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SciTech Connect

The site of Jiahu is located in Jiahu village, Wuyang County, Henan province, on the Western edge of the broad plain of Huanhuaihai. On its north the site borders the Sha River, in the upper reaches of the Huai River; its latitude is 33{degree} 36 minutes North, longitude 113{degree} 40 minutes East, and it is 67.5 meters above sea level. Between 1983 and 1987, the Henan Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute carried out six campaigns of excavation here, revealing an area of 2400 square meters. Except for the trial excavation in the spring of 1983, Zhang Juzhong has been in charge of all the excavations. In early May 1986, while excavating tomb 78, Zhang Juzhong and Yang Zhenwei first discovered two funerary bone flutes. They soon found other, similar bone flutes in tombs 73, 94 and 121 respectively. Mr. Zhang's attention was instantly focused on these remarkable finds. In the campaign of autumn 1986, one or two more bone flutes were discovered in each of tombs 233,273, 263 and 270. Finally, in the spring of 1987, again one or two bone flutes were found in each of the tombs 282, 363,341,411,344 and 387. Up to the end of excavation in June 1987, altogether 25 bone flutes had been found, of which 17 were complete or almost complete, 6 broken or fragmentary and 2 were half-finished examples. Among the 17 complete bone flutes, there were 14 having seven holes, one five-hole, one six-hole and one eight-hole bone flute. In particular, the bone flute M282:20 was exquisitely made, and complete. Zhang Juzhong, the discoverer of the bone flutes, researcher Pei Mingxiang, the. ex-director of the division, who came to the digging site to see the progress of the work, and their coworkers were all understandably very excited.




Grazing Effects on Soil Nutrient Contents in Desert Oasis Ecotone of Haloxylon Ammodendron of Gan Jiahu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper research different grazing strength on haloxylon ammodendron desert vegetation of soil nutrient effect in GanJiahu haloxylon ammodendron forest national nature reserv, in August 2009, November and May 2010, to Gan Jiahu Desert Oasis transition with for research district, results indicates that: (1) through on heavy degrees grazing of Reed wetland, and in the degrees grazing of salt of grass meadow and mild grazing of Populus euphratica forest comparison analysis: believes that grazing have effect on soil of organic matter, and full nitrogen, and full phosphorus, and quick-impact potassium, and quick-impact phosphorus, and alkali solutions nitrogen. And compared to mild degrees grazing, heavy degrees grazing affect obviously on soil organic matter, and quick-impact potassium, and quick-impact phosphorus, and alkali solutions nitrogen effect comparison significantly, on soil full nitrogen, and full phosphorus effect small; (2) different season on different grazing degree region of soil nutrient has much effect, different wet/dry quarter performance different, May and August soil of organic matter, with grazing degree increased full nitrogen, full phosphorus, quick-impact phosphorus, and alkali solutions nitrogen content are reduced, especially to August most significantly (P<0.01), November severe effects of grazing on soil surface indicators of nutrient content significantly, various nutrient contents in the wet season (August), generally higher than that of the dry season in May and November, the accumulation of soil nutrient content in November.

Li, Yanhong; Jiao, Li; Yang, Aixia



The effects of flute shape and thread profile on the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants.  


Easy insertion of the implant and stable bone purchase is essential for an ideal dental implantation. At the implant tip, the cutting flutes and conical profile are respectively designed to reduce insertion resistance and facilitate the initial insertion. However, the tapered tip might reduce the self-tapping and bone-purchasing abilities of the flutes and the tip threads. Using sawbone blocks as standard specimens, this study experimentally measures the insertion torque, holding power, and bending strength of eight varieties of implant (4 shapes×2 profiles). The bony contact, interfacial mechanism, and the altered shape of the flutes, at different section planes, are used to explain the experimental results. The results reveal that the bone-implant gaps at the tip region significantly suppress both the self-tapping and bone-purchasing abilities of the flutes and the tip threads. This makes initial insertion of the conical implant easier. However, the conical implant eventually requires a higher insertion torque and holding power, due to tighter bony contact, at the tail threads. The bowl-fluted design has the least flute space to store the squeezed bone chips, so both insertion torque and bending strength are significantly higher. For the conical group, the holding powers of three flute designs are nearly comparable. Overall, the conical implant with bowl flutes is the optimal design, with a lower resistance to initial insertion and higher stability, for final instrumentation. PMID:22041130

Wu, Shu-Wei; Lee, Chia-Ching; Fu, Ping-Yuen; Lin, Shang-Chih



Fatigue fracture of a proximally modular, distally tapered fluted implant with diaphyseal fixation.  


We report and analyze the causes of a fracture in a proximally modular, distally tapered fluted MP stem in a 48-year-old woman (168 cm, 67 kg) with severe proximal bone deficiency. Evidence of fatigue failure with striations initiated laterally was observed in the laser etching of the tensile aspect of the prosthesis. However, metallurgical analysis suggested that laser engraving did not alter the microstructure of the stem. Stress due to the absence of proximal femoral bone support may have been sufficiently high to put this particular stem at risk for fatigue fracture. This important complication should be addressed when choosing this therapeutic option in cases with substantial proximal femoral bone loss. Strut allograft support should be recommended in such cases. PMID:17689793

Buttaro, Martín A; Mayor, Michael B; Van Citters, Douglas; Piccaluga, Francisco



Generalized energy principle for flute perturbations in axisymmetric mirror machines  

SciTech Connect

Axial symmetry is a very desirable property of the mirror devices both for fusion and neutron source applications. The main obstacle to be circumvented in the development of such systems, is the flute instability of axisymmetric mirrors. In recent years there appeared a number of proposals, devoted to the stabilization of the flute perturbations in the framework of axisymmetric magnetic configurations, which are based on the combining of the MHD unstable central cell with various types of end-cell stabilizers. In the present paper we concentrate ourselves just on this scheme, including long solenoid with a uniform field, conjugated with the end stabilizing anchor, intended to provide MHD stability of the system as a whole. The attractive feature of such a configuration is that it allows to exploit finite larmor radius (FLR) effects for the stabilization of the flute perturbations. As is well known, FLR effects, being strong, stabilize all flute modes, except the one with azimuthal number m = 1, corresponding to the ``rigid`` displacement of the plasma column (the ``global`` mode). Consequently, in the conditions when FLR effects dominate, the anchor has to stabilize the ``global` mode only. Bearing in mind a favorable influence of FLR effects we, however, don`t restrict our paper by discussion of only ``global`` mode stability and consider a general case of an arbitrary azimuthal mode.

Lansky, I.M.; Ryutov, D.D. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki



Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute": Negotiating Multiple Aesthetic Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the integration of photographs and text in fictional works specifically regarding Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute." Introduces the story and explores questions in detail regarding the presentation of its photographs in American publications. Attempts to make the readers become aware of alternative reading strategies that expand schemata…

Day, Karen S.



Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to determine the biochemical composition of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.) at different stages of growth. Analyses were carried out at 12 and 50 weeks after planting on stems, leaves and roots, while seeds were analysed 8 and 32 weeks, respectively, after antethesis. Proximate moisture and carbohydrate content decreased in stems, leaves, roots and seeds with

Ekpedeme U Akwaowo; Bassey A Ndon; Ekaete U Etuk



Numerical calculation of flute impedances and standing waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the acoustic impedance of flute struc- tures may be of assistance in understanding their intonation, tonal quality, and interaction of the excitation with the bore. A method for numerically calculating impedances may be a useful supplement to other experimental and theoretical methods such as impedance measurements and perturbation techniques. Sufficient experimental data for musical instru- ment structures

William J. Strong; Neville H. Fletcher; Ron K. Silk



Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan



Stabilite Electrostatique des Plasmas de Longueur Finie. Instabilites en 'Flutes' (Electrostatic Stability of Plasmas of Finite Length 'Flute' Instabilities).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the simplest case of slab geometry with an equilibrium state we write the full dispersion relation for 'flute' instabilities, taking into account: the finite length (along z direction) of the plasma. an y cold plasma between this plasma and conducting ...

M. Cotsaftis



Fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis : West African vegetable crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluted pumpkin, Telfairia occidentalis, is native to West Africa but occurs mostly in its cultivated form in various parts\\u000a of southern Nigeria.It is widely cultivated for its palatable and nutritious leaves which are used mainly as vegetable. The\\u000a seeds are also nutritious and rich in an oil which may be used for cooking and soap manufacture. Its taxonomy, morphology\\u000a and

Bosa E. Okoli; C. M. Mgbeogu



Utilization of fluted pumpkin fruit ( Telfairia occidentalis) in marmalade manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marmalade was produced from fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis) fruit. The fruit was pulped, boiled and filtered to obtain pectin extract. The extract was boiled at 102 °C for 30 min with the pH and sugar levels adjusted to 3.2 and 68.5 °Brix, respectively. Fruit shreds were added towards the end of boiling. Results of analyses showed that the pulp

M. K. Egbekun; E. O. Nda-Suleiman; O. Akinyeye



Modulational Instability and Electromagnetic Wave Scattering of Plasma Flute Modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulation instability of the plasma electromagnetic flute modes has been derived and investigated for two different cases. In the first case, the modulational instability of the ute modes for finite beta plasmas, where the plasma pressure is comparable to that of the external magnetic field one, has been derived. While in the second case, the modulational instability of the flute modes for low beta plasmas, where the plasma dynamics are dominated by the external magnetic field, with the effects of the ion temperature gradient has been derived. It is shown through numerical code, called Flute which was developed by Dr. Leboeuf for the NTF, that these ute modes are responsible for the generation of large scale structures in the plasma (the zonal flows), which in turn are responsible for transferring the energy to higher values of the wave vectors through the four wave interaction which has been shown through the modulational instability. In the second part of this dissertation, the scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma ute vortices has been studied. The scattering cross section has been calculated for the incident S-wave, using MATHEMATICA in order to obtain the angle distribution of scattering cross section and the total scattering cross section numerically. It is found that the scattering cross-section decreases as the incident wave frequency increases and the scattering cross-section increases as the vortex radius increases.

Yasin, Essam


Louise Farrenc's Trio For Flute, Cello And Piano: A Critical Edition And Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many flutists believe that the romantic period saw a decline in music for their instrument. One purpose of this document is to republish Louise Farrenc’s Trio in E minor for Flute, Cello and Piano, Op. 45 in an attempt to add quality literature to the repertoire of nineteenth century flute music. In the most recent edition, the score has been

Andreas Paul Tischhauser



Bearing fluting in AC motors, DC motors and rolls on paper machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

When unexpected bearing losses were questioned at a paper mill, work began at the mill that led to a long-term investigation to determine the causes and incidence of a type of bearing damage called “bearing fluting.” It was discovered that many paper machines have bearing fluting and that this has caused significant down time and increased maintenance costs. Additionally, bearing

H. E. Boyanton; G. Hodges



Life history of the fluted kidneyshell ptychobranchus subtentum  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fluted kidneyshell Ptychobranchus subtentum (Say, 1825) is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Fecundity, fish hosts, and selected population demographics were determined during 20052006 for the fluted kidneyshell in the upper Clinch River, Hancock County, Tennessee. Females were fertilized in Aug. within a 5 d period and contained viable glochidia about 4 wk later. As the embryos began to develop, the marsupium gradually changed color from white to dark brown. Glochidia were contained within conglutinates that resemble Simuliidae pupae likely to attract benthic insectivorous fish and were held over winter and released in May. Fecundity was positively related to mussel length (r 2 = 0.81) and ranged from 43,000 to 500,000 glochidia. Eight species of darters (Etheostoma spp. and Percina spp.) were infested with glochidia in the laboratory to examine potential hosts and host suitability. Juveniles transformed on bluebreast darters E. camurum and dusky darters P. sciera and previously reported hosts: rainbow darters E. caeruleum and fantail darters E. flabellare. In addition, fantail darters and rainbow darters were infested with glochidia from two river systems. The median time of glochidial metamorphosis did not differ significantly between the two mussel populations. The observed ratio of adult females to males (1.9:1) in the Clinch River differed significantly from 1:1. Based upon thin-sections, individuals live to at least 26 y and females become sexually mature at age five. ?? 2012, American Midland Naturalist.

Davis, V. M.; Layzer, J. B.



Global modes of flute instability of a rotating cylindrical plasma  

SciTech Connect

The influence of rotation on the flute instability of a cylindrical gravitating plasma in a straight inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation and integral expression for the instability growth rate of eigenmodes are derived. It is shown that, in the framework of the given problem, rotation is a destabilizing factor, and the corresponding theorem is proved for the general case. For a linear radial profile of the rotation frequency, the structure of eigenmodes is calculated. The growth rate of these modes is shown to increase with increasing rotation velocity and azimuthal mode number. It is found that plasma rotation in the eigenmode localization region leads to the displacement of perturbation from the rotation region, which results in a decrease in the instability growth rate. The absence of eigenmodes (i.e., exponential instability of the system) for certain profiles of the density and rotation frequency is demonstrated.

Sorokina, E. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Nuclear Fusion (Russian Federation)



The Influence of the Flutes on the Mechanical Behaviour of the Ancient Greek Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that the columns in ancient Greek Temples were fluted due to aesthetical reasons only. However, a detailed\\u000a numerical analysis of the contact between adjacent drums of typical ancient columns revealed that the distribution of stress\\u000a concentrations along the perimeter of the stone drum during sliding corresponds to the typical fluting present in columns\\u000a of ancient Greek

S. K. Kourkoulis; K. E. Moupagitsoglou; N. L. Ninis


Spatiotemporal control and synchronization of flute modes and drift waves in a magnetized plasma column  

SciTech Connect

An open-loop spatiotemporal synchronization method is applied to flute modes in a cylindrical magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that synchronization can be achieved only if the exciter signal rotates in the same direction as the propagating mode. Moreover, the efficiency of the synchronization is shown to depend on the radial properties of the instability under consideration. It is also demonstrated that the control disposition can alternatively be used to produce strongly developed turbulence of drift waves or flute instabilities.

Brochard, F.; Bonhomme, G.; Gravier, E.; Oldenbuerger, S.; Philipp, M. [LPMIA, UMR 7040 du CNRS, Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)



Detecting overblown flute fingerings from the residual noise spectrum.  


Producing a tone by increasing the blowing pressure to excite a higher frequency impedance minimum, or overblowing, is widely used in standard flute technique. In this paper, the effect of overblowing a fingering is explored with spectral analysis, and a fingering detector is designed based on acoustical knowledge and pattern classification techniques. The detector performs signal analysis of the strong broadband signal, that is, spectrally shaped by the pipe impedance, and measures the spectral energy during the attack around multiples of the fundamental frequency sub-multiples over the first octave and a half. It is trained and evaluated on sounds recorded with four expert performers. They played six series of tones from overblown and regular fingerings, with frequencies that are octave- and non-octave-related to the playing frequency. The best of the four proposed sound descriptors allows for a detection error below 1.3% for notes with two and three fingerings (C(5), D(5), C(6), and Cmusical sharp(6)) and below 14% for four (E(6)) or five fingerings (G(6)). The error is shown to dramatically increase when two fingerings' impedance become too similar (E(6) and A(4) and G(6) and C(5)). PMID:20058998

Verfaille, Vincent; Depalle, Philippe; Wanderley, Marcelo M





Sections Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Chapters Biology of the Musculoskeletal System Bones Bone, although strong, is a constantly changing tissue that has several functions. Bones serve as rigid structures to ...


Generation and saturation of large-scale flows in flute turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The excitation and suppression of large-scale anisotropic modes during the temporal evolution of a magnetic-curvature-driven electrostatic flute instability are numerically investigated. The formation of streamerlike structures is attributed to the linear development of the instability while the subsequent excitation of the zonal modes is the result of the nonlinear coupling between linearly grown flute modes. When the amplitudes of the zonal modes become of the same order as that of the streamer modes, the flute instabilities get suppressed and poloidal (zonal) flows dominate. In the saturated state that follows, the dominant large-scale modes of the potential and the density are self-organized in different ways, depending on the value of the ion temperature.

Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V. P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 515, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR-157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)



The Korean Transverse Flute Taeg?m and Its Music Taeg?m Sanjo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korean transverse flute, taeg?m, is one of the most important musical instruments in Korea. It is used in most Korean musical genres, and its history is also one of the longest. Made of bamboo, the taeg?m has a lyrical tone color, and the variable pitch shading and the membrane sound are well adapted to express the emotion of Korean

Jong-in Angela Heo



Heat sinks with fluted and wavy plate fins in natural and low-velocity forced convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on heat transfer of geometrically rearranging the surface area of a finned heat sink is investigated. Novel heat sinks with fluted and wavy plate fin configurations are designed and fabricated together with conventional longitudinal-plate and pin fin heat sinks. The experimental apparatus, consisting of the guard heater assembly, isolation chamber, wind tunnel, and data acquisition instrumentation, is described.

Kamal K. Sikka; Kenneth E. Torrance; C. U. Scholler; P. I. Salanova



Heat sinks with fluted and wavy fins in natural and low-velocity forced convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel heat sinks with fluted and wavy fin configurations are designed and fabricated together with conventional longitudinal-plate and pin fin heat sinks. The experimental apparatus, consisting of the guard heater assembly, isolation chamber, wind tunnel and data acquisition instrumentation, is described. The thermal performance of the novel and conventional heat sinks is measured and compared for the horizontal and vertical

K. K. Sikka; K. E. Torrance; C. U. Scholler; P. I. Salanova



Some biochemical and nutritional changes during the fermentation of fluted pumpkin ( Telferia occidentalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH, soluble nitrogen, soluble solids and titratable acidity increased during a 6 day fermentation of fluted pumpkin seeds. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of trimethylsilyl (TMS) dirivatives of carbohydrates extracted from the seeds showed that the unfermented seeds contained mostly sucrose with a low content of flatus-oligosaccharides, raffinose and stachyose. There were also high contents of fructose and galactose. Fermentation

S. C. Achinewhu



Cascading process in the flute-mode turbulence of a plasma  

SciTech Connect

The cascades of ideal invariants in the flute-mode turbulence are analyzed by considering a statistics based on an elementary three-mode coupling process. The statistical dynamics of the system is investigated on the basis of the existence of the physically most important (PMI) triad. When finite ion Larmor radius effects are considered, the PMI triad describes the formation of zonal flows.

Gonzalez, R.; Gomez, D.; Ferro Fontan, C. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C C No. 67, Sucursal 28, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Sicardi Schifino, A.C.; Montagne, R. (Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, CC 10773, CP 11200, Montevideo (Uruguay) Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de la Republica, CC No. 30, CP 11000, Montevideo (Uruguay))



Idea Bank: The Native American Flute--A Possibility for Your Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The sound of the Native American flute seems to convey care, sadness, loneliness, longing, heartfelt emotion, a sense of the natural world, wisdom, the human spirit, and a sense of culture. It is a sound that competes for attention, dramatically punctuating messages about First Nation peoples on television and in movies. A relatively small group…

Kacanek, Hal



Low-Frequency Flute Instabilities of a Hollow Cathode Arc Discharge: Theory and Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of two low-frequency electrostatic flute instabilities of a low-pressure hollow cathode arc discharge are reported. Mode 1 has azimuthal mode number m=1, and occurs when the radial electric field is negative (directed inwards) while Mo...

D. B. Ilic F. W. Crawford S. A. Self T. D. Rognlien



Low-frequency flute instabilities of a hollow cathode arc discharge: Theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of two low-frequency electrostatic flute ; instabilities of a low-pressure hollow cathode arc discharge are reported. Mode ; I has azimuthal mode number m = 1, and occurs when the radial electric field is ; negative (directed inward) while mode II has m = -- 1 and occurs when the field ; is positive. The radial electric field

D. B. Ilic; T. D. Rognlien; S. A. Self; F. W. Crawford



Low-frequency flute instabilities of a hollow cathode arc discharge: Theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of two low-frequency electrostatic flute instabilities of a low-pressure hollow cathode arc discharge are reported. Mode I has azimuthal mode number m = 1, and occurs when the radial electric field is negative (directed inward) while mode II has m = ?1 and occurs when the field is positive. The radial electric field is controlled by varying the

D. B. Ilic´; T. D. Rognlien; S. A. Self; F. W. Crawford



Color removal from textile wastewater by using treated flute reed in a fixed bed column  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the ability of acid treated flute reed to adsorb color (dye) from synthetic reactive dye solutions, and actual dyeing and printing textile wastewaters in a laboratory scale fixed bed column. The effects of particle size, initial reactive dye concentration, bed depth and flow rate on adsorption performances were examined. The results from experiments with synthetic reactive dye

Duangrat Inthorn; Kannika Tipprasertsin; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan



The Effects of Verbal Instruction, Modeling, Rehearsal, and Feedback on Correct Posture during Flute Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A behavioral skills training package, including verbal instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, was used to teach children correct posture, defined as keeping feet on the floor, legs parallel to each other, and the back and neck perpendicular to the floor, during flute lessons. Three typically developing girls aged 8 to 9 years…

Dib, Nancy Ellen; Sturmey, Peter



Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds,

S. Y. Giami; B. S. Chibor; K. E. Edebiri; S. C. Achinewhu



Flute-model acoustic metamaterials with simultaneously negative bulk modulus and mass density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally constructed a three-dimensional flute-model meta-molecule structure acoustic metamaterial (AM) from a periodic array of perforated hollow steel tubes (PHSTs) and investigated its transmission and reflection behaviors in an impedance tube system. The AM exhibited a peak and dip, and an inverse phase, thus exhibiting the local resonance of the PHSTs. Based on the homogeneous media theory, the effective bulk modulus and mass density of the AM were calculated to be simultaneously negative; the refractive index was also negative. PHST AM slab focusing experiments showed that the medium with a resonant structure exhibited a distinct metamaterial property.

Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Luo, Chun-Rong; Chen, Huai-Jun; Zhai, Shi-Long; Ding, Chang-Lin; Zhao, Xiao-Peng



Transitions to spatiotemporal chaos and turbulence of flute instabilities in a low-{beta} magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect

The spatiotemporal transition scenario of flute instabilities from a regular to a turbulent state is experimentally investigated in the low-{beta} plasma column of a thermionic discharge. The same transition scenario, i.e., the Ruelle-Takens route to turbulence, is found for both the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. It is demonstrated that the transition can be more or less smooth, according to the discharge mode. In both cases, a strong radial dependence is observed, which is linked to the velocity shear layer in the case of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G. [LPMIA, UMR 7040 du CNRS, Universite Henri Poincare, Boite Postale 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)



Stability criteria for edge flute modes in the two-fluid regime  

SciTech Connect

Necessary and sufficient stability criteria for flute modes localized at the edge of toroidal plasmas are obtained from the Braginskii's two-fluid equations without taking into account the collisional effects. It is assumed that the plasma pressure tends to vanish, but its gradient remains finite at the edge of the plasma. The results show that the free-boundary edge flute modes (namely, the peeling modes) are more dangerous than the fixed-boundary modes (namely, the Mercier modes). Numerical investigation of the criterion for peeling modes shows that the finite ion-gyroradius effect can substantially stabilize the modes, especially for the case [Delta][ge]0, where the equilibrium quantity [Delta][equivalent to]1/2+[ital S][sup [minus]1][lt][bold j][center dot][bold B][vert bar][del][ital v][vert bar][sup [minus]2][gt], with [ital S] denoting the global shear, [bold B] the magnetic field, [bold j] the current density, [ital v] the volume inside the reference magnetic surface, and [lt]...[gt] denoting the average over the magnetic surface. Equilibria with [Delta][ge]0 are shown to be more stable to the peeling modes than those with [Delta][le]0.

Zheng, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, D-8046 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany))



The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability and flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales  

SciTech Connect

The theory of flute waves (with arbitrary spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius) driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is developed. Both the kinetic and hydrodynamic models are considered. In this way we have extended the previous analysis of RTI carried out in the long wavelength limit. It is found that complete finite ion Larmor radius stabilization is absent when the ion diamagnetic velocity attains the ion gravitation drift velocity. The hydrodynamic approach allowed us to deduce a new set of nonlinear equations for flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales. It is shown that the previously deduced equations are inadequate when the wavelength becomes of the order of the ion Larmor radius. In the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to the results of the fully kinetic treatment. The development of such a theory gives us enough grounds for an adequate description of the RTI stabilization by the finite ion Larmor radius effect.

Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A. [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Shukla, P. K. [RUB International Chair, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)



Tapered Fluted Titanium Stems in the Management of Vancouver B2 and B3 Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures.  


BACKGROUND: Surgeons have several implant choices when managing Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures about the hip. Few long-term studies have reported outcomes for tapered fluted titanium stems. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We determined (1) survival, with femoral revision as the end point, of distal taper stems in the treatment of Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures at our institution, (2) radiographic outcomes, and (3) quality of life and hip function after revision. METHODS: Of the 200 patients with Vancouver B2 or B3 periprosthetic fractures treated with femoral revision between February 2000 and February 2010, 55 (38 B2, 17 B3) were treated with modular tapered titanium stems. Of the surviving 47 patients, one was lost to followup, leaving 46 (30 B2, 16 B3) available for review at a mean of 54 months (range, 24-143 months). Initial indications for using these implants were treatment of periprosthetic fractures where less than 4 cm of diaphyseal fit was available, but this evolved during the study period to all fractures unless no diaphysis remained, in which case complex revision techniques were used. Radiographs were assessed to establish fracture healing, stem subsidence, and bone stock restoration. Quality of life and hip function were assessed using WOMAC, Oxford, SF-12, UCLA activity level, and satisfaction scores. RESULTS: Two femoral stems were revised: one subsided and was revised at 12 months; the other had deep infection and underwent two-stage revision at 49 months. Radiographic review showed one nonunion, with maintenance or improvement of bone stock in 89% of patients. Subsidence occurred in 24%. Mean Oxford score was 76 of 100, WOMAC function and pain scores were 75 and 82 of 100, satisfaction score was 91 of 100, and SF-12 mental and physical scores were 53 and 40 of 100. CONCLUSIONS: We report encouraging short-term results in terms of survival of distal taper stems in the treatment of B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures. Although subsidence was frequent, most migrated less than 3 mm without correlation to poor pain and functional scores. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23719963

Munro, Jacob T; Garbuz, Donald S; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P



Myth, gender, and musical meaning: The magic flute, Beethoven, and 19th?century sonata form revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its convoluted story, The Magic Flute is rightly seen as one of the most problematic works in the standard repertory, particularly when the moral ambiguities and inexplicable twists in that story seem to imply misogynist and racist views on the part of Schikaneder and, by implication, Mozart. Analysis of the plot in terms of Jungian symbols and archetypes,

Robin Wallace



Kinetic simulation of stratifications and flute structures of charged particle jets and wakes in the ambient magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

General methods are proposed for simulations of time-dependent stratifications and flute structures of charged particle jets and wakes in the ambient magnetic field based on the kinetic approach. The Boltzmann equation solved taking into account the ambient electric and magnetic fields. Using this solution the analytical results are obtained, which describe developing magnetic field aligned stratifications of charged particle jets

M. G. Ponomarjov



Active feedback stabilization of the flute instability in a mirror machine using field-aligned coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma confined in linear mirror machines is unstable even at low ?, mainly because of the flute instability. One possible way to stabilize the plasma is to use active feedback to correct the plasma shape in real time. The theoretically investigated apparatus consists of feedback coils aligned with the magnetic field, immersed in a cold plasma around the hot core. When the current through the feedback coils changes, the plasma moves to conserve the magnetic flux via compressional Alfvén waves. An analytical model is used to find a robust feedback algorithm with zero residual currents. It is shown that due to the plasma's rotation, maximal stability is obtained with a large phase angle between the perturbations' modes and the feedback integral-like term. Finally, a two-dimensional MHD simulation implementing the above algorithm in fact shows stabilization of the plasma with zero residual currents.

Lifshitz, A.; Be'ery, I.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Fruchtman, A.



Stabilization of electrostatic, purely growing, finite ion gyroradius, flute instabilities in the ionosphere  

SciTech Connect

The ambient background plasma is shown to have an important stabilizing influence on the generation of electrostatic, purely growing, finite ion gyroradius, flute instabilities driven by ion loss cone distribution functions associated with shaped barium injection across the ambient magnetic field in the ionosphere. This stabilization implies that such short scale size instabilities and the striations they produce will only be present if the background plasma density is low enough. Consistent with the experimental observations of the striations, it is shown that for the parameters of the Buaro barium release experiment the background plasma density is insufficient to completely stabilize the finite ion gyroradius modes; however, background ion density does reduce the growth rate from the level predicted with a theory which does not include the background plasma dynamics.

Sperling, J.L.; Krall, N.A.



Flute instability in the tandem mirror with the divertor/dipole regions  

SciTech Connect

The numerical simulation is performed in GAMMA10 A-divertor magnetic configuration, which is a candidate of remodeled device of the GAMMA10 tandem mirror [M. Inutake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985)]. Both divertor and dipole regions are included in the numerical calculation, which is a new point. The electron short circuit effect along x-point, therefore, is not assumed so that it is not used the boundary condition of the electrostatic perturbations being zero at the separatrix on which the magnetic field lines pass through x-point. The simulation results reveal that the dipole field plays a role of a good magnetic field line curvature to the GAMMA10 A-divertor, and so the flute modes are stabilized without help of electron short circuit effects.

Katanuma, I.; Masaki, S.; Sato, S.; Sekiya, K.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)



A model for spiral flows in basal ice and the formation of subglacial flutes based on a Reiner-Rivlin rheology for glacial ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flutes are elongated sediment ridges formed at the base of glaciers and ice sheets. In this paper, we show that flutes can be the product of a corkscrew-like spiral flow in basal ice that removes sediment from troughs between flutes and deposits it at their crests, as first suggested by Shaw and Freschauf. In order to generate the type of basal ice flow required for this mechanism, the viscous rheology of ice must allow for the generation of deviatoric normal stresses transverse to the main flow direction. This type of behavior, which is commonly observed in real nonlinearly viscous and viscoelastic fluids, can be described by a Reiner-Rivlin rheology. Here, we develop a mathematical model that describes the role of these transverse stresses in generating spiral flows in basal ice and investigate how these flows lead to the amplification of initially small basal topography and the eventual formation of assemblies of evenly spaced subglacial flutes.

