bone lining cells, - flattened, resting form of osteoblasts cover the quiescent bone surface, in which, however, osteocyte-lacunar canalicular system tend to be geometrically well-arranged. Thus, bone micro-environment seems to be regulated by preosteoblasts, bone marrow stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells, as well as osteoblasts and osteoclasts. But, precious biological function of preosteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells are still under the investigation, e.g., due to many phenotypes of preosteoblasts. In this review, we will introduce histological and ultrastructural aspects on cellular involvement in bone micro-environment. PMID:24681493

Amizuka, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka

2014-04-01

371

Demineralization of the contacting surfaces in autologous onlay bone grafts improves bone formation and bone consolidation.  

PubMed

Background: Autologous bone grafts are usually well consolidated after 4 to 5 months but can be incompletely interlocked with the native bone. This study investigated the effect of acid demineralization of the graft-bed interface on graft consolidation. Methods: Onlay bone grafts were performed on the calvaria of 36 guinea pigs. Half of the animals had the graft-bed contacting surfaces demineralized with 50% citric acid (pH 1.0) for 3 minutes (test group). The other half received no demineralization (control group). The bone grafts were immobilized by a resorbable membrane glued to the recipient bed with cyanoacrylate. After 7, 30, and 90 days, specimens (n = 6) were obtained for light microscopy. Data from qualitative analysis and computerized histomorphometry were statistically processed at a significance level of 5%. Results: Osteogenesis was not seen at the interface after 7 days. After 30 days, the test group showed 34.39% ± 13.4% of the interface area filled with mineralized tissue, compared to 17.14% ± 8.6% in the control group (P = 0.026). After 90 days, the mean percentages of mineralized tissue at the interface in the test and control specimens were 54.00% ± 11.23% and 38.65% ± 7.76% (P = 0.041), respectively. Within groups, a higher percentage of the area filled with mineralized tissue was seen at 90 days compared to 30 days (P = 0.004 for control and 0.041 for test). Conclusions: Demineralization of the contacting surfaces between autologous bone graft and bone bed improved new bone formation and bone consolidation. These data need to be confirmed in humans. PMID:24171500

Rezende, Maria L; Consolaro, Alberto; Sant'ana, Adriana C; Damante, Carla A; Greghi, Sebastião L; Passanezi, Euloir

2014-05-01

372

Bone density and bone area in Canadian Aboriginal women: the First Nations Bone Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Canadian Aboriginal women are at increased risk of fracture compared with the general population.Hypothesis  There is disproportionately reduced bone density in Aboriginal women as compared to white females of similar age.Methods  A random age-stratified (25–39, 40–59 and 60–75) sample of Aboriginal women (n=258) and white women (n=181) was recruited. All subjects had calcaneus and distal forearm bone density measurements, and urban participants

W. D. Leslie; C. J. Metge; H. A. Weiler; M. Doupe; P. Wood Steiman; J. D. O’Neil

2006-01-01

373

WNT16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls.

Hou-Feng Zheng; Jon H. Tobias; Emma Duncan; David M. Evans; Joel Eriksson; Lavinia Paternoster; Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong; Terho Lehtimäki; Ulrica Bergström; Mika Kähönen; Paul J. Leo; Olli Raitakari; Marika Laaksonen; Geoffrey C. Nicholson; Jorma Viikari; Martin Ladouceur; Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen; Carolina Medina-Gomez; Fernando Rivadeneira; Richard L. Prince; Harri Sievanen; William D. Leslie; Dan Mellström; John A. Eisman; Sofia Movérare-Skrtic; David Goltzman; David A. Hanley; Graeme Jones; Beate St. Pourcain; Yongjun Xiao; Nicholas J. Timpson; George Davey Smith; Ian R. Reid; Susan M. Ring; Philip N. Sambrook; Magnus Karlsson; Elaine M. Dennison; John P. Kemp; Patrick Danoy; Adrian Sayers; Scott G. Wilson; Maria Nethander; Eugene McCloskey; Liesbeth Vandenput; Richard Eastell; Jeff Liu; Tim Spector; Braxton D. Mitchell; Elizabeth A. Streeten; Robert Brommage; Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer; Matthew A. Brown; Claes Ohlsson; J. Brent Richards; Mattias Lorentzon

2012-01-01

374

Serum intact molecule of bone Gla-protein in patients with abnormal bone and calcium metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circulating level of bone Gla-protein (BGP) has been estimated one of the most promising markers for bone turnover in patients\\u000a with metabolic bone diseases. Although previous bone histomorphometric studies have revealed that serum BGP levels are mainly\\u000a related to osteoblastic bone formation, multiple immunoreactive forms of BGP present in uremic sera are attributed to both\\u000a osteoclastic bone resorption and

Kiyoshi Nakatsuka; Takami Miki; Shigeichi Shoji; Yoshiki Nishizawa; Hirotoshi Morii

1992-01-01

375

Bone status in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

AIM—To investigate bone mineral status of children with cystic fibrosis (CF).?METHODS—In 29 children with CF and 49 matched controls, bone mineral content (BMC), projected bone area (BA), and areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were measured using dual energy x ray absorptiometry. The BMC values at each site were adjusted for BA, height, and weight. At the lumbar spine, the bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated by dividing the BMC by the estimated volume, derived from BA. Vertebral (T12-L3) trabecular bone mineral density (vTBMD) was measured using quantitative computed tomography in children with CF. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in CF patients and controls using quantitative ultrasound. The disease severity of CF children was evaluated by the Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score.?RESULTS—The mean BUA, whole body and regional BA, adjusted BMC, and areal BMD of children with CF were not different from those of controls. The mean BMAD of the lumbar spine was reduced in CF patients compared with controls, whereas the mean vTBMD standard deviation scores were significantly higher in CF patients. The median SK score of the CF group was 81 (range 42-100), indicating that as a group our CF patient population had relatively mild disease.?CONCLUSION—The normal vertebral BMC, decreased BMAD, and higher vTBMD suggests that the vertebral cortical thickness or density might be reduced in CF subjects. The overall bone mineral status of CF children with relatively mild disease was not different from size matched controls.??

