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1

DISCOVERY AND RESEARCH ON JIAHU BONE FLUTES IN WUYANG, CHINA.  

SciTech Connect

The site of Jiahu is located in Jiahu village, Wuyang County, Henan province, on the Western edge of the broad plain of Huanhuaihai. On its north the site borders the Sha River, in the upper reaches of the Huai River; its latitude is 33{degree} 36 minutes North, longitude 113{degree} 40 minutes East, and it is 67.5 meters above sea level. Between 1983 and 1987, the Henan Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute carried out six campaigns of excavation here, revealing an area of 2400 square meters. Except for the trial excavation in the spring of 1983, Zhang Juzhong has been in charge of all the excavations. In early May 1986, while excavating tomb 78, Zhang Juzhong and Yang Zhenwei first discovered two funerary bone flutes. They soon found other, similar bone flutes in tombs 73, 94 and 121 respectively. Mr. Zhang's attention was instantly focused on these remarkable finds. In the campaign of autumn 1986, one or two more bone flutes were discovered in each of tombs 233,273, 263 and 270. Finally, in the spring of 1987, again one or two bone flutes were found in each of the tombs 282, 363,341,411,344 and 387. Up to the end of excavation in June 1987, altogether 25 bone flutes had been found, of which 17 were complete or almost complete, 6 broken or fragmentary and 2 were half-finished examples. Among the 17 complete bone flutes, there were 14 having seven holes, one five-hole, one six-hole and one eight-hole bone flute. In particular, the bone flute M282:20 was exquisitely made, and complete. Zhang Juzhong, the discoverer of the bone flutes, researcher Pei Mingxiang, the. ex-director of the division, who came to the digging site to see the progress of the work, and their coworkers were all understandably very excited.

JUZHONG, Z.; HARBOTTLE, G.; XINGHUA, X.; CHANGSUI, W.

2000-11-01

2

Stable isotopic analysis of human bones from Jiahu site, Henan, China: implications for the transition to agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated change in subsistence during the transition to agriculture in the site of Jiahu, Henan Province, China, using stable isotopic analysis of collagen and apatite in human bones. Millet agriculture is well documented at drier high latitudes of the Yellow River Valley, while rice agriculture predominated at wetter lower latitudes of the Yangtze Valley region. The early Neolithic

Yaowu Hu; Stanley H. Ambrose; Changsui Wang

2006-01-01

3

Construction practices in pre-Hispanic flutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient cultures of the Americas were separated by thousands of miles and thousand of years. There was a long history of trade over the miles and the years with many shared cultural ideals and artifacts, as evidenced by their musical instruments. Flutes were the most prevalent instruments found throughout the ancient Americas. Some types are unique to the pre-Hispanic world. Although flutes were constructed from a variety of materials, including bone, cane, seed pods, skulls, it is primarily the ceramic ones that survived, and it is ceramic flutes which form the bulk of this writer's work and research. This paper includes musical demonstrations to show how ancient flutemakers could have manipulated timbre during construction. Clay's plasticity enabled the construction of some instruments, and limited the development of others. Pitch jump flutes, certain Veracruzano whistles, and chamberduct flutes and whistles all share the addition of clay flaps or chambers around the aperture, as do hooded pipes. Some instruments exhibit a seemingly cultural predilection for complex tones that are windy, raspy, or animalistic. Simple adjustments of the airduct promote these timbres. Also included will be samples of the original sounds of ancient flutes.

Rawcliffe, Susan

2002-11-01

4

Doc.382, 'Nose flute'  

E-print Network

Audio recording of a nose flute played by Josefa Tale of Namata, Tailevu, recorded in Suva on September 1957. Arranged recording, 9 min 49 seconds. Fijian music, songs and dances, recorded by George Kingsley Roth in Fiji in the 1950s. Most...

Roth, George Kingsley

5

The effects of flute shape and thread profile on the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants.  

PubMed

Easy insertion of the implant and stable bone purchase is essential for an ideal dental implantation. At the implant tip, the cutting flutes and conical profile are respectively designed to reduce insertion resistance and facilitate the initial insertion. However, the tapered tip might reduce the self-tapping and bone-purchasing abilities of the flutes and the tip threads. Using sawbone blocks as standard specimens, this study experimentally measures the insertion torque, holding power, and bending strength of eight varieties of implant (4 shapes×2 profiles). The bony contact, interfacial mechanism, and the altered shape of the flutes, at different section planes, are used to explain the experimental results. The results reveal that the bone-implant gaps at the tip region significantly suppress both the self-tapping and bone-purchasing abilities of the flutes and the tip threads. This makes initial insertion of the conical implant easier. However, the conical implant eventually requires a higher insertion torque and holding power, due to tighter bony contact, at the tail threads. The bowl-fluted design has the least flute space to store the squeezed bone chips, so both insertion torque and bending strength are significantly higher. For the conical group, the holding powers of three flute designs are nearly comparable. Overall, the conical implant with bowl flutes is the optimal design, with a lower resistance to initial insertion and higher stability, for final instrumentation. PMID:22041130

Wu, Shu-Wei; Lee, Chia-Ching; Fu, Ping-Yuen; Lin, Shang-Chih

2012-09-01

6

The sound of music over ar-Raqqa - on a rare find of a flute from an Islamic glassworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

At ar-Raqqa, an Islamic city in north-western Syria, a huge amount of bone material from a diversity of archaeological contexts had been excavated. In the debris of a glass workshop, dating from the end of the 8 th to the middle of the 9 th century AD, a fragment of a flute was discovered. The flute was fashioned from a

Cornelia BECKER

7

Creating and Maintaining a Good Flute Embouchure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to produce a good tone on the flute is easy for some people and incredibly difficult for others. Not every flute student will be successful, but the suggestions offered in this article may make the difference between a positive musical experience and one that turns the student off to playing an instrument forever. Claire-Anne Williams,…

Criswell, Chad

2009-01-01

8

Paul Taffanel and the Construction of the French Flute School  

E-print Network

major for flute and harp, K. 299 for Adrien-Louis Bonnières de Souastre, Comte de Guines, after the count had spent time in London and likely obtained an English flute.75 The flute part that Mozart wrote utilized middle C.76 By 1781, the Leipzig flute...

Glick, Dorothy Ellen

2014-05-31

9

Entropy and the Magic Flute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

Morowitz, Harold J.

1996-10-01

10

Gage for measuring fluted oil field tubular members  

SciTech Connect

A gage is described for measuring the nominal diameter of an elongated tubular member having circumferentially spaced apart radially outwardly extending flutes and for calibrating the amount of wear to the flutes and predicting the future wear life of the tubular member. The gage comprises: a first gage part including a pair of spaced apart colinear elongated first handlebar halves with a generally semi-circular first half ring positioned between the first handlebar halves. The first half ring includes at least one flute engaging surface which includes stepped arcuate flute engaging portions positioned at radii from the center of the first ring half corresponding to different diameters to be measured; a second gage part including a pair of spaced apart colinear elongated second handlebar halves with a generally semicircular second half ring positioned between the second handlebar halves. The second half ring includes at least one flute engaging surface which includes stepped arcuate flute engaging portions positioned a radii from the center of the second ring half corresponding to different diameters to be measured. The number of flute engaging surfaces of the first and second ring halves is equal to the number of flutes on the tubular member; and a hinge pivotally connecting together one handlebar half of the first gage part to one handlebar half of the second gage part.

Case, W.A.; Burt, J.R.

1987-03-17

11

Evaluation of Analysis Techniques for Fluted-Core Sandwich Cylinders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buckling-critical launch-vehicle structures require structural concepts that have high bending stiffness and low mass. Fluted-core, also known as truss-core, sandwich construction is one such concept. In an effort to identify an analysis method appropriate for the preliminary design of fluted-core cylinders, the current paper presents and compares results from several analysis techniques applied to a specific composite fluted-core test article. The analysis techniques are evaluated in terms of their ease of use and for their appropriateness at certain stages throughout a design analysis cycle (DAC). Current analysis techniques that provide accurate determination of the global buckling load are not readily applicable early in the DAC, such as during preliminary design, because they are too costly to run. An analytical approach that neglects transverse-shear deformation is easily applied during preliminary design, but the lack of transverse-shear deformation results in global buckling load predictions that are significantly higher than those from more detailed analysis methods. The current state of the art is either too complex to be applied for preliminary design, or is incapable of the accuracy required to determine global buckling loads for fluted-core cylinders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for calculating global buckling loads of fluted-core cylinders that includes transverse-shear deformations, and that can be easily incorporated in preliminary design.

Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Schultz, Marc R.

2012-01-01

12

Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute": Negotiating Multiple Aesthetic Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the integration of photographs and text in fictional works specifically regarding Garry Disher's "Bamboo Flute." Introduces the story and explores questions in detail regarding the presentation of its photographs in American publications. Attempts to make the readers become aware of alternative reading strategies that expand schemata and…

Day, Karen S.