Schoof, Christian G.; Clarke, Garry K. C.



Preparation and properties of flours and protein concentrates from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition and selected functional properties of flours and protein concentrates prepared from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds were studied. Protein concentrates prepared by an alkaline extraction process had increased crude protein contents (61.5–70.8%) compared to flour samples (46.4–52.7%). The yields of protein concentrates ranged from 24.5% to 29.4% while values

Sunday Y. Giami; Isaac Isichei



Stress-Strain Analysis and Visual Observation of Wheat Kernel Breakage During Roller Milling Using Fluted Rolls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(4):511-517 The endosperm and bran of a wheat grain have different mechanical properties and break differently under the same stresses. Stress-strain analysis was used to model the factors affecting wheat kernel breakage during milling using fluted rolls. The planes of principal compressive and tensile stress and the maximum shear stresses, along which the kernel is most likely to

Chaoying Fang; Grant M. Campbell



Cutoff frequencies and cross fingerings in baroque, classical, and modern flutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baroque, classical, and modern flutes have successively more and larger tone holes. This paper reports measurements of the standing waves in the bores of instruments representing these three classes. It presents the frequency dependence of propagation of standing waves in lattices of open tone holes and compares these measurements with the cutoff frequency: the frequency at which, in an idealized system, the standing waves propagate without loss in such a lattice. It also reports the dependence of the sound field in the bore of the instrument as a function of both frequency and position along the bore for both simple and ``cross fingerings'' (configurations in which one or more tone holes are closed below an open hole). These measurements show how ``cross fingerings'' produce a longer standing wave, a technique used to produce the nondiatonic notes on instruments with a small number of tone holes closed only by the unaided fingers. They also show why the changes from baroque to classical to modern gave the instruments a louder, brighter sound and a greater range.

Wolfe, Joe; Smith, John



Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population--a dispersal model approach.  


Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1-68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m(2)). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks. PMID:23555597

Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L A; van Beek, Jan K L; van Maren, Dirk S; Teo, Serena L-M; Todd, Peter A



Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

Murphy, R.W.



Flute Performance Practice in the United States (1870-1900): An Exploration of the Repertoire and Writings of Sidney Lanier and Henry Clay Wysham  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boehm-system flutes were adopted by most professional flutists in the United States between 1870 and 1900, and American audiences proved to be receptive to the new timbral and technical possibilities of this instrument. The repertoire and writings of Sidney Lanier (1842-1881) and Henry Clay Wysham (1828-1900) detail the performance practice and musical culture that emerged in the United States when

Ellen C. Johnson



Bone tumor  


Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondard bone tumor ... malignant) bone tumors include: Chondrosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma Fibrosarcoma Osteosarcomas The cancers that most often spread to the ...


The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

Saktanli, S. Cem



Space Flute Duet  

NASA Video Gallery

Harmony reaches new heights as NASA Astronaut Cady Coleman, circling Earth aboard the International Space Station, and musician Ian Anderson, founder of the rock band Jethro Tull, join together for the first space-Earth duet.

Gerald T Wright



Short bones  


Short bones in the human body are often cubelike -- the length, width, and height measurements are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones (hands, wrist) and tarsal bones (feet, ankles)


Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.



Bone Scan  


... Sign up Definition A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you can expect A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...


Bone Metastasis  


... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Bone metastasis By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing for ...


Bone Markers  


... Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommend two blood tests for evaluating bone ... Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommend two blood tests for evaluating bone ...


Bone Infections  


... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...


Bone Markers  


... Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling Related tests: Calcium , Phosphorus , ... 2013. Singer, F. and Eyre, D. (2008). Using biochemical markers of bone turnover in clinical practice. [On- ...


Bone Tumor  


... include: Non-ossifying fibromaunicameral (simple) bone cyst Osteochondroma Giant cell tumor Enchondroma Fibrous dysplasia Top of page ... Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Giant Cell Tumor of ...


Bone Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.



Influence of tool geometry on drilling performance of cortical and trabecular bone.  


Minimally invasive surgery poses high demands on tool design. The goal was to measure the influence of drill bit geometry on maximum thrust forces required for drilling, and compare this relative to the known influence of feed rate and bone composition. Blind holes were drilled perpendicular to the iliac crest up to 10 mm depth in cadaveric pelvic bones of 20 pigs (adolescent) and 11 goats (full grown) with eight substantially different drill bits of ? 3-3.2 mm. Subsequently, boreholes were drilled perpendicular to the ilium with the same drill bits at three different feed rates (0.58 mm/s, 0.83 mm/s, 1.08 mm/s). The mean maximum thrust force ranges from 10 to 110 N for cortical bone, and from 3 to 65 N for trabecular bone. The results show that both drill bit geometry and feed rate have a significant influence on the maximum thrust forces, with a dominant influence of drill bit geometry in terms of shape of the flutes, sharpness of cutting edges and value of point angle. The differences in thrust forces between cortical and trabecular bone are substantial for all measured conditions. The measured values can be used for drill design. PMID:23298783

Tuijthof, G J M; Frühwirt, C; Kment, C



Bone and bone graft healing.  


Bone is unique in connective tissue healing because it heals entirely by cellular regeneration and the production of a mineral matrix rather than just collagen deposition known as scar. This article discusses the cellular, tissue, and organ levels in each of the following sections--skeletal embryology, normal bone, examples of abnormal bone, and bone graft healing--as they relate to the jaws and the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:18088897

Marx, Robert E



Bone Bending  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about bones, learners' jaws will drop when a bone is tied in a knot! A rib or turkey/chicken leg bone is placed in a jar of vinegar. After two weeks, the calcium in the bone dissolves in the vinegar, so the bone is able to bend, sometimes into a knot. This activity can also be done with an egg, which is described at the end of this lesson. Use this experiment to illustrate the anatomy of bones and the process of ossification. This activity is featured on pp.13-14 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.



Changes of bone mineral density after cementless total hip arthroplasty with two different stems  

PubMed Central

Cementless total hip arthroplasty has achieved reliable long-term results since porous coatings were developed, but postoperative changes around the stem remain poorly documented. In this study, changes of the bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between two types of cementless stem. In group B (28 patients with 31 hips), a straight tapered stem with porous plasma spray coating on the proximal 1/4 was used, while group S (24 patients with 26 hips) was given a fluted, tri-slot stem with porous hydroxyapatite coating on the proximal 1/3. In group B, there was an early decrease of BMD, which recovered after 12 months, indicating that stress shielding was minimal. In group S, however, BMD continued to decrease without recovery. The stem shape and radiological findings suggested that the cause of stress shielding in group S was distal fixation.

Ito, Kouji; Yamamoto, Kengo



Bendy Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.




Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;



What Is Bone?  


... 206 KB) Related Resources Bone Health for Life Bone Density Measurement Bone Density Measurement (??) Pruebas de la Densidad Osea (Bone Density Measurement) Partner Resources Surgeon General's Report on Bone ...


Bone Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.



Bone Health  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loading is a crucial factor for maintaining skeletal health. Physical activities, exercise, and sports provide a wealth and variety of mechanical loads to bones, through muscle forces, ground reaction forces, and other contact or impact forces. Weightbearing activities can be effective exercises to enhance bone health—particularly, those that involve jumping and impact loads (with greater strain magnitudes, rates, and frequencies). Physical activity appears to be acutely beneficial for enhancing bone health in the early pubertal period and in older age, such as in postmenopausal women. In preparing this article, PubMed, Web of Science, and relevant edited books (English language) were reviewed from 1961 to present.

Manske, Sarah L.; Lorincz, Caeley R.; Zernicke, Ron F.



Bone Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to bones and the artist Georgia O'Keeffe, learners create artworks inspired by natural objects. Learners first research and discuss the artwork of O'Keeffe. Then learners create a work of art based on found objects in nature using various media (watercolor, chalk, colored pencil, etc.). Upon completion of the project, the artwork can be displayed in a mural. Use this activity to help learners investigate how bones and natural objects are used in art. This activity is featured on pp.43-44 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.



Bone Spurs  


... joint. Shoulder. Bone spurs can rub on your rotator cuff, a group of muscles and tendons that help ... can cause swelling (tendinitis) and tears in your rotator cuff. Fingers. Appearing as hard lumps under your skin, ...


Broken bone  


Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture ... as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip ... circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in ...


Bone Densitometry  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... In people with osteoporosis, new bone has less calcium in it and is therefore weaker than the ... 1 Some antacids contain aluminum hydroxide, which prevents calcium from being absorbed by the body. People who ...


Buried Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains an activity in which students create make-believe dig sites by burying chicken bones in plaster of Paris. Then they try to excavate the "fossils." Students discover that fossilized bones are usually very delicate and deeply buried in rocks. Removing them in a lab takes skill, patience, and the right tools. This activity may be done at school or at home with a friend and adult supervision.


Bone plate  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A bone plate assembly and method of use comprising a head; a shaft; an upper surface; a lower surface having a fixed plane intended to be adjacent to the patient's bone when the plate is in use; a first hole positioned in the head wherein the first hole passes through the upper and lower surfaces and is configured to fix a shaft of a first bone anchor along a first axis; a second hole positioned on the anterior portion of the upper surface of the head wherein the second hole passes through the upper and lower surfaces and is configured to fix a shaft of a second bone anchor along a second axis; and a third hole positioned in the posterior side of the head wherein the third hole passes through the upper and lower surfaces and is configured to fix a shaft of a third bone anchor along a third axis, wherein the first axis, the second axis and the third axis do not intersect in the bone when the plate is in use.

Gehlert; Rick J. (Albuquerque, NM)



Distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of a cementless revision total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose According to the manual of the cementless Link MP reconstruction prosthesis, a distal femoral stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm is necessary to gain implant stability. There have been no in vivo studies showing that this distance is either achieved in clinical practice or needed for clinically satisfying results. Thus, we assessed the femoral stem-bone anchorage of the MP prosthesis using CT. Methods 14 patients with the MP stem were evaluated by CT scans at a median follow-up time of 12 months postoperatively. Femoral stem-bone anchorage was defined as adequate if 50% of the stem flutes or more had cortical bone contact. The length of anchorage was derived from the number of slices with adequate anchorage. Clinical outcome was assessed with VAS for pain and Harris hip score (HHS), both at 1 and 5 years of follow-up. Results The median length of stem-bone anchorage was 33 mm (interquartile range 10–60), which was shorter than recommended (p = 0.002). Still, at the 1-year control, all patients were fully weight-bearing and only 1/14 complained about mild thigh pain. 7/14 patients did not experience any pain in the affected hip. The patients had a median of 85 points in the HHS. The clinical outcome at 5 years was unchanged. Interpretation We found that it can be difficult to achieve a stem-bone anchorage of at least 80 mm for the MP Link prosthesis. However, this does not appear to be necessary to obtain stability and to achieve clinically satisfying results.

Stromwall, Fredrik; Beckman, Mats O; Hansson, Karl A; Stark, Andre



Bone Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

Exploratorium, The



Bone density scan (image)  


A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. The lower the density of a bone the ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and ...


Paget's Disease of Bone  


... osteoclasts" absorb bone. Cells of the bone called "osteoblasts" make new bone. Left, Large, plump osteoclasts (OCL) ... In Paget's disease, osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts. This means that there is more bone absorption ...


Genetics of Bone Density  


... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...


Bone Cancer  


... large or located in a complicated point on the bone may require surgery to remove all or part of a limb (amputation). As other treatments have been developed, this procedure is becoming less common. You'll likely be fitted with an artificial limb after surgery and will go through training ...


Bone substitutes: new concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filling of bone defects resulting from trauma or surgical resections of tumors requires bone grafts or bone substitutes. Bone substitute must be biocompatible, osteoconductive, and must present good mechanical properties. Among biomaterials classicaly used, calcium phosphate ceramic appear to be suitable alternatives to bone grafts. Calcium phosphate are known able to promote new bone formation on contact and have

D. Heymann; N. Passuti



Dating of Cremated Bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT.When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. Wedeveloped a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using

J. N. Lanting; A. T. Aerts-Bijma; J. van der Plicht



Buried Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, pairs of learners will create two make-believe dig sites by burying chicken bones in plaster of Paris--a powder that hardens when wet. Then, learners try to excavate (dig out) their partner's "fossils." Learners will discover that excavating fossils requires skill, patience, and the right tools. Note: this activity requires adult supervision as working with plaster of Paris can be dangerous if not done properly.

History, American M.



One Bone, Two Bones, Wet Bones, Dry Bones: Transport Potentials Under Experimental Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flume experiments demonstrated that bones had varying hydraulic transport potentials depending on whether the bones were wet or dry, articulated or disarticulated when placed into a water flow. Dry and articulated bones demonstrated the greatest transport potential, while wet and disarticulated bones demonstrated the least. The velocity at which bones were transported was plotted against a range of attributes such

R. Coard



Dinosaur Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing chicken bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone.

Science, Lawrence H.



Bone marrow aspiration  


... soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of this tissue in liquid form for examination. See also: Bone marrow biopsy Bone marrow culture


Detailed Guide: Bone Cancer  


... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Bone Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » View Overview Guide » Español » ... the topics below to get started. What Is Bone Cancer? What is cancer? What is bone cancer? What ...


Menopause and Bone Loss  


... of your bones, your doctor may do a bone density test (DeXa scan). this test gives exact measurements ... for osteoporosis? • how often should i have a bone density test? • should i take calcium and vitamin d ...


Disorders of Bone Remodeling  

PubMed Central

The skeleton provides mechanical support for stature and locomotion, protects vital organs, and controls mineral homeostasis. A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling to carry out these crucial functions throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent replacement of new bone formed by osteoblasts (bone formation). Normal bone remodeling requires a tight coupling of bone resorption to bone formation to guarantee no alteration in bone mass or quality after each remodeling cycle. However, this important physiological process can be derailed by a variety of factors, including menopause-associated hormonal changes, age-related factors, changes in physical activity, drugs, and secondary diseases, which lead to the development of various bone disorders in both women and men. We review the major diseases of bone remodeling, emphasizing our current understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

Feng, Xu; McDonald, Jay M.



What Is Bone Cancer?  


... itself. The most common bone cancer is called multiple myeloma. Another cancer that starts in the bone marrow ... in lymph nodes, can start in bone marrow. Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia are not discussed in this ...


[Blood disease and bone].  


Certain types of hematological disorders show distinct bone lesions. Multiple myeloma and primary bone lymphoma develop in the bone marrow to often cause bone destruction. These tumors stimulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by enhancing RANKL expression, and suppress bone formation by inhibiting osteoblast differentiation, leading to bone destruction with rapid loss of bone. Osteosclerotic lesions are manifested in POEMS syndrome and primary myelofibrosis. Hypercalcemia is often associated with aggressive types of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and multiple myeloma in advanced stages. PMID:23354094

Abe, Masahiro



Sex Steroids and Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the




Bone grafts in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

Kumar, Prasanna; Vinitha, Belliappa; Fathima, Ghousia



Cholinergic regulation of bone.  


Bone remodeling is regulated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the adrenergic and the cholinergic branches. Adrenergic activity favors bone loss, whereas cholinergic activity has been recently shown to favor bone mass accrual. In vitro studies have reported that cholinergic activity induces proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. In vivo studies have shown that the inhibition of cholinergic activity favors bone loss, whereas its stimulation favors bone mass accrual. Clinical studies have shown that bone density is associated with the function of many cholinergic-regulated tissues such as the hypothalamus, salivary glands, lacrimal glands and langerhans cells, suggesting a common mechanism of control. Altogether, these observations and linked findings are of great significance since they improve our understanding of bone physiology. These discoveries have been successfully used recently to investigate new promising therapies for bone diseases based on cholinergic stimulation. Here, we review the current understanding of the cholinergic activity and its association with bone health. PMID:23728099

Eimar, H; Tamimi, I; Murshed, M; Tamimi, F



Basic bone radiology  

SciTech Connect

This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

Griffiths, H.J.



Pathophysiology of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a very common site for cancer metastasis and may be the only site of metastasis in patients with breast cancer or\\u000a prostate cancer. The exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, but it has been estimated that approximately 300,000–400,000\\u000a people in the United States die from bone metastasis each year. Bone metastasis can involve any bone but has

G. David. Roodman


The Bone Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the mysterious layers of bones. Learners work in groups and use magnifying glasses to make observations about a variety of bones (long bones, round bones -- from beef, chicken, pork, etc.). Learners record their findings on a graphic organizer. This activity is featured on pp. 21-22 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.



Measuring bone quality.  


Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass and impairment of bone quality that lead to bone fragility and fracture risk. Bone quality includes a hierarchy of properties from macroscopic to nanoscale level. Several techniques have been developed in an attempt to measure these non-density properties. Densitometry, high-resolution images (radiography, CT scan), and MRI can measure the geometry and microarchitecture of bone. Tissue mineralization and composition can be assessed by use of microradiography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, or Raman microspectroscopy. Finite-element analysis is an image-based method that enables calculation of bone strength. More recently, microindentation has enabled direct estimation of bone material strength, measured in the cortical bone of the tibia. Most of these techniques are of limited use to clinics, although finite-element analysis and microindentation have high potential for clinical use and can enable more comprehensive and accurate evaluation of bone fragility and fracture susceptibility. PMID:24072603

Torres-Del-Pliego, Elisa; Vilaplana, Laia; Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Diez-Pérez, Adolfo



Osteocyte Signaling in Bone  

PubMed Central

Osteocytes, the cells residing within the bone matrix and comprising 90% to 95% of the all bone cells, have long been considered quiescent bystander cells compared to the osteoblasts and osteoclasts whose activities cause bone gain and loss, and whose dysfunction lead to growth defects and osteoporosis. However, recent studies show that osteocytes play a crucial, central role in regulating the dynamic nature of bone in all its diverse functions. Osteocytes are now known to be the principal sensors for mechanical loading of bone. They produce the soluble factors that regulate the onset of both bone formation and resorption. Osteocytes regulate local mineral deposition and chemistry at the bone matrix level, and they also function as endocrine cells producing factors that target distant organs such as the kidney to regulate phosphate transport. Osteocytes appear to be the major local orchestrator of many of bone’s functions.

Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Kennedy, Oran D.



The Bone Zone: Bone Construction Ahead  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a bone model and simulate changes that occur during the healing process and growth of a bone. Using pre-made or homemade play dough (recipe included) and other everyday items, learners reconstruct a cross-section model of a bone. Time estimate is based on time required when using pre-made play dough. This activity is featured on pp.16-17 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.



Bone strength: current concepts.  


Bones serve several mechanical functions, including acoustic amplification in the middle ear, shielding vital organs from trauma, and serving as levers for muscles to contract against. Bone is a multiphase material made up of a tough collagenous matrix intermingled with rigid mineral crystals. The mineral gives bone its stiffness. Without sufficient mineralization, bones will plastically deform under load. Collagen provides toughness to bone making it less brittle so that it better resists fracture. Bone adapts to mechanical stresses largely by changing its size and shape, which are major determinants of its resistance to fracture. Tissue is added in regions of high mechanical stress providing an efficient means for improving bone strength. Experiments have shown that small additions of bone mineral density (BMD) (5-8%) caused by mechanical loading can improve bone strength by over 60% and extend bone fatigue life by 100-fold. Consequently, it is clear that bone tissue possesses a mechanosensing apparatus that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, second messengers, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, insulin-like growth factors, and Wnt signaling. PMID:16831941

Turner, Charles H



[Bone metabolic markers for evaluation of bone metastases].  


Bone metabolic markers consist of bone formation markers, which are secreted from osteoblasts (BAP, OC, P1CP, P1NP) , and bone resorption markers, which are metabolites of bone type 1 collagen or secreted from osteoclasts (PYD, DPD, NTX, CTX, 1CTP, TRACP) . Those bone metabolic markers are useful for : (1) diagnosis of bone metastases, (2) follow-up during treatment of bone metastases, and (3)predicting prognosis of bone metastases. PMID:23445893

Takahashi, Shunji



Your Bones: Hard Facts  


... but also very light. Wanna know a cool fact? Most of your body's calcium is found in your bones and teeth!! (The rest is in your blood — weird, huh?) Besides calcium and collagen, bones also contain ...


Bone mineral density test  


BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...


Ultrasonic Bone Densitometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers include piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel an...

J. M. Hoop



Posterior Cervical Bone Screws  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Smith MD et al, Spine 1993: 18, 1984. Page 3. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... Page 4. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... More results from


Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures  


... They are held together with special screws or metal plates and screws. Percutaneous screw fixation. Sometimes, if the ... bone fragments and holding them in place with metal plates and screws. Top of page Recovery Bones have ...


Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer  


... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for bone cancer Chemotherapy for bone cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... etoposide or ifosfamide and doxorubicin Side effects of chemotherapy Chemo kills cancer cells, but it will also ...


Tumor metastasis to bone  

PubMed Central

Establishment of skeletal metastasis involves bidirectional interactions between the tumor cell and the cellular elements in the bone microenvironment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone metastasis will be critical in developing the means to prevent bone metastasis or inhibit its progression. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand pathway has emerged as the key pathway regulating osteolysis in skeletal metastasis. A number of candidate factors, including the Wnt (wingless int) proteins, endothelin-1, and bone morphogenetic proteins, have been implicated in the establishment of osteoblastic metastasis. The complex nature of tumor-bone microenvironment interactions and the presence of multiple pathways that lead to bone metastasis suggests that simultaneous targeting of these pathways in the metastatic cascade are required for effective treatment. This review discusses current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the establishment of bone metastasis and potential molecular therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis.

Virk, Mandeep S; Lieberman, Jay R



Calcium and Bone Health  


... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Calcium and Bone Health Bones play many roles in ... with osteoporosis, please visit the National Osteoporosis Foundation .* Calcium Calcium is a mineral needed by the body ...


Related disorders of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal osteodystrophy includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism. This review article discusses\\u000a related bone disorders, including calcific uremic arteriolopathy, “osteoporosis” and compromised bone strength, and dialysis-related\\u000a amyloidosis, as well as the contributing roles of glucocorticoids and metabolic acidosis. Bone disorders in the setting of\\u000a renal transplantation, including osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and presistent hyperparathyroidism, are also reviewed.

Francis L. Weng; Stanley Goldfarb



Bone Marrow Necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow necrosis is regarded as an uncommon entity that is associated with a poor prognosis. However, organized studies using either bone marrow biopsy specimens or autopsy material showed that bone marrow necrosis can be demonstrated in approximately one third of specimens. It is found in a large number of both malignant and nonmalignant disorders, in addition to occurring following

Marcel E. Conrad



Photodynamic Therapy in Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work within our group suggests that the application of photodynamic ther- apy (PDT) in bone holds considerable promise for a number of key conditions spe- cific to bone, including the treatment of primary and secondary cancers, infection, and skeletal deformity. In this chapter I will provide a synopsis of preclinical results obtained using PDT in bone that starts with

Stuart K. Bisland


Peak bone mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak bone mass, which can be defined as the amount of bony tissue present at the end of the skeletal maturation, is an important determinant of osteoporotic fracture risk.Measurement of bone mass development. The bone mass of a given part of the skeleton is directly dependent upon both its volume or size and the density of the mineralized tissue contained

J.-Ph. Bonjour; G. Theintz; F. Law; D. Slosman; R. Rizzoli



Bag of Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will use cereal to conduct an experiment and investigate how decreased bone density is related to increased risk of bone fracture. Learners will also discuss the subject of bone loss in space and how research in this area can benefit individuals here on Earth. This lesson plan includes extension ideas, resources, and background information.

Texas A&M University



[Bone metabolism in men].  


The aim of this paper is to review the main physiologic features of bone metabolism in male. A brief description of bony cells and function is given. Hormonal influences on bone biology are described. Although androgens have been considered as essential in the regulation of bone metabolism in men, recent data have emphasised the fact that estrogens could play a dominant role. PMID:12815803

Audran, Maurice; Insalaco, Paolo; Legrand, Erick; Libouban, Hélène; Basle, Michel Félix; Chappard, Daniel



Writing the bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am an anthropologist. We anthropologists deal in bones, at least that is what the general public usually thinks of us: the excavators of pots and bones, the documentors of the past. But my kind of bones are of a different variety; dust has not had time to accumulate on them, loved ones have not yet turned the images of

Cynthia Keppley Mahmood



High bone density and bone health.  


The aim of this paper is to review the main aspects related to high bone density (HBD) as well as to discuss the physiologic mechanisms involved in bone health. There are still no well-defined criteria for identification of individuals with HBD and there are few studies on the topic. Most studies demonstrate that overweight, male gender, black ethnic background, physical activity, calcium and fluoride intake and use of medications such as statins and thiazide diuretics play a relevant and positive role on bone mineral density. Moreover, it is known that individuals with certain diseases such as obesity, diabetes, estrogen receptor-positive breast or endometrial cancer have greater bone density than healthy individuals, as well as athletes having higher bone density than non-athletes does not necessarily mean that they have healthy bones. A better understanding of risk and protective factors may help in the management of patients with bone frailty and have applicability in the treatment and in the prevention of osteoporosis, especially intervening on non-modifiable risk factors. PMID:22325788

Sarkis, Karin Sedó; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Medeiros; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo



Bone disease in thyrotoxicosis  

PubMed Central

Thyrotoxicosis, a clinical syndrome characterized by manifestations of excess thyroid hormone, is one of the commonly-recognised conditions of the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis causes acceleration of bone remodelling and though it is one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis, the metabolic effects of thyroxine on bone are not well discussed. Studies show that thyroid hormones have effects on bone, both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of thyrotoxicosis leads to reversal of bone loss and metabolic alterations, and decreases the fracture risk. There are limited studies in India as to whether these changes are fully reversible. In this review we discuss about the effects of thyrotoxicosis (endogenous and exogenous) on bone and mineral metabolism, effects of subclinical thyrotoxicosis on bone and mineral metabolism and effects of various forms of treatment in improving the bone mineral density in thyrotoxicosis.

Reddy, P. Amaresh; Harinarayan, C. V.; Sachan, Alok; Suresh, V.; Rajagopal, G.



Calcium and bone disease  

PubMed Central

Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium.

Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone



Primary lymphomas of bone.  


Primary lymphomas of bone are uncommon malignancies. The vast majority of them are non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whereas primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) of bone is extremely rare. Patients with primary NHL of bone commonly present with local bone pain, soft tissue swelling, and a mass or a pathological fracture. There is a slight male preponderance, and most patients are over 45-50 years of age. Primary NHL of bone can arise in any part of the skeleton, but long bones (femurs, tibia) are the most common sites of presentation. Comprehensive immunohistochemical studies are required to establish an accurate histological diagnosis of primary NHL of bone. Most cases of primary NHL of bone are classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) in the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of hematological malignancies. On full staging evaluation, most patients have disease of stage IE or IIE according to the Ann Arbor system. Several studies indicate that patients with primary NHL of bone have a favorable outcome, especially when treated by combined modality therapy. A number of studies reported that clinical stage is the most important prognostic variable in predicting overall survival. Interestingly, the rare occurrence of primary lymphoma of bone is in contrast with the frequency of plasma cell tumors in bone. This could be due to the fact that, during normal B-cell differentiation, the bone marrow is the normal site of homing of plasma cells which are terminally-differentiated, immunoglobulin-secreting post-germinal center B-cells. In this respect, there is circumstancial evidence that primary NHL of bone may represent tumors of post-germinal center B-cells. The present review summarizes data on the histogenesis of primary NHL of bone in view of the recent histogenetic classification of DLBCL on the basis of the B-cell differentiation gene expression profiles (germinal center vs. post-germinal center B-cell differentiation). PMID:16475714

Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Vlychou, Marianna; Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra; Karatzias, Georgios; Charchanti, Antonia; Agnantis, Niki John; Bai, Maria


Bone Conduction Head Sensitivity Mapping: Bone Vibrator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The military is interested in ways to incorporate radio communication in a multi-tasking environment. Bone conduction (BC) radio communication is an attractive means to communicate because it offers the ability to transmit and receive radio communication ...

M. McBride T. R. Letowski P. K. Tran



[Fibrous dysplasia of bone].  


Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a congenital non hereditary benign bone disease, where normal bone is replaced by a fibrous-like tissue with immature osteogenesis. Prevalence is difficult to estimate, due to frequent asymptomatic lesions. Bone lesions are mono- or polyostotic and may be associated with bone pain and fragility, leading to fractures. In some patients or bone sites, they are hypertrophic, responsible for neurological complications. Imaging and, when necessary, histology are the cornerstones of the diagnosis. A common molecular defect, i.e. activating mutations of the GNAS gene, encoding the a subunit of the Gs protein in target cells, is responsible for bone cell alterations as well as for the involvement of other cells/tissues bearing the same molecular defect (melanocytes, endocrine cells). These mutations affect only somatic cells and are therefore not hereditary: antenatal diagnosis is not appropriate for this disease and genetic counselling is not very useful, except for reassuring the patients. The conventional therapeutic approach is essentially symptomatic (pain killers) and orthopaedic (prevention and treatment of bone complications). Recent publications have focused attention on pamidronate, which rapidly relieves bone pain in most patients, and progressively increases bone mineralization in osteolytic areas in about half of the patients. Tubular phosphate wasting is common and should be treated with phosphate supplement and calcitriol. The prognosis should improve with therapeutic advances, but this remains to be properly evaluated. PMID:18092715

Orcel, Philippe; Chapurlat, Roland



Toxicokinetics of bone lead.  

PubMed Central

This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

Rabinowitz, M B



Is Cortical Bone Hip? What determines Cortical Bone Properties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction

Sol Epstein



[Structure of jaw bone].  