Sood, M; Hambleton, G; Super, M; Fraser, W; Adams, J; Mughal, M

2001-01-01

376

Bone anabolics in osteoporosis: Actuality and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Vertebral and nonvertebral fractures prevention is the main goal for osteoporosis therapy by inhibiting bone resorption and/or stimulating bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs decrease the activation frequency, thereby determining a secondary decrease in bone formation rate and a low bone turnover. Bisphosphonates are today’s mainstay among antiresorptive treatment of osteoporosis. Also, oral selective estrogen receptor modulators and recently denosumab have a negative effect on bone turnover. Agents active on bone formation are considered a better perspective in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. Recombinant-human parathyroid hormone (PTH) has showed to increase bone formation and significantly decrease vertebral fractures in severe patients, but with a modest effect on nonvertebral fractures. The study of Wnt signaling pathway, that induces prevalently an osteoblastic activity, opens large possibilities to antagonists of Wnt-inhibitors, such as sclerostin antibodies and dickkopf-1 antagonists, with potential effects not only on trabecular bone but also on cortical bone.

Montagnani, Andrea

2014-01-01

377

Methods for Assessing Bone Quality: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bone mass, geometry, and tissue material properties contribute to bone structural integrity. Thus, bone strength arises from\\u000a both bone quantity and quality. Bone quality encompasses the geometric and material factors that contribute to fracture resistance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  This review presents an overview of the methods for assessing bone quality across multiple length scales, their outcomes,\\u000a and their relative advantages and disadvantages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

Eve Donnelly

378

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved.

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

379

Inhibition of bone formation during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

1978-01-01

380

Mechanisms of Guided Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Post-extraction crestal bone resorption is common and unavoidable which can lead to significant ridge dimensional changes. To regenerate enough bone for successful implant placement, Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is often required. GBR is a surgical procedure that uses barrier membranes with or without particulate bone grafts or/and bone substitutes. There are two approaches of GBR in implant therapy: GBR at implant placement (simultaneous approach) and GBR before implant placement to increase the alveolar ridge or improve ridge morphology (staged approach). Angiogenesis and ample blood supply play a critical role in promoting bone regeneration.

Liu, Jie; Kerns, David G

2014-01-01

381

Role of SPARC in bone remodeling and cancer-related bone metastasis.  

PubMed

There is a growing socioeconomic recognition that clinical bone diseases such as bone infections, bone tumors and osteoporotic bone loss mainly associated with ageing, are major issues in today's society. SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine), a matricellular glycoprotein, may be a promising therapeutic target for preventing or treating bone-related diseases. In fact, SPARC is associated with tissue remodeling, repair, development, cell turnover, bone mineralization and may also participate in growth and progression of tumors, namely cancer-related bone metastasis. Yet, the function of SPARC in such biological processes is poorly understood and controversial. The main objective of this work is to review the current knowledge related to the activity of SPARC in bone remodeling, tumorigenesis, and bone metastasis. Progress in understanding SPARC biology may provide novel strategies for bone regeneration and the development of anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, or counter-adhesive treatments specifically against bone metastasis. PMID:24038053

Ribeiro, Nilza; Sousa, Susana R; Brekken, Rolf A; Monteiro, Fernado J

2014-01-01

382

A histological and biomechanical study of bone stress and bone remodeling around immediately loaded implants.  

PubMed

Immediate loading (IL) increases the risk of marginal bone loss. The present study investigated the biomechanical response of peri-implant bone in rabbits after IL, aiming at optimizing load management. Ninety-six implants were installed bilaterally into femurs of 48 rabbits. Test implants on the left side created the maximal initial stress of 6.9 and 13.4 MPa in peri-implant bone and unloaded implants on the contralateral side were controls. Bone morphology and bone-implant interface strength were measured with histological examination and push-out testing during a 12-week observation period. Additionally, the animal data were incorporated into finite element (FE) models to calculate the bone stress distribution at different levels of osseointegration. Results showed that the stress was concentrated in the bone margin and the bone stress gradually decreased as osseointegration proceeded. A stress of about 2.0 MPa in peri-implant bone had a positive effect on new bone formation, osseointegration and bone-implant interface strength. Bone loss was observed in some specimens with stress exceeding 4.0 MPa. Data indicate that IL significantly increases bone stress during the early postoperative period, but the load-bearing capacity of peri-implant bone increases rapidly with an increase of bone-implant contact. Favorable bone responses may be continually promoted when the stress in peri-implant bone is maintained at a definite level. Accordingly, the progressive loading mode is recommended for IL implants. PMID:24824585

Han, JingYun; Hou, JianXia; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Chao; Fan, YuBo

2014-06-01

383

Digital Classroom Resources: Napier's Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America has teamed up the National Science Foundation to create an online collection of digital classroom resources. One of their more recent creations is this multimedia feature that teaches students about Napier's Bones. Created by Michael Caulfield and Wayne Anderson of Gannon University, this feature will introduce students to the work of John Napier, a 16th century mathematician who created a procedure for multiplication using sticks or bones. In this presentation, visitors can watch a step-by-step demonstration of this technique and then also enter any two factors of up to six digits each in order to create their own animation of this method. It is a nice way to get students thinking about this rather intriguing way to multiply, and the site also contains several links to other sites about John Napier and his bones.

384

Bone scintigraphy in osseous sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic, granulomatous disorder that affects multiple organ systems, but most often the lungs and the skin. The incidence of radiographically evident osseous involvement is between 1% and 13%, with an average of 5% on conventional imaging. Sarcoidosis generally involves the peripheral skeleton with the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals being most frequently affected. The majority of osseous lesions occur in the phalanges of the hands. Involvement of the axial skeleton is rather uncommon. Sarcoid bone lesions are usually asymptomatic. Nuclear medicine studies, in particular bone scintigraphy, gallium-67 (Ga-67) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) have been used in staging of sarcoidosis, including assessment of extrapulmonary involvement. Here, we present a case of osseous sarcoidosis in a man whom the disease presented with multiple lesions in the axial skeleton and the long bones.