2000-01-01

13

Flute ``breath support'' perception and its acoustical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music educators and performers commonly refer to ``breath support'' in flute playing, yet the term ``support'' is neither well-defined nor consistently used. Different breathing strategies used by professional flautists who were instructed to play with and without support were previously identified by the authors. In the current study, 14 musical excerpts with and without support were recorded by five professional

Isabelle A. Cossette; Patrick Sabourin

2001-01-01

14

Automatic timbre quality evaluation in Chinese traditional flute industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the opening of Chinese economic, a great amount of Taiwanese merchants enter Mainland China for investment. The annual production of bamboo flutes in China is over 4 millions to provide domestic and international consumers. Owing to the great amount of demand, folk instrument industry is one of the attractive investment items. In order to increase the product manufacturing process

Hui-jen Yang; Yun-long Lay; Chern-sheng Lin

2007-01-01

15

Kristina Sorensen Acoustics of a Rotating Grand Piano & the Flute  

E-print Network

Kristina Sorensen Acoustics of a Rotating Grand Piano & the Flute Kristina Sorensen 1 10 June 2011 will be utilizing an acoustical array of microphones to analyze the three-dimensional sound radiation. Computer Relationships of Sound Propagation in both the Frequency and Time Domains Improve Competence in Acoustical

Hart, Gus

16

Musica II: Torsion Drum, Buzzer, Maraca, Chirper, Flute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use common household items to build musical instruments. This lesson guide includes step-by-step instructions for building five instruments: a torsion drum; buzzer; maraca; chirper; and flute. Basic tools including a drill and clamp are required. Use this activity to help learners explore elements of sound like vibration, sound waves, pitch, amplitude and volume.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

17

Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan

2011-01-01

18

Flute growth rate of plasma jet in mirror machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of flute instability in a cold, high-density hydrogen plasma jet, injected into a mirror machine, is studied. The experiment was designed to minimize the interaction of the plasma with the walls, thus bringing it close to the ideal magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability conditions. The modal growth rate was measured in various settings to demonstrate the effects of the finite Larmor radius, Bohm diffusion, conductive limiter, biased limiter and neutral background gas. In this paper we will demonstrate that lowering the magnetic field increases stability, as does the insertion of a conducting ring. However, if the ring is biased, the stability is reduced due to inhomogeneous coupling between the plasma and the limiter. It was also found that heavy background gas dramatically reduces the flute instability growth rate.

Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.; Goldstein, G.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.

2014-02-01

19

Effect of Relative Humidity on the Optimum Flute Shape for Corrugated Fiberboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Container stacking strength is an important performance requirement of corrugated fiberboard. The objective of this study is to examine theoretically how fluting geometry affects fiberboard strength and stiffness under standard relative humidity (RH) and high RH conditions. The fluted medium in a corrugated fiberboard is modeled as a connection of curved arc and straight flank segments passing through the middle

Thomas J. Urbanik

20

Flute-like musical instruments: a toy model investigated through numerical continuation  

E-print Network

of a quasi-static energy source (provided by the musician) into acoustic energy. This generation of auto qualitative comparisons with numerical results. Keywords: Musical acoustics, Flute-like instruments, Numerical-sustained musical in- struments, like bowed string instruments, reed instruments or flutes, involves the conversion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

A three-dimensional turbulent compressible flow model for ejector and fluted mixers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three dimensional finite element computer code was developed to analyze ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixer systems whose flow fields are not significantly influenced by streamwise diffusion effects. A two equation turbulence model was used to make comparisons between theory and data for various flow fields which are components of the ejector system, i.e., (1) turbulent boundary layer in a duct; (2) rectangular nozzle (free jet); (3) axisymmetric nozzle (free jet); (4) hypermixing nozzle (free jet); and (5) plane wall jet. Likewise, comparisons of the code with analytical results and/or other numerical solutions were made for components of the axisymmetric fluted mixer system. These included: (1) developing pipe flow; (2) developing flow in an annular pipe; (3) developing flow in an axisymmetric pipe with conical center body and no fluting and (4) developing fluted pipe flow. Finally, two demonstration cases are presented which show the code's ability to analyze both the ejector and axisymmetric fluted mixers.

Rushmore, W. L.; Zelazny, S. W.

1978-01-01

22

Flute instability and the associated radial transport in the tandem mirror with a divertor mirror cell  

SciTech Connect

The flute instability and the associated radial transport are investigated in the tandem mirror with a divertor mirror cell (the GAMMA10 A-divertor) with help of computer simulation, where GAMMA10 is introduced [Inutake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985)]. The basic equations used in the simulation were derived on the assumption of an axisymmetric magnetic field. So the high plasma pressure in a nonaxisymmetric minimum-B anchor mirror cell, which is important for the flute mode stability, is taken into account by redefining the specific volume of a magnetic field line. It is found that the flute modes are stabilized by the minimum-B magnetic field even with a divertor mirror although its stabilizing effects are weaker than that without the divertor mirror. The flute instability enhances the radial transport by intermittently repeating the growing up and down of the Fourier amplitude of the flute instability in time.

Katanuma, I.; Yagi, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Ichioka, N.; Masaki, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2010-11-15

23

Excitation of collective modes in a quantum flute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a generalized master equation (GME) formalism to describe the nonequilibrium time-dependent transport of Coulomb interacting electrons through a short quantum wire connected to semi-infinite biased leads. The contact strength between the leads and the wire is modulated by out-of-phase time-dependent potentials that simulate a turnstile device. We explore this setup by keeping the contact with one lead at a fixed location at one end of the wire, whereas the contact with the other lead is placed on various sites along the length of the wire. We study the propagation of sinusoidal and rectangular pulses. We find that the current profiles in both leads depend not only on the shape of the pulses, but also on the position of the second contact. The current reflects standing waves created by the contact potentials, like in a wind musical instrument (for example, a flute), but occurring on the background of the equilibrium charge distribution. The number of electrons in our quantum “flute” device varies between two and three. We find that for rectangular pulses the currents in the leads may flow against the bias for short time intervals, due to the higher harmonics of the charge response. The GME is solved numerically in small time steps without resorting to the traditional Markov and rotating wave approximations. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons in the sample is included via the exact diagonalization method. The system (leads plus sample wire) is described by a lattice model.

Torfason, Kristinn; Manolescu, Andrei; Molodoveanu, Valeriu; Gudmundsson, Vidar

2012-06-01

24

Utilization of fluted pumpkin fruit (Telfairia occidentalis) in marmalade manufacturing.  

PubMed

Marmalade was produced from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) fruit. The fruit was pulped, boiled and filtered to obtain pectin extract. The extract was boiled at 102 degrees C for 30 min with the pH and sugar levels adjusted to 3.2 and 68.5 degrees Brix, respectively. Fruit shreds were added towards the end of boiling. Results of analyses showed that the pulp is rich in Na, K, Fe, P, Mn and pectin (1.01%), but low in protein (0.86%). The marmalade had a firm gel and was acidic (pH 3.15). Mold was absent and syneresis did not occur. The marmalade contained 68.5% total soluble solids and set at 52-56 degrees C. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference (p = 0.05) in taste, consistency, spreadability and overall acceptability between fluted pumpkin marmalade and commercial orange marmalade. Both chemical and sensory results denote that the marmalade was highly desirable and compared favourably with similar preserves produced in Nigeria. PMID:9839816

Egbekun, M K; Nda-Suleiman, E O; Akinyeye, O

1998-01-01

25

An Efficient Analysis Methodology for Fluted-Core Composite Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary loading condition in launch-vehicle barrel sections is axial compression, and it is therefore important to understand the compression behavior of any structures, structural concepts, and materials considered in launch-vehicle designs. This understanding will necessarily come from a combination of test and analysis. However, certain potentially beneficial structures and structural concepts do not lend themselves to commonly used simplified analysis methods, and therefore innovative analysis methodologies must be developed if these structures and structural concepts are to be considered. This paper discusses such an analysis technique for the fluted-core sandwich composite structural concept. The presented technique is based on commercially available finite-element codes, and uses shell elements to capture behavior that would normally require solid elements to capture the detailed mechanical response of the structure. The shell thicknesses and offsets using this analysis technique are parameterized, and the parameters are adjusted through a heuristic procedure until this model matches the mechanical behavior of a more detailed shell-and-solid model. Additionally, the detailed shell-and-solid model can be strategically placed in a larger, global shell-only model to capture important local behavior. Comparisons between shell-only models, experiments, and more detailed shell-and-solid models show excellent agreement. The discussed analysis methodology, though only discussed in the context of fluted-core composites, is widely applicable to other concepts.

Oremont, Leonard; Schultz, Marc R.