The jaw bone is put in a special environmental condition because it receives not only external force through a masticatory muscle, but occlusal force directly from the teeth. Therefore, the morphology and internal structure of the jaw bone is strongly reflected by the erupted condition of the teeth. In the edentulous jaw bone, the number and thickness of the trabecular bones is reduced as well as decrease of its size. This tendency is quite resemble to the morphological change of osteoporosis. Based on the facts mentioned above, it is suggested that the loss of the teeth induces the fragility of the jaw bone. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy tooth is very important to keep the normal morphology of the jaw bone. PMID:17272872

Ide, Yoshinobu; Agematsu, Hiroko



Biology of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is an exquisitely sophisticated organ\\/tissue in mammals. Bone is generally viewed as the main component of the skeleton,\\u000a providing mechanical and structural support to the rest of the organs and systems. This function is indispensable for life,\\u000a both during the growth and development period as well as during adult life. However, bone also provides the unique architecture\\u000a and microenvironment

Paul C. Schiller; Gianluca D'Ippolito; Guy A. Howard


Temporal bone fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal bone injury is frequently associated with severe brain injury which limits the clinical evaluation and detracts from\\u000a the clinical signs of temporal bone fracture such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, and facial nerve\\u000a paralysis. Radiologists are often the first to note the presence of temporal bone fractures and should be familiar with common\\u000a types of injuries and

Piya V. Saraiya; Nafi Aygun



Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To determine whether subchondral bone in osteoarthritis differs from that seen in normal human aging, osteoarthritic femoral\\u000a heads removed for total hip arthroplasty were compared with normal age-matched and young autopsy controls. Standardized, 1-cm\\u000a deep, weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing subchondral bone blocks, as well as cancellous core bone, 2–4 cm deep to the articular\\u000a surface, were examined in each femoral head.

M. D. Grynpas; B. Alpert; I. Katz; I. Lieberman; K. P. H. Pritzker



Better Bone Implants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research, and describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone."

Phillips, Tony.; Price, Steve.



Nanocomposites and bone regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.



Review of Bone Substitutes  

PubMed Central

Bone substitutes are being increasingly used in craniofacial surgery and craniomaxillofacial trauma. We will review the history of the biomaterials and describe the ideal characteristics of bone substitutes, with a specific emphasis on craniofacial reconstruction. Some of the most commonly used bone substitutes are discussed in more depth, such as calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite ceramics and cements, bioactive glass, and polymer products. Areas of active research and future directions include tissue engineering, with an increasing emphasis on bioactivity of the implant.

Pryor, Landon S.; Gage, Earl; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Herrera, Fernando; Breithaupt, Andrew D.; Gordon, Chad R.; Afifi, Ahmed M.; Zins, James E.; Meltzer, Hal; Gosman, Amanda; Cohen, Steve R.; Holmes, Ralph



Aging and Bone  

PubMed Central

Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes.

Boskey, A.L.; Coleman, R.



[Primary malignant bone tumors].  


Among human neoplasms, primary malignant bone tumors are fairly rare. They present an incidence rate of roughly 10 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. During childhood (<15 years), the percentage of malignant bone tumors amounts to 6% of all infantile malignancies. Only leukemia and lymphoma show a higher incidence in adolescence. Of all primary malignant bone tumors, 60% affect patients younger than 45 years and the peak incidence of all bone tumors occurs between 15 and 19 years. The most common primary malignant bone tumors are osteosarcoma (35%), chondrosarcoma (25%), and Ewing's sarcoma (16%). Less frequently (??5%) occurring tumors are chordoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, and fibrosarcoma of bone. Vascular primary malignant tumors of bone and adamantinoma are very rare. Staging of the lesion is essential for systemic therapeutic decision-making and includes complete imaging and histo-pathological confirmation of the suspected entity. In most cases, this is established by open- or image-guided biopsy. Based on this information, an interdisciplinary tumor board will determine the individual therapeutic approach. Endoprosthetic or biological reconstruction following wide tumor resection is the most common surgical therapy for primary malignant bone tumors. There is vital importance in a thorough postoperative follow-up and continous after-care by a competent tumor center which is permanentely in charge of therapy. PMID:22130624

von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Toepfer, A; Salzmann, M; Schauwecker, J; Gollwitzer, H; Rechl, H



Dinosaur Flesh and Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore dinosaur skeletons. First, learners listen to "Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones" by Byron Barton to learn about the difference between pictures of dinosaurs that have skin and muscle (fleshed-out) and those that show skeletons. Then, learners match pictures of dinosaurs to pictures of the dinosaurs' skeletons. Learners can also explore other animal bones and skeletons online and/or reassemble paper dinosaur skeletons. This activity can also be used to help learners explore scale as they realize that large dinosaurs had large skeletons and small dinosaurs had small skeletons. This activity is featured on page 37 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.



Aging and bone.  


Bones provide mechanical and protective function, while also serving as housing for marrow and a site for regulation of calcium ion homeostasis. The properties of bones do not remain constant with age; rather, they change throughout life, in some cases improving in function, but in others, function deteriorates. Here we review the modifications in the mechanical function and shape of bones, the bone cells, the matrix they produce, and the mineral that is deposited on this matrix, while presenting recent theories about the factors leading to these changes. PMID:20924069

Boskey, A L; Coleman, R



Spatial modeling of bone microarchitecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and evaluate a novel 3D computational bone framework, which is capable of enabling quantitative assessment of bone micro-architecture, bone mineral density and fracture risks. Our model for bone mineral is developed and its parameters are estimated from imaging data obtained with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and x-ray imaging methods. Using these parameters, we propose a proper 3D microstructure bone model. The research starts by developing a spatio-temporal 3D microstructure bone model using Voronoi tessellation. Then, we simulate and analyze the architecture of human normal bone network and osteoporotic bone network with edge pruning process in an appropriate ratio. Finally, we design several measurements to analyze Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and bone strength based on our model. The validation results clearly demonstrate our 3D Microstructure Bone Model is robust to reflect the properties of bone in the real world.

Li, Hui; Li, Kang; Kim, Taehyong; Zhang, Aidong; Ramanathan, Murali



Breast Cancer and Bone Loss  


... Cancer and Bone Loss Share: Questions and Answers Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...


Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia  


Why is low bone mass an issue in thalassemia? Having bones that grow and develop into strong, ... the individual engages in regularly. However, people with thalassemia are also more prone to develop bone mass ...


Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer  


... bone cancer Next Topic Chemotherapy for bone cancer Radiation therapy for bone cancer Radiation therapy uses high- ... control symptoms like pain and swelling. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an ...


Bone Anatomy, Physiology and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastases depend on reciprocal interactions between malignant cells and bones that will determine the homing and growth\\u000a of malignant cells in the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the final step of bone metastasis (bone destruction or production)\\u000a that determines the clinical phenotype of the metastatic foci (osteolytic or osteoblastic metastasis, respectively) is actually\\u000a mediated by the bone cells under the influence

Vassiliki Tzelepi; Athanassios C. Tsamandas; Vassiliki Zolota; Chrisoula D. Scopa


Cancer Therapies and Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer patients are at risk for adverse events involving bone. Metastasis of cancer to bone and primary bone tumors can compromise\\u000a the integrity of bone. Various cancer therapies cause long-term skeletal disorders, particularly bone loss, osteomalacia,\\u000a and avascular necrosis. Cancer therapies that include chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, hormonal agents, and newer targeted therapies\\u000a can affect bone in several ways. With the improved

Mimi I. Hu; Huifang Lu; Robert F. Gagel



Ultrasonic Bone Densitometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic tra...

J. M. Hoop



Adrenal gland and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing’s disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked

Rowan Hardy; Mark S. Cooper



Calcium and bones  


... mineral that is important for making healthy bones. (Phosphorous is another important mineral for healthy bones.) Calcium cannot be made by the body. The body gets the calcium it needs through the food you eat. If you do not get enough ...


Bone conduction variation poststapedotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the variation in bone conduction auditory thresholds in patients undergoing surgical intervention for otosclerosis as part of our report on the use of surgery in patients with a small air-bone gap. Of the 110 patients who underwent stapedotomy, 45 were treated by traditional surgery and 65 with carbon dioxide laser, with a follow-up of 3 years at 500-,

Luca Moscillo; Micaela Imperiali; Paola Carra; Ferdinando Catapano; Gaetano Motta



Bone Fractures and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the role engineers and engineering play in repairing severe bone fractures. They acquire knowledge about the design and development of implant rods, pins, plates, screws and bone grafts. They learn about materials science, biocompatibility and minimally-invasive surgery.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,


Fractures (Broken Bones)  


... held together with special screws or by attaching metal plates to the outer surface of the bone. The ... the center of the bone. A specially designed metal rod, called an intramedullary nail, ... by plates and screws while they heal. Top of page ...


Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of primary leiomyosarcoma of bone are described. The patients, 11 males and 5 females, ranged in age from 9 to 74 years. The annual incidence of this tumor in Sweden was calculated to be 0.09 cases per million. This figure was obtained by reviewing a Swedish series of spindle cell sarcomas of bone of which one quarter (11\\/44)

Lennart Angervall; Lars-Gunnar Kindblom; Isabelita C. Berlin; Bertil Stener



Depression and Bone Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are data to suggest low bone mineral density is disproportionately prevalent among those with psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review the current evidence on the relationship between depression and bone mineral density, and identify potential mechanisms. Methods: Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and Web of Science (ISI) databases from the first relevant publication in 1994

Lana J. Williams; Julie A. Pasco; Felice N. Jacka; Margaret J. Henry; Seetal Dodd; Michael Berk



Repairing Broken Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.—A case of aneurysmal bone cyst located at the lateral periosteal surface of the humeral diaphysis is presented. The patient was treated by in-bloc tumor re- section and grafting of liophylized bone. The outcome has been satisfactory without tumor recurrence. Three years after surgery the patients remains free from disease. A relationship between previous trauma and the development of tumor



Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)  


... over the bone and check your range of motion in the area of your pain. Tests In order to diagnose osteochondroma, your doctor will order imaging tests. X-rays. These tests create clear pictures of dense structures like bone, and will show ...


Biodegradable synthetic bone composites  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.



A History of Bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HISTORY OF BONES is a collection of lyrical and narrative poems which examines the interconnectedness of humanity through recurrent physical images—bones, blood, hair, etc. These images reflect the commonalities of the human race at the most basic level by pointing to the unavoidable fate all living things share. The poems build on popular culture, politics, world history, and mythology

Amanda C Hosey



Whole Bone Mechanics and Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The skeleton plays a critical structural role in bearing functional loads, and failure to do so results in fracture. As we\\u000a evaluate new therapeutics and consider treatments to prevent skeletal fractures, understanding the basic mechanics underlying\\u000a whole bone testing and the key principles and characteristics contributing to the structural strength of a bone is critical.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We therefore asked: (1) How

Jacqueline H. Cole


Carnivore competition, bone destruction, and bone density  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carnivore-modified archaeofaunal assemblages it is important to evaluate the degree to which carnivores have overprinted hominin behavioral signals. To examine the signals of increased competition for discarded bone, we present controlled experimental data on 33 simulated archaeological sites subjected to secondary consumption by spotted hyenas. We examine the relationship between competition, as measured by controlled numbers of hyenas and

J. Tyler Faith; Curtis W. Marean; Anna K. Behrensmeyer



What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?  


... Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? Tweet A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is a process to replace unhealthy bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat patients with: life- ...


The "bone-less" bone graft: The use of bone morphogenic protein-2 in jaw reconstruction.  


A growth factor known as Bone Morphogenic Protein has through recombinant technology been made available to dentists as a "bone-less" bone graft. This recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 is placed on an absorbable collagen sponge carrier and delivered to a site of bone deficiency. This material will induce new osteoblasts to form from mesenchymal stem cells in the surrounding recipient site. This eliminates the need for an autogenous bone graft and its inherent surgical morbidity. The new bone formed is of the same quality and quantity as that produced by autogenous grafting. Dentists should be familiar with alternative techniques of bone grafting in contemporary practice. PMID:20945687

Treasure, Trevor



[Development of artificial implant bone].  


This study tested the hypothesis that a significant amount of the new bone produced by heterotopic periosteal grafts is derived osteoinductively because proliferating periosteal cells express the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Rabbit ulnar and radial periosteum were autografted as free grafts (FGs) to the forelimb musculature, and as millipore diffusion chambers grafts (MDCGs) to the rectus abdominus muscle. The sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibody against recombinant human (rh) BMP-2. Sections from FGs recovered 5 to 28 days postoperatively exhibited cartilage and bone; fibrous tissue, cartilage, bone, and osteochondroid differentiated within MDCGs. Although BMP-2 was expressed by mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, none of the MDCGs produced the osteoinductive signature of transmembrane bone formation. These observations indicated that the larger fraction of the new bone produced by heterotopic periosteal autografts is derived from the graft cells. As the artificial implant bone, 1) the freeze-dried bone, 2) autoclaved bone, 3) sintered bone, 4) hydroxyapatite, and 5) titanium metal were used. Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks) were used, the parietal bone was cut off, they were treated to freeze-dried bone, autoclaved bone and sintered bone. Then each treated bone was reimplanted. The grafts were harvested at 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks postoperatively, the specimens were observed with a scanning electron microscope and a conventional light microscope. All of the treated bone were able to bone union, especially in the sintered bone and autoclaved bone, the blood vessels and the bone formation were produced at extremely early stage. In implantation of the non-living body materials, bone formation and revascularization was inhibited. We think that bone transplantation after irradiation should be done after recovery from the radiation damage to the periosteal cells and the blood vessels. PMID:10736757

Kita, S




PubMed Central

Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health.




Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration.  


Perfluorodecalin (PFD) is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration. PMID:23283637

Tamimi, F; Comeau, P; Le Nihouannen, D; Zhang, Y L; Bassett, D C; Khalili, S; Gbureck, U; Tran, S D; Komarova, S; Barralet, J E



Osteoinduction by demineralised bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  \\u000a Bone contains several growth factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?),\\u000a insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic and acidic fibroblast\\u000a growth factor (bFGF and aFGF). The BMPs are the only factors known to provoke bone formation heterotopically by making undifferentiated\\u000a mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts

E. Solheim



American Society for Bone and Mineral Research: Bone Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Education Committee of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), this Bone Curriculum website "is intended for use by students from high school to medical school." The website features sections on Bone Cells, Exercise and Nutrition, Hormones that Effect Bone, Collagen and Bone Matrix, and more. The brief text sections are interspersed with great images, diagrams, slide shows, and animations. The site also contains links for related websites, textbooks, and journals.


Interaction between Muscle and Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone densitometric data are often difficult to interpret in children and adolescents because of large inter- and intraindividual variations in bone size. Here, we propose a functional approach to bone densitometry that addresses two questions. Is bone strength normally adapted to the largest physiological loads, that is muscle force? Is muscle force adequate for body size? The theoretical background for

Eckhard Schoenau; Oliver Fricke



Bone Grafts in Craniofacial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects is a challenging task. The standard reconstruction method has been bone grafting. In this review, we shall describe the biological principles of bone graft healing, as pertinent to craniofacial reconstruction. Different types and sources of bone grafts will be discussed, as well as new methods of bone defect reconstruction.

Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Genecov, David G.



A Cremated Bone Intercomparison Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now almost 10 yr since radiocarbon dating of cremated bone was first developed using the small carbonate component contained within the hydroxyapatite-based inorganic fraction. Currently, a significant number of 14C laboratories date cremated bone as part of their routine dating service. As a general investigation of cremated bone dating since this initial development, a small, cremated bone intercomparison

Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Mark Van Strydonck; Johannes van der Plicht; Jan Heinemeier; Gordon T. Cook; E. Marian Scott; Philip Naysmith; Pieter M. Grootes; Stewart P. H. T. Freeman



The many adaptations of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies concerned with the ‘adaptations’ in bones usually deal with modelling taking place during the individual's lifetime. However, many adaptations are produced over evolutionary time. This survey samples some adaptations of bone that may occur over both length scales, and tries to show whether short- or long-term adaptation is important. (a) Woven and lamellar bone. Woven bone is less mechanically

J. D Currey



[Bone metabolic marker for osteoporosis].  


The purposes hypothesized for the determination of bone metabolic markers, among which we can measure serum BAP, NTX, TRAP-5b or urinary NTX, DPD, CTX in routine clinical practice, are to predict the rate of bone loss and the resultant fracture risk, and to estimate bone quality. The higher value of bone markers, which might reflect high turnover bone disease, allows us to discriminate those who require early introduction of drug therapy such as bisphosphonate, and raloxifene. Furthermore, early reduction of bone resorption markers, but not bone formation markers, possibly 3-6 month after initiation of bone anti-resorptive drugs, enables us to predict bone gain thereafter. Among various bone resorption markers, TRAP-5b might be the best in that it is not susceptible to between-day variation, day-to-day variation, and renal dysfunction resulting from chronic kidney disease which often occurs in osteoporosis-prone elderly women. PMID:19432111

Shidara, Kaori; Inaba, Masaaki



Nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration.  


Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure that provides appropriate physical and biological properties. For bone tissue regeneration, it is crucial for the biomaterial to mimic living bone tissue. Since no single type of material is able to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, nanocomposites are the best choice for bone tissue regeneration as they can provide the appropriate matrix environment, integrate desirable biological properties, and provide controlled, sequential delivery of multiple growth factors for the different stages of bone tissue regeneration. This article reviews the composition, structure and properties of advanced nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. It covers aspects of interest such as the biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites, guided bone regeneration from inert biomaterials and bioactive nanocomposites, and nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. The design, fabrication, and in vitro and in vivo characterization of such nanocomposites are reviewed. PMID:23560413

Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Pan, Yong Zheng; Li, Lin; He, Chao Bin



[Bone metabolic markers in osteoporosis].  


Since osteoporosis has been defined as "state of low bone mass", the bone mineral measurement has been utilized as a golden standard. However some limitations in bone mineral measurement such as expensive machine, very small extent in bone mineral change and/or required long term observation to detect significant change in bone mass, are prohibited extensive use. On the other hand, recent advances in the measurement of bone metabolic markers arrows us to utilize in the diagnosis of osteoporosis as well as in the monitoring of drug efficacy for osteoporosis. Especially in the monitoring of osteoporosis under some treatment, the magnitude of the change in bone metabolic markers are about 10 times higher than that in bone mineral density. Therefore, the measurement of bone metabolic markers may be utilized more widely in the clinical field of not only osteoporosis but also the other metabolic bone diseases in near future. PMID:7967073

Shiraki, M; Chen, J T; Aoki, C; Hosoda, K



Bone markers in multiple myeloma.  


Bone disease, a hallmark of multiple myeloma occurs in the majority of the patients, is associated with bone pain, fractures, hypercalcemia and has major impacts on quality of life. Myeloma is characterized by a unique form of bone disease with osteolytic bone destruction that is not followed by reactive bone formation, resulting in extensive lytic lesions. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition in multiple myeloma and on biochemical markers of bone turnover. Since osteolytic lesions do not rapidly heal in myeloma, X-rays cannot reflect the activity of bone disease during antimyeloma treatment. Activity in bone turnover does not parallel changes in monoclonal protein levels. Thus, there is a need for biochemical markers reflecting disease activity in bone. The utility, prognostic implications and limitations of classical and novel markers of bone remodeling (e.g. ICTP, NTx, TRACP-5b, osteoprotegerin, sRANKL) will be discussed in this overview. PMID:16765040

Heider, Ulrike; Fleissner, Claudia; Zavrski, Ivana; Kaiser, Martin; Hecht, Monica; Jakob, Christian; Sezer, Orhan



Paget's Disease of Bone  


... of bone is more common in England, Scotland, central Europe and Greece — as well as countries settled by European immigrants. It's uncommon in Scandinavia and Asia. Family history. If you have a close relative ...


Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma  

PubMed Central

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18

Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolo; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico



Fossilized Dinosaur Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show presents images of dinosaur bones and shows paleotologists at work excavating and preserving these fossils, the best evidence remaining of these long-lost creatures. A background essay and discussion questons are included.


Immunoregulation of bone remodelling  

PubMed Central

Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also.

Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh



Angiogenesis in Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is a key component of bone repair. New blood vessels bring oxygen and nutrients to the highly metabolically active regenerating callus and serve as a route for inflammatory cells and cartilage and bone precursor cells to reach the injury site. Angiogenesis is regulated by a variety of growth factors, notably vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are produced by inflammatory cells and stromal cells to induce blood vessel in-growth. A variety of studies with transgenic and gene-targeted mice have demonstrated the importance of angiogenesis in fracture healing, and have provided insights into regulatory processes governing fracture angiogenesis. Indeed, in animal models enhancing angiogenesis promotes bone regeneration, suggesting that modifying fracture vascularization could be a viable therapeutic approach for accelerated/improved bone regeneration clinically.

Hankenson, Kurt D.; Dishowitz, Michael; Gray, Chancellor; Schenker, Mara



Wormian bones: A review.  


Wormian bones are abnormal ossicles that develop from extra ossification centers within the cranium. They are most frequently located in the lambdoid suture or the coronal suture, and have been seen in the fontanelles, particularly the posterior fontanelle. It is unclear at this time exactly how or why they are formed, although genetic as well as environmental factors have been proposed. Their initial formation is thought to be caused by a degree of dural strain and increased sutural width. These conditions can result from mechanically induced stress due to intentional deformation like that practiced in ancient cultures, premature sutural closure, or from reduced skull ossification as seen in metabolic bone diseases. The cause of the malformation can have an influence on the number and location of Wormian bones. Clinically, Wormian bones are used as markers in the diagnoses of many autosomal dominant genetic disorders, namely, craniosynostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta. Clin. Anat. 26:922-927, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23959948

Bellary, Sharath S; Steinberg, Ashley; Mirzayan, Nadine; Shirak, Michelle; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios



Children with Brittle Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Special help given to children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is described, including adapted equipment to allow for writing and use of a classroom assistant to aid participation in a regular classroom. (CL)|

Alston, Jean



Bone Marrow Tests  


... people who have certain bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia . Your doctor can tell you whether a bone ... studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. ...


Adipokine Effects on Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipocyte is an important source of factors that act as circulating regulators of bone metabolism. These include estrogens,\\u000a and the adipokines, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and probably others. Leptin acts directly on bone cells, and in some experimental\\u000a models these effects are modified by its actions on the central nervous system, which impact on appetite, body weight, and\\u000a insulin sensitivity.

Ian R. Reid; J. B. Richards



Bone morphogenetic protein  

SciTech Connect

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. It has been demonstrated that BMPs had been involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. However, their hallmark ability is that play a pivotal role in inducing bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon formation at both heterotopic and orthotopic sites. In this review, we mainly concentrate on BMP structure, function, molecular signaling and potential medical application.

Xiao Yongtao; Xiang Lixin [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, 310058 (China); Shao Jianzhong [College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, 310058 (China)], E-mail:



Percutaneous Bone Tumors Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Image-guided tumor management is a minimally invasive treatment for localized bone tumors. Compared to other modalities, minimally\\u000a invasive procedures require fewer resources, less time, recovery, and cost, and often reduced morbidity and mortality. Many\\u000a percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate bone, i.e. cementoplasty. Others ablate or reduce\\u000a the tumor, i.e. chemical and thermal ablation techniques.

Afshin Gangi; Xavier Buy


Microwave drilling of bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Derby et ab, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under ?200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of ?1 mm\\/s. The

Yael Eshet; Ronit Rachel Mann; Abby Anaton; Tomer Yacoby; Amit Gefen; Eli Jerby



Detecting microdamage in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium.

T Clive Lee; Sahar Mohsin; David Taylor; Raman Parkesh; TThorfinnur Gunnlaugsson; Fergal J OBrien; Michael Giehl; Wolfgang Gowin



Bones and Cartilages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal anatomy of the bones and cartilages in the SCC region vary considerably and there are numerous normal variants\\u000a that should not be interpreted as signs of disease. Bone age estimation based on the study of the development of the medial\\u000a clavicular epiphysis may be a useful tool in forensic age identification in living individuals, especially if the age

Anne Grethe Jurik


Bone in dermatosparaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal (N-) calf bone consists of lamellae regularly spaced and oriented parallel to the periosteum. The lamellae increase\\u000a in thickness from the periosteum to the medullary cavity, by apposition of layers of cells and a calcifying matrix on either\\u000a side of a hypercalcified primer. In the dermatosparactic (D-) bone, the hypercalcified primer is barely visible and the cells\\u000a are irregularly

A. Dhem; N. Piret; M. Nicaise; B. Nusgens




PubMed Central

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis.

Evans, C. H.



Bone mineral density and elemental composition of bone tissues in "red-boned" Guishan goats.  


Red-colored bones were first found in Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were subsequently designated red-boned Guishan goats. However, the difference remains unclear between the bone mineral density (BMD) or elemental composition in bones between red-boned Guishan goats and common Guishan goats. Analysis of femoral bone samples by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed an increase in bone mineral density in the femoral diaphysis and distal femur of red-boned Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The data revealed that BMD increased in both the red-boned and common Guishan goats from 18 to 36 months of age. The data also indicated that the ratio of the BMD values of red-boned to common Guishan goats was higher at 36 months of age than they were at 18 months of age. Furthermore, the levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, barium, zinc, manganese, and aluminum were significantly higher in red-boned Guishan goats than common Guishan goats at 18 and 36 months of age. The results indicate that the red-boned Guishan goats were linked to the elevated levels of mineral salts observed in the bones and that this in turn may be linked to the elevated BMD levels encountered in red-boned Guishan goats. These reasons may be responsible for the red coloration in the bones of red-boned Guishan goats. PMID:22565471

Wu, Chenchen; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Huarong; Wang, Weizhong; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Changrong; Gao, Shizheng



Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt



Strontium ranelate inhibits bone resorption while maintaining bone formation in alveolar bone in monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium ranelate (S12911) has previously been shown to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rats. To determine whether strontium ranelate affects normal bone remodeling, we studied the effect of strontium ranelate on alveolar bone in monkeys. Strontium ranelate, at dosages of 100, 275, and 750 mg\\/kg per day, or vehicle, were given by gavage to 31 normal adult

J Buehler; P Chappuis; J. L Saffar; Y Tsouderos; A Vignery



Gene Expression in Bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

D'Ambrogio, A.


Bone and space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In space, astronauts can lose up to 1% of bone mass per month, mainly from the weight-bearing bones. A significant increase in the fracture risk could thus compromise very long-duration missions. On Earth, millions of people suffer from osteoporosis. The ERISTO MAP project aims at better control of the factors and the process of bone remodelling, with the objective of fighting against both space bone loss and osteoporosis. The space environment provides unique mechanical stress-free experimental conditions and can be considered to some extent to provide an accelerated and reversible model of osteoporosis. Research is focusing on providing in vitro and in vivo models and innovative supporting technologies. The main objective is to build 3-D multi-cell models that mimick the process of bone remodelling in order to define the best conditions for tissue engineering. For companies, the ERISTO team is providing not only knowledge and novel experimentation for developing new science but also unique insights into and understanding of complex biological problems.

Berthier, Audrey; Braak, Laurent; Zallone, Alberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Liu, Yi; Vico, Laurence; van der Saag, Paul; Heer, Martina; Pugh, Sydney; Koller, Bruno



Craniofacial bone tissue engineering.  


There are numerous conditions, such as trauma, cancer, congenital malformations, and progressive deforming skeletal diseases, that can compromise the function and architectonics of bones of craniofacial region. The need to develop new approaches for treatment of these disorders arises from the fact that conventional therapeutic strategies face many obstacles and limitations. The use of tissue engineering in regeneration of craniofacial bone structures is a very promising possibility and a great challenge for researchers and practitioners. Developments in stem cell biology and engineering have led to the discovery of different stem cell populations and biodegradable materials with suitable properties. This review summarizes the current achievements in tissue engineering of craniofacial bone, temporomandibular joint, and periodontal ligament. PMID:22862985

Petrovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Petar; Petrovic, Dragan; Stefanovic, Vladisav



Alveolar bone grafting  

PubMed Central

In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

Lilja, Jan



Menin and bone metabolism.  


Menin, a product of the MEN1 gene, is related to the ontogeny of several cancers such as MEN1 and sporadic endocrine tumors, although it is considered to be a tumor suppressor. Many proteins interact with menin, and it is involved in various biological functions in several tissues. Menin plays some physiological and pathological roles related to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling pathway in the parathyroid, and it is implicated in the tumorigenesis of parathyroid tumors. In bone, the bone phenotype was observed in some menin-deleted mice. Menin is considered to support BMP-2- and Runx2-induced differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts by interacting with Smad1/5, Runx2, ?-catenin and LEF-1, although it has different effects on osteoblasts at later differentiation stages through TGF-?-Smad3 and AP-1 pathways. Further research is expected to shed more light on the role of menin in bone. PMID:22543820

Kaji, Hiroshi



[Bone metastasis secondary to renal carcinoma diagnosed with bone scintigraphy].  


We reported the case of a 35-y-old man with renal cell carcinoma and cold lesions detected by bone scintigraphy, related to metastatic involvement. Conventional X-Ray did not show any pathological findings, being confirmed by axial computed tomography (CT) the scintigraphic bone lesions. We have accomplished a discussion of the role of bone scintigraphy and complementary techniques (radiography, alkaline phosphatase levels) in the diagnosis of bone metastases in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:11765556

Ruiz Hernández, G; Ferrer Albiach, C; Balaguer Martínez, J V; Romero de Avila, C; Castillo Pallarés, F J



Is cortical bone hip? What determines cortical bone properties?  