Cengiz, Arzu; Saki, Hatice; Yurekli, Yakup

2012-01-01

385

Bone scintigraphy in osseous sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic, granulomatous disorder that affects multiple organ systems, but most often the lungs and the skin. The incidence of radiographically evident osseous involvement is between 1% and 13%, with an average of 5% on conventional imaging. Sarcoidosis generally involves the peripheral skeleton with the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals being most frequently affected. The majority of osseous lesions occur in the phalanges of the hands. Involvement of the axial skeleton is rather uncommon. Sarcoid bone lesions are usually asymptomatic. Nuclear medicine studies, in particular bone scintigraphy, gallium-67 (Ga-67) and F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) have been used in staging of sarcoidosis, including assessment of extrapulmonary involvement. Here, we present a case of osseous sarcoidosis in a man whom the disease presented with multiple lesions in the axial skeleton and the long bones. PMID:23723590

Cengiz, Arzu; Saki, Hatice; Yürekli, Yakup

2012-04-01

386

[Osteoporosis and jaw bone reduction].  

PubMed

The relationship between osteoporosis and residual ridge reduction has been investigated in many studies. As a result it can be concluded that it is not easy to measure the extent of osteoporosis of the jaws. Several studies have shown that individuals with general signs of osteoporosis do not necessary have an osteoporotic mandible or maxilla. The same applies to the relationship between osteoporosis and residual ridge reduction in edentulous patients and osteoporosis and bone loss in patients with periodontal diseases. Taken into account the positive effect of healthy food intake and functional loading in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, it can be expected that they also influence the bone quality of the jaws. Preservation of strategic teeth or roots under the overdenture as well as the insertion of implants have a positive effect on the bone of the jaws. PMID:11837124

van Waas, M A; Corten, F G; Netelenbos, J C

1995-05-01

387

Brown tumors mimicking bone metastases.  

PubMed Central

Brown tumors are rare skeletal manifestations of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) that may mimic cancer metastasis. Here, we present a 52-year-old woman with HPT and multiple foci of technetium uptake due to brown tumors on bone scintigraphy. Screening tests were negative for cancer and serum parathormon (PTH) measurement; parathyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy suggested HPT. A chief cell adenoma in right and hyperplasia in the left parathyroid glands were surgically removed after which hungry bone syndrome emerged. Biopsy of the femur lesion during an open reduction with fixation operation due to a fracture established the diagnosis of a brown tumor. Brown tumors are important to consider in the evaluation of patients presenting with multiple foci of uptake on bone scanning and without an established primary neoplasm. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Meydan, Nezih; Barutca, Sabri; Guney, Engin; Boylu, Sukru; Savk, Oner; Culhaci, Nil; Ayhan, Mediha

2006-01-01

388

The response of bone to unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During spaceflight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1-g environment, and some redistribution of bone from the lower extremities to the head appears to take place. Although changes in calcitropic hormones have been demonstrated during skeletal unloading (PTH and 1,25(OH)2D decrease), it remains unclear whether such changes account for or are in response to the changes in bone formation and resorption. Bed rest studies with human volunteers and hindlimb elevation studies with rats have provided useful data to help explain the changes in bone formation during spaceflight. These models of skeletal unloading reproduce a number of the conditions associated with microgravity, and the findings from such studies confirm many of the observations made during spaceflight. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. Such investigations couple biophysics to biochemistry to cell and molecular biology. Although studies with cell cultures have revealed biochemical responses to mechanical loads comparable to that seen in intact bone, it seems likely that matrix-cell interactions underlie much of the mechanocoupling. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH, and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs, and TGF-beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to mechanical load with increased bone formation are further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, with the expectation that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis.

Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.

1999-01-01

389

Cellular Mechanisms of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulates and proliferates in the bone marrow. MM patients often develop bone disease that results in severe bone pain, osteolytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. These skeletal complications have not only a negative impact on quality of life but also a possible effect in overall survival. MM osteolytic bone lesions arise from the altered bone remodeling due to both increased osteoclast activation and decreased osteoblast differentiation. A dysregulated production of numerous cytokines that can contribute to the uncoupling of bone cell activity is well documented in the bone marrow microenvironment of MM patients. These molecules are produced not only by malignant plasma cells, that directly contribute to MM bone disease, but also by bone, immune, and stromal cells interacting with each other in the bone microenvironment. This review focuses on the current knowledge of MM bone disease biology, with particular regard on the role of bone and immune cells in producing cytokines critical for malignant plasma cell proliferation as well as in osteolysis development. Therefore, the understanding of MM pathogenesis could be useful to the discovery of novel agents that will be able to both restore bone remodelling and reduce tumor burden.

Oranger, Angela; Carbone, Claudia; Izzo, Maddalena; Grano, Maria

2013-01-01

390

Effects of proteasome inhibitors on bone cancer.  

PubMed

Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of cancer, occurring in up to 70% of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer, while bone disease is also the characteristic clinical feature of multiple myeloma. Skeletal-related events can be devastating, with major effect on the quality of life and survival. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of therapeutic management of bone disease of solid tumors and myeloma, and denosumab has recently been approved for patients with bone metastases. Both act through inhibition of the osteoclast activity but do not restore bone formation. Proteasome inhibition has direct bone anabolic effects. Proteasome inhibitors have been used in the management of patients with multiple myeloma and mantle-cell lymphoma during the last decade. In multiple myeloma, bortezomib, the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor, has shown both in vitro and in vivo regulation of bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast function and promoting osteoblast activity. Bortezomib also reduces bone resorption but more importantly increases bone formation and bone mineral density, at least, in subsets of myeloma patients. Thus, bortezomib is recommended for myeloma patients with extended bone disease in combination with bisphosphonates. This review focuses on the effects of the proteasome system on bone metabolism and the implications into the better management of patients with cancer and bone disease. PMID:24422114

Terpos, Evangelos; Christoulas, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

391

Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noelle; Offord, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

392

Xenogenic demineralized bone matrix and fresh autogenous cortical bone effects on experimental bone healing: radiological, histopathological and biomechanical evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bone grafting is used to enhance healing in osteotomies, arthrodesis, and multifragmentary fractures and to replace bony loss\\u000a resulting from neoplasia or cysts. They are source of osteoprogenitor cells and induce bone formation and provide mechanical\\u000a support for vascular and bone ingrowth. Autografts are used commonly but quantity of harvested bone is limited. The aim of\\u000a this study is to

A. S. Bigham; S. N. Dehghani; Z. Shafiei; S. Torabi Nezhad

2008-01-01

393

Bone Mineral Density and Logarithms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine an image produced by a cabinet x-ray system to determine if it is a quality bone mineral density image. Students write in their journals about what they need to know to be able to make this judgment. Students learn about what bone mineral density is, how a BMD image can be obtained, and how it is related to the field of x-ray. Students examine the process used to obtain a BMD image and how this process is related to mathematics, primarily through logarithmic functions. Students study the relationship between logarithms and exponents, the properties of logarithms, common and natural logarithms, solving exponential equations, and Beer's Law.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

394

[Treatment of petrous bone cholesteatoma].  