2012-01-01

26

Mechanisms of flute formation at a polythermal valley glacier: Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flutes in front of the margin of a small, polythermal valley glacier, Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, were described in terms of their morphometry. Flutes, subglacial and proglacial till, debris-rich basal ice and glacier ice were sampled for their sedimentary and isotopic composition in order to investigate mechanisms of subglacial flute formation. Flutes are widespread across the glacier forefield and consistently form in the lee of cobble to boulder-sized clasts ploughed into proglacial till. Physical properties, including mean particle-size-distributions and oxygen isotope compositions show that flutes are enriched in 18O and depleted in gravel-sized particles relative to adjacent subglacial till and overlying debris-rich basal ice. These properties indicate that flutes are formed by the squeezing of partially fluidized subglacial till into incipient basal cavities beneath warm-based ice within interior of the glacier. The formation of flutes beneath relatively thick (>120 m) warm-based ice suggests that partially fluidized sediment adfreezes onto the bed of the glacier. Melting on the upglacier side of subglacial boulders is thought to create a heat-pump effect between a zone of relatively high-pressure of the upglacier face and a zone of relatively low-pressure on the downglacier face within incipient basal cavities. The presence of this pressure-temperature gradient across the surface of subglacial boulders is invoked to account the adfreezing of sediment squeezed into incipient basal cavities. The distribution of flutes in front of Midre Lovénbreen may therefore be indicative of the former extent of warm-based ice during periods of active flute formation.

Roberson, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Coulson, Hayley; Fairchild, Ian

2010-05-01

27

Tank tests of a model of a flying-boat hull with a fluted bottom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1/5-scale model of a flying-boat hull having flutes in the bottom both forward and aft of the step (NACA model 19) was tested to determine its water performance. The model was also tested after the successive removal of the flutes on the afterbody and forebody. The results from these tests are compared with those from tests of a model of the hull of the Navy PN-8 flying boat and it is concluded that the fluted-bottom model and its modifications are inferior to the model of the PN-8.

Dawson, John R

1935-01-01

28

FLUTE: A versatile linac-based THz source  

SciTech Connect

A new compact versatile linear accelerator named FLUTE is currently being designed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This paper presents the status of this 42 MeV machine. It will be used to generate strong (several 100 MV/m) ultra-short ({approx}1 ps) THz pulses (up to {approx}4-25 THz) for photon science experiments, as well as to conduct a variety of accelerator studies. The latter range from comparing different coherent THz radiation generation schemes to compressing electron bunches and studying the electron beam stability. The bunch charge will cover a wide range ({approx}100 pC-3 nC). Later we plan to also produce ultra-short x-ray pulses from the electron bunches, which, for example, could then be combined for THz pump-x-ray probe experiments.

Nasse, M. J.; Schuh, M.; Schwarz, M. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Naknaimueang, S.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rossmanith, R.; Wesolowski, P.; Huttel, E. [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmelling, M. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, A.-S. [Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-02-15

29

Detection and restoration of sound of flute embedded in noise using real-time Kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of flute notes embedded in noise is formulated as a state-estimation problem of a dynamic system. A single Kalman filter, with a given state-transition matrix, is implemented in real-time to recover the corresponding note as well as some of the neighbouring notes. In order to restore a continuous piece of music played by flute, a bank of Kalman

M. K. Islam; G. Saplakoglu

1993-01-01

30

CO2 volume fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: flute versus coupe.  

PubMed

Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from glasses containing a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11.5 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, during the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at room temperature, with a flute and a coupe, respectively. The progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time was found to be significantly higher in the coupe than in the flute, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that the flute prolongs the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence in contrast with the coupe. Moreover, CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the coupe were found to be much higher in the coupe than in the flute in the early moments following pouring, whereas this tendency reverses from about 3 min after pouring. Correlations were proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute and the coupe and their continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. The contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by use of results developed over recent years. Due to a much shallower liquid level in the coupe, bubbles collapsing at the free surface of the coupe were found to be significantly smaller than those collapsing at the free surface of the flute, and CO(2) volume fluxes released by collapsing bubbles only were found to be approximately 60% smaller in the coupe than in the flute. Finally, the contributions of gas discharge by invisible diffusion through the free surface areas of the flute and coupe were also approached and compared for each type of drinking vessel. PMID:19419170

Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Polidori, Guillaume; Jeandet, Philippe

2009-06-10

31

Flute ``breath support'' perception and its acoustical correlates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Music educators and performers commonly refer to ``breath support'' in flute playing, yet the term ``support'' is neither well-defined nor consistently used. Different breathing strategies used by professional flautists who were instructed to play with and without support were previously identified by the authors. In the current study, 14 musical excerpts with and without support were recorded by five professional flautists. Eleven professional flautists listened to the recordings in a random order and ranked (1 to 6) how much of the following sound qualities they judged to be in each example: support, intonation, control and musical expressiveness. Answers to the test showed that musical expressiveness was associated more closely with the supported excerpts than the answers about support itself. The ratings for each sound quality were highly intercorrelated. Acoustical parameters were analyzed (frequency and centroid variation within each note) and compared with the results of the perception test in order to better understand how the acoustical and psychological variables were related. The acoustical analysis of the central part of the notes did not show evident correlation with the answers of the perception test. [Work funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Cossette, Isabelle A.; Sabourin, Patrick

2001-05-01

32

Effect of fermentation on the seed proteins, nitrogenous constituents, antinutrients and nutritional quality of fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fermentation, for 7 days, on levels of nitrogenous constituents, protein fractions, antinutrients and protein quality of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed was investigated. Protein quality was evaluated using weanling albino rats fed diets which were formulated to supply 10% protein using fermented and unfermented fluted pumpkin seed samples, with casein as a control. The non-protein nitrogen

S. Y. Giami

2004-01-01

33

The sedimentological and glaciological relationships between tills, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges during a surge, Eyjabakkaj  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other landforms and landform assemblages in glacier forelands, limited research has been carried out into crevasse-fill ridges and their relationship to flutes and the sediments below them. This is partly due to the ephemeral nature of the features and the effect of dead ice decay, but also the restrictions caused by the inaccessibility of potential sites. Eyjabakkajökull is a surging glacier situated on the North Eastern margin of Vatnajökull, Iceland, where as a consequence of recent surges, a variety of landforms, including crevasse-fill ridges and flutes, have been superimposed on the pre-existing landscape. At Eyjabakkajökull the crevasse-fill ridges appear to be draped across the flutes; this observation contradicts with previously published models which suggest that flutes indicate coupling to the bed whilst the crevasse-fill ridges are taken to reflect de-coupling from the bed. Sedimentological and micromorphological analysis of these landforms, individually and at points of intersection, have identified characteristic structures associated with them. Initial results suggest that the flutes and crevasse-fill ridges at Eyjabakkajökull appear to have formed from two tills. The crevasse-fill ridges suggest de-coupling from the bed has occurred and the till has been squeezed up. Where a crevasse-fill ridge intersects with a flute the till is forced up through the flute, but the cross-section through the crevasse-fill ridges shows little evidence of the flute's existence. Although these landforms developed in the same surge it does suggest that they did not form concurrently; instead the flute appears to have formed before the crevasse-fill ridge squeezed up and pushed through it. The present contribution discusses how flutes and crevasse-fill ridges relate to each other and thus adds a new layer of information to our understanding of modern glacial environments which is crucial for realistic palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Quaternary glacial landforms and landform assemblages.

Ferguson, A.; van der Meer, J. J. M.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Schomacker, A.; Andersson, T.

2009-04-01

34

Active feedback stabilization of multimode flute instability in a mirror trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flute instability in a table-top mirror machine has been stabilized by a feedback system consisting of optical sensors, a digital signal processor and charge-injecting electrodes. The use of multiple sensors and actuators enable the feedback to simultaneously stabilize two modes of the fast-growing, slowly rotating flute instability. Step function response and magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy indicate a smooth frequency response and an inherent delayed response of the plasma drift due to the sheath resistivity. The measured feedback power is very small relative to the heating power of the plasma.

Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.; Fisher, A.

2014-07-01

35

The Effects of Verbal Instruction, Modeling, Rehearsal, and Feedback on Correct Posture during Flute Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behavioral skills training package, including verbal instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback, was used to teach children correct posture, defined as keeping feet on the floor, legs parallel to each other, and the back and neck perpendicular to the floor, during flute lessons. Three typically developing girls aged 8 to 9 years…

Dib, Nancy Ellen; Sturmey, Peter

2007-01-01

36

Cutoff frequencies and cross fingerings in baroque, classical, and modern flutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baroque, classical, and modern flutes have successively more and larger tone holes. This paper reports measurements of the standing waves in the bores of instruments representing these three classes. It presents the frequency dependence of propagation of standing waves in lattices of open tone holes and compares these measurements with the cutoff frequency: the frequency at which, in an idealized

Joe Wolfe; John Smith

2003-01-01

37

The kinetics and acoustics of fingering and note transitions on the flute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion of the keys was measured in a transverse flute while beginner, amateur and professional flutists played a range of exercises. The time taken for a key to open or close is typically 10 ms when pushed by a finger or 16 ms when moved by a spring. Delays between the motion of the fingers were typically tens of ms,

André Almeida; Renee Chow; John Smith; Joe Wolfe

2009-01-01

38

Flute-like musical instruments: a toy model investigated through numerical continuation  

E-print Network

string instruments, reed instru- ments or flutes, involves the conversion of a quasi- static energy source (provided by the musician) into acoustic energy. This generation of auto- oscillations necessarily it is known in musical acoustics that more accurate (yet more complex) models should be considered. We