Increased bone turnover may produce a disturbance in bone structure which may result in fracture. In cortical bone, both reduction in turnover and increase in hip bone mineral density (BMD) may be necessary to decrease hip fracture risk and may require relatively greater proportionate changes than for trabecular bone. It should also be noted that increased porosity produces disproportionate reduction in bone strength, and studies have shown that increased cortical porosity and decreased cortical thickness are associated with hip fracture. Continued studies for determining the causes of bone strength and deterioration show distinct promise. Osteocyte viability has been observed to be an indicator of bone strength, with viability as the result of maintaining physiological levels of loading and osteocyte apoptosis as the result of a decrease in loading. Osteocyte apoptosis and decrease are major factors in the bone loss and fracture associated with aging. Both the osteocyte and periosteal cell layer are assuming greater importance in the process of maintaining skeletal integrity as our knowledge of these cells expand, as well being a target for pharmacological agents to reduce fracture especially in cortical bone. The bisphosphonate alendronate has been seen to have a positive effect on cortical bone by allowing customary periosteal growth, while reducing the rate of endocortical bone remodeling and slowing bone loss from the endocortical surface. Risedronate treatment effects were attributed to decrease in bone resorption and thus a decrease in fracture risk. Ibandronate has been seen to increase BMD as the spine and femur as well as a reduced incidence of new vertebral fractures and non vertebral on subset post hoc analysis. And treatment with the anabolic agent PTH(1-34) documented modeling and remodelling of quiescent and active bone surfaces. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in bone destruction, and the human monoclonal antibody denosumab binds to RANKL, inhibiting its action and thus improving BMD significantly. PMID:17466615

Epstein, Sol



Detecting microdamage in bone  

PubMed Central

Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and careful observation under transmitted light, or epifluorescence microscopy, is required. Fuchsin lodges in cracks, but is not site-specific. Cracks are discontinuities in the calcium-rich bone matrix and chelating agents, which bind calcium, can selectively label them. Oxytetracycline, alizarin complexone, calcein, calcein blue and xylenol orange all selectively bind microcracks and, as they fluoresce at different wavelengths and colours, can be used in sequence to label microcrack growth. New agents that only fluoresce when involved in a chelate are currently being developed – fluorescent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) sensors. Such agents enable microdamage to be quantified and crack growth to be measured and are useful histological tools in providing data for modelling the material behaviour of bone. However, a non-invasive method is needed to measure microdamage in patients. Micro-CT is being studied and initial work with iodine dyes linked to a chelating group has shown some promise. In the long term, it is hoped that repeated measurements can be made at critical sites and microdamage accumulation monitored. Quantification of microdamage, together with bone mass measurements, will help in predicting and preventing bone fracture failure in patients with osteoporosis.

Lee, TC; Mohsin, S; Taylor, D; Parkesh, R; Gunnlaugsson, T; O'Brien, FJ; Giehl, M; Gowin, W



Bone Density Challenge Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the challenge question, which revolves around proving that a cabinet X-ray system can produce bone mineral density images. Students work independently to generate ideas from the questions provided then share with partners and then with the class as part of Multiple Perspectives. As part of the associated Activity 1, students then explore multiple websites to gather information about Bone Mineral Density and answer questions on a worksheet, then later take a quiz on the material covered in the articles.

Vu Bioenegineering Ret Program


Bone cement implantation syndrome.  


Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399

Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M




Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for the formation of bone tissue in culture from isolated rat bone cells . The isolated bone cells were obtained from embryonic rat calvarium and perios- teum or from traumatized, lifted periosteum of young rats . The cells were cultured for a period of up to 8 wk, during which time the morphological, biochemical, and functional




Mechanical properties and bone densities of canine trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mechanical properties of canine epiphyseal cancellous bones from adult canine femoral heads, femoral condyles, tibial plateau, and humeral heads, using indentation and compression tests, and (2) to measure bone densities (apparent density and ash density) of these cancellous bones so as to develop a normal data base of mechanical strength

Q Kang; Y. H An; R. F Friedman



Controlled bone regeneration: the ultimate process in bone repair.  


The main goal of bone healing, besides the healing of the bone, is ensuring that the dynamic system of repair is under biologic control. To do so, the soft tissue has to be kept isolated to avoid any herniation into the bony defect, that would produce and interfere with the bone interface or collapse the original defect resulting in a relapse. PMID:11827367

Habal, Mutaz B



Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health  


... Bone Health Share: Questions and Answers Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs English ... your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D allows your ...


Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid  


Fractures (broken bones): First aid Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic staff ...


Bone and cancer: the osteoncology  

PubMed Central

Summary In recent years clinicians have witnessed a radical change in the relationship between bone and cancer, with in particular an increase in bone metastases incidence due to an improvement of patients survival. Bone metastases are responsible for the high morbidity in cancer patients with a strong clinical impact. For all these reasons, efforts have been directed to this important field with the foundation of the osteoncology, a new scientific and clinical branch involved in the management of patients with bone cancer disease, including primary bone tumors and bone metastases. Another innovative and important osteoncology topic is the Cancer Treatment Induced Bone Loss (CTIBL) that is mainly caused by antitumoral treatment with bone resorption induction. The diagnostic and therapeutic options are described briefly in order to highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary approach in this new field.

Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino



Understanding the Structure of Bones  


... The steel rods that support the building are collagen rods in bone. The cement that surrounds and ... These minerals give the bones strength while the collagen rods provide resiliency. Diseases that interfere with the ...


Bone Augmentation and Nerve Repositioning  


... Types of Bone-Augmentation Procedures Nerve Repositioning For dental implants to be successful, the jawbone must have enough ... of procedures used to "build" bone so that dental implants can be placed. These procedures typically involve grafting ( ...


Exercise for Your Bone Health  


... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... ??) Related Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and Immobilization Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Oral ...


Oral Health and Bone Disease  


... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...


Giant Cell Tumor of Bone  


Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor. It generally occurs in adults between the ages of ...


Bone and Connective Tissue Tumors  


... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ... Tumor (ATRT) Bone and Connective Tissue Brain Cysts Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Ependymoma Germ Cell Glioblastoma Gliomas Hemangioma ...


[Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].  


In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA. PMID:23811586

Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya



Radionuclide Imaging of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skeletal imaging of oncologic patients is aimed at identifying early bone involvement, to determine the extent of the disease,\\u000a and to monitor the response to therapy [1]. Detection of malignant bone involvement is either direct, by visualization of tumoral infiltration, or indirect, by detecting\\u000a the reaction of bone to the presence of malignant cells. The vast majority of bone metastases

Einat Even-Sapir Weizer


Bone disease in female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and physical activity have many health benefits for both females and males. In particular, weight-bearing exercise has a protective effect on the skeleton, and can even be osteogenic (stimulating to bone formation). However, achievement of optimal bone mineral density and regulation of bone maintenance depend upon a combination of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Adequate hormonal status (oestrogen

Connie Lebrun



Bone formation by cancer metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of heterotopic bone tissue in malignant tumors or in their metastases is extremely rare. In a 60 years old male patient with bronchogenic carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) extensive bone formation was observed within multiple metastases in the skeletal muscles. On the basis of the microscopic findings, the mechanism of bone formation by malignant tumors is discussed. Obviously, proliferation of local

U. Bettendorf; W. Remmele; H. Laaff



Breast cancer metastasis to the bone: mechanisms of bone loss  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton, interrupting the normal bone remodeling process and causing bone degradation. Osteolytic lesions are the end result of osteoclast activity; however, osteoclast differentiation and activation are mediated by osteoblast production of RANKL (receptor activator for NF?B ligand) and several osteoclastogenic cytokines. Osteoblasts themselves are negatively affected by cancer cells as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proteins required for new bone formation. Thus, bone loss is due to both increased activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts. This review summarizes the current understanding of the osteolytic mechanisms of bone metastases, including a discussion of current therapies.



Spongy bone deformation mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the spongy bone's mechanical behaviour, we performed compression tests on cylindrical samples. Experimental results show important dispersions and an unexpected inverse strain rate dependency at low range of loading velocities. The origin of the dispersions can be attributed to the combination of the architecture effect and the mechanical properties variation of the constitutive material. In order

Fahami Chaari; Julien Halgrin; Éric Markiewicz; Pascal Drazetic



Bone Coding Guidelines

Coding Guidelines BONES, JOINTS, AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE C400–C419 PERIPHERAL NERVES AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM C470–C479 CONNECTIVE, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND OTHER SOFT TISSUES C490–C499 (Except for M9750, 9760-9764, 9800-9820, 9826, 9831-9920, 9931-9992)


Bones Surgery Codes

Bones, Joints, And Articular Cartilage C400–C419 Peripheral Nerves And Autonomic Nervous System C470–C479 Connective, Subcutaneous, And Other Soft Tissues C490–C499 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,


Autologous bone marrow transplantation.  


Autologous bone marrow transplantation has become a very popular and successful treatment for many patients with lymphomas and other malignancies. The current indications, pretreatment regimes, and laboratory manipulations are discussed as well as the application of gene transfer to eliminate selected genetic diseases and detect disease relapse. PMID:7748468

McCarthy, L J; Danielson, C F; Cornetta, K; Srour, E F; Broun, E R



Radiocarbon Dating of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

SELLSTEDT et al.1 have described a method for the removal of inorganic carbonates from bone so that the residual collagen can be used as a source material for radiocarbon dating, and they conclude that this ``offers the archaeologist an elegant and versatile tool which is likely to find wide application''.

H. Barker



Are Bones Alive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta



Mechanisms of sex steroid effects on bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex steroids play a major role in the regulation of bone turnover. Thus, gonadectomy in either sex is associated with an increase in bone remodeling, increased bone resorption, and a relative deficit in bone formation, resulting in accelerated bone loss. Recent physiological studies have established an important role for estrogen in regulating bone turnover not only in females, but also

Farhan Syed; Sundeep Khosla



The Silicone Bone Cap. Bone Contouring and the Control of Adventitious Bone Formation Following Skeletal Surgery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isolation of terminal segments of the transected cat fibula with silicone polymer implants (93 silicone rubber caps implanted in 40 adult cats) resulted in healing at the ends of the bone segments with their intact intermedullary blood supply. Mature bone...

R. Lusskin



Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in CKD-Mineral Bone Disorder.  


Overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is greatly increased, without obvious current effective treatments. Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is a common manifestation of CKD and contributes to the high risk of fracture and cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Traditionally, clinical management of CKD-MBD focused on attenuation of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to impaired renal activation of vitamin D and phosphate retention, although recently, adynamic forms of renal bone disease have become more prevalent. Definitive diagnosis was based on histologic (histomorphometric) analysis of bone biopsy material supported by radiologic changes and changes in levels of surrogate laboratory markers. Of these various markers, parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been considered to be the most sensitive and currently is the most frequently used; however, the many pitfalls of measuring PTH in patients with CKD increasingly are appreciated. We propose an alternative or complementary approach using bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which is directly related to bone turnover, reflects bone histomorphometry, and predicts outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Here, we consider the overall merits of bone ALP as a marker of bone turnover in adults with CKD-MBD, examine published bone histomorphometric data comparing bone ALP to PTH, and discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms by which bone ALP may be linked to outcomes in patients with CKD. PMID:23623575

Sardiwal, Sunita; Magnusson, Per; Goldsmith, David J A; Lamb, Edmund J



The bone microenvironment in metastasis; what is special about bone?  


The skeleton is a common destination for many cancer metastases including breast and prostate cancer. There are many characteristics of bone that make it an ideal environment for cancer cell migration and colonization. Metaphyseal bone, found at the ends of long bone, in ribs, and in vertebrae, is comprised of trabecular bone interspersed with marrow and rich vasculature. The specialized microvasculature is adapted for the easy passage of cells in and out of the bone marrow. Moreover, the metasphyseal regions of bone are constantly undergoing remodeling, a process that releases growth factors from the matrix. Bone turnover also involves the production of numerous cytokines and chemokines that provide a means of communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, but co-incidentally can also attract and support metastatic cells. Once in the marrow, cancer cells can interact directly and indirectly with osteoblasts and osteclasts, as well as hematopoietic and stromal cells. Cancer cells secrete factors that affect the network of cells in the bone microenvironment as well as interact with other cytokines. Additionally, transient cells of the immune system may join the local mileau to ultimately support cancer cell growth. However, most metastasized cells that enter the bone marrow are transient; a few may remain in a dormant state for many years. Advances in understanding the bone cell-tumor cell interactions are key to controlling, if not preventing metastasis to bone. PMID:18071636

Bussard, Karen M; Gay, Carol V; Mastro, Andrea M



Directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone to augment bone formation and increase bone mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate into osteoblasts in the bone marrow, which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct MSCs to the bone surface by attaching a synthetic high-affinity

Min Guan; Ruiwu Liu; Kit S Lam; Jan Nolta; Junjing Jia; Brian Panganiban; Liping Meng; Ping Zhou; Mohammad Shahnazari; Robert O Ritchie; Wei Yao



Bone transport and bone graft using auto-tooth bone for alveolar cleft repair.  


We herein report the application of a combination of maxillary bone transport and auto-tooth bone grafting for alveolar cleft repair using autogenous extracted teeth developed in Korea.A 9-year-old female patient suffering from unilateral cleft lip and palate was treated with this method. After sagittal interdental right-sided maxillary osteotomy was performed completely between #11 and #12 to the nasal floor, alveolar maxillary bone (#11, 21) was transported in the planned direction and the alveolar cleft was closed. At the end of the transporter activation period, soft tissue in the cleft was removed during so-called "docking surgery" using an electric knife for close bone contact at the docking site. We performed bone transporter removal and simultaneous auto-tooth bone grafting of the patient's supernumerary teeth to the docking site.Maxillary bone transport allowed for simultaneous correction of the nasal septal deviation, maxillary arch deformities, and malocclusion since the dental arch was expanded without donor sacrifice or soft tissue expansion. Auto-tooth bone grafting to the docking site allowed for repair of the bone defects of the nasal floor and alveolar cleft and resulted in a superior bone connection.A combination of maxillary bone transport and auto-tooth bone grafting to the docking site appears to be an effective approach for alveolar cleft repair. PMID:23348343

Hara, Shingo; Mitsugi, Masaharu; Kanno, Takahiro; Tatemoto, Yukihiro



Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

SciTech Connect

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)



Aneurysmal bone cyst of sternum.  


Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally destructive lesion of the bone characterized by the presence of spongy or multi-loculated cystic tissue filled with blood. It accounts for 2.5% of all bone tumors. An ABC may involve almost any bone, but the most frequent sites are long tubular bones and vertebrae. The sternum is a rare location for an ABC. Here we present a case with sternal ABC, discuss the clinical manifestations and treatment, and review the literature. Radical wide resection of primary sternal tumors and reconstruction with appropriately rigid prosthetic material are necessary to avoid chest wall instability and minimize local recurrence. PMID:20494010

Singh, Vikram P; Mir, Ruquaya; Kaul, Sumaid



Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  


A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.



Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  


A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)



Methods and Agents for Enhancing Bone Formation or Preventing Bone Loss.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides methods for (i) reducing loss of bone mass or bone density, (ii) increasing bone mass or bone density, (iii) maintaining bone mass or bone density, and/or (iv) reducing loss of calcium from bone, comprising: administering to...

G. R. Crabtree M. M. Winslow



The role of cortical bone and its microstructure in bone strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone's mechanical competence and its fragility in particular depend to a certain extent on the structure and microstructure of the cortical bone compartment. Beyond bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content, a variety of other features of cortical bone contribute to whole bone's resistance to fracture. Structural properties of cortical bone most commonly employed as surrogate for its mechanical



[Biochemical markers in bone metastasis].  


Certain types of cancers have a strong propensity to metastasize to bone, which requires combination of multiple factors responsible for the different steps of metastasis. Bone metabolic markers are now widely used in clinical practice and give useful information on the ongoing bone metabolism, reflecting the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Bone markers have a potential as diagnostic tools for bone metastasis, and are useful in monitoring the response to anticancer as well as antiresorptive therapies. Since bone metabolic markers alone are insufficient for the diagnosis and assessment of bone metastasis, it is important to combine bone markers with tumor-related markers and imaging studies such as scintigraphy and MRI. More recently, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been implicated as markers for osteoclastogenic activity. Serum levels of these factors and/or their ratios may provide additional information on the severity of bone disease and the prognosis. PMID:15272580

Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio




PubMed Central

An aging population in the developing world has led to an increase in musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and bone metastases. Left untreated many bone diseases cause debilitating pain and in the case of cancer, death. Many potential drugs are effective in treating diseases but result in side effects preventing their efficacy in the clinic. Bone, however, provides an unique environment of inorganic solids, which can be exploited in order to effectively target drugs to diseased tissue. By integration of bone targeting moieties to drug-carrying water-soluble polymers, the payload to diseased area can be increased while side effects decreased. The realization of clinically relevant bone targeted polymer therapeutics depends on (1) understanding bone targeting moiety interactions, (2) development of controlled drug delivery systems, as well as (3) understanding drug interactions. The latter makes it possible to develop bone targeted synergistic drug delivery systems.

Low, Stewart; Kopecek, Jindrich



Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction  

PubMed Central

When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. Metastasizing tumour cells mobilize and sculpt the bone microenvironment to enhance tumour growth and to promote bone invasion. Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and invasion, is central to the pathophysiology of bone metastases. Basic findings of tumour–bone interactions have uncovered numerous therapeutic opportunities that focus on the bone microenvironment to prevent and treat bone metastases.

Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; Guise, Theresa A.; McCauley, Laurie K.



[Biological activities of bone morphological protein in bone regeneration].  


Bone matrix contents various development factors which control structuring and absorption and those factors play important role in bone and cartilage development. Bone morphological proteins are members of TGF-beta super family and their activity is certain becoming from the bone. This activity leads to the serial development processes which include chemo taxis, proliferation and differentiation which results in trans resistant formation of cartilage as well as production of life cells of a bone tissue. Biological activities of re combinative human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). induction bone formation of non critical size mandible defect of New Zealand rabbits were researched in the study. Markers of osteoblastic differential in the study included ALP specific activity. Histological analysis performed 7, 14, 30, 60 postoperative days, C-T analysis with determination Bone Mineral Density value of new structured tissue within the defect was done 30 days. Results indicate that ectopic bone formation has been inducted with rhBMP-7 and histological analysis shown mature bone with collagen and ostheociti 60th day. Early 7 day granulocyte tissue with angiogenesis was detected, and after 30 days ostheoblastsis shown with a lot of vascular and mezenhimal tissue. Ostheogenetic processes were characteristic for typical inter membraneous ossification without cartilage tissue. ALP activity was significantly increased 21 days. C-T and Bone Mineral Density value shown density of new structured tissue determinate as bone (413 mg/cm3 and 519 mg/cm3). Studies showed that concentration of 100 mg rhBMP-7 in collagen as career had strong ostheo inductive capacity. Conditions which module BMP depend ostheo induction should be considered in the future. Information could lead to improvements of rhBMP as substitution for bone graft in clinical practice. PMID:15875464

Smajilagi?, Amer; Redzic, Amira; Filipovi?, S; Hadzihasanovi?, B



Osteopontin Deficiency Increases Bone Fragility but Preserves Bone Mass  

PubMed Central

The ability of bone to resist catastrophic failure is critically dependent upon the material properties of bone matrix, a composite of hydroxyapatite, collagen type I, and noncollagenous proteins. These properties include elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. Like other aspects of bone quality, matrix material properties are biologically-defined and can be disrupted in skeletal disease. While mineral and collagen have been investigated in greater detail, the contribution of noncollagenous proteins such as osteopontin to bone matrix material properties remains unclear. Several roles have been ascribed to osteopontin in bone, many of which have the potential to impact material properties. To elucidate the role of osteopontin in bone quality, we evaluated the structure, composition, and material properties of bone from osteopontin-deficient mice and wild-type littermates at several length scales. Most importantly, the results show that osteopontin deficiency causes a 30% decrease in fracture toughness, suggesting an important role for OPN in preventing crack propagation. This significant decline in fracture toughness is independent of changes in whole bone mass, structure, or matrix porosity. Using nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to evaluate osteopontin-deficient bone matrix at the micrometer level, we observed a significant reduction in elastic modulus and increased variability in calcium concentration. Matrix heterogeneity was also apparent at the ultrastructural level. In conclusion, we find that osteopontin is essential for the fracture toughness of bone, and reduced toughness in osteopontin-deficient bone may be related to the increased matrix heterogeneity observed at the micro-scale. By exploring the effects of osteopontin-deficiency on bone matrix material properties, composition and organization, this study suggests that reduced fracture toughness is one mechanism by which loss of noncollagenous proteins contribute to bone fragility.

Thurner, Philipp J.; Chen, Carol G.; Ionova-Martin, Sophi; Sun, Luling; Harman, Adam; Porter, Alexandra; Ager, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Alliston, Tamara



Vitamin D: beyond bone.  


In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and bone health, including skin, placenta, pancreas, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, and activated T cells. However, the biological significance of the expression of the VDR in different tissues is not fully understood, and the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal health has been a matter of debate. This report summarizes recent research on the roles for vitamin D in cancer, immunity and autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory health, pregnancy, obesity, erythropoiesis, diabetes, muscle function, and aging. PMID:23682710

Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G; Wagner, Carol L; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G; Boland, Ricardo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bikle, Daniel D



Directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone to augment bone formation and increase bone mass  

PubMed Central

Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by attaching a synthetic high affinity and specific peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) against integrin ?4?1 on the MSC surface, to a bisphosphonate (alendronate, Ale) that has high affinity for bone. LLP2A-Ale increased MSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. A single intravenous injection of LLP2A-Ale increased trabecular bone formation and bone mass in both xenotransplantation and immune competent mice. Additionally, LLP2A-Ale prevented trabecular bone loss after peak bone acquisition was achieved or following estrogen deficiency. These results provide a proof of principle that LLP2A-Ale can direct MSCs to the bone to form new bone and increase bone strength.

Guan, Min; Yao, Wei; Liu, Ruiwu; Lam, Kit S.; Nolta, Jan; Jia, Junjing; Panganiban, Brian; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Ping; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Ritchie, Robert O.; Lane, Nancy E.



Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program


Bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bone marrow transplantations have a definite role in treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. In acute myeloid leukemia and CML\\u000a an allogeneic transplant using an HLA identical donor certainly provides a far superior survival than chemotherapy. Patients\\u000a with Ph’ chromosome need to be transplanted in first remission if a suitable donor is available. In recurrent lymphomas the\\u000a best results are chieved

T. S. Vats



Bone disease in myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The major clinical manifestation of multiple myeloma results from osteolytic bone destruction. The only currently Food and\\u000a Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of the bony complications of multiple myeloma is monthly intravenous pamidronate\\u000a at a dose of 90 mg infused over 4 hours. Recent studies have shown the safety of 2-hour infusions. A randomized trial comparing\\u000a pamidronate to

James R. Berenson



"Bare Bones" Cell Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using things easily found in the kitchen, learners will identify three parts of a simple cell model. They will see and feel how these parts work together. Educators can prepare gelatin models ahead of time and provide learners with instructions to do the same at home. This activity is featured on pp.11-12 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.



Pediatric bone scintigraphy update.  


Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive tool to evaluate the musculoskeletal system in children. Hybrid imaging using computed tomography (CT) in combination with conventional bone scan and single photon emission computed tomography improves specificity and diagnostic accuracy. It also improves laboratory efficiency and may save the patient an additional visit to the hospital for a separate cross-sectional imaging study. We have found this technique to be particularly helpful in localizing a cause for pain in children who are nonverbal and to better delineate small bone and soft-tissue lesions that can occur with diagnoses of trauma, infection, and tumor. Special attention to technique of positioning the patient for potential CT examination is an adaptation that must be made by the technologist. Because of radiation concerns of the additional CT, obviously these examinations should be tailored to the individual child and be performed for limited sites directed to the abnormality observed on the associated single photon emission computed tomography examination or directed by the appropriate history. PMID:19958848

Nadel, Helen R



Gentamicin in bone cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study is to determine an optimal antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) for infection prophylaxis in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Methods We evaluated the antibacterial effects of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements loaded with vancomycin, teicoplanin, ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Standardised cement specimens made from 40 g PMMA loaded with 1 g antibiotics were tested for elution characteristics, antibacterial activities, and compressive strength in vitro. Results The ALBC containing gentamicin provided a much longer duration of antibiotic release than those containing other antibiotic. Imipenem-loading on the cement had a significant adverse effect on the compressive strength of the ALBC, which made it insufficient for use in prosthesis fixation. All of the tested antibiotics maintained their antibacterial properties after being mixed with PMMA. The gentamicin-loaded ALBC provided a broad antibacterial spectrum against all the test organisms and had the greatest duration of antibacterial activity against MSSA, CoNS, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Conclusion When considering the use of ALBC as infection prophylaxis in TJA, gentamicin-loaded ALBC may be a very effective choice. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:220–6.

Chang, Y.; Tai, C-L.; Hsieh, P-H.; Ueng, S. W. N.



[Bone architecture and strength on unloading].  


The bone loss due to space flight or prolonged bed rest observes early stage of unloading and causes both decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Mechanical unloading induced not only both tarbecular and cortical bone loss but also greater decline bone structure in weight-bearing bone. These findings and further examination concern about pathophysiolosy will allow for better understanding of unloading-associated bone loss and for development of effective countermeasures. PMID:23811590

Endo, Itsuro; Matsumoto, Toshio



Modular adaptive bone plate for humerus bone osteosynthesis.  


The present paper describes a bionics application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the doctor to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT-realistic numerical humerus bone model, the mechanical simulation of the osteosyntesis process for humerus bone using staples made out of Nitinol. The stress and displacements diagrams for bone, for plate modules and for staples, are presented. PMID:19690773

Tarni??, Daniela; Tarni??, D N; Bîzdoac?, N; Tarni??, Corina; Berceanu, C; Boborelu, C



Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Periodontal Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search). All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

Rao, Subramaniam M; Ugale, Gauri M; Warad, Shivaraj B




PubMed Central

1. The effect produced by intravenous administration of gum shellac solution varied directly with the strength of the solution and the amount injected. (a) Strong solutions were intensely toxic and fatal to all the animals injected. Toxicity was abolished by the presence of carbon particles in the solution. (b) Medium strength solutions produced a marked normoblastosis followed by an erythroblastosis if injections were continued, accompanied either by an initial rise of red blood cells and hemoglobin followed by a decrease or an initial decline followed by an increase. The decrease of erythrocytes and hemoglobin did not amount to an actual anemia, and was usually concomitant with the greatest outpouring of nucleated red cells. (c) Small doses elicited the same kind of response except that the normoblastosis was less marked, the decrease of red cells and hemoglobin minimal or absent, the increase of red blood cells and hemoglobin marked in most instances. (d) Minimal doses elicited no appreciable reaction. 2. The bone marrow in animals killed after a course of injections showed intense erythrocytic hyperplasia. This disappeared after a variable length of time with a return of the bone marrow to apparently normal condition. 3. Toxic effects with non-fatal doses in form of hemorrhages were produced mainly in the bone marrow and occasionally in the kidney under the following conditions. (a) After one injection in an animal with hyperplastic marrow (hemorrhages ih the bone marrow only). (b) After the fourth and fifth dose when administered at long intervals (4 to 19 day intervals). (c) After one injection given 40 days after several successive injections (one animal only). 4. Small and divided doses administered at long intervals produced no apparent ill effect. 5. Subcutaneous administrations did not elicit any marked systemic reactions. Locally there was induration and edema. 6. The conclusion was drawn that gum shellac solution stimulates markedly the production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The mechanism of stimulation is not clear, but it seems unlikely that it is due to destruction of red blood cells in the peripheral blood stream.

Muller, Gulli Lindh



Evaluation of bone turnover in type I osteoporosis using biochemical markers specific for both bone formation and bone resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the study were to evaluate the use of bone-specific biochemical markers of turnover in type I osteoporosis, to test for evidence of heterogeneity of bone turnover in this condition, and to attempt to devise an ‘uncoupling index’ by using the relationship between bone-specific biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption. In women with type I osteoporosis

R. Eastell; S. P. Robins; T. Colwell; A. M. A. Assiri; B. L. Riggs; R. G. G. Russell



Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

Kasai, Takao; Matsumura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Tadashi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro



Major bone defect treatment with an osteoconductive bone substitute.  


A bone defect can be provoked by several pathological conditions (e.g. bone tumours, infections, major trauma with bone stock loss) or by surgical procedures, required for the appropriate treatment. Surgical techniques currently used for treating bone defects may count on different alternatives, including autologous vascularized bone grafts, homologous bone graft provided by musculoskeletal tissue bank, heterologous bone graft (xenograft), or prostheses, each one of them dealing with both specific advantages and complications and drawbacks. The main concerns related to these techniques respectively are: donor site morbidity and limited available amount; possible immune response and viral transmission; possible animal-derived pathogen transmission and risk of immunogenic rejection; high invasiveness and surgery-related systemic risks, long post-operative. physical recovery and prostheses revision need. Nowadays, an ideal alternative is the use of osteoconductive synthetic bone substitutes. Many synthetic substitutes are available, used either alone or in combination with other bone graft. Synthetic bone graft materials available as alternatives to autogeneous bone include calcium sulphates, special glass ceramics (bioactive glasses) and calcium phosphates (calcium hydroxyapatite, HA; tricalcium phosphate, TCP; and biphasic calcium phosphate, BCP). These materials differ in composition and physical properties fro each other and from bone (De Groot in Bioceramics of calcium phosphate, pp 100-114, 1983; Hench in J Am Ceram Soc 74:1487-1510, 1994; Jarcho in Clin Orthop 157:259-278, 1981; Daculsi et al. in Int Rev Cytol 172:129-191, 1996). Both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HA-based substitutes represent the current first choice in orthopedic surgery, in that they provide an osteoconductive scaffold to which chemotactic, circulating proteins and cells (e.g. mesenchymal stem cells, osteoinductive growth factors) can migrate and adhere, and within which progenitor cells can differentiate into functioning osteoblasts (Szpalski and Gunzburg in Orthopedics 25S:601-609, 2002). Indeed, HA may be extemporarily combined either with whole autologous bone marrow or PRP (platelet rich plasma) gel inside surgical theatre in order to favour and accelerate bone regeneration. A case of bifocal ulnar bone defect treated with stoichiometric HA-based bone substitute combined with PRP is reported in here, with a 12-month-radiographic follow-up. PMID:19711008

Paderni, Stefania; Terzi, S; Amendola, L



Allograft bone matrix versus synthetic bone graft substitutes.  


Autologous bone is used very often in the treatment of fresh fractures, delayed unions and non-unions. Alternatives have included allografts and in recent years also demineralized bone matrix. The growing availability of good synthetic bone grafts and their advantages in safety and avoiding donor-site morbidity are the reasons that these products are being used more and more. There are on the market a wide variety of substitutes with different capabilities. Nevertheless autologous bone graft is still considered as the gold standard and will be discussed here in that context. Osteoconductive, osteogenic and osteoinductive products will also be classified and their advantages and disadvantages described. PMID:21889142

Zimmermann, Gerald; Moghaddam, Arash



Postradiation atrophy of mature bone  

SciTech Connect

The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.



New biomaterials for bone regeneration.  