PubMed

Cholesteatoma involving the petrous compartment of the temporal bone is rare and is a difficult surgical challenge for the neuro-otological surgeon. A series of 60 cases of petrous bone cholesteatoma is presented. The diagnosis, surgical treatment, results, and complications are discussed. Our present surgical attitude is based on closed obliterative procedures that allow a wide field exposure with radical removal excision, control and protection of vital structures, and management of problems related to the facial nerve. The treatment of dura mater involved by matrix is still unsolved. Regular follow-up with CT and MRI is mandatory. PMID:8068355

Sanna, M; Mazzoni, A; Landolfi, M; Aristegui, M

1994-01-01

395

Appropriate use of bone densitometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss current capabilities of three common bone densitometry techniques--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomography--and potential capabilities of new innovations of each of these techniques. They believe that use of bone densitometry is valid in the following four clinical applications and recommend its usage to (a) assess patients with metabolic diseases known to affect the skeleton, (b) assess perimenopausal women for initiation of estrogen replacement therapy, (c) establish a diagnosis of osteoporosis or assess its severity in the context of general clinical care, and (d) monitor the efficacy of treatment interventions or the natural course of disease.

Genant, H.K.; Block, J.E.; Steiger, P.; Glueer, C.C.; Ettinger, B.; Harris, S.T.

1989-03-01

396

[Bone marrow hematopoiesis in epileptics].  

PubMed

In 72 epileptic patients the bone marrow was examined in various periods of epileptic paroxysms. It was found that the morphological composition of the medullary hemopoiesis was characterized by a myeloid reaction and a lowered mitotic activity of the bone marrow elements. All the shifts in the functional state of the medullary hemopoiesis correlated with the paroxysm periods and were reflected adequately in the peripheral blood picture. The states described differed sharply from the anomalous medullary hemopoiesis observed in epileptic patients having hematological complications, e.g. pernicious anemia caused by phenobarbital, hexamidine and diphenin. PMID:7293582

Shapiro, Iu L; Va?ntrub, M Ia; Levina, L F

1981-01-01

397

The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.  

PubMed

This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

2009-12-01

398

Bone Marrow Microenvironmental Control of Prostate Cancer Skeletal Localization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prostate carcinoma metastasizes to skeletal sites where bone remodeling is active and engages the bone marrow niche in an unstable cascade with dysregulated bone resorption and formation. Numerous factors in the bone marrow niche have been implicated that...

L. McCauley

2011-01-01

399

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone overgrowth in juvenile amputees. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2009-04-01

400

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone overgrowth in juvenile amputees. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2010-04-01

401

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2012-04-01

402

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2010-04-01

403

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2011-04-01

404

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2014-04-01

405

Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: PDF (168 KB) Español Chinese ( ... Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means to You Informe del Año 2004 del Cirujano ...

406

Pulsatile Fluid Shear in Bone Remodeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation was to elucidate the sensitivity to transients in fluid shear stress in bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is clearly a function of the local mechanical environment which includes interstitial fluid flow. Traditionally, l...

J. A. Frangos

1997-01-01

407

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2013-04-01

408

Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans hear through air and bone conduction pathways. Both pathways can be used to transmit sound to a listener and from a talker although traditionally, the air conduction pathway has been used. Communication through bone conduction is a feasible alterna...

P. Henry T. R. Letowski

2007-01-01

409

Managing Pain Related to Cancer and Bone  

MedlinePLUS

... Many patients who have pain related to bone metastasis describe the pain as dull and aching. Other ... Radiopharmaceuticals : Drugs that use radiation to treat bone metastasis pain. They are administered by IV (intravenous infusion). ...

410

Stimulation of bone marrow cells and bone formation by nacre: in vivo and in vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is frequently a loss of vertebral bone due to disease or aging. Nacre (mother of pearl from the oyster Pinctada maxima) stimulates bone cell differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Experimental bone defects were prepared in the vertebrae of sheep and used to test the suitability of nacre as an injectable osteogenic biomaterial for treating vertebral

M Lamghari; M. J Almeida; S Berland; H Huet; A Laurent; C Milet; E Lopez

1999-01-01

411

Dependence of ultrasonic attenuation on bone mass and microstructure in bovine cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the axial transmission technique now enables in vivo evaluation of cortical bone quality, which plays an important role in bone fragility. Cortical bone is a complex multiscale material, which may be made of different types of microstructure. The interaction between ultrasound and cortical bone remains unclear and most studies have been confined to wave speed analysis. The

Magali Sasso; Guillaume Haïat; Yu Yamato; Salah Naili; Mami Matsukawa

2008-01-01

412

Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients

Carsten Müller; Corinna C Winter; Dieter Rosenbaum; Joachim Boos; Georg Gosheger; Jendrik Hardes; Volker Vieth

2010-01-01

413

The repair of large segmental bone defects in the rabbit with vascularized tissue engineered bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of segmental bone defects is a considerable challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Tissue engineering is a promising method for repairing bone defects, and vascularization is critical to the performance of a tissue engineered bone. We report herein the construction of a vascularized tissue engineered bone with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived endothelial cells (ECs) co-cultured in porous ?-tricalcium phosphate

Jian Zhou; Hong Lin; Taolin Fang; Xilei Li; Wenda Dai; Toshimasa Uemura; Jian Dong

2010-01-01

414

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Regeneration and Application to Bone Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synoptic study gives a concise overview of current knowledge of bone healing, the role of mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue regeneration and contemporary possibilities of supporting regeneration of damaged bone. Attention of research concerning the healing of fractures with extensive loss of bone tissue following trauma, the treatment of belatedly healing or non-healing fractures or the healing of