39

Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

2013-07-01

40

An assessment of fluting and “till esker” formation on the foreland of Sandfellsjökull, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive sedimentological analysis of tills, parallel-sided flutings, and a conduit fill (till esker) on the recently deglaciated foreland of Sandfellsjökull (a temperate, actively receding piedmont lobe draining the eastern margin of the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland) reveals that subglacial sediment was emplaced predominantly as a dilatant A horizon after an initial phase of glacitectonite production from local outwash. Clast macrofabric strengths weakened through time, presumably in response to increasingly wetter substrate conditions, until the emplacement of the fluted till when clast alignment was more tightly constrained. The fluting phase was initiated only after boulders were plucked from an adjacent bedrock cliff and lodged at the ice-till interface. This suggests that the parallel-sided flutings constrained shearing at the ice-bed interface in a similar fashion to a fault gouge, thereby strengthening clast alignments but allowing the till to mould around larger obstacles to produce herringbone fabric patterns. Strong clast macrofabric strengths in the till esker are not parallel to the ice flow direction, but instead align parallel with the local axis of the meandering ridge. This suggests that the till esker was likely produced by the squeezing of a dilatant till into an elongated cavity or R-channel after meltwater evacuation, followed by localized deformation, constrained by the channel walls, as the channel moved downvalley because of ice flow. The short period over which the deformation took place was enough to impart weaker fabrics in parts of the conduit that lie transverse to the ice flow direction and stronger fabrics where the conduit trends toward parallelism with the ice flow.

Evans, David J. A.; Nelson, Chris D.; Webb, Caroline

2010-01-01

41

Contributing factors, prevention, and management of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among flute players internationally.  

PubMed

Major studies have shown that flutists report playing-related pain in the neck, middle/upper back, shoulders, wrists, and hands. The current survey was designed to establish the injury concerns of flute players and teachers of all backgrounds, as well as their knowledge and awareness of injury prevention and management. Questions addressed a range of issues including education, history of injuries, preventative and management strategies, lifestyle factors, and teaching methods. At the time of the survey, 26.7% of all respondents were suffering from flute playing-related discomfort or pain; 49.7% had experienced flute playing-related discomfort or pain that was severe enough to distract while performing; and 25.8% had taken an extended period of time off playing because of discomfort or pain. Consistent with earlier studies, the most common pain sites were the fingers, hands, arms, neck, middle/upper back, and shoulders. Further research is needed to establish possible links between sex, instrument types, and ergonomic set up. Further investigation is recommended to ascertain whether certain types of physical training, education, and practice approaches may be more suitable than current methods. A longitudinal study researching the relationship between early education, playing position, ergonomic set-up, and prevalence of injury is recommended. PMID:25194113

Lonsdale, Karen; Laakso, E-Liisa; Tomlinson, Vanessa

2014-09-01

42

The songs of Tlaloc: Interference of ten ceramical duct flutes, Offering 89 of the Aztec Templo Mayor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the many preserved sound artefacts deposited in the offerings of the Aztec Templo Mayor are a set of ten tubular duct flutes made from clay, dating Late Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1350-1521 AD. The aerophones are completely painted in blue, and characterized by: (1) a short mouthpiece; (2) a framed aperture; (3) a tube with four fingerholes; and (4) an applicated mask with features of the Aztec rain god Tlaloc, basically three rings and a standardized relief structure of two clouds. While all measurements follow the same pattern, one particular organological distinction was made, as five flutes show an exit hole in the middle ring of the mask and five flutes are stopped. Thus, five instruments sound considerably higher, apart from the minimal pitch deviation of each specimen. Both the tonal capacity of each flute and the acoustics of several flutes played simultaneously were recorded and measured. A series of remarkable interference effects could be produced, which were strongly related to the ritual complex reflected in the offering. Taking in consideration the Aztec concept of music, it could be supposed that they were perceived as a principle of the song, or proper voice of Tlaloc.

Both, M. A. Adje

2002-11-01

43

Studies of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) Seed Oil and Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappia L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils from the seeds of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) and Tropical almond (Terminalia catappia L.) were extracted with petroleum ether. The ether extract was evaluated for Wijs iodine value, saponification value, acid value and specific gravity. The result of the evaluation was compared with that of palm oil (Eloesis guineensis). The acid value of fluted pumpkin and Tropical

2006-01-01

44

Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.

Festa, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Grazzi, F.; Sutton, L. F.; Scherillo, A.; Bognetti, L.; Bini, A.; Barzagli, E.; Schooneveld, E.; Andreani, C.

2013-09-01

45

Creasing Characteristics of A-Flute Corrugated Fiber Board Using a Rotary Creaser with Respect to Breaking Strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on bending-moment characteristics of heightwise/vertical crease of a corrugated fiberboard, a scored line of which is in parallel to the inner flute structure, and the effect of mechanical processing conditions on a failure phenomena of liner sheet scored by a rotary creaser. Regarding the dispersion and the variance of folding resistance, the creaser/pre-creaser gaps, the deviation of scored line from the inner flute apex, the diameter of creaser rolls and the effect of humidity on the material properties were experimentally investigated using a proto-type rotary creaser and a bending strength tester.

Nagaswa, Shigeru; Takamatsu, Tomohiro; Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Tozuka, Yusuke

2011-01-01

46

Individuality of movements in music--finger and body movements during playing of the flute.  

PubMed

The achievement of mastery in playing a composition by means of a musical instrument typically requires numerous repetitions and corrections according to the keys and notations of the music piece. Nevertheless, differences in the interpretation of the same music piece by highly skilled musicians seem to be recognizable. The present study investigated differences within and between skilled flute players in their finger and body movements playing the same piece several times on the same and on different days. Six semiprofessional and four professional musicians played an excerpt of Mozart's Flute Concerto No. 2 several times on three different days. Finger and body movements were recorded by 3D motion capture and analyzed by linear and nonlinear classification approaches. The findings showed that the discrete and continuous movement timing data correctly identified individuals up to 100% by means of their finger movements and up to 94% by means of their body movements. These robust examples of identifying individual movement patterns contradict the prevailing models of small, economic finger movements that are favored in the didactic literature for woodwind players and question traditional recommendations for teaching the learning of motor skills. PMID:24767961

Albrecht, Stefan; Janssen, Daniel; Quarz, Esther; Newell, Karl M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

2014-06-01

47

Exploring Variation in Paleoindian Life Ways: The Third Revised Edition of the Texas Clovis Fluted Point Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 20 years have passed since the Texas Clovis Fluted Point Survey (TCFPS) was initiated. The database has now grown to 544 points, representing 149 of Texas' 254 counties. The database by now contains a demonstrably representative sample of the known Clovis point record in Texas, and has developed into a productive research tool for addressing questions of Clovis adaptations

Michael R. Bever; David J. Meltzer

48

Management of Types B 2 and B 3 Femoral Periprosthetic Fractures by a Tapered, Fluted, and Distally Fixed Stem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of periprosthetic femoral fractures is difficult and challenging. Nonsurgical and surgical treatment modalities have been described. We reviewed 24 patients (average age, 74 years) with types B2 and B3 fractures (Vancouver classification) managed with a cementless, tapered, fluted, and distally fixed stem using a transfemoral approach. Most fractures occurred after trivial trauma. This technique resulted in average operative

Sanjay Mulay; Tarig Hassan; Stuart Birtwistle; Richard Power

2005-01-01

49

Champagne Flutes and Brandy Snifters: Modelling Protostellar Outflow-Cloud Chemical Interfaces  

E-print Network

A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interface between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled "brandy snifter" shaped outflows over narrower "champagne flute" shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO$^+$. We present results from a chemo-dynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained natu...

Rollins, Richard P; Williams, David A; Redman, Matt P

2014-01-01

50

Flute instability in the tandem mirror with the divertor/dipole regions  

SciTech Connect

The numerical simulation is performed in GAMMA10 A-divertor magnetic configuration, which is a candidate of remodeled device of the GAMMA10 tandem mirror [M. Inutake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985)]. Both divertor and dipole regions are included in the numerical calculation, which is a new point. The electron short circuit effect along x-point, therefore, is not assumed so that it is not used the boundary condition of the electrostatic perturbations being zero at the separatrix on which the magnetic field lines pass through x-point. The simulation results reveal that the dipole field plays a role of a good magnetic field line curvature to the GAMMA10 A-divertor, and so the flute modes are stabilized without help of electron short circuit effects.

Katanuma, I.; Masaki, S.; Sato, S.; Sekiya, K.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2011-11-15

51

Kinetics of ascorbic acid loss during hot water blanching of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The kinetics of thermal degradation of ascorbic acid in fluted pumpkin leaves were investigated from 60 to 90°C (pH 5.0 to 6.5). Ascorbic acid degradation was modeled as a first order rate reaction with the rate constants increasing with increase in pH of the medium. The pH and temperature dependence of the rates of destruction gave highly significant correlations when analyzed by the thermal resistance and activated complex reaction rate methods. Activation energy (Ea) ranged from 41.2 to 18.2 kJ/mol while D-values ranged from 103.3 to 22.4 min. The changes in activation energy affected Ko values which ranged from 5.98?×?10(4) to 41.7 min(-1). PMID:23572770

Ariahu, Charles C; Abashi, Diana K; Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya

2011-08-01

52

Adsorption of transition metals in aqueous solutions by fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f) waste.  