Bone-grafting techniques either with autografts or allografts still represent a challenge for reconstructive surgery.Allografts and autografts are the current strategies for filling bone defects and subsequent repair but each have drawbacks. Synthetic bone-graft substitutes, developed in an effort to overcome the inherent limitations of autograft and allograft, represent an alternative strategy. Synthetic bone graft substitutes have the goal of mimicking the physical and mechanical nature of native tissue and to promote osteoconduction for bone regeneration. In addition these substitutes are capable to release drugs or growth factors in a temporally and spatially manner. Some biomaterials are employed to design biomimetic scaffold such as natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, metallics and composites.The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the main biomaterials used for bone reconstruction. PMID:22461799

Matassi, Fabrizio; Nistri, Lorenzo; Chicon Paez, Diana; Innocenti, Massimo



Optimal Principle of Bone Structure  

PubMed Central

Bone modeling and remodeling is an optimization process where no agreement has been reached regarding a unified theory or model. We measured 384 pieces of bone in vivo by 64-slice CT and discovered that the bone's center of mass approximately superposes its centroid of shape. This phenomenon indicates that the optimization process of non-homogeneous materials such as bone follows the same law of superposition of center of mass and centroid of shape as that of homogeneous materials. Based upon this principle, an index revealing the relationship between the center of mass and centroid of shape of the compact bone is proposed. Another index revealing the relationship between tissue density and distribution radius is followed. Applying these indexes to evaluate the strength of bone, we have some new findings.

Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Loan, Mushtaq; Lv, Changsheng; Bo, Zhang



Delivery Systems for Bone Morphogenetic Protein for Repair of Battle and Civilian Incurred Bone Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on bone regeneration under the influence of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) aggregates and isolated protein is discussed. The bone morphogeneic protein (BMP) is prepared from bovine or human cortical bone. The response to BMP is assayed in v...

M. R. Urist



[An experimental research on different temperature sintered bone as carrier of bone morphogenetic protein].  


This study was conducted to find perfect temperature sintered bone as carrier of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). The different temperature active sintered bones, which were made up of calcine bone and bone morphogenetic protein, were implanted into the defects of rabbit radius. Compared with the sintered bone of 600 degrees C, the sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C could induce more pieces of bone formation and be replaced by new bone. There were more pieces of new bone formation in sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C than those in sintered bone of 600 degrees C (P<0.05). There was no difference between the sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1 200 degrees C (P>0.05). In comparison with the sintered bone of 600 degrees C and 1200 degrees C, the sintered bone of 900 degrees C may be the choicest carrier of bone morphogenetic protein. PMID:16706368

Zang, Hongmin; Liu, Yiheng; Chen, Junchang; Wang, Kunzheng



Bone dust cranioplasty: case report.  


The use of the bone dust technique of cranioplasty, in a case of neglected basal cell carcinoma of the scalp, is described. A minor modification of the technique was the covering of the bone paste with a layer of oxycellulose, to protect it from disruption and to provide a matrix for new bone growth. A rapid restoration of a sizeable portion of the bony cranial vault was achieved. PMID:918186

Bakamjian, V Y; Leonard, A G



Bone Disease and Idiopathic Hypercalciuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is sufficient epidemiological and clinical data demonstrating an association between reduced bone mineral density and\\u000a idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH). There have been relatively few studies that have addressed the underlying defect in bone remodeling.\\u000a The limited studies to date suggest that increased bone turnover occurs in some forms of IH such as fasting hypercalciuria\\u000a or renal calcium leak and explains

Joseph E. Zerwekh



Diagnosis of metabolic bone disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a reference on the radiologic evaluation, features, and differential diagnosis of metabolic diseases involving the whole skeleton, calcium deficiencies resulting from pharmacologic agents, and bone changes related to endocrine disturbances. It also stresses how radiology, nuclear medicine, and biochemistry - either alone or in concert - contribute to clinical diagnosis. It covers renal bone disease, Paget's disease, hyperphosphatasia, extraskeletal mineralization, metabolic bone disorders related to malnutrition, tumors, plus radionuclide studies including materials and methods.

Grech, P.; Martin, T.J.; Barrington, N.A.; Ell, P.J.



Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. Metastasizing tumour cells mobilize and sculpt the bone microenvironment to enhance tumour growth and to promote bone invasion. Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components

Theresa A. Guise; Laurie K. McCauley; Katherine N. Weilbaecher



It pays to look after your bones!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis, defined as abnormally low bone density, results in increased risk of fractures with consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. An important determinant of age-related fractures is low bone density. Current public health strategies aim to maximize bone mass in elderly people, yet the bone mass obtained in the first three decades of life is a major determinant of bone

Emma J. E. Jenkins; Carol Jones



CD47 Regulates Bone Mass and Tumor Metastasis to Bone  

PubMed Central

CD47, also called integrin-associated protein, plays a critical role in the innate immune response and is an atypical member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with and activates ?3 integrins. ?3 integrin?/? mice have defective platelet and osteoclast function and are protected from bone metastasis. The role of CD47 in skeletal homeostasis and bone metastasis has not been described. CD47?/? mice had increased bone mass and defective osteoclast function in vivo. Although the number of functional osteoclasts formed by differentiating CD47?/? bone marrow macrophages was decreased, high doses of RANKL rescued differentiation and function of CD47?/? osteoclasts ex vivo and rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47?/? mice. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which is expressed at higher levels in CD47?/? osteoclasts, also rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47?/? cells. We then examined the consequences of this osteoclast defect in bone metastasis. In a model of tumor metastasis to bone, bone tumor burden was decreased in the CD47?/? mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls, with no decrease in s.c. tumor growth in CD47?/? mice. There was decreased tumor-associated bone destruction in the CD47?/? mice compared with WT controls, consistent with a defect in osteoclast function that was not rescued by the presence of tumor. Our data show that CD47 regulates osteoclastogenesis, in part, via regulation of NO production, and its disruption leads to a decrease in tumor bone metastasis. CD47 is a novel therapeutic target to strengthen bone mass and diminish metastatic tumor growth in bone.

Uluckan, Ozge; Becker, Stephanie N.; Deng, Hongju; Zou, Wei; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Frazier, William A.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.



Physiological challenges of bone repair.  


Bone healing after fracture occurs in a well-organized manner and involves a multitude of cell types, inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and certain vitamins. Some of the means by which alterations in these essential components affect bone repair are understood, whereas others still need to be delineated. Based on clinical experience and basic science research, certain clinical conditions have become associated with delays in bone repair after fracture. These conditions include chronic inflammation, diabetes, hypovitaminosis, aging, and polytrauma. This brief report reviews some of the ways by which these conditions have been shown to negatively influence bone repair. PMID:23047710

Borrelli, Joseph; Pape, Chris; Hak, David; Hsu, Joseph; Lin, Sheldon; Giannoudis, Peter; Lane, Joseph



Postradiation atrophy of mature bone  

SciTech Connect

The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecing demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection.

Ergun, H.; Howland, W.J.



Bone Density in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture.1 Osteoporosis remains a major health problem worldwide, costing an estimated $13.8 billion in health care each year in the United States. Despite advances in treating osteoporosis in the elderly, no cure exists. Osteoporosis has its roots in childhood. Accrual of bone mass occurs throughout childhood and early adulthood, and peak bone mass is a key determinant of the lifetime risk of osteoporosis. Because the foundation for skeletal health is established so early in life, osteoporosis prevention begins by optimizing gains in bone mineral throughout childhood and adolescence.2,3 Osteoporosis evaluation and prevention is relevant to children with cerebral palsy (CP). CP is the most prevalent childhood condition associated with osteoporosis. Bone density is significantly decreased, and children with CP often sustain painful fractures with minimal trauma that impair their function and quality of life. Preventing or improving osteoporosis and maximizing bone accrual during critical stages of growth will minimize the future lifelong risks of fractures in children with CP. This article addresses the anatomy and structure of bone and bone metabolism, the clinical assessment of bone mass, the causes of osteoporosis and its evaluation and treatment in children with CP.

Houlihan, Christine Murray; Stevenson, Richard D.



Bone Disease and Idiopathic Hypercalciuria  

PubMed Central

Observational and epidemiological studies alike have demonstrated that idiopathic hypercalciuric (IH) stone-forming patients typically demonstrate bone mineral density scores significantly less than those observed for age- and gender-matched normal subjects or those for non-hypercalciuric stone-forming patients. Most of these studies have relied on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and have not explored the mechanism(s) involved. There have been a small number of studies that have relied on dynamic bone histomorphometry to ascertain the nature of the bone defect in IH patients. When performed, these studies have clearly demonstrated increased bone resorption and high bone turnover in patients with fasting hypercalciuria while suppressed bone formation indices are the most consistent finding in patients with the absorptive variant of IH. The causes of this apparent difference in bone remodeling between the two variants of IH is still uncertain. Available evidence suggests that potential mechanisms may be dependent in large part to genetic, metabolic, and nutritional causes of hypercalciuria and bone loss in patients with IH.

Zerwekh, Joseph E.



Bone marrow stem cells.  


The "mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)" are cells adherent in the bone marrow, which can be isolated to induce differentiation. In contrast to the "embryonic stem cells" whose goal is to develop a new organism, the "MSC adult stem cells" can participate in tissue growth and repair throughout postnatal life. Addition of 5-azacytidine to MSCs in vitro induces the gradual increase in cellular size and begins spontaneous beatings, thereafter differentiating into cardiomyocytes. The "Methods" and "Protocols" to induce structural and functional maturations of MSCs, thus to achieve "Cellular Cardiomyoplasty," are described. With appropriate media, differentiations of MSCs to various kinds of cells such as chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes are also achievable. PMID:23807784

Duong, Minh Ngoc; Ma, Yu-Ting; Chiu, Ray C J



Bones in Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Our bones change throughout our lives, building and increasing in density to our 30's and then decreasing in density thereafter. People who don't get exercise, such as those who must remain in bed for long periods of time, can suffer early osteoporosis. But why don't bears, who hibernate for half a year, experience the same problem?



Bone marrow transplantation.  


Improvements in the results of bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of SCID may be expected by employing purified stem-cell concentrates for patients who do not have a compatible sibling available. Refinements in the purification technique and its monitoring are required, however. For the same category of patients it seems worthwhile to continue attempts at restoration with liver cells from fetuses less than 12 weeks of age. In addition, full protection against infections should be provided for patients expected to develop GVHD, and, therefore, such patients should only be treated in centers where reverse isolation and bacteriologic decontamination can be performed. In view of the rarity of the disease, transplanters should agree on a limited number of graft protocols. For the treatment of bone marrow aplasia, attempts to identify the factors that can serve to predict the occurrence of GVHD in compatible host-donor sibling pairs should be continued. Only when the patients who will develop GVHD can be recognized in advance will it be feasible to fully exploit available GVHD reductive measures. In particular the role of the intestinal microflora should be investigated in this respect. Experimental evidence is presented, suggesting an aggravating influence of microflora on GVHD lesions, which are primarily induced by histocompatibility reactions. For such studies with incompatible siblings, the dog is the best available animal model. For the selective isolation of hemopoietic stem cells for transplantation purposes (as one means of reducing GVHD), methods for rapid identification of stem cells and immune competent cells, respectively, have to be developed. In leukemia, more research is necessary on the factors that play a role in the late complications of bone marrow transplantation. The toxicity of aggressive regimens employed in the eradication of the leukemia should be further analyzed. The collection of autologous normal hemopoietic stem cells from leukemic patients as introduced by Dicke et al. warrants further exploration to see whether these cells may replace the allogeneic transplantation procedure, thus avoiding all the complications generally encountered in GVHD. For all three diseases, it is extremely important to develop a method for the selection of compatible donors among unrelated individuals, because this will at least double the number of candidates for therapeutic bone marrow transplantation. Current progress in histocompatibility typing in the rhesus monkey and the dog makes these species excellent models for such investigations. PMID:17188

van Bekkum, D W



Bone disease in predialysis, hemodialysis, and CAPD patients: Evidence of a better bone response to PTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone disease in predialysis, hemodialysis, and CAPD patients: Evidence of a better bone response to PTH. The spectrum of bone disease in predialysis and dialysis patients has changed during the last decade. The incidence of aplastic bone disease has increased and this can not be attributed to bone aluminum deposition; moreover, low bone cellular activity is present despite a moderate

Armando Torres; Victor Lorenzo; Domingo Hernández; José C Rodríguez; María Teresa Concepción; Aurelío P Rodríguez; Alexis Hernández; Eduardo de Bonis; Ernesto Darias; José M González-Posada; Manuel Losada; Margarita Rufino; Arnold J Felsenfeld; Mariano Rodríguez



Bone mineral density and bone metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have been reported. DMD is a severe, progressive muscular disease resulting in death at a young age. No specific therapies are available, but corticosteroids induce improvement and slower progression of the disease. However, long-term steroid therapy is a serious risk factor for osteoporosis. This study

M. L. Bianchi; A. Mazzanti; E. Galbiati; S. Saraifoger; A. Dubini; F. Cornelio; L. Morandi



Facilitation of hematopoietic recovery by bone grafts with intra-bone marrow–bone marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that T cells can acquire donor-type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and can interact with both donor-type antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and B cells, when adult donor bones are co-grafted with intravenous (IV) injection of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in order to supply donor bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. We have also found that the direct injection

Changye Song; Hiroko Hisha; Xiaoli Wang; Qing Li; Ming Li; Wenhao Cui; Kequan Guo; Satoshi Okazaki; Tomomi Mizokami; Junko Kato; Yunze Cui; Wei Feng; Yuming Zhang; Ming Shi; Muneo Inaba; Hongxue Fan; Susumu Ikehara



The impact of inflammation on bone mass in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a dynamic tissue. Skeletal bone integrity is maintained through bone modeling and remodeling. The mechanisms underlying\\u000a this bone mass regulation are complex and interrelated. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling through bone resorption\\u000a and bone formation results in bone loss. Chronic inflammation influences bone mass regulation. Inflammation-related bone disorders\\u000a share many common mechanisms of bone loss.

Wai W. Cheung; Jian-Ying Zhan; Kyung Hoon Paik; Robert H. Mak


Bone disease in primary hyperparathyrodism.  


Nowadays, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is mostly a mild disease. Overt skeletal manifestations are rare but decreased bone mineral density (BMD) can still be demonstrated. Even in mild cases, excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone turnover leading to bone loss particularly at cortical sites. Conversely, a relative preservation of cancellous bone has been shown by histomorphometric analyses and advanced imaging techniques. An increased fracture rate has been demonstrated in untreated patients with PHPT at peripheral sites and in the spine. Parathyroidectomy (PTx) is the definitive cure for PHPT. With the restoration of normal PTH, bone resorption is quickly tapered down, while bone formation proceeds at the level of bone multicellular units, which were activated prior to PTx. The rapid refilling of the enlarged remodeling space and the subsequent matrix mineralization will result in an increase in BMD at sites rich in trabecular bone, such as lumbar spine and hip, which mainly occurs during the first 6-12 months after PTx. Cortical bone is less responsive to PTX because of the low rate of bone turnover, but sensible increases in BMD at the distal third of the radius can be observed in the long term. PTx seems to decrease the risk of fractures but more data are needed before a definitive conclusion on this important matter can be reached. Treatment with bisphosphonates can be considered for patients with low BMD who do not undergo PTx. Two-year treatment with alendronate has been shown to decrease bone turnover markers and increase BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, but not at the distal radius. Cinacalcet stably decreased serum calcium levels across a broad range of PHPT severity, but no change in BMD occurred in patients treated for up to 5.5 years. PMID:23024712

Marcocci, Claudio; Cianferotti, Luisella; Cetani, Filomena



Bone disease in primary hyperparathyrodism  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is mostly a mild disease. Overt skeletal manifestations are rare but decreased bone mineral density (BMD) can still be demonstrated. Even in mild cases, excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone turnover leading to bone loss particularly at cortical sites. Conversely, a relative preservation of cancellous bone has been shown by histomorphometric analyses and advanced imaging techniques. An increased fracture rate has been demonstrated in untreated patients with PHPT at peripheral sites and in the spine. Parathyroidectomy (PTx) is the definitive cure for PHPT. With the restoration of normal PTH, bone resorption is quickly tapered down, while bone formation proceeds at the level of bone multicellular units, which were activated prior to PTx. The rapid refilling of the enlarged remodeling space and the subsequent matrix mineralization will result in an increase in BMD at sites rich in trabecular bone, such as lumbar spine and hip, which mainly occurs during the first 6–12 months after PTx. Cortical bone is less responsive to PTX because of the low rate of bone turnover, but sensible increases in BMD at the distal third of the radius can be observed in the long term. PTx seems to decrease the risk of fractures but more data are needed before a definitive conclusion on this important matter can be reached. Treatment with bisphosphonates can be considered for patients with low BMD who do not undergo PTx. Two-year treatment with alendronate has been shown to decrease bone turnover markers and increase BMD at the lumbar spine and hip, but not at the distal radius. Cinacalcet stably decreased serum calcium levels across a broad range of PHPT severity, but no change in BMD occurred in patients treated for up to 5.5 years.

Cianferotti, Luisella; Cetani, Filomena



Comparison of Bone-Conduction Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bone-conduction technologies have been proposed for use with radio communication for the military. Three manufacturers have made commercially available bone-conduction systems that transmit and receive radio signals through bone conduction. The purpose of...

P. Henry P. Tran T. Letowski



21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure bone density and mineral content by x-ray or...transmission measurements through the bone and adjacent tissues. This...



21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure bone density and mineral content by x-ray or...transmission measurements through the bone and adjacent tissues. This...



21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... A bone densitometer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure bone density and mineral content by x-ray or gamma ray transmission measurements through the bone and adjacent tissues. This generic type of device may include...



Mineral evolution of bone.  


A study on the evolution with age of the mineral composition of bones was performed on samples belonging to human and other common mammalian species (cattle, sheep, dog). The study was carried out on the ashes obtained by calcination of the bone samples (1 h at 900 degrees C). The calcined powders were carefully examined by X-ray diffraction, from which precise quantitative evaluation (also confirmed by chemical analysis) of the crystalline phases present was derived. These data were analysed as a function of the introduced fractional age phi, a new relative scale that allows even largely different lifespan species to be compared. An overall linear increase in (Ca + Mg)/P ratio with log phi was found and the other considerations on molecular constitution (especially as regards Mg2+ substituting for Ca2+ in very young subjects) of the various phases detected were formulated and relative implications evaluated. The results appear promising for an improvement of knowledge in the field of biomedical experimentation and clinical implantology. PMID:8652780

Ravaglioli, A; Krajewski, A; Celotti, G C; Piancastelli, A; Bacchini, B; Montanari, L; Zama, G; Piombi, L



Intrinsic material properties of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The G171V mutation (high bone mass, HBM) is autosomal dominant and is responsible for high bone mass in humans. Transgenic\\u000a HBM mice in which the human LRP5 G171V gene is inserted also show a similar phenotype with greater bone mass and biomechanical\\u000a performance than wild-type mice, as determined by whole bone testing. Whole bone mechanics, however, depend jointly on bone

Gloria E. Lopez Franco; Robert D. Blank; Mohammed P. Akhter



Nell-1 Enhanced Bone Mineralization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to the discovery that the human NELL-1 gene induces or upregulates bone mineralization. The NELL-1 gene or gene product thus provides a convenient target for screening for modulators of bone mineralization. In addition, NELL-1 can ...

K. Ting



Anemias of Bone Marrow Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

he anemias of chronic bone marrow failure are disorders other than iron deficiency, folate deficiency, and vitamin B12 deficiency in which anemia is present and the reticulocyte count does not increase appropriately. These anemias are commonly (but not always) normochromic and nor- mocytic. The differential diagnosis of the anemias of bone marrow failure is presented in Table 1. Although chronic

Richard S. Stein; Stacey Goodman


Green Tea and Bone Metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...


Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  


Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A



Bone surface modifications in zooarchaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutmarks made by stone tools, conchoidal flake scars from hammerstone percussion, carnivore tooth marks, striations from sedimentary abrasion, and other surface modifications on bones from archaeological sites constitute a crucial body of evidence for investigating the role of human behaviors and of nonhuman taphonomic processes in site formation. This paper describes the various kinds of bone surface modifications produced by



Dilatational band formation in bone.  


Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone's nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC(-/-), OPN(-/-), OC-OPN(-/-;-/-)) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

Poundarik, Atharva A; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L; Gundberg, Caren M; Vashishth, Deepak



Not Bare Bones at All  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students examine the literal, physiological and figurative significance of bones through experimentation, then create their own skeleton-related exhibits for a âBone and Skeleton Museum.â The suggested time allowance for this lesson is 1-2 class periods.

Hutchings, Catherine



Bone disease after renal transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of greatly improved long-term patient and graft survival after renal transplantation, improving other clinical outcomes such as risk of fracture and cardiovascular disease is of paramount importance. After renal transplantation, a large percentage of patients lose bone. This loss of bone results from a combination of factors that include pre-existing renal osteodystrophy, immunosuppressive therapy, and the effects of

Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere; Johann Herberth; Hartmut H. Malluche



Green tea and bone metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This

Chwan-Li Shen; James K. Yeh; Jay J. Cao; Jia-Sheng Wang



Pathophysiology of Bone Cancer Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cancers, such as those affecting the breast, prostate, and lung have a strong predilection to metastasize to bone. Bone metastasis frequently results in pain, pathologic fractures, hypercal- cemia, and spinal cord compression. Pain can have a devastating effect on the quality of life in advanced cancer patients and is a serious complica- tion of cancer. Although significant

Mary Ann; C. Sabino; Patrick W. Mantyh



Clinical advances in bone regeneration.  


Understanding of the biology of bone regeneration has been increasing rapidly, with greater appreciation for the importance of biochemical aspects as well as the mechanical requirements for bone to heal. There are a number of situations where there is difficulty in bone healing such as fracture non-union; or growth such as osteogenesis imperfecta; or a requirement for surplus bone to reconstruct defects such as following surgery for tumour excision or limb lengthening. There is a greater understanding of the complex interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and the chemical mediators that provide signalling along complex pathways. Although we have known about substances such as Bone Morphogenic Proteins and Growth Hormones for some time, their application in clinical practice is still not widespread, and we need to study them more to understand their role in bone healing. With newer technologies such as stem cells and gene therapy being developed there is the potential for vast improvement in bone regenerative techniques, although we are not at a stage where we can be confident that these techniques will work. In this review article we discuss the basic healing process of bone and how our understanding of this has led to improved techniques as well as the potential for future developments in new technologies. PMID:23317467

Siddiqui, Nashat A; Owen, John M



Genetic Determinants of Bone Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic contribution to bone mass determination was first described in the early 70s. Elucidation of gene contribution to this has since been attempted through studies analyzing associations between bone mass acquisition and\\/or maintenance and polymorphic variations of several genes. The first to be described was the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), initially claimed to contribute to almost 75% of

Laura Audí; Marta García-Ramírez; Antonio Carrascosa



Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.  


Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike



Bone marrow modified acrylic bone cement for augmentation of osteoporotic cancellous bone.  


The use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement to reinforce fragile or broken vertebral bodies (vertebroplasty) leads to extensive bone stiffening. This might be one reason for fractures at the adjacent vertebrae following this procedure. PMMA with a reduced Young's modulus may be more suitable. The goal of this study was to produce and characterize PMMA bone cements with a reduced Young's modulus by adding bone marrow. Bone cements were produced by combining PMMA with various volume fractions of freshly harvested bone marrow from sheep. Porosity, Young's modulus, yield strength, polymerization temperature, setting time and cement viscosity of different cement modifications were investigated. The samples generated comprised pores with diameters in the range of 30-250 ?m leading to porosity up to 51%. Compared to the control cement, Young's modulus and yield strength decreased from 1830 to 740 MPa and from 58 to 23 MPa respectively by adding 7.5 ml bone marrow to 23 ml premixed cement. The polymerization temperature decreased from 61 to 38 ?C for cement modification with 7.5 ml of bone marrow. Setting times of the modified cements were lower in comparison to the regular cement (28 min). Setting times increased with higher amounts of added bone marrow from around 16-25 min. The initial viscosities of the modified cements were higher in comparison to the control cement leading to a lower risk of extravasation. The hardening times followed the same trend as the setting times. In conclusion, blending bone marrow with acrylic bone cement seems to be a promising method to increase the compliance of PMMA cement for use in cancellous bone augmentation in osteoporotic patients due to its modified mechanical properties, lower polymerization temperature and elevated initial viscosity. PMID:22098908

Arens, Daniel; Rothstock, Stephan; Windolf, Markus; Boger, Andreas



Bone as an Endocrine Organ  

PubMed Central

Bone has classically been viewed as an inert structure that is necessary for mobility, calcium homeostasis, and maintenance of the hematopoietic niche. Recent advances in bone biology using complex genetic manipulations in mice have highlighted the importance of bone not only as a structural scaffold to support the human body, but also as a regulator of a number of metabolic processes that are independent of mineral metabolism. These advances point to the skeleton as an endocrine organ that modulates glucose tolerance and testosterone production by secretion of a bone-specific protein, osteocalcin. This review will detail how bone has emerged as a bona-fide endocrine “gland”, and with that, the potential therapeutic implications that could be realized for this hormone-secreting tissue.

Guntur, Anyonya R; Rosen, Clifford J



Human bone cells in vitro.  


Human bone cell cultures were established by maintaining collagenase-treated bone fragments in low Ca++ medium. The resulting cell cultures exhibited a high level of alkaline phosphatase activity and produced a significant increase in intracellular cAMP when exposed to the 1-34 fragment of human parathyroid hormone. With continued culture, the cells formed a thick, extracellular matrix that mineralized when cultures were provided daily with normal levels of calcium, fresh ascorbic acid (50 micrograms/ml) and 10 mM beta-glycerol phosphate. Biosynthetically, these cells produced type I collagen (without any type III collagen), and the bone-specific protein, osteonectin. In addition, the cells produced sulfated macromolecules electrophoretically identical to those positively identified as the bone proteoglycan in parallel cultures of fetal bovine bone cells. This technique provides a useful system for the study of osteoblast metabolism in vitro. PMID:2998572

Robey, P G; Termine, J D



Quantitative Estimation of Bone Density and Bone Quality Using Acoustic Parameters of Cancellous Bone for Fast and Slow Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous studies, two longitudinal waves, the fast and slow waves, were observed in cancellous bone. The propagation speed of the fast wave increases with bone density and that of the slow wave remains almost constant. The attenuation constant of the fast wave is much higher than that of the slow wave and is independent of bone density, but the attenuation constant of the slow wave increases with bone density. In the present study, experimental results on ultrasonic waves transmitted through cancellous bone show that the fast wave amplitude increases proportionally and the slow wave amplitude decreases inversely with bone density. The dependence of the fast wave amplitude on bone density cannot be explained by the attenuation constant. The ultrasonic wave propagation path through cancellous bone is modeled to specify the causality between ultrasonic wave parameters and bone density. Then bone density and bone elasticity are quantitatively formulated.

Otani, Takahiko



Bone involvement in aldosteronism.  


In rats with aldosteronism, a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical bone strength has been reported. Our study was aimed to evaluate bone involvement in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). A total of 188 consecutive subjects with adrenal incidentaloma, observed between November 2009 and October 2011, were screened for PA with aldosterone-to-renin ratio. After confirmatory tests, in those who screened positive, 11 patients were diagnosed as PA and 15 patients were not (nPA). A serum/urinary biochemical profile, parathyroid hormone (PTH), BMD measured at lumbar spine (LS) and total and femoral neck (TN and FN) by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and conventional spinal radiographs (T(4) -L(4) ) were obtained in all subjects. PA patients had a significantly higher 24-hour urinary calcium (6.28?±?1.85 versus 4.28?±?1.18?mmol/d; p?

Salcuni, Antonio Stefano; Palmieri, Serena; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Morelli, Valentina; Battista, Claudia; Guarnieri, Vito; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Desina, Gaetano; Eller-Vainicher, Cristina; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Scillitani, Alfredo; Chiodini, Iacopo



Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women  

PubMed Central

Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2) and formation (P4). We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2) and onset of ovulation (P4) both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD) related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs). Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Prior, Jerilynn C.



Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally applied alendronate has an optimum dose with respect to bone resorption and formation. Further, we questioned whether the addition of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), would stimulate bone formation. Finally, we studied the effect of high levels of antibiotics on bone allograft healing, since mixing allograft bone with antibiotics might reduce the infection risk. Methods 25 goats received eight bone conduction chambers in the cortical bone of the proximal medial tibia. Five concentrations of alendronate (0, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were tested in combination with allograft bone and supplemented with cefazolin (200 ?g/mL). Allograft not supplemented with alendronate and cefazolin served as control. In addition, allograft mixed with demineralized bone matrix, with and without alendronate, was tested. After 12 weeks, graft bone area and new bone area were determined with manual point counting. Results Graft resorption decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with increasing alendronate concentration. The area of new bone in the 1 mg/mL alendronate group was significantly (p = 0.002) higher when compared to the 10 mg/mL group. No differences could be observed between the group without alendronate, but with demineralized bone, and the control groups. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for local application of alendronate has been shown in this study. Most new bone was present at 1 mg/mL alendronate. Local application of cefazolin had no effect on bone remodelling.



Extravascular albumin in bone tissue.  

PubMed Central

1. The amount of albumin in extravascular tissue fluid in bone, kidney, intestine, skin and muscle and in plasma of young rabbits has been measured by radial immunodiffusion. 2. The majority of extravascular albumin in kidney, intestine, skin and muscle is exchangeable with plasma albumin, whereas in bone, only the proportion which is in tissue fluid is readily exchangeable; the remaining fraction in calcified matrix is more permanently fixed. 3. About 27% of the albumin in young bone is in tissue fluid, about 57% in calcified matrix and about 16% is intravascular. The total amount of extravascular albumin per unit mass of bone is similar to that found in soft tissues. 4. The volume of intravascular plasma in tissues was determined in two ways: from 51Cr-erythrocyte radioactivity and the venous haematocrit and from the '5 min 125I-fibrinogen space'. 5. The rate of egress of albumin from blood vessels has been estimated from the initial slope of the ratio of extravascular radioactivity in the tissue to plasma radioactivity plotted against time after injection of 125I-albumin. 6. The rate of clearance of the albumin in extravascular tissue fluid in bone is approximately once every hour. This is more rapid than in skin and muscle, comparable with intestine and less rapid than in kidney. 7. The amount of albumin incorporated into calcified matrix of bone per day is calculated to be less than 0-5% of the total albumin passing through the tissue fluid of bone per day.