Michal Crha; Alois Ne?as; Robert Srnec; Jan Janovec; Ladislav Stehlík; Petr Raušer; Lucie Urbanová; Ladislav Plánka; Josef Jan?á?; Evžen Amler

2009-01-01

415

Bone Mass and Bone Metabolism Markers during Adolescence: The HELENA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) status in children and adolescents is important for health and the prevention of diseases. Bone metabolic activity could provide early information on bone mass development. Our aim was to describe bone mass and metabolism markers according to age and Tanner stage in adolescents. Methods: Spanish adolescents (n = 345;

L. Gracia-Marco; G. Vicente-Rodríguez; J. Valtueña; J. P. Rey-López; A. E. Díaz Martínez; M. I. Mesana; K. Widhalm; J. R. Ruiz; M. González-Gross; M. J. Castillo; L. A. Moreno

2010-01-01

416

Bone histomorphometry and serum bone gla-protein in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) may be difficult, especially in the case of asymptomatic hypercalcemia. Since bone is the major target organ of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the hypersecretion of PTH in patients with PHP can be assessed by bone biopsy and by measured markers of bone turnover. In a first study, a transiliac bone biopsy was performed in 184

Pierre D. Delmas; Pierre J. Meunier; E. Faysse; E. C. Saubier

1986-01-01

417

Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

1999-01-01

418

Bone Builders: The Discoveries Behind Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Every year, more than 800,000 people in the United States receive bone biomaterials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Bone is the most commonly transplanted tissue after blood transfusions. Unlike most tissues, bone is able to regenerate and reform without scarring, given the proper conditions and materials. Researchers and scientists have learned to exploit this property over many centuries to create modern day bone grafts and bone biomaterials used as substitutes for bone grafts.

Margie Patlak (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

2001-08-01

419

Temporal response of bone to unloading  

SciTech Connect

A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

1986-02-01

420

Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow constitutes an unique microenvironment for cancer cells in three specific aspects. First, the bone marrow\\u000a actively recruits circulating tumor cells where they find a sanctuary rich in growth factors and cytokines that promote their\\u000a proliferation and survival. When in the bone marrow, tumor cells profoundly affect the homeostasis of the bone and the balance\\u000a between osteogenesis and

Christophe F. Chantrain; Olivier Feron; Etienne Marbaix; Yves A. DeClerck

2008-01-01

421

Strontium doping of bone graft extender  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Allografts are often used during revision hip replacement surgery for stabilization of the implant. Resorption of the allograft may exceed new bone formation, and instability of the prosthesis can develop. We investigated whether strontium could regulate the imbalance of fast resorption of allograft and slower formation of new bone, because it is both an anabolic and an anticatabolic agent. Method Strontium was added to the implant interface environment by doping a hydroxyapatite bone graft extender. 10 dogs each received 2 experimental titanium implants. The implants were inserted within a 2.7-mm concentric gap in cancellous bone. The gap was filled with 50% (v/v) allograft mixed with 50% bone graft extender. The extender either had 5% strontium doping (SrHA) or was undoped (HA). After 4 weeks, osseointegration and mechanical fixation were evaluated by histomorphometry and by push-out test. Results SrHA bone graft extender induced a 1.2-fold increase in volume of new bone, a 1.2-fold increase in allograft remaining in the gap, and a 1.4-fold increase in surface area of the bone graft extender material in contact with new bone compared to HA bone graft extender. All these increases were statistically significant. SrHA bone graft extender did not significantly improve ongrowth of bone onto the implants or improve any of the mechanical push-out parameters compared to HA bone graft extender. Interpretation Doping of the HA bone graft extender with 5% strontium increased gap healing, preserved more of the allograft in the gap, and increased the ongrowth of bone onto the bone graft extender material, but did not improve mechanical fixation.

2011-01-01

422

Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2  

DOEpatents

Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2009-01-27

423

Gravity, calcium, and bone - Update, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results obtained on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and bone browth during short-term flights and ground simulated-microgravity experiments are presented. Results demonstrate that two principal components of calcium metabolism respond within days to changes in body position and to weightlessness: the calcium endocrine system and bone characteristics. Furthermore, results of recent studies imply that bone biomechanics are more severely affected by spaceflight exposures than is the bone mass.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1990-01-01

424

Better Bones Buddies: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although osteoporosis typically surfaces in later life, peak bone mass attained before age 20 is a key factor in its prevention. However, most American children's diets lack sufficient calcium during the critical growth periods of preadolescence and adolescence to achieve peak bone mass. "Better Bones (BB) Buddies" is an educational program…

Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Horner, Arlene

2005-01-01

425

Bone loss after total hip arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to evaluate periprosthetic bone loss and to compare it with the bone loss in other areas of the body. We also aim to shed light on the course of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with cemented femoral prosthesis in comparison with those with uncemented ones. We analyzed the BMD using dual-energy X-ray

Diana Dan; David Germann; Hubert Burki; Peter Hausner; Urs Kappeler; Rainer Peter Meyer; Richard Klaghofer; Thomas Stoll

2006-01-01

426

Genetics Home Reference: Paget disease of bone  

MedlinePLUS

... associated with hearing loss early in life. How common is Paget disease of bone? Classic Paget disease of bone occurs ... Mutations in the SQSTM1 gene are the most common genetic cause of classic Paget disease of bone, accounting for 10 to 50 percent ...