PubMed

The adsorption of some divalent transition metal (Hg, Rh, Pt, and Pd) ions in aqueous solution onto fluted pumpkin waste biomass has been investigated. The data were discussed in terms of ionic radii, surface area, and the hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concept. The monolayer sorption capacities as obtained by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model were determined to be ca. 9.89 mg/g, 9.81 mg/g, 10.59 mg/g, and 6.84 mg/g for for Hg(II), Rh(II), Pt(II), and Pd(II), respectively. The results are relevant for the optimal design of a wastewater treatment plant and for prediction of model parameters of sorbate-sorbent interactions. PMID:17193209

Horsfall, Michael; Spiff, Ayebaemi Ibuteme

2005-09-01

53

Creasing Characteristics of A-Flute Corrugated Fiber Board Using a Rotary Creaser with Respect to Breaking Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on bending-moment characteristics of heightwise\\/vertical crease of a corrugated fiberboard, a scored line of which is in parallel to the inner flute structure, and the effect of mechanical processing conditions on a failure phenomena of liner sheet scored by a rotary creaser. Regarding the dispersion and the variance of folding resistance, the creaser\\/pre-creaser gaps, the deviation of

Shigeru Nagaswa; Tomohiro Takamatsu; Yasushi Fukuzawa; Yusuke Tozuka

2011-01-01

54

Champagne flutes and brandy snifters: modelling protostellar outflow-cloud chemical interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star-forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interfaces between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled `brandy snifter' shaped outflows over narrower `champagne flute' shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO+. We present results from a chemodynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained naturally by the geometry-dependent ion injection rate causing rapid dissociation of CO in the younger systems.

Rollins, R. P.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Redman, M. P.

2014-10-01

55

Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

56

Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

2014-06-01

57

Multiple Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria on Fluted Pumpkin Leaves, a Herb of Therapeutic Value  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

Abdu, Abdulrasheed B.

2014-01-01

58

Hypolipidemic effect of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.  

PubMed

Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) is one of the commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Nigeria. In order to justify its inclusion in herbal preparations in African traditional medicine, the possible hypolipidemic effect of this vegetable was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. The ability of Questran, a hypolipidemic drug, to attenuate hypercholesterolemia was also examined. Rats were fed with either a basal diet containing cholic acid (0.2%) or a supplemented diet with T. occidentalis at the 3% and 6% levels. Oral administration of cholesterol for 9 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < .001) in the relative weight of the heart of cholesterol-fed rats. However, supplemented diets significantly (P < .001) ameliorated the cholesterol-induced enlargement of the heart. Rats fed on supplemented diets had a dose-dependent reduction in plasma and postmitochondrial supernatant fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels. In particular, supplemented diets containing 3% and 6% T. occidentalis decreased plasma and PMF cholesterol levels by 20% and 30% and by 30% and 45%, respectively. A similar decrease in plasma and PMF cholesterol levels was obtained in Questran-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Furthermore, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets significantly (P < .05) decreased the cholesterol-induced increase in plasma and PMF low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 24% and 48% and by 28% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, there was no significant difference (P > .05) in plasma and PMF triglyceride levels of rats fed on supplemented diets when compared with cholesterol-fed rats. There were significant decreases (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation levels in rats fed on the supplemented diets. Specifically, 3% and 6% T. occidentalis-supplemented diets decreased plasma and PMF lipid peroxidation by 24% and 20% and by 42% and 21%, respectively. This study demonstrates that T. occidentalis may be a useful therapy for hypercholesterolemia through reducing oxidative stress and cholesterol levels. PMID:17651070

Adaramoye, O A; Achem, J; Akintayo, O O; Fafunso, M A

2007-06-01

59

Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population--a dispersal model approach.  

PubMed

Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1-68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m(2)). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks. PMID:23555597

Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L A; van Beek, Jan K L; van Maren, Dirk S; Teo, Serena L-M; Todd, Peter A

2013-01-01

60

Monitoring Gaseous CO2 and Ethanol above Champagne Glasses: Flute versus Coupe, and the Role of Temperature  

PubMed Central

In champagne tasting, gaseous CO2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (?GC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles. PMID:22347390

Liger-Belair, Gerard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Herve; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

2012-01-01

61

Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.  

PubMed

In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (?GC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles. PMID:22347390

Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

2012-01-01

62

Preparation and properties of flours and protein concentrates from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds.  

PubMed

In vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition and selected functional properties of flours and protein concentrates prepared from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds were studied. Protein concentrates prepared by an alkaline extraction process had increased crude protein contents (61.5-70.8%) compared to flour samples (46.4-52.7%). The yields of protein concentrates ranged from 24.5% to 29.4% while values for protein recoveries varied between 64.8% and 65.2%. Protein concentrates also had increased foam volume and decreased foam stability (100% decrease over a 2 h period), compared to flour samples. Fermentation and germination were observed to significantly (p < 0.05) lower polyphenol and phytic acid contents, but increased protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin seed flours and concentrates. Both raw flour and concentrate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in water absorption capacity than germinated or fermented flours and concentrates. Protein concentrates had comparatively better fat absorption properties than the flour samples. Hence protein concentrates may prove to have useful applications in ground meat formulations. PMID:10646631

Giami, S Y; Isichei, I

1999-01-01

63

Bone Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

64

Bone Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

65

Whale bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

N/A N/A (Go Card USA;)

2007-12-21

66

Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

67

Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

SciTech Connect

A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

Murphy, R.W.

1983-04-01

68

Changes in nitrogenous and other chemical constituents, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of germinating fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed.  

PubMed

The effect of 7 days of germination on levels of nitrogenous and other nutrition related parameters, protein fractions and in vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) seed was studied. The non-protein nitrogen gradually increased and the protein nitrogen content decreased during germination. Albumin and globulin fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of fluted pumpkin seeds, constituting about 58.6% of the total protein of the ungerminated (raw) seeds. The protein fractions, albumin and glutelin, were observed to increase by 61.5% and 57.0%, respectively, while a 54.6% decrease was noted in the prolamine fraction. The globulin fraction increased at the beginning of germination but decreased at the end. Germination significantly (p< or =0.05) increased the crude protein, nitrogen solubility and in vitro protein digestibility but decreased the fat, phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the seeds. PMID:10540985

Giami, S Y; Chibor, B S; Edebiri, K E; Achinewhu, S C

1999-01-01

69

Bone cement  

PubMed Central

The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc.

Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

2013-01-01

70

Low Bone Density (Osteopenia)  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home » Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

71

Bone Crusher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

72

Living Bones, Strong Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

73

Sorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc on sulfur-containing chemically modified wastes of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.).  

PubMed

We have tested the applicability of regular as well as sulfanylacetic acid (SA) modified fluted pumpkin waste biomass as adsorbents for Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ aqueous solutions by means of the batch-sorption technique. The data revealed that SA modification produces a larger surface area, enhancing the metal-ion binding capacity of the biomass. The sorption process was examined by means of Freundlich and Langmuir models. The kinetic study showed that the sorption rates can be described by a pseudo-second-order process. The rate constants for the control biomass (CB) were 2.2x10(-2), 4.4x10(-2), and 1.6x10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1) for Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively; and the corresponding rate constants for the SA-modified biomass were 4.0x10(-2), 4.7x10(-2), and 1.7x10(-2) mg g(-1) min(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic considerations indicated a spontaneous exothermic process, which implies that physisorption is the main mechanism in the sorption process. PMID:17191986

Horsfall, Michael; Spiff, Ayebaemi I

2005-03-01

74

Bone tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood ...

75

Bone Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

• Overview A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure in which a small sample of a bone is removed from the body and ... is often called a closed or needle bone biopsy , because it involves inserting a needle directly into ...

76

Bone poroelasticity.  