Owen, M; Triffitt, J T



Evaluation of bone toxicity in various bones of aged rats.  


The aim of the present study was to provide a method for evaluating bone toxicity induced by drugs in various bones in aged rats. Male Crl:CD (SD) rats at 46 weeks of age were administered 15 mg/m(2) body surface area of doxorubicin, which effects the growth plate in weanling rats, weekly for 9 weeks by intravenous injection, and the femur, sternum, humerus and tibia were examined histopathologically. In the doxorubicin-treated group, thinning of the growth plate was remarkably observed in the proximal tibia and humerus; however, these changes were not observed in other regions. In addition, the osteoclast number per bone perimeter in the proximal tibia was significantly higher than others in control aged rat. Thus, recognizing the various histological reactions related to the time of epiphyseal closure is important for evaluating bone toxicity in aged rats. PMID:22272043

Noguchi, Chihiro; Miyata, Hiroto; Sato, Yasushi; Iwaki, Yoshinobu; Okuyama, Shigeru



Bone development: overview of bone cells and signaling.  


Vertebrates evolved elaborating a structure made up of more than 200 bones and cartilages articulated with one another to form the skeleton, through which locomotion, organ protection, lodging of hematopoiesis, and mineral homeostasis are allowed. Skeletogenesis starts at the fetal stage, along with marrow hematopoiesis, and evolves postnatally through modeling and remodeling processes that permit skeletal mass buildup. Preservation of skeletal mass is then implemented by balanced remodeling, which ensures continuous renovation of the tissue to allow its mechanical, structural, and metabolic properties to remain unaltered until ageing or diseases disrupt this equilibrium. Skeletal homeostasis is fulfilled by specialized bone cells in association with systemic and local regulators. Herein I review landmark discoveries that shed light on the intricate mesh connecting bone cells among themselves and with other systems, thus representing the cellular basis of normal and abnormal bone development and homeostasis. PMID:21948208

Teti, Anna



Identification of cooked bone using TEM imaging of bone collagen.  


Mild heating (?100° C, 1 h)-typical of cooking-does not lead to detectable changes in any biochemical parameter yet measured; consequently bones that have been cooked, but which have not reached a temperature that will induce charring go undetected. We have used a microscopy based approach to investigate changes in the organization of the bone protein, collagen, as it is heated, using bone from heating experiments, short term burials, and archaeological sites. The work has revealed that the presence of a mineral matrix stabilizes the collagen enabling the damage to accumulate, but preventing it from causing immediate gelatinization. Once the mineral is removed, the damage can be observed using appropriate visualization methods. This chapter describes the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique that has been used to detect cooked bone by visualizing minor heat-induced damage at the level of the collagen fibril. PMID:22907413

Koon, Hannah E C



Raman Assessment of Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Progress in the diagnosis and prediction of fragility fractures depends on improvements to the understating of the compositional\\u000a contributors of bone quality to mechanical competence. Raman spectroscopy has been used to evaluate alterations to bone composition\\u000a associated with aging, disease, or injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  In this survey we will (1) review the use of Raman-based compositional measures of bone quality, including mineral-to-matrix

Michael D. Morris; Gurjit S. Mandair


Give the Dog a Bone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ten bones are hidden in the squares of a blank 1-100 grid. Students are given the numbers of the squares one at a time. They attempt to locate the numbers in the hundreds chart and find all 10 bones within 60 seconds. Numbers of the incorrectly guessed squares are left in place to help with the search. The game helps students understand the structure and patterns of our base-10 number system. Children can be encouraged to make use of a found bone to locate the next one.

Cogan, Mark



Anabolic Agents and Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The definition of bone quality is evolving particularly from the perspective of anabolic agents that can enhance not only\\u000a bone mineral density but also bone microarchitecture, composition, morphology, amount of microdamage, and remodeling dynamics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  This review summarizes the molecular pathways and physiologic effects of current and potential anabolic drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From a MEDLINE search (1996–2010), articles were identified by the search

Tarek Sibai; Elise F. Morgan; Thomas A. Einhorn


Novel Adipokines and Bone Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a serious social issue nowadays. Both the high morbidity and its common complication osteoporotic fracture load a heavy burden on the whole society. The adipose tissue is the biggest endocrinology organ that has a different function on the bone. The adipocytes are differentiated from the same cell lineage with osteoblast, and they can secrete multiple adipokines with various functions on bone remolding. Recently, several novel adipokines have been identified and investigated thoroughly. In this paper, we would like to highlight the complicated relation between the bone metabolism and the novel adipokines, and it may provide us with a new target for prediction and treatment of osteoporosis.

Liu, Yuan; Song, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Liang, Qiu-Hua; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan



Antiepileptic medication and bone health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder, usually requiring long-term treatment with anti-epileptic drugs (AED).\\u000a Many studies have reported that AED therapy is associated with metabolic bone disease and is a major iatrogenic risk factor\\u000a for fractures. There remains uncertainty about the type(s) of bone disease due to AED treatment, and the pathogenesis of AED-associated\\u000a fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale  Deficits in bone mineral

S. J. Petty; T. J. O’Brien; J. D. Wark



Cortical bone senescence and mineral bone density of the humerus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Study of the humeral cortex of 89 acute cadavers showed that an important factor contributing to the physiologic bone loss\\u000a of aging is increasing bone porosity. Mean cortical porosity increases in both sexes with age, from 4.6% in men and 4% in\\u000a women at 40 years of age to 10% and more at age 80. In the population studied, no

Anne-Marie Laval-Jeantet; Catherine Bergot; Roberta Carroll; Françoise Garcia-Schaefer



Solid-State NMR Studies of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state NMR studies on bone, bone mineral standards and collagen are reviewed. NMR spectroscopy was mostly applied to the bone mineral and confirmed that the structure resembles that of calcium carbonatoapatite of type B. Apatite in bone was found to be deficient in structural hydroxyl groups. Concentration and distribution of hydrogenphosphate and carbonate ions, and of water in apatite crystals

Waclaw Kolodziejski


Mature bone metaplasia in abdominal wall scar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58-year-old man who had had three laparotomies for gastric surgery, developed a painful mass in the abdominal wall scar. Radiology confirmed bone formation in the scar. The bone was excised and the wound repaired. Histology confirmed metaplastic mature bone formation. This case draws the attention to the clinical condition of bone formation in midline scars. Clinically, it should be

R A Daoud; M J Watkins; G Brown; N Carr



Cranial Bone Fixation in Infants and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for fixing cranial bone flaps with absorbable sutures and bone shims. This technique is a cost-efficient method of rapidly achieving rigid structural stability with excellent cosmetic results. The kerf created by the craniotome is bridged at multiple sites by bone chips harvested from the inner edge of the bone flap. Solid bony union is documented on

Ken R. Winston; Marjorie C. Wang



Malignant bone pain: pathophysiology and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of bone metastases predicts the presence of pain and is the most common cause of cancer-related pain. Although bone metastases do not involve vital organs, they may determine deleterious effects in patients with prolonged survival. Bone fractures, hypercalcaemia, neurologic deficits and reduced activity associated with bone metastases result in an overall compromise in the patient's quality of life.

Sebastiano Mercadante




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bone status of chickens can be measured by numerous techniques, providing a variety of parameters for evaluation. By the use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) it is possible to measure bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) either in vivo or on excised bones...


Air-filled (Pneumatic) Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just like birds, some dinosaurs had air-filled (pneumatic) bones, which made the dinosaurs' skeletons lighter. In this activity, learners bake chicken or turkey bones and then rub the ends off the bones with sandpaper to expose air spaces inside. This activity would be great during Thanksgiving vacation, or any other holiday when you have bones left over from dinner.

Science, Lawrence H.



Concentration of bone elements in osteoporosis.  


In aging and in osteoporosis, decreased bone density is associated with decreased bone mass. However, changes in the bone mineral phase remain a matter for investigation. In particular, it is unknown whether bone mineral loss is directly related to reduction in bone mass or associated with changes in the concentration of mineral elements in mineralized bone tissue. In this study, the cortical bone concentration of elements was determined in biopsies of the ilium from 33 subjects (12 controls and 21 individuals with untreated severe osteoporosis). Calcium and phosphorus concentrations were evaluated in cortical and trabecular bone using energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Bone concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Sr, Al, B, and Si were also determined in cortical bone using ICPOES. Additionally, the concentration of F in cortical bone was measured with a specific ion electrode and the concentration of Pb was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. In mineralized bone tissue there was no significant age-dependent variation in the concentration of Ca, P, or other elements either in controls or in osteoporotic subjects. Moreover, the concentration of elements in bone tissue did not differ in the two groups. These results suggest that the decrease in bone density in osteoporosis is directly related to evolution of the bone mass, without detectable changes in the concentration of elements in bone. PMID:2309577

Baslé, M F; Mauras, Y; Audran, M; Clochon, P; Rebel, A; Allain, P




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the bone metabolism in obese women by the estimation of selected markers of bone formation. Methods. The concentration of plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and selected markers of bone formation (osteocalcin (BGP) in plasma, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in blood serum) and bone resorption (cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I




Osteoprotegerin Diminishes Advanced Bone Cancer Pain1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone cancer pain most commonly occurs when tumors originating in breast, prostate, or lung metastasize to long bones, spinal vertebrae, and\\/or pelvis. Primary and metastatic cancers involving bone account for approximately 400,000 new cancer cases per year in the United States alone, and >70% of patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer have skeletal metastases. Whereas pain resulting from bone

Nancy M. Luger; Prisca Honore; Mary Ann; C. Sabino; Matthew J. Schwei; Scott D. Rogers; David B. Mach; Denis R. Clohisy; Patrick W. Mantyh



Electron microscopy of undecalcified human bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative approach for the electron microscopical examination of undecalcified human bone was investigated. The method required bone to be chilled to -70 degrees C, sectioned at 10 microns in a special bone cryostat, and these sections to be fixed and embedded for ultrathin sectioning. Good preservation of bone cells was seen. The advantages of this method are that it

R A Dodds; I Shore; J Moss



Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices. Application of large bone grafts in the operation room is not a clinical reality yet due

N. E. Fedorovich



Bone nodules on chitosan–polygalacturonic acid–hydroxyapatite nanocomposite films mimic hierarchy of natural bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of bone tissue engineering is to develop bony tissues on tissue engineered constructs that mimic the native bone. Nanoscale characterization of in vitro generated bony tissues on engineered scaffolds is essential to understanding both the physical and mechanical characteristics of the engineered bone. Bone nodule formation, a typical early indicator of bone formation was observed on chitosan–polygalacturonic

Rohit Khanna; Kalpana S. Katti; Dinesh R. Katti



Evolution of bone transplantation: molecular, cellular and tissue strategies to engineer human bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations, and their reconstruction to provide mechanical integrity to the skeleton is a necessary step in the patient's rehabilitation. The current gold standard for bone reconstruction, the autogenous bone graft, works well in many circumstances. However, autograft reconstruction, along with the available alternatives of allogenous bone graft or poly(methylmethacrylate) bone cement,

Michael J. Yaszemski; Richard G. Payne; Wilson C. Hayes; Robert Langer; Antonios G. Mikos



Interspecies Differences in Bone Composition, Density, and Quality: Potential Implications for in Vivo Bone Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares bone composition, density, and quality in bone samples derived from seven vertebrates that are commonly used in bone research: human, dog, pig, cow, sheep, chicken, and rat. Cortical femoral bone samples were analyzed for their content of ash, collagen, extractable proteins, and insulin-like growth factor-I. These param- eters were also measured in bone powder fractions that were




Use of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 to Enhance Tendon Healing in a Bone Tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the hypothesis that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 can enhance bone ingrowth into a tendon graft placed into a bone tunnel. We transplanted the long digital extensor tendon into a drill hole in the proximal tibia in 65 adult mongrel dogs. We applied two different doses of the bone morphogenetic protein to the tendon-bone interface in one

Scott A. Rodeo; Katsunori Suzuki; Xiang-hua Deng; John Wozney; Russell F. Warren



Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. METHODS: In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. RESULTS: In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the

Jonas Schuepbach; Olivier Dassonville; Gilles Poissonnet; Francois Demard



Bone histology and bone mineral density after correction of acidosis in distal renal tubular acidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone histology and bone mineral density after correction of acidosis in distal renal tubular acidosis.BackgroundThe association between chronic metabolic acidosis and alterations in bone cell functions has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. However, the causal role of acidosis and the effects of alkaline therapy on bone histology and bone mineral density in chronic metabolic acidosis have never

Somnuek Domrongkitchaiporn; Cholatip Pongskul; Vorachai Sirikulchayanonta; Wasana Stitchantrakul; Virut Leeprasert; Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul; Piyanuch Radinahamed; Rajata Rajatanavin



Bone marrow stem cells and biological scaffold for bone repair in aging and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of bone mass observed in aging enhances the risk of fractures. The process of bone repair in aging is slow and limited due to reduced activity of the osteoblasts. Bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) residing in the bone marrow are the progenitors for osteoblasts. The ability to enhance healing of bone defect in aging by MSCs can contribute

S. Srouji; E. Livne



Micro-CT evaluation of bone defects: Applications to osteolytic bone metastases, bone cysts, and fracture.  


Bone defects can occur in various forms and present challenges to performing a standard micro-CT evaluation of bone quality because most measures are suited to homogeneous structures rather than ones with spatially focal abnormalities. Such defects are commonly associated with pain and fragility. Research involving bone defects requires quantitative approaches to be developed if micro-CT is to be employed. In this study, we demonstrate that measures of inter-microarchitectural bone spacing are sensitive to the presence of focal defects in the proximal tibia of two distinctly different mouse models: a burr-hole model for fracture healing research, and a model of osteolytic bone metastases. In these models, the cortical and trabecular bone compartments were both affected by the defect and were, therefore, evaluated as a single unit to avoid splitting the defects into multiple analysis regions. The burr-hole defect increased mean spacing (Sp) by 27.6%, spacing standard deviation (SpSD) by 113%, and maximum spacing (Spmax) by 72.8%. Regression modeling revealed SpSD (?=0.974, p<0.0001) to be a significant predictor of the defect volume (R(2)=0.949) and Spmax (?=0.712, p<0.0001) and SpSD (?=0.271, p=0.022) to be significant predictors of the defect diameter (R(2)=0.954). In the mice with osteolytic bone metastases, spacing parameters followed similar patterns of change as reflected by other imaging technologies, specifically bioluminescence data which is indicative of tumor burden. These data highlight the sensitivity of spacing measurements to bone architectural abnormalities from 3D micro-CT data and provide a tool for quantitative evaluation of defects within a bone. PMID:23830560

Buie, Helen R; Bosma, Nick A; Downey, Charlene M; Jirik, Frank R; Boyd, Steven K



Facilitation of hematopoietic recovery by bone grafts with intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation.  


We have previously shown that T cells can acquire donor-type major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and can interact with both donor-type antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and B cells, when adult donor bones are co-grafted with intravenous (IV) injection of bone marrow cells (BMCs) in order to supply donor bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. We have also found that the direct injection of donor BMCs into recipient BM (intra-bone marrow-bone marrow transplantation: IBM-BMT) produces more rapid reconstitution (including T-cell functions) and higher survival rates than IV injection (IV-BMT) even in chimerism-resistant combinations. In the present study, we show that the co-administration of bones from suckling (2-3 days old) donor mice is also effective in the IBM-BMT system. Even when a relatively low number of BMCs were injected into adult (more than 15 weeks old) mice, complete reconstitution was achieved in the mice that had received IBM-BMT+bone grafts, but not in the mice that had received IBM-BMT alone. Most BM and splenic adherent cells obtained from the recipients that had received IBM-BMT+bone grafts were reconstituted by donor-type cells. Both T-cell proliferation and plaque-forming cell assays indicated that the T cells of such mice showed donor-type MHC restriction. Moreover, the analyses of thymic sections using confocal microscopy revealed that donor BM stromal cells had migrated into the thymus. Thus, the co-administration of donor bones has great advantages for allogeneic BMT in adult mice. PMID:18514748

Song, Changye; Hisha, Hiroko; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Qing; Li, Ming; Cui, Wenhao; Guo, Kequan; Okazaki, Satoshi; Mizokami, Tomomi; Kato, Junko; Cui, Yunze; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuming; Shi, Ming; Inaba, Muneo; Fan, Hongxue; Ikehara, Susumu



[Mechanisms for formation of myeloma bone disease].  


Myeloma cells stimulate bone resorption by enhancing osteoclast formation and suppress bone formation by inhibiting osteoblast differentiation. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta as well as RANK ligand play a major role in the enhancement of bone resorption in myeloma. Myeloma cell-derived soluble Wnt inhibitors as well as TGF-beta released from the bone tissues through enhanced bone resorption are thought to suppress osteoblast differentiation. Such pathognomonically skewed cellular components in the bone marrow create a microenvironment suitable for myeloma cell growth and survival (a myeloma niche) , which should be targeted to suppress myeloma expansion along with amelioration of bone lesions. PMID:18379024

Yata, Kenichiro; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio



Bone-vascular cross-talk.  


Increasing numbers of cross-sectional studies on general populations and chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have reported relationships between cardiovascular calcifications and bone disorders, including osteoporosis, osteopenia and high or low bone activity. The mechanisms underlying this bone-cardiovascular axis and biological links between bone and arterial abnormalities are suggestive of bone-vascular cross-talk. The nature of these links is not well understood and could result from: 1) common factors acting on bone remodeling and arterial calcification; 2) compromised bone blood supply responsible for arteriosclerosis of bone vessels and reduced perfusion; and/or 3) direct action of bone cells (osteoblasts/osteocytes) on vascular biology and structure. Inflammation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species are the principal common pathways linking bone and arterial pathologies. PMID:22711433

London, Gérard M


Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones  


... pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: Brisk walks, jogging, playing tennis, dancing, or other weight-bearing activities such as aerobics and other sports Careful ...


How Is Bone Cancer Staged?  


... tumors. This information about the tumor, lymph nodes, metastasis, and grade is combined in a process called ... the bone or nearby lymph nodes M1: Distant metastasis (the cancer has spread) M1a: The cancer has ...


Bone Health Issues in Sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis affects the bone directly in only a minority of patients. Nonetheless, bone health should be considered in the management of all patients with sarcoidosis. Deficiency in vitamin D, an important contributor to bone health, has been linked to autoimmune disease incidence. Studies have shown that patients with sarcoidosis frequently have low levels of vitamin D-25 but may have normal or increased levels of vitamin D-1,25. In addition, granuloma formation has been linked to a failure of the innate immune system, which could be related to a deficiency in vitamin D, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Furthermore, many patients with sarcoidosis are treated with corticosteroids, which are known to induce osteoporosis. Therefore, bone health may be impacted in several ways in sarcoidosis—by direct involvement with granulomas, vitamin D deficiency, or corticosteroid therapy.

Sweiss, Nadera J.; Lower, Elyse E.; Korsten, Peter; Niewold, Timothy B.; Favus, Murray J.; Baughman, Robert P.



Endocrine disruptors and bone metabolism.  


Bone microenvironment is a complex dynamic equilibrium between osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is modulated by a wide variety of hormones and osteocyte mediators secreted in response to physiological and pathological conditions. The rate of remodeling involves tight coupling and regulation of both cells population and is regulated by a wide variety of hormones and mediators such as parathyroid hormone, prostaglandins, thyroid hormone, sex steroids, etc. It is also well documented that bone formation is easily influenced by the exposure of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to chemical compounds. Currently, humans and wildlife animals are exposed to various environmental xenoestrogens typically at low doses. These compounds, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), can alter the systemic hormonal regulation of the bone remodeling process and the skeletal formation. This review highlights the effects of the EDCs on mammalian bone turnover and development providing a macro and molecular view of their action. PMID:23192238

Agas, Dimitrios; Sabbieti, Maria Giovanna; Marchetti, Luigi



Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes  


What are the IBMFS disorders? Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Diamond-Blackfan Anemia Dyskeratosis Congenita Fanconi Anemia Pearson Syndrome Severe Congenital Neutropenia Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Thrombocytopenia Absent Radii Other Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Amegakaryocytic ...


Chemical Properties of Bone Mineral.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature on the chemical properties of bone mineral is reviewed. As a basis for understanding the properties of these extremely fine crystallites, reference is made first to the ideal compounds and then to the morphological, compositional, and struc...

W. E. Brown L. C. Chow



Bone fracture repair - series (image)  


... three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a ... fractures not able to be realigned (reduced) by casting, or in cases in which the long-term ...


Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health  


... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (233 ... Anorexia Nervosa Partner Resources An Easy Guide to Breastfeeding (OWH) Breastfeeding (OWH) Pregnancy and Medications (OWH) Prenatal ...


Parathyroid hormone and bone biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment, either in the form of teriparatide or recombinant human PTH(1–34), reduces the fracture\\u000a risk of osteoporotic women by enhancing both structural and material biomechanical properties. Cortical bone thickness and\\u000a cross-sectional moment of inertia increase because of new bone formation on periosteal and endocortical surfaces. Intracortical\\u000a porosity is increased yet preferential localization near the endocortical surface limits

Matthew R. Allen; David B. Burr



Myxoma of the Vomer Bone  

PubMed Central

Myxomas of bone in the head and neck are rare tumors. We present a 68 year old female with pain and epistaxis who was found to have the first reported case of a myxoma arising within the vomer bone. Some atypical magnetic resonance imaging features are described, however, myxoma imaging features are often non-specific and typically evoke a benign differential diagnosis. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

Besachio, David; Quigley, Edward; Orlandi, Richard; Harnsberger, Hugh; Wiggins, Richard



RANKL\\/RANK—beyond bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptor-activator of NF-?B ligand (TNFSF11, also known as RANKL, OPGL, TRANCE, and ODF) and its tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-family\\u000a receptor RANK are essential regulators of bone remodeling, lymph node formation, establishment of the thymic microenvironment,\\u000a mammary gland development during pregnancy, and bone metastasis in cancer. We have recently also reported that the RANKL\\/RANK\\u000a system controls the incidence and onset of

Reiko Hanada; Toshikatsu Hanada; Verena Sigl; Daniel Schramek; Josef M. Penninger



Nanostructural analysis of trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of bone are dictated by the size, shape and organization of the mineral and matrix phases at multiple\\u000a levels of hierarchy. While much is known about structure–function relations at the macroscopic level, less is known at the\\u000a nanoscale, especially for trabecular bone. In this study, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was carried\\u000a out to analyze shape

Sun Ig Hong; Soon Ku Hong; David H. Kohn



Hemivertebral ''disappearance'' on bone scan  

SciTech Connect

Two cases are described in which there was absence of uptake in hemivertebra on a Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. In one of these patients, the bone image had been normal 56 days previously. Radiographs of the vertebrae were normal in both cases. Data are presented suggesting that the findings can most probably be explained in terms of compromise of blood supply to the hemivertebra; each half of a vertebra usually has a separate arterial contribution.

Spencer, R.P.; Sziklas, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.; Yoo, J.H.; Weidner, F.A.



Plasticity and toughness in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built primarily from collagen molecules, mineral crystals, water, and ions, bone forms the lightweight but tough and protective load-bearing framework of the body. Bone's elastic modulus—its stiffness during elastic deforma- tion—spans 15-25 GPa, roughly a third of metallic alu- minum; its strength, the applied stress at the onset of plastic deformation, is a few hundred MPa, comparable with alu- mina

Robert O. Ritchie; Markus J. Buehler; Paul Hansma



Surgical Management of Bone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Minimally invasive surgery plays an increasingly important role in the management of bone disease in patients with myeloma.\\u000a The spine is the most common site of bone involvement in myeloma, and minimally invasive vertebral augmentation techniques\\u000a have been developed which are safe and effective in relieving pain related to vertebral compression fractures in patients\\u000a with myeloma. Vertebroplasty relieves pain and

Mohamad A. Hussein


Bone Metastasis and Pathological Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastasis commonly occurs in association with solid malignant tumors such as breast, prostate, lung, and renal cancers\\u000a (1–5). Thirty to seventy percent of cancer patients have skeletal metastasis (6), making the axial skeleton the third most common site for metastasis after lung and liver. Because all of these cancers\\u000a (breast, prostate, lung, and renal) are common, metastatic bone lesions

Laurie A. McDuffee; Nigel Colterjohn; Gurmit Singh


Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive\\u000a alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts\\u000a could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of

Darja Marolt; Miomir Knezevic; Gordana Vunjak Novakovic



[Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].  


(99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu



Bone loss associated with anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of bone loss related to anorexia nervosa. Earlier onset and longer duration of anorexia nervosa are associated with more severe bone loss. Osteoporosis develops in 38–50% of cases. Bone mineral density measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is useful for assessing bone mass, and bone marker assays

Isabelle Legroux-Gerot; Jean Vignau; Francis Collier; Bernard Cortet



Bone lipids of marine fishes.  


Assessment of candidates for investigation of bone lipid metabolism yielded the following findings. (1) A tropical marine butterflyfish, Chaetodon ornatissimus, had oil-filled bones (66-80% lipid, percent dry weight) hence may be a suitable condidate. (2) The tropical marine fishes Exallias brevis, Pomacentrus jenkensi, and Chromus agilis, and a Canadian fish Sebastes ruberrimus, had intermediate quantities of oil in their bones (12-49% lipid). (3) In all the foregoing species the major bone lipid was triglyceride, usually more abundant in skull than spine. Sterol and phospholipid were also present. (4) The major fatty acids of the triglycerides (and phospholipids) were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, and C20, C22 acids. Those acids were dominated by 20:4, 20:5, 22:5, and 22:6. (5) There was more total unsaturation in the bone lipids of S. ruberrimus (from 10 degrees C water; 67-72% unsaturation) compared to the tropical fish (from 25 degrees C water; 32-67% unsaturation) with the exception of E. brevis. (6) One of the tropical species (Arothron meleagris) and a Canadian Chimaeran (Hydrolagus colliei) contained only 1-3% lipid in their bones. PMID:1029017

Phleger, C F; Grimes, P W



Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Various strategies have been developed to promote bone regeneration in the craniofacial region. Most of these interventions utilize implantable materials or devices. Infections resulting from colonization of these implants may result in local tissue destruction in a manner analogous to periodontitis. This destruction is mediated via the expression of various inflammatory mediators and tissue-destructive enzymes. Given the well-documented association among microbial biofilms, inflammatory mediators, and tissue destruction, it seems reasonable to assume that inflammation may interfere with bone healing and regeneration. Paradoxically, recent evidence also suggests that the presence of certain pro-inflammatory mediators is actually required for bone healing. Bone injury (e.g., subsequent to a fracture or surgical intervention) is followed by a choreographed cascade of events, some of which are dependent upon the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators. If inflammation resolves promptly, then proper bone healing may occur. However, if inflammation persists (which might occur in the presence of an infected implant or graft material), then the continued inflammatory response may result in suboptimal bone formation. Thus, the effect of a given mediator is dependent upon the temporal context in which it is expressed. Better understanding of this temporal sequence may be used to optimize regenerative outcomes.

Thomas, M.V.; Puleo, D.A.



Giant cell tumor of bone.  


Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is one type of giant cell-rich lesion of bone. This benign mesenchymal tumor has characteristic multinuclear giant cells. Mononuclear stromal cells are the physiologically active and diagnostic cell type. Most GCTs are located in the epiphyseal regions of long bones. The axial skeleton-primarily the sacrum-is a secondary site of involvement. Most patients present with pain, swelling, joint effusion, and disability in the third and fourth decades of life. Imaging studies are important for tumor staging and radiographic grading. Typically, these clinically active but slow-growing tumors are confined to bone, with relatively well-defined radiographic borders. Monostotic disease is most common. Metastatic spread to the lungs is rare. Extended intralesional curettage with or without adjuvant therapy is the primary treatment choice. Local recurrence is seen in ? 20% of cases, and a second local intralesional procedure is typically sufficient in cases that are detected early. Medical therapies include diphosphonates and denosumab. Denosumab has been approved for use in osteoporosis as well as breast and prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Medical therapy and radiotherapy can alter the management of GCT of bone, especially in multifocal disease, local recurrences, and bulky central/axial disease. PMID:23378375

Raskin, Kevin A; Schwab, Joseph H; Mankin, Henry J; Springfield, Dempsey S; Hornicek, Francis J



Green Tea and Bone metabolism  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng



Bone metabolism in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.  


Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often begins in the adolescent years, and decreased rates of bone mass accrual at this critical time are therefore also concerning for deficits in peak bone mass. Factors contributing to low bone density and decreased rates of bone accrual include alterations in body composition such as low body mass index and lean body mass, and hormonal alterations such as hypogonadism, a nutritionally acquired resistance to GH and low levels of IGF-I, relative hypercortisolemia, low levels of leptin, and increased adiponectin (for fat mass) and peptide YY. Therapeutic strategies include optimizing weight and menstrual recovery, and adequate calcium and vitamin D replacement. Oral estrogen-progesterone combination pills are not effective in increasing bone density in adolescents with AN. Recombinant human IGF-I increases levels of bone formation markers in the short term, while long-term effects remain to be determined. Bisphosphonates act by decreasing bone resorption, and are not optimal for use in adolescents with AN, in whom the primary defect is low bone formation. PMID:21301203

Misra, M; Klibanski, A



Predicting Bone Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone from DXA, MRI, and Fractal Dimensional Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was aimed at making predictions of bone mechanical properties from non-invasive DXA and MRI measurements. Given the bone mechanical properties, stress calculations can be made to compare normal bone stresses to the stresses developed in exerc...

T. P. Harrigan C. G. Ambrose H. A. Hogan L. Shackleford L. Webster A. LeBlanc C. Lin H. Evans



WNT16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, and Osteoporotic Fracture Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls.