427

Bone regeneration with a calcium sulfate barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Bone defects are a challenge for the dental clinician. As widely accepted in guided tissue regeneration, physically halting soft connective tissue proliferation into bone allows for bone regeneration. This concept is the “osteopromotion principle.” The aim of this study was to assess the osteopromoting effect of calcium sulfate as a barrier.Study design. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Mucoperiosteal

Gabriele Pecora; Sebastiano Andreana; Joseph E Margarone; Ugo Covani; John S Sottosanti

1997-01-01

428

Simulated axial transmission propagation on cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic axial transmission technique, used to assess cortical shells of long bones, is investigated using numerical simulations. The 3-D finite difference code generates synthetic signals recorded at different distance emitter-receiver for a linear arrangement of transducers placed along the bone axis. Academic modeling of bone based on cylindrical tubular shape made of anisotropic and porous material has been reported

M. Talmant; E. Bossy; P. Laugier

2004-01-01

429

Growth factor interactions in bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone regeneration is a complex process regulated by a large number of bioactive molecules. Many growth factors and cytokines involved in the natural process of bone healing have been identified and tested as potential therapeutic candidates to enhance the regeneration process. Although many of these studies show an enhancement of the bone regeneration process by a single drug therapy, in

D. H. R. Kempen; L. B. Creemers; J. Alblas; L. Lu; A. J. Verbout; M. J. Yaszemski; W. J. A. Dhert

2010-01-01

430

Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

1987-01-01

431

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

432

Stress fracture development classified by bone scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no consensus on classifying stress fractures (SF) appearing on bone scans. The authors present a system of classification based on grading the severity and development of bone lesions by visual inspection, according to three main scintigraphic criteria: focality and size, intensity of uptake compare to adjacent bone, and local medular extension. Four grades of development (I-IV) were ranked,

S. T. Zwas; R. Elkanovich; G. Frank; Z. Aharonson

1985-01-01

433

Inflammatory bone loss: pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue undergoing continuous building and degradation. This remodelling is a tightly regulated process that can be disturbed by many factors, particularly hormonal changes. Chronic inflammation can also perturb bone metabolism and promote increased bone loss. Inflammatory diseases can arise all over the body, including in the musculoskeletal system (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), the intestine (for example, inflammatory

Kurt Redlich; Josef S. Smolen

2012-01-01

434

Clinical features and treatment of bone sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disease that exhibits extremely heterogeneous manifestations. Although the lungs are the most commonly involved organs the extension of the granulomatous inflammation may also affect the bones. Almost any bone can be involved; curiously, the small bones of the hands and feet are most frequently affected. Diagnosis and recognition of osseous sarcoidosis is straight forward if

Om P Sharma; V Mihailovic-Vucinic

435

Bone erosion caused by orbital cavernous hemangioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone erosion is commonly associated with malignant or infiltrative orbital lesions. It is unusual to have bone erosion in\\u000a association with benign focal orbital tumors. We report a case of large orbital cavernous hemangioma that showed bone erosion\\u000a on computed tomography.

Riad N. Ma'luf; Nabil J. Khoury; Usama M. Hadi

2000-01-01

436

Pathophysiology of bone loss in disuse osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis, or rather the localised bone loss observed in patients with spinal cord injury, as well as during any type of immobilisation involves various processes and structures including the direct response of the musculoskeletal system to unloading, the central and peripheral nervous systems and their effects on bone cells and on the vascular system, the bone remodelling unit in its

Christian Alexandre; Laurence Vico

437

Vulnerary Factors to Improve Bone Healing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective for the work was to process rabbit bone specimens from the Institute of Surgical Research, foliwed by sectioning and staining of the samples No patents application were filed The rabbit bone samples were received fixed in 70% alcohol Bone wa...

J. O. Hollinger

2007-01-01

438

Holographic nondestructive testing in bone biomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holographic interferometry is widely used in nondestructive testing of objects. During the work of the bone biomechanics the antler stress in nasal bone region of five Finnish male moose skulls showing four different nasal bone types were tested with the forces representing dynamic and static stresses.

Silvennoinen, Raimo; Nygren, Kaarlo; Paatsama, Juha; Kaernae, Markku

439

Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may

Scott M Smith; Martina Heer

2002-01-01

440

Laser Application on Orthopaedic Bone Repair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to improve the treatment of bone defect by leveraging a rat cortical bone allograft model and Er:YAG laser currently used in the dental field. To achieve this goal we will test the hypothesis that: 1) segmental bone defects tre...

A. S. Virdi K. Sena

2011-01-01

441

Vibrational spectroscopy in biomedical science: bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIR) and Raman Microspectroscopy are powerful tools for characterizing the distribution of different chemical moieties in heterogeneous materials. FTIR and Raman measurements have been adapted to assess the maturity of the mineral and the quality of the organic component (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) of the mineralized tissue in bone. Unique to the FTIRI analysis is the capability to provide the spatial distribution of two of the major collagen cross-links (pyridinoline, and dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine) and through the study of normal and diseased bone, relate them to bone strength. These FTIR parameters have been validated based on analysis of model compounds. It is widely accepted that bone strength is determined by bone mass and bone quality. The latter is a multifactorial term encompassing the material and structural properties of bone, and one important aspect of the bone material properties is the organic matrix. The bone material properties can be defined by parameters of mineral and collagen, as determined by FTIR and Raman analysis. Considerably less attention has been directed at collagen, although there are several publications in the literature reporting altered collagen properties associated with fragile bone, in both animals and humans. Since bone is a heterogeneous tissue due to the remodeling process, microscopic areas may be carefully selected based on quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging or histological staining, thus ensuring comparison of areas with similar metabolic activity and mineral content. In conclusion, FTIRI and Raman vibrational spectroscopy are proving to be powerful tools in bone-related medical research.

Gamsjäger, Sonja; Zoehrer, R.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Mendelsohn, R.; Paschalis, E. P.

2009-02-01

442

Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.  

PubMed

Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise. PMID:23348155

Drenjan?evi?, Ines; Davidovi? Cvetko, Erna

2013-02-01

443

Bone Allografts: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone allograft transplantation has been performed in humans for more than one hundred and twenty years. During the first one hundred years (1880–1980), the major problem in bone allograft transplantation was availability. Most of the bone grafts used during this time were autografts. Allografts were not available due to a lack of legislation protecting procurers and processers. In addition, surgical

William W. Tomford

2000-01-01

444

Soft Bone – Hard Arteries: A Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease is characterized by mineral and various bone disorders associated with extraosseous and cardiovascular calcifications. Experimental studies and clinical observations in the general population and in chronic kidney disease patients show an inverse relationship between the extent of cardiovascular calcifications and bone mineral density or bone metabolic activity. Arterial calcification and osteoporosis are frequently observed in the same

Gérard M. London

2011-01-01

445

Consensus on the utility of bone markers in the malignant bone disease setting.  