PubMed

Poroelasticity is a well-developed theory for the interaction of fluid and solid phases of a fluid-saturated porous medium. It is widely used in geomechanics and has been applied to bone by many authors in the last 30 years. The purpose of this work is, first, to review the literature related to the application of poroelasticity to the interstitial bone fluid and, second, to describe the specific physical and modeling considerations that establish poroelasticity as an effective and useful model for deformation-driven bone fluid movement in bone tissue. The application of poroelasticity to bone differs from its application to soft tissues in two important ways. First, the deformations of bone are small while those of soft tissues are generally large. Second, the bulk modulus of the mineralized bone matrix is about six times stiffer than that of the fluid in the pores while the bulk moduli of the soft tissue matrix and the pore water are almost the same. Poroelasticity and electrokinetics can be used to explain strain-generated potentials in wet bone. It is noted that strain-generated potentials can be used as an effective tool in the experimental study of local bone fluid flow, and that the knowledge of this technique will contribute to the answers of a number of questions concerning bone mineralization, osteocyte nutrition and the bone mechanosensory system. PMID:10093022

Cowin, S C

1999-03-01

77

Uncemented femoral revision arthroplasty using a modular tapered, fluted titanium stem.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - Due to the relative lack of reports on the medium- to long-term clinical and radiographic results of modular femoral cementless revision, we conducted this study to evaluate the medium- to long-term results of uncemented femoral stem revisions using the modular MRP-TITAN stem with distal diaphyseal fixation in a consecutive patient series. Patients and methods - We retrospectively analyzed 163 femoral stem revisions performed between 1993 and 2001 with a mean follow-up of 10 (5-16) years. Clinical assessment included the Harris hip score (HHS) with reference to comorbidities and femoral defect sizes classified by Charnley and Paprosky. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were analyzed and the failure rate of the MRP stem for any reason was examined. Results - Mean HHS improved up to the last follow-up (37 (SD 24) vs. 79 (SD 19); p < 0.001). 99 cases (61%) had extensive bone defects (Paprosky IIB-III). Radiographic evaluation showed stable stem anchorage in 151 cases (93%) at the last follow-up. 10 implants (6%) failed for various reasons. Neither a breakage of a stem nor loosening of the morse taper junction was recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a 10-year survival probability of 97% (95% CI: 95-100). Interpretation - This is one of the largest medium- to long-term analyses of cementless modular revision stems with distal diaphyseal anchorage. The modular MRP-TITAN was reliable, with a Kaplan-Meier survival probability of 97% at 10 years. PMID:25175667

Wirtz, Dieter C; Gravius, Sascha; Ascherl, Rudolf; Forst, Raimund; Noeth, Ulrich; Maus, Uwe M; Zeiler, Günther; Moritz C, Deml

2014-12-01

78

Bone Lesions and Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... have some degree of bone loss. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

79

Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. PMID:16379574

Oboh, Ganiyu

2005-01-01

80

Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair  

E-print Network

(Bone Cancer) o Paget's Disease o Overuse Damage (Stress Fractures) o Considerations for Bioengineers1 Bone Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair o Degenerative Changes Associated with Aging o TOPICS 1 Bone Fracture and Bone Repair A radiograph of a torsional bone fracture from a skiing accident

Gefen, Amit

81

Bendy Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.

Omsi

2004-01-01

82

Talking Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

2002-01-01

83

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

84

Influence of Non-MHD Flutes on the Efficiency of Energy Transfer from the Laser-Produced, ICF and Space Exploding Plasmas to Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The results of <> experiment with quasispherical Laser-produced Plasma Clouds (LPC) expanding into strong (B{sub 0} {approx}10 kG) and uniform magnetic field at KI-1 facility of ILP are presented. Main characteristics and the influence of non-MHD flute instability onto effectiveness of plasma-field interaction were studied especially for the purpose of plasma confinement and the direct conversion of its kinetic energy into magnetic and electric ones (of pick-up coils). A new model of enhanced field penetration into plasma due to Hall-effect in its flutes and under conditions of finite ion Larmor radius is discussed. The data obtained on the current generation by LPC in short-circuited surrounding coils (with total conversion efficiency up to {approx}10%) are compared with the models of ILP and last results of relevant 3D/PIC calculations done at KU. All these results show the opportunities of LPC-experiments to simulate both space exploding plasmas (AMPTE) and MHD-effects of ICF micro-explosions in planned NIF experiments for study Laser Fusion Rocket like a VISTA.

Zakharov, Yuri P.; Antonov, Vladimir M.; Boyarintsev, Eduard L.; Melekhov, Alexandr V.; Posukh, Vitaliy G.; Shaikhislamov, Ildar F.; Nakashima, Hideki; Vchivkov, Konstantin V

2005-01-15

85

The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

Saktanli, S. Cem

2011-01-01

86

Bone Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

87

Broken bone  

MedlinePLUS

Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture ... as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip ... circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in ...

88

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

89

Bone lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... A special drill needle is usually used. The biopsy needle is pushed and twisted into the bone. ... are applied, and covered with a bandage. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ...

90

Bone biopsy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

91

Bone Graft Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... or during a surgical procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone ... bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous bone grafts for spinal ...

92

What Is Bone?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publication available in: PDF (206 KB) Related Resources Bone Health for Life Bone Density Measurement Bone Density Measurement ( ... Density Measurement) Partner Resources Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means ...

93

What Is Bone Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

Normal bone tissue Bone is the supporting framework of your body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of ... tissues can develop into a cancer. Types of bone tumors Most of the time when someone with ...

94

Bone marrow culture  

MedlinePLUS

... of your pelvic bone or front of your breast bone. This is done with a small needle inserted into your bone. The process is called a bone marrow aspiration or a biopsy. The tissue sample is sent to a lab. ...

95

Bone remodelling in osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone remodelling, a highly regulated succession of events, is the temporal sequence of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Bone loss with age and in osteoporotic patients is due to a desequilibrium between both processus. Bone histomorphometry was the method used to measure these events. Its shows clearly that, with age, the quantity of bone formed in one

M. C. de VERNEJOUL

1989-01-01

96

From Bone Biology to Bone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has great potential to enhance our understanding of bone development. The usefulness of densitometry in children and adolescents would be increased

E. Schoenau; G. Saggese; F. Peter; G. I. Baroncelli; N. J. Shaw; N. J. Crabtree; Z. Zadik; C. M. Neu; C. Noordam; G. Radetti; Z. Hochberg

2004-01-01

97

Bone image segmentation.  

PubMed

Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible. PMID:10230135

Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

1999-05-01

98

Proximal Tibial Bone Graft  

MedlinePLUS

... the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

99

The fate of beta-carotene in processed leaves of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis hook. f.): a popular vegetable in Nigerian diet.  

PubMed

The effects of blanching, sun-oven-drying and storage conditions on beta-carotene content of the fresh leaves of fluted pumpkin were investigated. The beta-carotene (mg/100 g) of fresh leaves (unblanched) was 98.9 whereas on blanching the value was reduced to 86.3 for steam blanch and 83.8 for water blanch. After dehydration the losses in the beta-carotene were in the ranges of 37.6 to 48.8%, 40.5 to 51.3% and 68.8-72.0% for the steam-, water-blanched and unblanched leaves, respectively. The lower limit loss values were for the oven-dried leaves whereas the upper limit values were obtained from sundried ones. The ambient (30 +/- 2 degrees C) and refrigeration (7 +/- 1 degree C) storage conditions showed some slight changes in beta-carotene contents of the leaves. The losses were in the ranges of 2.0 to 25.7% (refrigeration) and 9.2 to 36.3% (ambient) conditions. Blancing and storage conditions affected the organoleptic characteristics of the leaves. PMID:8837873

Badifu, G I; Akpapunam, M A; Mgbemere, V M

1995-09-01

100

Bone marrow biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

101

Your Bones: Hard Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... blob! So, what are these bones made of? Collagen Calcium phosphate Collagen and calcium work together to make bones strong ... in your blood — weird, huh?) Besides calcium and collagen, bones also contain water, minerals, and cells that ...

102

Dinosaur Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

Science, Lawrence H.

2005-01-01

103

Bone marrow transplant - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

104

INVEST IN YOUR BONES Bone Basics  

E-print Network

support for muscles, protect vital organs, and store the calcium essential for bone density and strength how you use your bank account. You make "deposits" and "withdrawals" of bone tissue. As children grow in the skeleton typically begins to decline slowly, as withdrawals exceed deposits of new bone. Women

105

Bone demineralization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew members of the Gemini 4, Gemini 5, and Gemini 7 missions were compared regarding skeletal changes in three major anatomic sites with respect to changes in skeletal density during space flight. Bone-mass changes have been found for the command pilot and the pilot of each mission in the conventional os calcis section, in the combined sections covering 60 percent of the os calcis, and in hand phalanges 5-2 and 4-2. Comparison of radiographically determined losses in X-ray absorbence with X-ray absorbence losses in healthy young men subjected to bedrest immobilization for the same length of time showed that losses for the crewmembers exceeded losses for the bedrest subjects in all cases; this was an indication that restriction of body movement did not represent the only factor involved.

Mack, P. B.; Vose, G. P.; Vogt, F. B.; Lachance, P. A.

1971-01-01

106

Bone Marrow Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

107

Bone Marrow Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... help with blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

108

[Bone and androgens].  

PubMed

Sexual steroids are major determinants of skeletal maturation and steady state. Estrogens are mandatory in both sexes. They induce endochondral bone formation and growth plate knitting. Androgens are mainly active in male. They increase length and radial bone growth. These differences explain the duality of biomechanics in both sexes. Deep androgen deficiency induces rapid bone loss and increases bone fracture risk. The androgen treatment of andropause has weak rationale. Androgens interact with bone metabolism within the medulla-bone unit. They activate the whole osteoblastic lineage and interact with preosteoclastic regulation. Androgens found their place in bone metabolism regulation through RANK/osteoprotegerin and Wnt/sclerostin pathways. PMID:24332181

Weryha, Georges; Angelousi, Anna; Diehdiou, Demba; Cuny, Thomas

2014-02-01

109

Basic bone radiology  

SciTech Connect

This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

Griffiths, H.J.