Hou-Feng Zheng; Jon H. Tobias; Emma Duncan; David M. Evans; Joel Eriksson; Lavinia Paternoster; Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong; Terho Lehtimäki; Ulrica Bergström; Mika Kähönen; Paul J. Leo; Olli Raitakari; Marika Laaksonen; Geoffrey C. Nicholson; Jorma Viikari; Martin Ladouceur; Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen; Carolina Medina-Gomez; Fernando Rivadeneira; Richard L. Prince; Harri Sievanen; William D. Leslie; Dan Mellström; John A. Eisman; Sofia Movérare-Skrtic; David Goltzman; David A. Hanley; Graeme Jones; Beate St. Pourcain; Yongjun Xiao; Nicholas J. Timpson; George Davey Smith; Ian R. Reid; Susan M. Ring; Philip N. Sambrook; Magnus Karlsson; Elaine M. Dennison; John P. Kemp; Patrick Danoy; Adrian Sayers; Scott G. Wilson; Maria Nethander; Eugene McCloskey; Liesbeth Vandenput; Richard Eastell; Jeff Liu; Tim Spector; Braxton D. Mitchell; Elizabeth A. Streeten; Robert Brommage; Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer; Matthew A. Brown; Claes Ohlsson; J. Brent Richards; Mattias Lorentzon



Collagen scaffolds in bone sialoprotein-mediated bone regeneration.  


Decades of research in bioengineering have resulted in the development of many types of 3-dimentional (3D) scaffolds for use as drug delivery systems (DDS) and for tissue regeneration. Scaffolds may be comprised of different natural fibers and synthetic polymers as well as ceramics in order to exert the most beneficial attributes including biocompatibility, biodegradability, structural integrity, cell infiltration and attachment, and neovascularization. Type I collagen scaffolds meet most of these criteria. In addition, type I collagen binds integrins through RGD and non-RGD sites which facilitates cell migration, attachment, and proliferation. Type I collagen scaffolds can be used for bone tissue repair when they are coated with osteogenic proteins such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and bone sialoprotein (BSP). BSP, a small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING), has osteogenic properties and plays an essential role in bone formation. BSP also mediates mineral deposition, binds type I collagen with high affinity, and binds ? v ? 3 and ? v ? 5 integrins which mediate cell signaling. This paper reviews the emerging evidence demonstrating the efficacy of BSP-collagen scaffolds in bone regeneration. PMID:23653530

Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Wang, Jinxi



Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22–64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4–15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

Gessmann, Jan; Koller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik



Differential Effects of Bone Mineral Content and Bone Area on Vertebral Strength in a Swine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Since the biomechanical competence of a vertebral body may be closely related to the content and distribution of the bone\\u000a mineral, we have evaluated the effects of projected vertebral bone area (BA) and bone mineral parameters [bone mineral content\\u000a (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD)] on their biomechanical competence. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to\\u000a assess the bone

R.-S. Yang; S.-S. Wang; H.-J. Lin; T.-K. Liu; Y.-S. Hang; K.-S. Tsai



Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure.BackgroundMetabolic bone disease might commence early in the course of renal failure. This study therefore examined the frequency and severity of the skeletal changes in predialysis chronic renal failure by measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers of bone turnover (osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase,

Marianne Rix; Helle Andreassen; Peter Eskildsen; Bente Langdahl; Klaus Olgaard



Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells  

PubMed Central

Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of bone development, disease and drug discovery. A source of human cells that can be derived in large numbers from a small initial harvest and predictably differentiated into bone forming cells is critically important for engineering human bone grafts. We discuss the characteristics and limitations of various types of human embryonic and adult stem cells, and their utility for bone tissue engineering.



An interspecies comparison of bone fracture properties.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bone fracture properties change with species (humans, baboon, canine, bovine, and rabbit). A single-layer compact sandwich (SCS) specimen and fractography were employed to evaluate bone fracture properties. In conjunction with measurements of the density and volume fractions of the mineral and organic phases, bone microstructure were also investigated. The results of this study indicate that bone fracture properties vary considerably with species. These differences are most likely due to variations in microstructural and compositional properties of bone (mineral and collagen) between the species. Baboon bone exhibited most similar fracture, microstructural, and compositional properties compared to humans. However, significant differences were found in bone fracture properties between humans and the other three animal species. These differences were reflected either in bone microstructures or compositional properties. This interspecies comparison facilitates a better understanding of animal models and suitable use of the animal models in future bone fracture studies. PMID:9713681

Wang, X; Mabrey, J D; Agrawal, C M



[Secondary Osteoporosis or Secondary Contributors to Bone Loss in Fracture. Bone metabolism in hematological disorders].  


Bone marrow provides a microenvironment responsible for hematopoiesis, in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other to maintain bone remodeling. Multiple myeloma and a portion of lymphoid tumors have a unique propensity to expand in bone. Such tumors have been demonstrated to perturb bone metabolism and skew a microenvironment in bone suited for their growth and survival. However, a bone metabolic state remains largely unknown in most of hematological disorders without apparent bone disease, although hematopoiesis and bone metabolism appear to have a link. Also, the skeletal effects of treatment for hematological disorders should be clarified further. PMID:23999362

Abe, Masahiro



Protein intake and bone health.  


Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

Bonjour, Jean-Philippe



Methods for Assessing Bone Quality: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bone mass, geometry, and tissue material properties contribute to bone structural integrity. Thus, bone strength arises from\\u000a both bone quantity and quality. Bone quality encompasses the geometric and material factors that contribute to fracture resistance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  This review presents an overview of the methods for assessing bone quality across multiple length scales, their outcomes,\\u000a and their relative advantages and disadvantages.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A

Eve Donnelly


Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved.

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit



Systemic alendronate prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. A bone chamber study in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Avascular necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis) can cause structural failure and subsequent deformation, leading to joint dysfunction and pain. Structural failure is the result of resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization, before new bone has formed or consolidated enough for loadbearing. Bone resorption can be reduced by bisphosphonates. If resorption of the necrotic bone could be reduced during the revascularization phase until sufficient new bone has formed, it would appear that structural failure could be avoided. Methods To test whether resorption of necrotic bone can be prevented, structural grafts were subjected to new bone ingrowth during systemic bisphosphonate treatment in a rat model. Results In rats treated with alendronate the necrotic bone was not resorbed, whereas it was almost entirely resorbed in the controls. Conclusion Systemic alendronate treatment prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. In patients with osteonecrosis, bisphosphonates may therefore prevent collapse of the necrotic bone.

Astrand, Jorgen; Aspenberg, Per



Bone mineral density and singh index predict bone mechanical properties of human femur.  


The aim of our study was to assess the predictive value of the Singh index (SI), which estimates bone architecture, and bone density (BMD) when dealing with the mechanical competence of bone and to analze possible differences in bone properties between gender in humans. The relationship between SI, BMD, and mechanical competence was analyzed in 106 bone cylinders from 37 human femoral heads obtained during hip-joint replacement surgery for low energy fracture or for osteoarthritis. Bones from osteoporotic patients are less dense and more brittle compared with bones from osteoarthritic patients, as expected. Among osteoporotic patients female bones were more brittle than those from males, although BMD was similar. In osteoarthritic patients there were no significant differences among sexes. Bone mechanical competence varies according to BMD and to SI categories. Thus, our study suggests that bone strength is predicted by both BMD and bone architecture. PMID:18382896

D'Amelio, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Isaia, Giancarlo; Lollino, Nicola; Castoldi, Filippo; Girardo, Massimo; Dettoni, Federico; Sattin, Fabio; Delise, Marco; Bignardi, Cristina



Bone markers and their prognostic value in metastatic bone disease: Clinical evidence and future directions  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Bone metastases are prevalent among patients with advanced solid tumors. Metastatic bone disease alters bone homeostasis, resulting in reduced bone integrity and, consequently, increased skeletal complications. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism may meet an unmet need for useful, noninvasive, and sensitive surrogate information for following patients’ skeletal health. Materials and methods Data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms “bone markers” or individual bone marker nomenclature, “cancer,” and “metastases.” Abstracts and reports from meetings were included only when they related directly to previously published work. Only papers published in English between 1990 and 2007 were included. Results Recent retrospective analyses with bisphosphonates, and particularly with zoledronic acid, have shown significant correlations between biochemical markers of bone metabolism levels and clinical outcomes, especially for bone resorption markers. Clinical results for biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption and other emerging markers of bone metabolism including bone sialoprotein, receptor–activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand, osteoprotegerin, and other markers are presented. However, biochemical markers of bone metabolism are not yet an established surrogate endpoint for treatment efficacy. Conclusions Biochemical markers of bone metabolism may allow physicians to identify which patients with metastatic bone disease are at high risk for skeletal-related events or death and who may be responding to therapy. Prospective randomized clinical trials are underway to further assess the utility of markers of bone metabolism in patients with bone metastases.

Coleman, Robert; Brown, Janet; Terpos, Evangelos; Lipton, Allan; Smith, Matthew R.; Cook, Richard; Major, Pierre



Digital Classroom Resources: Napier's Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America has teamed up the National Science Foundation to create an online collection of digital classroom resources. One of their more recent creations is this multimedia feature that teaches students about Napier's Bones. Created by Michael Caulfield and Wayne Anderson of Gannon University, this feature will introduce students to the work of John Napier, a 16th century mathematician who created a procedure for multiplication using sticks or bones. In this presentation, visitors can watch a step-by-step demonstration of this technique and then also enter any two factors of up to six digits each in order to create their own animation of this method. It is a nice way to get students thinking about this rather intriguing way to multiply, and the site also contains several links to other sites about John Napier and his bones.


Bone marrow: the workhorse organ.  


Bone marrow accounts for 3% to 6% of body weight and is dispersed throughout bone. In a healthy adult, bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion new blood cells daily to maintain steady-state levels in the peripheral circulation. Its output is measured using the complete blood count (CBC), which is arguably the most frequently ordered laboratory test in the clinical milieu. Hematopoiesis starts with hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate and mature into any of the three different types of mature blood cells. A simple CBC can rule out, confirm, or direct attention to anemia, cancer, infection, acute hemorrhage states, toxin exposure, allergies, immunodeficiencies, or adverse drug reactions. Interpreting CBCs depends on reference values from the laboratory that processes the blood sample. Since reference intervals are formulated based on a younger, much healthier population, data specific to elderly people are limited. PMID:23315278

Wick, Jeannette Y



Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach.

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.



Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases.  


The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides ((153)samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and (89)strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide ((223)Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U



Substituted hydroxyapatites for bone repair.  


Calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite have a wide range of applications both in bone grafts and for the coating of metallic implants, largely as a result of their chemical similarity to the mineral component of bone. However, to more accurately mirror the chemistry, various substitutions, both cationic (substituting for the calcium) and anionic (substituting for the phosphate or hydroxyl groups) have been produced. Significant research has been carried out in the field of substituted apatites and this paper aims to summarise some of the key effect of substitutions including magnesium, zinc, strontium, silicon and carbonate on physical and biological characteristics. Even small substitutions have been shown to have very significant effects on thermal stability, solubility, osteoclastic and osteoblastic response in vitro and degradation and bone regeneration in vivo. PMID:22389101

Shepherd, Jennifer H; Shepherd, David V; Best, Serena M



Quantitative CT of dinosaur bones.  


To develop a protocol for CT examinations of fossilized saurian bones and to provide paleontologists with morphometric and densitometric data suitable for functional analysis, four isolated long bones of Tendaguru dinosaurs from the Museum for Natural Sciences of the Humboldt University of Berlin were examined by CT. The demonstration of fossils in the axial CT proved optimal with the window set at a center of 2,640 Hounsfield units (HU) and a width of 1,040 HU. The petrified bones have a maximum density of 3,000 HU. The shape and structure of the skeletal remnants suggest that the extremities of Tendaguru dinosaurs were submitted to mainly compression but nearly no bending stress. PMID:12439322

Golder, Werner; Christian, Andreas


[Ultrasound and the bone: a difficult relationship].  


The principles of US physics and technology hampering both the production of US images of the bone and the assessment of the soft tissue structures underlying it are discussed. In theory, two US parameters play a role in this field: the different transmission velocity of the US beam through soft tissues and bone, and the marked attenuation of the US beam when crossing the bone. The former parameter, due to higher density and lower compressibility of the bone with respect to soft tissues, causes both intense reflection (and thus beam weakening) and refraction (and thus lateral resolution and US image distortions) at the soft tissue/bone interfaces. Moreover, US transmission velocity in the bone differs significantly from the reference velocity of the US scanners on the market based on that of soft tissues. As a consequence, during the reconstruction of a bone US image, artifacts resulting in the axial compression of bone structures should, at least in theory, occur. The latter parameter, due to both conversion into heat (absorption) and local dispersion (scattering), is likely to be main factor causing the loss of US energy when the US beam passes through the bone. Although the amount of matter (bone mass or density) undoubtedly accounts for some attenuation, local bone architecture (bulk and shear moduli of bone and marrow, bone and marrow density, marrow viscosity and porosity, permeability and tortuosity of cancellous bone structure) seems nevertheless also responsible for some attenuation through both absorption and scattering. Other consequences of attenuation reflecting on US imaging of the bone are: marked lowering of central transducer frequency and US beam widening preventing the correct identification of the interfaces originating echoes by relating them to the structures on the transducer axis. In conclusion, based on the above parameters, echoencephalography and transcranial Doppler US can be expected to improve, in the near future, their bone-crossing capabilities, even though no true gray-scale bone sonogram will ever be feasible. PMID:7716291

Cittadini, G; Martinoli, C


Wnt and Wnt inhibitors in bone metastasis  

PubMed Central

Bone metastasis is a clinically devastating development of progressive cancers including prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Bone metastases are typically painful, lead to adverse skeletal-related events, such as fracture, and are highly resistant to therapy. A major contribution to the ability of cancers to successfully establish bone metastases is their ability to exploit mechanisms of normal bone remodeling. Wnts are a large family of morphogenic proteins that are critical for bone development and contribute to maintaining bone mass in the mature organism. Wnt function is balanced by the presence of a variety of endogenous inhibitors, such as the dickkopf family members, secreted frizzled related proteins and sclerostin. Together, these factors contribute to normal bone homeostasis, allowing for dynamic changes in bone to withstand alterations in physical forces and physiological needs. In this review, we describe the role that Wnts and their inhibitors have in normal bone biology and cancer-related bone pathology. An overview of Wnt signaling pathways is discussed and key bone microenvironment cellular players, as they pertain to Wnt biology, are examined. Finally, we describe clinical trials of several Wnt inhibitor antagonists for patients with tumor-related bone disease. As few options currently exist for the treatment of bone-metastatic disease, Wnt proteins and their inhibitors offer promise for the development of novel therapeutics.

Sottnik, Joseph L; Hall, Christopher L; Zhang, Jian; Keller, Evan T



Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.  


Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth



Light microscopy of microfractures in burned bone.  


Bone color changes depending upon the taphonomic agents that affect it. Burning turns bone black, brown, blue, gray, and white as the bone's temperature increases and collagen is lost. It also creates diagnostic fractures that are visible at the gross level. Usually heat-altered bone is readily identified as such, but there are times when dark organic stains can mimic bone that is charred black. This paper provides a means to observe and quantify microfractures in burned bone for those instances when macroscopic observations fail to clarify if a bone fragment is actually burned; specifically, it distinguishes charred from organically stained bone. It is based upon a study of 50 calcined (burned to a bright white), charred, and organically stained bone fragments (n = 150) that were viewed with a standard stereomicroscope at ×30. Microfractures are readily discerned on charred and calcined bones, being more common on the latter; they are not present on organically stained bone. Charred bones may have their cortical surfaces obscured by a microlayer of adhering soft tissues as well as by microflaking of the external circumferential lamella. Overall, the methods described here allow the detection of microfractures on bone using a very simple approach and readily available technology. PMID:22907411

Schmidt, Christopher W; Uhlig, Rose



Bone health and prostate cancer.  


Bone metastases are a substantial burden to men with advanced prostate cancer as they often cause pain and can cause fractures and spinal cord compression. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are both pathologically activated in the setting of prostate cancer bone metastases. As osteoclast activation is associated with disease progression, skeletal complications and death, osteoclast-targeted therapies are a rational approach to disease management. Zoledronic acid is standard of care for castration-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases as it reduces the risk for skeletal-related events. Additional trials are needed to better define the ideal dose, frequency and duration of zoledronic acid therapy. No bisphosphonate has yet been shown to prevent bone metastases or to benefit men with androgen-sensitive disease. Denosumab is an experimental osteoclast-targeted monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. Two ongoing phase III trials are expected to define its efficacy in preventing bone metastases and disease-related skeletal events in men with prostate cancer. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Several bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density in men receiving ADT. Two recent phase III trials have shown that denosumab and toremifene reduce the incidence of fragility fractures in these men. The World Health Organization has developed a fracture risk assessment model (FRAX) for the general population to guide the selection of patients who may benefit from pharmacotherapy. In the absence of a prostate cancer-specific algorithm, we advocate the use of FRAX for men receiving ADT. PMID:19901958

Saylor, P J; Smith, M R



Bone scintigraphy in skeletal trauma.  


This article emphasizes the usefulness of radionuclide bone imaging (RNBI) throughout the clinical spectrum of osseous trauma and relates RNBI to the other imaging modalities available. Acute, stress, insufficiency, avulsion, and occult fracture detection are discussed and illustrated. Other traumatic lesions including the bone bruise, shin splints, tendinitis and epiphyseal injuries are included. Biomechanical lesions, the result of more chronic low level repetitive stress are discussed in detail, as is the use of RNBI in the detection of post-traumatic sequela such as the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Technical aspects of RNBI are considered in the context of producing the quality of diagnostic images necessary for clinically complete consultative reporting. PMID:8337366

Holder, L E



Appropriate use of bone densitometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss current capabilities of three common bone densitometry techniques--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomography--and potential capabilities of new innovations of each of these techniques. They believe that use of bone densitometry is valid in the following four clinical applications and recommend its usage to (a) assess patients with metabolic diseases known to affect the skeleton, (b) assess perimenopausal women for initiation of estrogen replacement therapy, (c) establish a diagnosis of osteoporosis or assess its severity in the context of general clinical care, and (d) monitor the efficacy of treatment interventions or the natural course of disease.

Genant, H.K.; Block, J.E.; Steiger, P.; Glueer, C.C.; Ettinger, B.; Harris, S.T.



Smurf Control in Bone Cells  

PubMed Central

The homologous to the E6-assosiated protein carboxyl terminus (HECT) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 is the first E3 ligase to be implicated in regulating bone cell function. The involvement of Smurf1 in multiple signaling pathways and pathological conditions is presently an area of extensive scientific interest. This review highlights recent works exploring Smurf-regulated biological processes in bone cells and highlights recent discoveries surrounding the regulatory mechanisms modulating its catalytic activity and substrate recognition capability. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of targeting the HECT E3s through the development of small-molecule inhibitors as an anticancer therapeutic strategy.

Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Di



Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Accepted 23 July 1996? Data from healthy children are needed to evaluate bone mineralisation during childhood. Whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area were examined by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (Hologic 1000/W) in healthy girls (n=201) and boys (n=142) aged 5-19 years. Centile curves for bone area for age, BMC for age, bone area for height, and BMC for bone area were constructed using the LMS method. Bone mineral density calculated as BMC/bone area is not useful in children as it is significantly influenced by bone size. Instead, it is proposed that bone mineralisation is assessed in three steps: height for age, bone area for height, and BMC for bone area. These three steps correspond to three different causes of reduced bone mass: short bones, narrow bones, and light bones.??

Molgaard, C.; Thomsen, B. L.; Prentice, A.; Cole, T.; Michaelsen, K. F.



Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans hear through air and bone conduction pathways. Both pathways can be used to transmit sound to a listener and from a talker although traditionally, the air conduction pathway has been used. Communication through bone conduction is a feasible alterna...

P. Henry T. R. Letowski



Microroentegenography in Studying Lymphogranulomatosis of the Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To diagnose early changes of lymphogranulomatosis-affected bones the authors applied microroentgenography of the microsections of pathologicoanatomical preparations of the bones of patients who died of this disease. Changes undiscernible on common roentge...

E. I. Val'kovich L. V. Funshtein



Calvarial bone harvesting with piezoelectric device.  


We introduce the use of a piezoelectric device in order to harvest calvarial bone grafts. The vibration frequency of the instrument allows for the efficient cutting of bone without the risk of accidentally damaging the dura. PMID:17993887

Gonzalez-Lagunas, Javier; Mareque, Javier



Increasing Physical Activity for Better Bone Health  


... for increasing calcium intake Download Adobe Reader Increasing Physical Activity for Better Bone Health Page Content Bones ... cardiovascular fitness and overall good health. How much physical activity do tweens and teens need? The 2005 ...


Protein Signaling Ties Muscle Development to Bone  


... Development to Bone Researchers at the University of Colorado in Boulder have found that, in embryonic mice, ... this idea, Bradley Olwin, Ph.D., and his Colorado colleagues examined embryonic mice that lacked the bone- ...


Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information  


... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Page Content What is bone health ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...


What Is Multiple Myeloma - Bone Disease  


... Normally, osteoclasts function with bone-forming cells called osteoblasts to rebuild areas of bone that are wearing ... Myeloma Normally, the activity of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts is well balanced - the osteoclasts clear out the ...


Bone, Joint, and Muscle Infections in Children  


... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Bone, Joint, and Muscle Infections in Children Children can develop infections in their bones, joints, or muscles. Often referred to as "deep" infections, the technical ...


[Dental implantation by low-density bone].  


The paper analyzes modern approaches to bone density evaluation by planning of dental implantation procedure. Implantation technique in patients with low-density bone creating favorable conditions for osseous integration is described. PMID:23268182

Kulakov, A A; Arkhipov, A V



Assessing bone health in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

During normal childhood and adolescence, the skeleton undergoes tremendous change. Utilizing the processes of modeling and remodeling, the skeleton acquires its adult configuration and ultimately achieves peak bone mass. Optimization of peak bone mass requires the proper interaction of environmental, dietary, hormonal, and genetic influences. A variety of acute and chronic conditions, as well as genetic polymorphisms, are associated with reduced bone density, which can lead to an increased risk of fracture both in childhood and later during adulthood. Bone densitometry has an established role in the evaluation of adults with bone disorders, and the development of suitable reference ranges for children now permits the application of this technology to younger individuals. We present a brief overview of the factors that determine bone density and the emerging role of bone densitometry in the assessment of bone mass in growing children and adolescents.

Levine, Michael A.



Quantitative Analysis of Bone Microstructure Using Tomosynthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project is to determine the potential of Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) for quantitative analysis of vertebral bone quality and for predicting vertebral bone fragility. The current scope, as a proof of concept study, is to compare paramete...

Y. N. Yeni



Can physical activity improve peak bone mass?  


The pediatric origin of osteoporosis has led many investigators to focus on determining factors that influence bone gain during growth and methods for optimizing this gain. Bone responds to bone loading activities by increasing mass or size. Overall, pediatric studies have found a positive effect of bone loading on bone size and accrual, but the types of loads necessary for a bone response have only recently been investigated in human studies. Findings indicate that responses vary by sex, maturational status, and are site-specific. Estrogen status, body composition, and nutritional status also may influence the bone response to loading. Despite the complex interrelationships among these various factors, it is prudent to conclude that increased physical activity throughout life is likely to optimize bone health. PMID:23832810

Specker, Bonny; Minett, Maggie



Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track

C.. Colnot; S. Huang; J. Helms



Bone metabolic markers as gauges of metastasis to bone: a review.  


Currently, imaging techniques are the leading methods used to diagnose of metastasis to bone. However, these techniques are expensive, expose patients to toxic and radioactive compounds, and monitor response to treatment poorly; these drawbacks have prompted the search for alternative screening methods. Therefore, bone metabolic markers have been evaluated as possible methods to diagnose and monitor the development and progression of metastatic bone disease. Although bone metabolic markers are often grouped as either resorption or formation markers, studies have revealed that each marker has its own biologic meaning and clinical relevance. Recent milestones in the use of bone metabolic markers as screening methods for metastatic bone disease and as evaluation methods for treatment response are shown in the following lists. 1. Bone metabolic marker measurements provide insight into mechanisms of metastasis to bone. 2. Although promising data have been reported, bone metabolic markers are not yet considered to be reliable screening methods for metastasis to bone. 3. Bone metabolic markers are reliable indicators of response to both conventional and bisphosphonate therapies. 4. Preliminary results indicate bone metabolic markers might be an independent prognostic factor in patients whose tumors metastasize to bone. 5. New or refined assays for bone metabolic markers are expected to improve the sensitivity and specificity of bone metabolic marker use in diagnosing and monitoring metastasis to bone. PMID:12126040

Koizumi, Mitsuru; Ogata, Etsuro



Microstructure dependent dynamic fracture analyses of trabecular bone based on nascent bone atomistic simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trabecular bone fracture is closely related to the trabecular architecture, microdamage accumulation, and bone tissue properties. Primary constituents of trabecular tissue are hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralized type-I collagen fibers. In this research, dynamic fracture in two dimensional (2-D) micrographs of ovine (sheep) trabecular bone is modeled using the mesoscale cohesive finite element method (CFEM). The bone tissue fracture properties are obtained

Devendra K. Dubey; Vikas Tomar



Analysis of mechanical properties of cancellous bone under conditions of simulated bone atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of cancellous bone have been shown to depend on bone density and on the anisotropy of the trabecular bone structure. By means of high-resolution quantitative computed tomography (QCT), providing a nominal resolution of 0.17 mm, it became possible to assess both apparent density and trabecular microstructure of intact bones. In order to study the influence of age-

Ralph Müller; Peter Rüegsegger



Removal of bone in CT angiography by multiscale matched mask bone elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

For clear visualization of vessels in CT angiography (CTA) images of the head and neck using maximum intensity projection (MIP) or volume rendering (VR) bone has to be removed. In the past we presented a fully automatic method to mask the bone [matched mask bone elimination (MMBE)] for this purpose. A drawback is that vessels adjacent to bone may be

H. A. F. Gratama van Andel; H. W. Venema; G. J. Streekstra; M. van Straten; C. B. L. M. Majoie; G. J. den Heeten; C. A. Grimbergen



Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...


Histological integration of allogeneic cancellous bone tissue treated by supercritical CO 2 implanted in sheep bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different chemical or physical methods of bone processing have been developed to decrease the antigenicity of allogeneic bone which may delay or prevent graft integration. We have developed a method based on delipidation and deproteination of the bone with a supercritical fluid and hydrogen peroxide. Cylinders of cancellous allogeneic bone treated in this way were implanted for four weeks, four

Patrick Frayssinet; Nicole Rouquet; Didier Mathon; André Autefage; Jacques Fages



Strontium doping of bone graft extender  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Allografts are often used during revision hip replacement surgery for stabilization of the implant. Resorption of the allograft may exceed new bone formation, and instability of the prosthesis can develop. We investigated whether strontium could regulate the imbalance of fast resorption of allograft and slower formation of new bone, because it is both an anabolic and an anticatabolic agent. Method Strontium was added to the implant interface environment by doping a hydroxyapatite bone graft extender. 10 dogs each received 2 experimental titanium implants. The implants were inserted within a 2.7-mm concentric gap in cancellous bone. The gap was filled with 50% (v/v) allograft mixed with 50% bone graft extender. The extender either had 5% strontium doping (SrHA) or was undoped (HA). After 4 weeks, osseointegration and mechanical fixation were evaluated by histomorphometry and by push-out test. Results SrHA bone graft extender induced a 1.2-fold increase in volume of new bone, a 1.2-fold increase in allograft remaining in the gap, and a 1.4-fold increase in surface area of the bone graft extender material in contact with new bone compared to HA bone graft extender. All these increases were statistically significant. SrHA bone graft extender did not significantly improve ongrowth of bone onto the implants or improve any of the mechanical push-out parameters compared to HA bone graft extender. Interpretation Doping of the HA bone graft extender with 5% strontium increased gap healing, preserved more of the allograft in the gap, and increased the ongrowth of bone onto the bone graft extender material, but did not improve mechanical fixation.



De Novo Osteogenic Sarcoma of Mastoid Bone  

PubMed Central

The most common primary malignant tumor of the bone is osteosarcoma. Primary involvement of the craniofacial bones in osteosarcoma is relatively rare. The mandible and the maxillae are the most commonly affected bones of the head. Here, we report a rare case of de novo high-grade osteogenic sarcoma of the mastoid region of the temporal bone and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic properties.

Isikdogan, Abdurrahman; Erekul, Selim; Pamir, Ali



Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone marrow constitutes an unique microenvironment for cancer cells in three specific aspects. First, the bone marrow\\u000a actively recruits circulating tumor cells where they find a sanctuary rich in growth factors and cytokines that promote their\\u000a proliferation and survival. When in the bone marrow, tumor cells profoundly affect the homeostasis of the bone and the balance\\u000a between osteogenesis and

Christophe F. Chantrain; Olivier Feron; Etienne Marbaix; Yves A. DeClerck



Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2  


Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)



Model for Bone Strength and Osteoporotic Fractures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inner porous regions play a critical role in the load bearing capability of large bones. We show that an extension of disordered elastic networks [Chung et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 15 094 (1996)] exhibits analogs of several known mechanical features of bone. The ``stress backbones'' and histograms of stress distributions for healthy and weak networks are shown to be qualitatively different. A hereto untested relationship between bone density and bone strength is presented.

Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Rajapaksa, Chamith S.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Mohanty, Kishore K.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.



Culture system for bone metabolic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms governing bone remodelling is essential for a clear understanding of not only pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, but also microgravity-induced bone loss. The scope of this MAP project is the further development (including technical development and biological validation) of an ex vivo culture system for trabecular bone explants, which can be submitted to controlled mechanical stimuli. This should allow the evaluation of the causal relationship between biochemical and mechanical parameters and bone remodelling.

Vander Sloten, Jos; Jones, David; Richards, R. Geoff; Vico, Laurence; Gasser, Jürg A.; Koller, Bruno; Pugh, Sydney M.



Shear piezoelectricity in bone at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent demonstration of shear piezoelectricity in an isolated collagen fibril, which is the origin of piezoelectricity in bone, necessitates investigation of shear piezoelectric behavior in bone at the nanoscale. Using high resolution lateral piezoresponse force microcopy (PFM), shear piezoelectricity in a cortical bone sample was studied at the nanoscale. Subfibrillar structure of individual collagen fibrils with a periodicity of 60-70 nm were revealed in PFM map, indicating the direct contribution of collagen fibrils to the shear piezoelectricity of bone.

Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng



Surface Temperatures of Avian Osteopetrotic Bones  

PubMed Central

Body temperatures and surface temperatures of metatarsal bones were recorded in normal and osteopetrotic chickens. Osteopetrotic lesions were 6.5 F warmer than normal bones but there was no corresponding increase in body temperature at a given environmental temperature. This indicates that the temperature elevation in the osteopetrotic lesion is a local phenomenon and not a systemic response. This also supports earlier observations that osteopetrotic bones feel warmer to the touch than normal bones. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.

Sanger, V. L.; Holt, J. A.; Reynolds, W. A.



Bone Builders: The Discoveries Behind Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Every year, more than 800,000 people in the United States receive bone biomaterials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Bone is the most commonly transplanted tissue after blood transfusions. Unlike most tissues, bone is able to regenerate and reform without scarring, given the proper conditions and materials. Researchers and scientists have learned to exploit this property over many centuries to create modern day bone grafts and bone biomaterials used as substitutes for bone grafts.

Margie Patlak (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)



BoneJ: free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ  

PubMed Central

Bone geometry is commonly measured on computed tomographic (CT) and X-ray microtomographic (?CT) images. We obtained hundreds of CT, ?CT and synchrotron ?CT images of bones from diverse species that needed to be analysed remote from scanning hardware, but found that available software solutions were expensive, inflexible or methodologically opaque. We implemented standard bone measurements in a novel ImageJ plugin, BoneJ, with which we analysed trabecular bone, whole bones and osteocyte lacunae. BoneJ is open source and free for anyone to download, use, modify and distribute.

Doube, Michael; Klosowski, Michal M; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Cordelieres, Fabrice P; Dougherty, Robert P; Jackson, Jonathan S; Schmid, Benjamin; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra J



Injection of Demineralized Bone Matrix With Bone Marrow Concentrate Improves Healing in Unicameral Bone Cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Unicameral bone cysts are benign lesions that usually spontaneously regress with skeletal maturity; however, the high risk\\u000a of pathologic fractures often justifies treatment that could reinforce a weakened bone cortex. Various treatments have been\\u000a proposed but there is no consensus regarding the best procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We compared the healing rates and failures of two methods of cure based on multiple injections

Claudia Di Bella; Barbara Dozza; Tommaso Frisoni; Luca Cevolani; Davide Donati



Bone remodeling I: theory of adaptive elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermomechanical continuum theory involving a chemical reaction and mass transfer between two constituents is developed here as a model for bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is a collective term for the continual processes of growth, reinforcement and resorbtion which occur in living bone. The resulting theory describes an elastic material which adapts its structure to applied loading.

S. C. Cowin; D. H. Hegedus



Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher


Physical activity increases bone mass during growth  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1990?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy to improve peak bone mass, including some aspects of nutrition. Design Publications within the field were searched through Medline (PubMed) using the search words: exercise, physical activity, bone mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, BMC, BMD, skeletal structure and nutrition. We included studies dealing with exercise during growth and young adolescence. We preferably based our inferences on randomised controlled trials (RCT), which provide the highest level of evidence. Results Exercise during growth increases peak bone mass. Moderate intensity exercise intervention programs are beneficial for the skeletal development during growth. Adequate nutrition must accompany the exercise to achieve the most beneficial skeletal effects by exercise. Conclusion Exercise during growth seems to enhance the building of a stronger skeleton through a higher peak bone mass and a larger bone size.

Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline



Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine



Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.  


Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise. PMID:23348155

Drenjan?evi?, Ines; Davidovi? Cvetko, Erna



Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine



Better Bones Buddies: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although osteoporosis typically surfaces in later life, peak bone mass attained before age 20 is a key factor in its prevention. However, most American children's diets lack sufficient calcium during the critical growth periods of preadolescence and adolescence to achieve peak bone mass. "Better Bones (BB) Buddies" is an educational program…

Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Horner, Arlene



Biomaterial developments for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of bone tissue engineering is directly related to changes in materials technology. While the inclusion of materials requirements is standard in the design process of engineered bone substitutes, it is also critical to incorporate clinical requirements in order to engineer a clinically relevant device. This review presents the clinical need for bone tissue-engineered alternatives to the present materials

Karen J. L Burg; Scott Porter; James F Kellam




Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The use of two groups of radioisotopes in bone research is ; discussed: the alkaline earth elements, such as Ra and Sr, which are taken up ; like Ca in centers of growing bone; and rare earth elements, such as Y and Pu, ; which are stored in bone. The physiologic factors underlying uptake of this ; second group are

F. C. McLean; A. M. Budy



Cytochemistry of sheep bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted on bone marrow samples obtained from 15 clinically normal Libyan Barbary sheep. Haemopoietic cells, including those of myelocytic series, erythrocytic series, megakaryocytic series, lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes and mitotic cells were identified on the basis of their morphological characteristics in May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained bone marrow smears. Cytochemical reactions of bone marrow cells revealed that all granulocytes,

Mahasen Matug Gawas; Khalid Mohammed Belhaj; AL IZZI



Microsoft Academic Search

Repair of bone defects is a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Current bone graft treatments, including autografts, allografts and xenografts, have many limitations making it necessary to develop a biomaterial to be a bone graft substitute. One such biomaterial is bioactive resorbable silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC). SCPC was processed using a 3D rapid prototyping technique and sintered at different temperatures

Amanda Peter Hart



Better Bones Buddies: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although osteoporosis typically surfaces in later life, peak bone mass attained before age 20 is a key factor in its prevention. However, most American children's diets lack sufficient calcium during the critical growth periods of preadolescence and adolescence to achieve peak bone mass. "Better Bones (BB) Buddies" is an educational program…

Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Horner, Arlene



Bone mineral density among female sports participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training for and participation in impact-loading sports are associated with alterations in bone strength which are specific to anatomical site and type of strain. The effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) depends on the type of activity engaged in. Sports with high impact loading seem to have a positive effect in promoting bone mineralisation, whereas those with low

Elizabeth Egan; Thomas Reilly; Magali Giacomoni; Louise Redmond; Clare Turner



Ultrasonic monitoring of bone fracture healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative ultrasound has attracted significant interest in the evaluation of bone fracture healing. Animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that the propagation velocity across fractured bones can be used as an indicator of healing. Researchers have recently employed computational methods for modeling wave propagation in bones, aiming to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of wave propagation and to further

Vasilios C. Protopappas; Maria G. Vavva; Dimitrios I. Fotiadis; Konstantinos N. Malizos



Osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone consists of multiple sequential steps. To accomplish the process of metastasis to bone, breast cancer cells are required to intrinsically possess or acquire the capacities that are necessary for them to proliferate, invade, migrate, survive, and ultimately arrest in bone. These capacities are essential for any cancer cells to develop distant metastases in

Toshiyuki Yoneda; Akira Sasaki; Gregory R. Mundy




Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and measurement site (fused 3rd and 4th metacarpal bone vs. caudal vertebrae 14 and 15) on breaking strength of bone in dairy cattle, and to assess the relationship between breaking strength and bone mineral content. The caudal vertebrae and right front metacarpal (sample pairs) were excised from

B. E. Keene; K. F. Knowlton; J. H. Wilson; M. L. McGilliard; C. Holtaway


Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test).…

Canalis, Ernesto



Cocaine-Contaminated Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should a person with history of drug addiction be categorically denied as a bone marrow donor? The answer to the question is controversial. We report a case of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for refractory acute myeloid leukemia preceded by essential thrombocythemia. The donor used cocaine and marijuana the night before the bone marrow harvest.

Yi-Kong Keung; David Morgan; Everardo Cobos



Bifunctional Bisphosphonates for Delivering Biomolecules to Bone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Active targeting with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents to bone is an ideal approach for treatment of several bone diseases. Since bisphosphonates (BPs) have high affinity to bone mineral and are used in treatment of osteoporosis, they are well-su...

J. N. Yewle



Inflammatory bone loss: pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue undergoing continuous building and degradation. This remodelling is a tightly regulated process that can be disturbed by many factors, particularly hormonal changes. Chronic inflammation can also perturb bone metabolism and promote increased bone loss. Inflammatory diseases can arise all over the body, including in the musculoskeletal system (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), the intestine (for example, inflammatory

Kurt Redlich; Josef S. Smolen



Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

Colnot, C. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States)]. E-mail:; Huang, S. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States); Helms, J. [Stanford University, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)



Bone Disease and HIV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated

Valerianna Amorosa; Pablo Tebas


Healthy Bones at Every Age  


... of hormone in middle age). In the past, estrogen replacement therapy was frequently used to protect aging women from bone loss. Research has since shown that there are significant risks in taking estrogen long-term after menopause. These include increased risk ...


Bone-Conduction ABR Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the accuracy of bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BC-ABR) tests to determine the presence and severity of conductive hearing impairment. It provides warnings about technical pitfalls and recommends incorporating BC-ABR protocols for routine clinical use. It concludes that the method allows estimating cochlear…

Cone-Wesson, Barbara



Flavonoid intake and bone health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flavonoids, found in a wide diversity of plant foods, from fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils, and beverages, have the most potential of dietary components for promotion of bone health beyond calcium and vitamin D. Recent epidemiological studies show flavonoid consumption to ha...


Green tea and bone health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...


PASSCLAIM - Bone health and osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: The EC Concerted Action PASSCLAIM aims to produce a generic tool for assessing the scientific support for health-related claims for foods and food components. Aim: The task of the ITGB Working Group was to critically evaluate the categories of scientific evidence needed to support claims in relation to bone health and osteoporosis. Methods: A framework was developed to

Ann Prentice; Jean-Philippe Bonjour; Francesco Branca; Cyrus Cooper; Albert Flynn; Michèle Garabedian; Detlef Müller; Daphne Pannemans; Peter Weber



Fractal Analysis of Trabecular Bone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fractals are unusual geometric structures that can be used to analyze many biologic structures not amenable to conventional analysis. The purpose of this exhibit is to teach some of the fundamentals of fractal analysis, and to show how they can be applied to analysis of trabecular bone.

Richardson, Michael L.; Gillespy, Thurman



Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.  


The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment-related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5) and considered on an individual basis for those with osteopenia (T score < -1). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:16986348

Perez, Edith A; Weilbaecher, Katherine



Rhabdomyolysis detected by bone imaging  

SciTech Connect

Rhabdomyolysis involves necrosis of skeletal muscle and may arise from multiple conditions both traumatic and nontraumatic. Bone imaging with Technetium-99m phosphates is a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and may be used to visualize the extent of rhabdomyolysis and its resolution. A case of alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented.

Sanders, J.A.



Benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report of a patient with an unusual, rapidly growing bone tumor in the third and fourth cervical vertebrae. Histological and electron-microscopic investigations reveal a tumor composed of histiocytic cells, xanthomatous cells, giant cells of Touton type, and fibroblastic cells. No cellular features of malignancy are observed. From its cytologic appearance the tumor has to be classified as a benign

A. Roessner; M. Immenkamp; A. Weidner; H. P. Hobik; E. Grundmann



Bone density studies in zooarchaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate bone density data are essential for assessing the influence of destructive processes in archaeological faunal assemblages. Unfortunately, the diversity of methods employed by different researchers to derive density values has resulted in recent confusion. Two recent publications in this journal (J Archaeol Sci 29 (2002) 883; J Archaeol Sci 29 (2002) 979) exemplify this state of misunderstanding. Both studies

Y. M. Lama; O. M. Pearsonc; Curtis W. Mareand; Xingbin Chene


Further Discovery of Dodos' Bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the astonishing discovery, in 1865, of innumerable bones of the dodo in the peat of the Mare aux Songes by Mr. George Clark, of Mahébourg, in Mauritius (Ibis, 1866, pp. 141-146), whereby Prof. Owen was enabled to describe the greater part of the skeleton of that remarkable bird (Trans. Zool. Soc., vi. pp. 49-80), and the subsequent researches at

Alfred Newton




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osteoporosis is a complex metabolic bone disease which currently affects 200 million people worldwide. The incidence is expected to increase as our life expectancy and the number of elderly individuals rises around the globe. To date, no cure for this debilitating disease exists. With recent adverse...


Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) and celiac disease (CD), but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Nazionale, Immacolata; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Imeneo, Maria; Luzza, Francesco



Aromatase Inhibitors and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor–positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment–related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score < ?2.5) and considered on an individual basis for those with osteopenia (T score < ?1). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor–positive breast cancer.

PEREZ, EDITH A.; M., Serene; Durling, Frances C.; WEILBAECHER, KATHERINE



Interleukin6 in bone metastasis and cancer progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bone and bone marrow are among the most frequent sites of cancer metastasis. It is estimated that 350,000 patients die with bone metastases annually in the United States. The ability of tumor cells to colonize the bone marrow and invade the bone is the result of close interactions between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. In this article,

Tasnim Ara; Yves A. DeClerck



Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support the application of PDT to the treatment of primary or metastatic lesions within bone. Secondly, that ALA-PDT may be useful as a treatment for osteomyelitis. Further studies aim to optimize the parameters of delivering PDT into bone and explore imaging technologies that can be used for clinical PDT.

Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The involvement of bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well recognized, and hand bone densitometry appears to be a promising new technique to monitor disease progression by assessing serial changes in hand bone.mass in patients with RA. New bio- chemical markers of bone formation (i.e. osteocalcin) show contradictory results in different studies, although markers of bone resorption (i.e. urinary




Inhibition of bone resorption blunts osteoarthritis in mice with high bone remodelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOsteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by cartilage degradation and bone lesions. Subchondral bone may be involved in the pathogenesis of cartilage matrix breakdown.ObjectiveTo assess the role of bone remodelling in OA by studying the effect of bisphosphonate on OA development in mice with high bone remodelling.MethodsMice overexpressing Runx2 (Runx2-Tg) under the control of collagen type I that displayed high bone remodelling

Abderrahim Kadri; Thomas Funck-Brentano; Hilène Lin; Hang-Korng Ea; Didier Hannouche; Caroline Marty; Frédéric Lioté; Valérie Geoffroy; Martine E Cohen-Solal



Nano-mechanics of bone and bioactive bone cement interfaces in a load-bearing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bioactive bone cements were developed for total hip replacement and found to bond with bone directly. However, the mechanical properties at the bone\\/bone cement interface under load bearing are not fully understood. In this study, a bioactive bone cement, which consists of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) powder and bisphenol-?-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)-based resin, was evaluated in rabbit hip replacement for 6

G. X. Ni; Y. S. Choy; W. W. Lu; A. H. W. Ngan; K. Y. Chiu; Z. Y. Li; B. Tang; K. D. K. Luk



Tensile properties of rat femoral bone as functions of bone volume fraction, apparent density and volumetric bone mineral density.  


Mechanical testing has been regarded as the gold standard to investigate the effects of pathologies on the structure-function properties of the skeleton. Tensile properties of cancellous and cortical bone have been reported previously; however, no relationships describing these properties for rat bone as a function of volumetric bone mineral density (?(MIN)), apparent density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) have been reported in the literature. We have shown that at macro level, compression and torsion properties of rat cortical and cancellous bone can be well described as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ?(MIN) using non-destructive micro-computed tomographic imaging and mechanical testing to failure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to derive a relationship expressing the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ?(MIN) over a range of normal and pathologic bones. We used bones from normal, ovariectomized and osteomalacic animals. All specimens underwent micro-computed tomographic imaging to assess bone morphometric and densitometric indices and uniaxial tension to failure. We obtained univariate relationships describing 74-77% of the tensile properties of rat cortical bone as a function of BV/TV, apparent density or ?(MIN) over a range of density and common skeletal pathologies. The relationships reported in this study can be used in the structural rigidity to provide a non-invasive method to assess the tensile behavior of bones affected by pathology and/or treatment options. PMID:21774935

Nazarian, Ara; Araiza Arroyo, Francisco J; Rosso, Claudio; Aran, Shima; Snyder, Brian D



Bone age assessment in young children using automatic carpal bone feature extraction and support vector regression.  


Boundary extraction of carpal bone images is a critical operation of the automatic bone age assessment system, since the contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue are very poor. In this paper, we present an edge following technique for boundary extraction in carpal bone images and apply it to assess bone age in young children. Our proposed technique can detect the boundaries of carpal bones in X-ray images by using the information from the vector image model and the edge map. Feature analysis of the carpal bones can reveal the important information for bone age assessment. Five features for bone age assessment are calculated from the boundary extraction result of each carpal bone. All features are taken as input into the support vector regression (SVR) that assesses the bone age. We compare the SVR with the neural network regression (NNR). We use 180 images of carpal bone from a digital hand atlas to assess the bone age of young children from 0 to 6 years old. Leave-one-out cross validation is used for testing the efficiency of the techniques. The opinions of the skilled radiologists provided in the atlas are used as the ground truth in bone age assessment. The SVR is able to provide more accurate bone age assessment results than the NNR. The experimental results from SVR are very close to the bone age assessment by skilled radiologists. PMID:21347746

Somkantha, Krit; Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Auephanwiriyakul, Sansanee



Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized.

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.



Spaceflight results in formation of defective bone.  


Growing rats were flown on 19 day spaceflights aboard Cosmos 782 and 936 biosatellites. Spaceflight resulted in a prominent skeletal defect at the periosteal surface of the tibia diaphysis. The defect, termed an arrest line, was approximately 3 micron across and separated the bone formed in space from that formed following spaceflight. The bone matrix at the arrest line region was abnormal in that collagen fibers were preferentially orientated parallel to the periosteal surface. In addition, the bone matrix was hypomineralized. The altered bone was inferior to normal bone in resistance to abrasion and may be partially responsible for the decrease in torsional strength observed after spaceflight. PMID:4080703

Turner, R T; Bell, N H; Duvall, P; Bobyn, J D; Spector, M; Holton, E M; Baylink, D J



[Bone architecture and strength in diabetes mellitus].  


Increased fracture risks in diabetes mellitus (DM) have been attributed to deteriorated bone quality both in type 1 and 2 DM because increased risks are disproportionate to their bone mineral densities (BMD) . Although still very little is known about bone architecture in type 1 DM, recent advancement in the techniques, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and trabecular bone score (TBS) , have revealed that, in type 2 DM, bone microstructure is compromised despite preserved BMD, which may account for high fracture risk in DM. PMID:23811588

Okazaki, Ryo



Engineering Endochondral Bone: In Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

The use of biomaterials to replace lost bone has been a common practice for decades. More recently, the demands for bone repair and regeneration have pushed research into the use of cultured cells and growth factors in association with these materials. Here we report a novel approach to engineer new bone using a transient cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. Chondrocyte/chitosan scaffolds (both a transient cartilage scaffold—experimental—and a permanent cartilage scaffold—control) were prepared and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Bone formation was evaluated over a period of 5 months. Mineralization was assessed by Faxitron, micro computed tomography, backscatter electrons, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Histological analysis provided further information on tissue changes in and around the implanted scaffolds. The deposition of ectopic bone was detected in the surface of the experimental implants as early as 1 month after implantation. After 3 months, bone trabeculae and bone marrow cavities were formed inside the scaffolds. The bone deposited was similar to the bone of the mice vertebra. Interestingly, no bone formation was observed in control implants. In conclusion, an engineered transient cartilage template carries all the signals necessary to induce endochondral bone formation in vivo.

Oliveira, Serafim M.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Turner, Gloria; Amaral, Isabel F.; Barbosa, Mario A.



Predicting cancellous bone failure during screw insertion.  


Internal fixation of fractures often requires the tightening of bone screws to stabilise fragments. Inadequate application of torque can leave the fracture unstable, while over-tightening results in the stripping of the thread and loss of fixation. The optimal amount of screw torque is specific to each application and in practice is difficult to attain due to the wide variability in bone properties including bone density. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the relationships between motor torque and screw compression during powered screw insertion, and to evaluate whether the torque during insertion can be used to predict the ultimate failure torque of the bone. A custom test rig was designed and built for bone screw experiments. By inserting cancellous bone screws into synthetic, ovine and human bone specimens, it was established that variations related to bone density could be automatically detected through the effects of the bone on the rotational characteristics of the screw. The torque measured during screw insertion was found to be directly related to bone density and can be used, on its own, as a good predictor of ultimate failure torque of the bone. PMID:23466167

Reynolds, Karen J; Cleek, Tammy M; Mohtar, Aaron A; Hearn, Trevor C



[Bone health in patients with anorexia nervosa].  


Osteoporosis associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is common, and tends to be severe, slow to recover from, and sometimes irreversible. The abnormal bone metabolism in severely emaciated AN patients involves both a reduction in bone formation and an increase in bone resorption. The annual change in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with BMI at the entry. The critical BMI for a positive increase in BMD was 16.4±0.3 kg/m(2). Nutritional improvement with body weight gain is the most important goal of treatment for AN-related osteoporosis since it increases both serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, a potent osteogenic factor, and estradiol, a powerful bone resorption inhibitor. However, it is difficult for AN patients to accept weight gain. About 50% of AN patients are insufficient of vitamin D and 43% show an increase in plasma undercalboxylated osteocalcin, indicating a deficiency state of the vitamin K(2). Vitamin D(3) or vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone) can prevent further bone loss in severely emaciated AN patients. Recently, bone strength has been evaluated by both BMD and bone quality. Plasma levels of homocysteine, a marker of degradation of bone quality, have significantly positive correlation with their ages of AN patients. We must evaluate bone density as well as bone quality in AN patients. PMID:23354095

Suzuki, Mari Hotta



Evaluating bone mass and bone quality in patients with breast cancer.  


Bone remodeling is a process by which bone renews itself focally in distinct areas on cancellous (ie, trabecular) bone and/or in the Haversian systems of cortical (or compact) bone. Normal bone turnover involves the ordered metabolism of bone-resorbing cells (osteoclasts) and bone-forming cells (osteoblasts). Estrogen exerts a multitude of actions on bone tissues and is integral to bone health, and estrogen deprivation leads to accelerated bone loss. Bone strength reflects the integration of bone density and bone quality. Methods to assess bone strength fall into 3 categories: radiologic (ie, bone mineral density [BMD]), biochemical (ie, markers of bone turnover), and histologic (ie, bone biopsies for histomorphometry). The beneficial effect of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and inactivators on breast cancer depends on reducing levels of circulating estrogens in the peripheral blood. There appears to be variability in the effects of AIs on bone in experimental animals, and this variability may not be the same in humans. In general, bone loss is an expected side effect of the AIs. For postmenopausal women receiving adjuvant anastrozole or other AIs, a BMD measurement using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is recommended, to be repeated every 1-2 years. Regular physical exercise is advised together with added calcium 1500 mg and vitamin D 800 U daily. If the T-score reaches a level of >2.5, or if it is between -1.5 and -2.5 in the presence of a fragility fracture or vertebral compression fracture, or if height loss > 2 cm occurs or BMD decreases > 3% in 1 year at the lumbar spine or > 5% at the femoral neck, bisphosphonate therapy should be considered. PMID:15807923

Paterson, Alexander H G



Anorexia nervosa, obesity and bone metabolism.  


Anorexia nervosa and obesity are conditions at the extreme ends of the nutritional spectrum, associated with marked reductions versus increases respectively in body fat content. Both conditions are also associated with an increased risk for fractures. In anorexia nervosa, body composition and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content are important determinants of low bone density, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength. In addition, anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in marrow adiposity and decreases in cold activated brown adipose tissue, both of which are related to low bone density. In obese individuals, greater visceral adiposity is associated with greater marrow fat, lower bone density and impaired bone structure. In this review, we discuss bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and obesity in relation to adipose tissue distribution and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content. PMID:24079076

Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne



Organ printing: the future of bone regeneration?  


In engineered bone grafts, the combined actions of bone-forming cells, matrix and bioactive stimuli determine the eventual performance of the implant. The current notion is that well-built 3D constructs include the biological elements that recapitulate native bone tissue structure to achieve bone formation once implanted. The relatively new technology of organ/tissue printing now enables the accurate 3D organization of the components that are important for bone formation and also addresses issues, such as graft porosity and vascularization. Bone printing is seen as a great promise, because it combines rapid prototyping technology to produce a scaffold of the desired shape and internal structure with incorporation of multiple living cell types that can form the bone tissue once implanted. PMID:21831463

Fedorovich, Natalja E; Alblas, Jacqueline; Hennink, Wim E; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A



Ethylene oxide sterilisation of allogenic bone implants.  


We have evaluated the ability of ethylene oxide gas to penetrate bone matrices and subsequently kill a defined microbiological load. These experiments demonstrated that freeze-dried cancellous and cortical bone did not pose a barrier to the rapid diffusion of the gas. A normal cycle on a commercial ethylene oxide steriliser provided a sixfold overkill. Minor differences in the rate at which the microbiological load was killed (D-value) were seen between cortical and cancellous bone, processed and unprocessed bone, and bone of different thickness. These differences were negligible in comparison to the degree of overkill observed. Spore indicators placed freely in the steriliser chamber were shown to act as excellent monitors for the bone sterilisation process. Preliminary studies of ethylene oxide residuals indicated that processed, freeze-dried bone could be sterilised without leaving leachable toxic residuals in the matrix. PMID:10148557

Kearney, J N; Bojar, R; Holland, K T



Bone mineral as an electrical energy reservoir.  


Mechanical stress in bone induces an electrical potential generated by piezoelectricity arising from displacement of collagen fibrils. Where and for how long the potential is stored in bone; however, are still poorly understood. We investigated the electrical properties of collagen fibrils and apatite minerals and found that bone, when polarized electrically by applying an external voltage, depolarizes by two mechanisms. Plots of thermally stimulated depolarization current show two significant peaks: one at 100°C, attributed to collagen fibrils because decalcified bone exhibits depolarization peak at 100°C, and the other at 500°C, attributed to apatite minerals because calcined bone exhibits depolarization peak at 500°C and has activation energy similar to that for synthesized apatite. The crystallographic c-axis orientation of calcined bone depends on the direction in which the bone is cut, either transverse or longitudinal, and strongly affects the polarization efficacy. PMID:22374799

Nakamura, Miho; Hiratai, Rumi; Yamashita, Kimihiro



Tenofovir-associated bone density loss  

PubMed Central

Clinical observations have revealed a strong correlation between loss of bone density in HIV-infected individuals, particularly in conjunction with the antiretroviral drug tenofovir, a nucleotide analog that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase. The most compelling correlations have been observed in clinical studies involving young children and adolescents. These observations strongly suggest that bone density is being affected during active bone growth and development, implicating a role for tenofovir in bone loss. Here we discuss the literature and potential mechanisms for how tenofovir-associated bone loss may arise, which likely involves perturbation of cellular DNA synthesis and gene expression. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) involved in tenofovir-mediated bone loss will help in developing adjuvant therapies to reduce tenofovir-associated bone density loss.

Grigsby, Iwen F; Pham, Lan; Mansky, Louis M; Gopalakrishnan, Raj; Mansky, Kim C



Giant-cell tumor of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlated histologic and radiographic study of nine giant-cell tumors, six aneurysmal bone cysts, and one combined lesion is presented. Clinical findings and plain radiographic appearances were found to overlap. Angiographically, the giant-cell tumors were richly vascularized, with a marked intratumoral contrast uptake, occasional irregular tumor vessles, a prominent peritumoral arterial net-work, and early draining veins. Microscopic examination revealed fine,

B. Gunterberg; L.-G. Kindblom; S. Laurin



Porous ceramic bone scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite scaffolds with a multi modal porosity designed for use in tissue engineering of vascularized bone graft substitutes\\u000a were prepared by three dimensional printing. Depending on the ratio of coarse (mean particle size 50 ?m) to fine powder (mean\\u000a particle size 4 ?m) in the powder granulate and the sintering temperature total porosity was varied from 30% to 64%. While\\u000a macroscopic pore

Julia Will; Reinhold Melcher; Cornelia Treul; Nahum Travitzky; Ulrich Kneser; Elias Polykandriotis; Raymund Horch; Peter Greil



Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Bone Turnover, Bone Density, and Ultrasound Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We studied 21 patients (11 men and 10 women) with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and 21 age- and sex-matched controls. In all\\u000a patients we measured serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP),\\u000a osteocalcin (BGP), urinary excretion of hydroxyproline (HOP\\/Cr), and pyridinoline crosslinks (Pyr\\/Cr). Bone mineral density\\u000a was measured at the distal radius (BMD-R) and

C. Cepollaro; S. Gonnelli; C. Pondrelli; A. Montagnani; S. Martini; D. Bruni; C. Gennari



Intrinsic material properties of cortical bone.  


The G171V mutation (high bone mass, HBM) is autosomal dominant and is responsible for high bone mass in humans. Transgenic HBM mice in which the human LRP5 G171V gene is inserted also show a similar phenotype with greater bone mass and biomechanical performance than wild-type mice, as determined by whole bone testing. Whole bone mechanics, however, depend jointly on bone mass, architecture, and intrinsic bone tissue mechanical properties. To determine whether the HBM mutation affects tissue-level biomechanical performance, we performed nano-indentation testing of unembedded cortical bone from HBM mice and their nontransgenic (NTG) littermates. Femora from 17-week-old mice (female, 8 mice/genotype) were subjected to nano-indentation using a Triboscope (Hysitron, Minneapolis, MN, USA). For each femoral specimen, approximately 10 indentations were made on the midshaft anterior surface with a target force of either 3 or 9 mN at a constant loading rate of 400 mN/s. The load-displacement data from each test were used to calculate indentation modulus and hardness for bone tissue. The intrinsic material property that reflected the bone modulus was greater (48%) in the HBM as compared to the NTG mice. Our results of intrinsic properties are consistent with the published structural and material properties of the midshaft femur in HBM and NTG mice. The greater intrinsic modulus in HBM reflects greater bone mineral content as compared to NTG (wild-type, WT) mice. This study suggests that the greater intrinsic property of cortical bone is derived from the greater bone mineral content and BMD, resulting in greater bone strength in HBM as compared to NTG (WT) mice. PMID:20503060

Lopez Franco, Gloria E; Blank, Robert D; Akhter, Mohammed P



Internal channel structures in trabecular bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material properties of bone are crucial for studies regarding the mechanical behavior of bone. The mechanical behavior depends on the macro- and micro-architecture as well as the organic and mineral content of