PubMed

Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide insight into ongoing rates of skeletal metabolism and tumor-bone interactions in patients with malignant bone disease. This article reviews the available recent evidence assessing the potential of bone markers for detecting and monitoring malignant bone lesions in patients with advanced cancers, and for assessing overall skeletal health and response to antiresorptive therapies in patients at all stages of cancer progression. Most data thus far are for urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) in predicting risks of skeletal morbidity and death and monitoring response to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases. Ongoing studies are evaluating such correlations for other markers and therapies. Emerging evidence suggests that bone markers may help identify patients at high risk for bone metastasis or bone lesion progression, thereby allowing improved follow-up. Results from ongoing clinical trials evaluating such potential applications of bone markers are awaited. PMID:21411334

Coleman, Robert; Costa, Luis; Saad, Fred; Cook, Richard; Hadji, Peyman; Terpos, Evangelos; Garnero, Patrick; Brown, Janet; Body, Jean-Jacques; Smith, Matthew; Lee, Ker-Ai; Major, Pierre; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Lipton, Allan

2011-12-01

446

Interleukin6 in bone metastasis and cancer progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone and bone marrow are among the most frequent sites of cancer metastasis. It is estimated that 350,000 patients die with bone metastases annually in the United States. The ability of tumor cells to colonize the bone marrow and invade the bone is the result of close interactions between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. In this article,

Tasnim Ara; Yves A. DeClerck

2010-01-01

447

CT and MR imaging of chondroblastoma of the temporal bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of chondroblastoma of the temporal bone occurring in a 28-year-old man. Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor that classically occurs in the epiphysis of long bones in young people. The temporal bone is an unusual location. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass in the temporal bone with bone erosion and destruction. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging,

Ken Motoori; Kiyoshi Hiruma; Takashi Nikaido; Seiji Yamamoto; Takuya Ueda; Hisao Ito

2004-01-01

448

Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients often develop nausea, vomiting and bloating after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These symptoms may interfere with nutrition and the ability to take oral medications. Gastroparesis is a recognized cause of these symptoms in non-transplant patients but less is known about patients who undergo BMT. Between January 1996 and March 1997, a total of 151 patients underwent BMT. Eighteen patients

DA Eagle; V Gian; GY Lauwers; JC Manivel; JS Moreb; S Mastin; JR Wingard

2001-01-01

449

Different approaches to bone densitometry.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2000, several effective new treatments were introduced for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures; these treatments were proven effective in large, international, clinical trials. At the same time, there was rapid technologic innovation, with the introduction of new radiologic methods for the noninvasive assessment of patients' bone density status. These developments led to the publication of guidelines for the clinical use of bone densitometry that include criteria for the referral of patients for investigation as well as recommendations for intervention thresholds for the initiation of preventive treatment of osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning of the spine and hip remains the technique of choice for bone densitometry studies, although there is now a wider appreciation of the need for smaller, cheaper devices for scanning the peripheral skeleton if the millions of women most at risk of a fragility fracture are to be identified and treated. This article reviews these developments, concentrating in particular on the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of equipment available for performing bone densitometry investigations, the guidelines for the referral of patients, and the principles for the interpretation of the scan findings. PMID:11138687

Fogelman, I; Blake, G M

2000-12-01

450

Fractal Analysis of Trabecular Bone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fractals are unusual geometric structures that can be used to analyze many biologic structures not amenable to conventional analysis. The purpose of this exhibit is to teach some of the fundamentals of fractal analysis, and to show how they can be applied to analysis of trabecular bone.

Gillespy, Thurman; Richardson, Michael L.

2007-03-29

451

Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) and celiac disease (CD), but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Nazionale, Immacolata; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Imeneo, Maria; Luzza, Francesco

2012-01-01

452

Rhabdomyolysis detected by bone imaging  

SciTech Connect

Rhabdomyolysis involves necrosis of skeletal muscle and may arise from multiple conditions both traumatic and nontraumatic. Bone imaging with Technetium-99m phosphates is a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and may be used to visualize the extent of rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. A case of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented.

Sanders, J.A.

1989-06-01

453

Electric Enhancement of Bone Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, unresponsive to conventional treatment, was stimulated to healing by direct electric current. The method was modeled after prior experimental work in vivo in rabbits. X-ray photographs, histological techniques, and electron microscopy confirmed the presence of newly formed bone in the defect region.

Leroy S. Lavine; Irving Lustrin; Morris H. Shamos; Robert A. Rinaldi; Abraham R. Liboff

1972-01-01

454

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy.  

PubMed

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy have a central place in the diagnosis of haematological disorders. Marrow procedures have a reputation for being unpleasant and painful but when performed carefully, with appropriate use of local anaesthetic and intravenous sedation, they should hold no fears for the patient. PMID:1958933

Williamson, P J; Smith, A G

1991-11-01

455

Biomodels of Bone: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a definition of a biomodel is presented, based on which different specific types of biomodels are identified, viz., virtual biomodels, computational biomodels, and physical biomodels. The paper then focuses on both physical and virtual biomodels of bone, and presents a review of model generation methodologies, giving examples of typical biomodel applications. The use of macroscale biomodels for

S. Lohfeld; V. Barron; P. E. McHugh

2005-01-01

456

Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12

Andrew R. Harwood; J. Ivan Krajbich; Victor L. Fornasier

1980-01-01

457

Tissue-engineered bone regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone lesions above a critical size become scarred rather than regenerated, leading to nonunion. We have attempted to obtain a greater degree of regeneration by using a resorbable scaffold with regeneration-competent cells to recreate an embryonic environment in injured adult tissues, and thus improve clinical outcome. We have used a combination of a coral scaffold with in vitro-expanded marrow stromal

Veronique Viateau; Wassila Bensaïd; Alain Meunier; Cindy de Pollak; Marianne Bourguignon; Karim Oudina; Laurent Sedel; Genevieve Guillemin; Herve Petite

2000-01-01

458

Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Even in normal gravity, bioactive glass particles enhance bone growth in laboratory tests with flat tissue cultures. Ducheyne and his team believe that using the bioactive microcarriers in a rotating bioreactor in microgravity will produce improved, three-dimensional tissue cultures. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering.