1987-01-01

110

Anorexia nervosa and bone.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

2014-06-01

111

Bisphosphonates and bone quality.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are bone-avid compounds used as first-line medications for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. They are also used in other skeletal pathologies such as Paget's and metastatic bone disease. They effectively reduce osteoclast viability and also activity in the resorptive phase of bone remodelling and help preserve bone micro-architecture, both major determinants of bone strength and ultimately of the susceptibility to fractures. The chemically distinctive structure of each BP used in the clinic determines their unique affinity, distribution/penetration throughout the bone and their individual effects on bone geometry, micro-architecture and composition or what we call 'bone quality'. BPs have no clinically significant anabolic effects. This review will touch upon some of the components of bone quality that could be affected by the administration of BPs. PMID:24876930

Pazianas, Michael; van der Geest, Stefan; Miller, Paul

2014-01-01

112

Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long

2000-01-01

113

Bone Builders: The Science of Grafts, Biomaterials and Bone Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Every year, more than 800,000 people in the United States receive bone biomaterials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Bone is the most commonly transplanted tissue after blood transfusions. Unlike most tissues, bone is able to regenerate and reform without scarring, given the proper conditions and materials. Researchers and scientists have learned to exploit this property over many centuries to create modern day bone grafts and bone biomaterials used as substitutes for bone grafts.

Steven Stocker (x)

2009-07-22

114

[Bone metabolic markers for evaluation of bone metastases].  

PubMed

Bone metabolic markers consist of bone formation markers, which are secreted from osteoblasts (BAP, OC, P1CP, P1NP) , and bone resorption markers, which are metabolites of bone type 1 collagen or secreted from osteoclasts (PYD, DPD, NTX, CTX, 1CTP, TRACP) . Those bone metabolic markers are useful for : (1) diagnosis of bone metastases, (2) follow-up during treatment of bone metastases, and (3)predicting prognosis of bone metastases. PMID:23445893

Takahashi, Shunji

2013-03-01

115

How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic How is bone cancer staged? How is bone cancer diagnosed? A patient’s symptoms, physical exam, and ... and other imaging tests. Imaging tests to detect bone cancer X-rays Most bone cancers show up ...

116

Smoking and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (217 ... Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Partner Resources Smoking: It’s Never Too Late to Stop (NIA)

117

Adenosine and Bone Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bone is a dynamic organ that undergoes continuous remodeling whilst maintaining a balance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts, which synthesize and mineralize new bone, and osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone, act in concert to maintain bone homeostasis. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of purinergic regulation of bone metabolism. Adenosine, released locally, mediates its physiologic and pharmacologic actions via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors and recent work has indicated that these receptors are involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, adenosine receptors also regulate chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis. These recent findings underscore the potential therapeutic importance of adenosine receptors in regulating bone physiology and pathology. PMID:23499155

Mediero, Aranzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N.

2013-01-01

118

Broken Bones (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... will remove the pin. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ... doctor says it's OK. Back Continue Preventing Broken Bones Although fractures are a common part of childhood, ...

119

Autoinflammatory bone disorders.  

PubMed

Autoinflammatory bone disorders are characterized by chronic non-infectious osteomyelitis and inflammation-induced bone resorption and result from aberrant activation of the innate immune system. Sporadic chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is the most common disease subtype. The clinical picture is highly variable and the exact underlying pathophysiology remains to be determined. Recently, novel insights in the pathophysiology of sterile bone inflammation have been gathered by analyzing patients with rare, monogenic inflammatory diseases. In this overview CNO and Majeed syndrome, cherubism, hypophosphatasia and primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy will be discussed. For the latter four disorders, a genetic cause affecting bone metabolism and leading to chronic bone inflammation has been described. The exact pathophysiology of CNO remains to be determined. Insights from monogenic autoinflammatory bone diseases and the identification of distinct inflammatory pathways may help to understand the pathogenesis of bone inflammation and inflammation-induced bone resorption in more common diseases. PMID:23369460

Morbach, Henner; Hedrich, Christian M; Beer, Meinrad; Girschick, Hermann J

2013-06-01

120

What's a Funny Bone?  

MedlinePLUS

... Page The Pink Locker Society What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

121

Bone strength and its determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a disease defined by decreased bone mass and alteration of microarchitecture which results in increased bone fragility and increased risk of fracture. The major complication of osteoporosis, i.e., fracture, is due to a lower bone strength. Thus, any treatment of osteoporosis implies an improvement in bone strength. Bone strength is determined by bone geometry, cortical thickness and porosity,

P. Ammann; R. Rizzoli

2003-01-01

122

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Gerhard D. (Velarde, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

123

Bone modeling and remodeling.  

PubMed

Bone modeling adapts structure to loading by changing bone size and shape and removes damage and so maintains bone strength. Remodeling is initiated by damage producing osteocyte apoptosis, which signals the location of damage via the osteocyte-canalicular system to endosteal lining cells that form the canopy of a bone remodeling compartment (BRC). Molecular signalling within the BRC between precursors, mature cells, cells of the immune system, and products of the resorbed matrix titrate the birth, work, and lifespan of this remodeling machinery to either remove or form a net volume of bone. Advancing age is associated with a reduction in the volume of bone resorbed by each basic multicellular unit (BMU), an even greater reduction in the volume of bone formed by each BMU producing a net negative BMU balance, and an increased remodeling rate in midlife in women and late in life in both sexes so that now many remodeling events erode bone while an age-related decline in periosteal apposition results in net bone loss and bone fragility. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for structural decay is likely to reveal new approaches to the prevention and reversal of bone fragility. PMID:19883366

Seeman, Ego

2009-01-01

124

Organogenesis of the exocrine gland Jiahu Wang and Gordon W. Laurie*  

E-print Network

with each pregnancy (Bissell and Barcellos-Hoff, 1987; Hennighausen and Robinson, 1998). Timed exchange transcription (Lee and Streuli, 1999). Factors presumed to be morphogenic from cell culture studies have been

125

Bone injuries during delivery.  

PubMed

Bone injuries during the process of delivery were studied among 34, 946 live born babies over a 11 period. There were 35 cases of bone injuries giving an incidence of 1 per 1,000 live births. Clavicle was the commonest bone fractured (45.7%) followed by humerus (20%), femur (14.3%) and depressed skull fracture (11.4%) in the order of frequency. There was one case each of orbital fracture, epiphyseal separation of lower end of femur and dislocation of elbow joint. Lack of antenatal care, malpresentation often leading to obstructed labour and operative deliveries were found to be risk factors for bone injuries. Meconium stained liquor and birth asphyxia were more commonly associated with bone injuries than control cases. Cases with injuries had longer hospital stay and higher mortality. Improving the health infrastructure at the peripheral level with early identification of high risk mothers and their appropriate management can bring down the incidence of bone injuries. PMID:8002070

Bhat, B V; Kumar, A; Oumachigui, A

1994-01-01

126

Bone Biology for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bone Biology for Kids was created by University of Washington professor Dr. Susan Ott as an educational website for 4th - 8th grade students and as a resource for science and biology teachers. The main sections of the site include All About Bones, Bone Diseases, and How to Build Your Bone Strength. The site also offers an interactive Index & Definitions section, a Bone-quiz Yahtzee game, and a question / answer page. The TeacherâÂÂs Corner section currently contains two supplementary worksheets, and may offer more educational resources in the future. Some of the siteâÂÂs sections are still in progress, but overall the website contains great images and a good amount of information to explore. The site also links to high school and college curriculum from the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

127

Nanocomposites and bone regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

2011-12-01

128

Better Bone Implants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research, and describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone."

Phillips, Tony.; Price, Steve.

2002-01-01

129

Scattering by Trabecular Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews models for scattering of ultrasound by cancellous bone, methods for measuring scattering, and empirical\\u000a results. Theory and measurements are presented for the dependence of backscatter on frequency and mean trabecular thickness.\\u000a Additional topics discussed include the inverse problem (that is, estimating cancellous bone properties based on scattering\\u000a measurements), the extent of multiple scattering in cancellous bone, and

Frédéric Padilla; Keith Wear

130

Biology of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is an exquisitely sophisticated organ\\/tissue in mammals. Bone is generally viewed as the main component of the skeleton,\\u000a providing mechanical and structural support to the rest of the organs and systems. This function is indispensable for life,\\u000a both during the growth and development period as well as during adult life. However, bone also provides the unique architecture\\u000a and microenvironment

Paul C. Schiller; Gianluca D'Ippolito; Guy A. Howard

131

Bone markers in osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current biological markers of bone turnover have proven useful in improving fracture risk assessment and monitoring treatment\\u000a efficacy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recent developments in the field of bone markers include 1) identification of new\\u000a biochemical markers providing additional information on the complex pathways leading to bone fragility; 2) application of\\u000a novel technologies such as proteomics for the discovery of novel