2000-01-01

459

Bone-Conduction ABR Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the accuracy of bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BC-ABR) tests to determine the presence and severity of conductive hearing impairment. It provides warnings about technical pitfalls and recommends incorporating BC-ABR protocols for routine clinical use. It concludes that the method allows estimating cochlear…

Cone-Wesson, Barbara

1995-01-01

460

[Bone Metabolism and Cardiovascular Function Update. The estimation of bone material quality in the concept of bone and vascular linkage].  

PubMed

It has become clear that a reduction in sex hormones from middle age onwards, increasing age, and an increase in oxidative stress related to lifestyle-related diseases can also reduce bone material properties in terms of collagen post-translational modification, crosslink formation. These changes lead to both qualitative and quantitative abnormalities in collagen, which is the major bone matrix protein. The intermolecular cross-link formation of collagen, which regulates bone-material attributes, is a mechanism independent of bone remodeling. In other words, cross-link formation is controlled by the environment surrounding the bone matrix, comprising cellular functions, oxidative stress, and glycation level. Because oxidative stress is also risk factor of arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular event, there is link between low bone quality and arteriosclerosis. High levels of pentosidine in urine or blood, or mild hyperhomocysteinemia which suggest bone collagen abnormalities, might be used as surrogate markers for evaluating bone quality, assessing the risk of bone fracture. Patients with osteoporosis can be divided into 3 types on the basis of bone density and with bone quality. We are entering an age in which the treatment of osteoporosis will be personalized, with drugs administered depending on these types. PMID:24976053

Saito, Mitsuru; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi

2014-07-01

461

Orthopaedic perspective on bone metastasis  

PubMed Central

The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide, with the advent of a myriad of new treatment options, so is the overall survival of these patients. However, from an orthopaedic perspective, there comes the challenge of treating more patients with a variety of metastatic bone lesions. The consequences of such lesions can be significant to the patient, from pain and abnormal blood results, including hypercalcemia, to pathological fracture. Given the multiple options available, the treatment of bone metastasis should be based on a patient-by patient manner, as is the case with primary bone lesions. It is imperative, given the various lesion types and locations, treatment of bone metastasis should be performed in an individualised manner. We should consider the nature of the lesion, the effect of treatment on the patient and the overall outcome of our decisions. The dissemination of primary lesions to distant sites is a complex pathway involving numerous cytokines within the tumour itself and the surrounding microenvironment. To date, it is not fully understood and we still base a large section of our knowledge on Pagets historic “seed and soil” theory. As we gain further understanding of this pathway it will allow us develop more medical based treatments. The treatment of primary cancers has long been provided in a multi-disciplinary setting to achieve the best patient outcomes. This should also be true for the treatment of bone metastases. Orthopaedic surgeons should be involved in the multidisciplinary treatment of such patients given that there are a variety of both surgical fixation methods and non-operative methods at our disposal.

Molloy, Alan P; O'Toole, Gary C

2013-01-01

462

[Magnesium disorder in metabolic bone diseases].  

PubMed

Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility. PMID:22846362

Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo

2012-08-01

463

Bone Metastases 2: Pelvis and Appendicular Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Metastatic bone disease is the commonest bone malignancy in the adult ?40 years of age. \\u000a \\u000a • The occurrence of bone metastases is a sign of poor prognosis, and major complications due to bone metastases are common\\u000a and include hypercalcaemia and pathological fracture. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Fracture risk can be assessed utilising clinical criteria and radiographs using the Mirels score. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Bone

Bernhard J. Tins; Radhesh K. Lalam; Victor N. Cassar-Pullicino; Prudencia N. M. Tyrrell

464

Engineering endochondral bone: in vivo studies.  

PubMed

The use of biomaterials to replace lost bone has been a common practice for decades. More recently, the demands for bone repair and regeneration have pushed research into the use of cultured cells and growth factors in association with these materials. Here we report a novel approach to engineer new bone using a transient cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. Chondrocyte/chitosan scaffolds (both a transient cartilage scaffold-experimental-and a permanent cartilage scaffold-control) were prepared and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Bone formation was evaluated over a period of 5 months. Mineralization was assessed by Faxitron, micro computed tomography, backscatter electrons, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Histological analysis provided further information on tissue changes in and around the implanted scaffolds. The deposition of ectopic bone was detected in the surface of the experimental implants as early as 1 month after implantation. After 3 months, bone trabeculae and bone marrow cavities were formed inside the scaffolds. The bone deposited was similar to the bone of the mice vertebra. Interestingly, no bone formation was observed in control implants. In conclusion, an engineered transient cartilage template carries all the signals necessary to induce endochondral bone formation in vivo. PMID:18759673

Oliveira, Serafim M; Mijares, Dindo Q; Turner, Gloria; Amaral, Isabel F; Barbosa, Mário A; Teixeira, Cristina C

2009-03-01

465

Bone remodelling markers in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin), serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX), N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX), pyridinolines (DPD and PYD), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion) or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis). Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL) is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics. PMID:24839355

Fardellone, Patrice; Séjourné, Alice; Paccou, Julien; Goëb, Vincent

2014-01-01

466

Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin), serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX), N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX), pyridinolines (DPD and PYD), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion) or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis). Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL) is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

Fardellone, Patrice; Sejourne, Alice; Paccou, Julien; Goeb, Vincent

2014-01-01

467

Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted.

Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

2013-01-01

468

Porous immobilization support prepared from animal bone  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Porous immobilization support materials for use in physical and chemical processes are produced from bird, animal or fish bone by cleaning finely divided bone to remove all external tissue and by dissolving away all internal tissue from internal pores and internal Haversian canals of the bone to result in cleaned bone containing not more than 0.5% by weight of remaining lipid material, preferably containing only trace amounts, i.e. less than 0.1% by weight. The cleaned bone consists of porous finely-divided animal bone containing a collagenous matrix of organic fibrous connective tissue material including osein having uniformaly distributed therethrough mineral hydroxyapatite. The collagenous matrix provides an ideal distributed site for the chemical attachment of bacteria, cells and enzyme catalysts. The attachment may be by absorption, or by charge attraction, or with a cross-linking agent attachable between the bone and the supported material. An economical source of bone is a boney fraction from mechanical separation of meat and bone such as in recovering meat from chicken necks and backs unwanted by the chicken fast food industry. Chicken bone is