Patrick Garnero

2009-01-01

132

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

133

Method for fusing bone  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

1996-03-12

134

Bone Quality in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is associated with increased risk of fracture, although type 2 diabetes is characterized by normal bone mineral density (BMD). The fracture risk of type 1 diabetes increases beyond an explained by a decrease of BMD. Thus, diabetes may be associated with a reduction of bone strength that is not reflected in the measurement of BMD. Based on the present definition, both bone density and quality, which encompass the structural and material properties of bone, are important factors in the determination of bone strength. Diabetes reduces bone quality rather than BMD. Collagen cross-linking plays an important role in bone strength. Collagen cross-links can be divided into lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase-mediated enzymatic immature divalent cross-links, mature trivalent cross-links, and glycation- or oxidation-induced non-enzymatic cross-links (Advanced Glycation End-products: AGEs) such as pentosidine. These types of cross-links differ in the mechanism of formation and in function. Not only hyperglycemia, but also oxidative stress induces the reduction in enzymatic beneficial cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous AGEs in bone. In this review, we describe the mechanism of low bone quality in diabetes. PMID:23785354

Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

2013-01-01

135

Dinosaur Flesh and Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore dinosaur skeletons. First, learners listen to "Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones" by Byron Barton to learn about the difference between pictures of dinosaurs that have skin and muscle (fleshed-out) and those that show skeletons. Then, learners match pictures of dinosaurs to pictures of the dinosaurs' skeletons. Learners can also explore other animal bones and skeletons online and/or reassemble paper dinosaur skeletons. This activity can also be used to help learners explore scale as they realize that large dinosaurs had large skeletons and small dinosaurs had small skeletons. This activity is featured on page 37 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Crosslin, Rick; Fortney, Mary; Indianapolis, The C.

2004-01-01

136

Autoinflammatory bone diseases.  

PubMed

Autoinflammatory bone disease is a new branch of autoinflammatory diseases caused by seemingly unprovoked activation of the innate immune system leading to an osseous inflammatory process. The inflammatory bone lesions in these disorders are characterized by chronic inflammation that is typically culture negative with no demonstrable organism on histopathology. The most common autoinflammatory bone diseases in childhood include chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome, Majeed syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and cherubism. In this article, the authors focus on CNO and summarize the distinct genetic autoinflammatory bone syndromes. PMID:24182852

Stern, Sara M; Ferguson, Polly J

2013-11-01

137

Menopause and Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent and treat bone loss. Successful treatment of osteoporosis, however, usually involves a combination of dietary supplements, lifestyle changes, and medication. • Calcium. all women beginning at ...

138

Determination of opiates in postmortem bone and bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone and bone marrow of a fatally poisoned heroin addict were analyzed by FPIA and GC-FID, immediately after death. A piece of the bone from the above case was buried for 1 year and analyzed by the same procedure. Morphine was detected in all specimens at concentrations of 195, 340 and 155ng\\/g for bone marrow, bone and buried bone, respectively.

N. Raikos; H. Tsoukali; S. N. Njau

2001-01-01

139

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Diagnostic Tests > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

140

Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

141

Check Up On Your Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... Check Up On Your Bones is an interactive bone health checkup for people of all ages. The goal ... to give you detailed, personalized information about your bone health. The information you provide on this Web site ...

142

Spatial modeling of bone microarchitecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop and evaluate a novel 3D computational bone framework, which is capable of enabling quantitative assessment of bone micro-architecture, bone mineral density and fracture risks. Our model for bone mineral is developed and its parameters are estimated from imaging data obtained with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and x-ray imaging methods. Using these parameters, we propose a proper 3D microstructure bone model. The research starts by developing a spatio-temporal 3D microstructure bone model using Voronoi tessellation. Then, we simulate and analyze the architecture of human normal bone network and osteoporotic bone network with edge pruning process in an appropriate ratio. Finally, we design several measurements to analyze Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and bone strength based on our model. The validation results clearly demonstrate our 3D Microstructure Bone Model is robust to reflect the properties of bone in the real world.

Li, Hui; Li, Kang; Kim, Taehyong; Zhang, Aidong; Ramanathan, Murali

2012-03-01

143

Children's Bone Health and Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on ... media links Share this: Page Content What is bone health and how do you build strong bones? ...

144

Breast Cancer and Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Share: Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

145

Bone Anatomy, Physiology and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastases depend on reciprocal interactions between malignant cells and bones that will determine the homing and growth\\u000a of malignant cells in the bone microenvironment. Additionally, the final step of bone metastasis (bone destruction or production)\\u000a that determines the clinical phenotype of the metastatic foci (osteolytic or osteoblastic metastasis, respectively) is actually\\u000a mediated by the bone cells under the influence

Vassiliki Tzelepi; Athanassios C. Tsamandas; Vassiliki Zolota; Chrisoula D. Scopa

146

Cytokine regulation of bone destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone is a dynamic tissue, composed of cells, collagenous matrix and inorganic elements. Per year, it has been estimated that\\u000a 10% of the total bone mass in humans is being remodeled [1]. The growth, development and maintenance of bone is a highly regulated process [2]. Morphogenesis and remodeling of bone involve coordinate regulation of bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) and bone-resorbing\\u000a cells

Erik Lubberts; Wim B. van den Berg

147

Cancer Therapies and Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer patients are at risk for adverse events involving bone. Metastasis of cancer to bone and primary bone tumors can compromise\\u000a the integrity of bone. Various cancer therapies cause long-term skeletal disorders, particularly bone loss, osteomalacia,\\u000a and avascular necrosis. Cancer therapies that include chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, hormonal agents, and newer targeted therapies\\u000a can affect bone in several ways. With the improved

Mimi I. Hu; Huifang Lu; Robert F. Gagel

2010-01-01

148

Automated trabecular bone histomorphometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The toxicity of alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides and the relationship between bone tumor incidence and the local dosimetry of radionuclides in bone are investigated. The microdistributions of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the trabecular bone from the proximal humerus, distal humerus, proximal ulna, proximal femur, and distal femur of six young adult beagles injected with Am-241 (three with 2.8 micro-Ci/kg and three with 0.9 micro-Ci/kg) are estimated using a computer-controlled microscope photometer system; the components of the University of Utah Optical Track Scanner are described. The morphometric parameters for the beagles are calculated and analyzed. It is observed that the beagles injected with 0.9 micro-Ci of Am-241/kg showed an increase in the percentage of bone and trabecular bone thickness, and a reduction in the width of the bone marrow space and surface/volume ratio. The data reveal that radiation damage causes abnormal bone structure.

Polig, E.; Jee, W. S. S.

1985-01-01

149

Depression and Bone Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are data to suggest low bone mineral density is disproportionately prevalent among those with psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review the current evidence on the relationship between depression and bone mineral density, and identify potential mechanisms. Methods: Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and Web of Science (ISI) databases from the first relevant publication in 1994

Lana J. Williams; Julie A. Pasco; Felice N. Jacka; Margaret J. Henry; Seetal Dodd; Michael Berk

2009-01-01

150

Mouse bone collagenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of mouse bone collagenase recovered in the tissue culture medium of bone culturedin vitro was increased by the addition of heparin at an optimal concentration of approximately 50 units\\/ml of tissue culture medium. Dextran sulfate and Treburon (a synthetic polysaccharide-sulfuric ester) which are structurally and chemically related to heparin were as effective as heparin in increasing the amount

Seizaburo Sakamoto; Paul Goldhaber; Melvin J. Glimcher

1973-01-01

151

BONES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES.""BONES" HAS BEEN TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE AND REQUIRES FROM 10 TO 25 LESSONS, DEPENDING ON THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES USED. THE GUIDE DOES NOT PROVIDE DETAILED INSTRUCTION FOR CONDUCTING CLASSES, BUT RATHER SOME POSSIBLE ACTIVITIES, AND LEAVES THE DAY-TO-DAY…

Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

152

Fracture of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture of bone is investigated by measuring the energy required to propagate a crack and by observing, microscopically, the mechanism of fracture. At low strain rates bone displays very high resistance to crack propagation comparable even to some metallic materials. The type of fracture is similar to fiber-reinforced composite materials.

K. Piekarski

1970-01-01

153

Benign bone tumors.  

PubMed

Benign bone lesions are a broad category that demonstrates a spectrum of activities from latent to aggressive. Differentiating the various tumors is important in order to properly determine necessary intervention. This chapter focuses on the presentation, imaging, diagnostic features, and treatment of the most common benign bone tumors in order to help guide diagnosis and management. PMID:25070230

Steffner, Robert

2014-01-01

154

Repairing Broken Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

155

Best Bones Forever  

MedlinePLUS

... well they represented BBF! , moved all the bones in their body, and their creativity and teamwork. Like Us Best Bones Forever! now has a Facebook page just for you!! Like us on Facebook today! Atlanta Writing ... GA! Prev 1 2 3 4 5 ...

156

Engineering tubular bone constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-sheet techniques have been proven effective in various soft tissue engineering applications. In this experiment, we investigated the feasibility of bone tissue engineering using a hybrid of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets and PLGA meshes. Porcine MSCs were cultured to a thin layer of cell sheets via osteogenic induction. Tube-like long bones were constructed by wrapping the cell sheet on

Fulin Chen; Yefang Zhou; Saey Tuan Barnabas; Maria Ann Woodruff; Dietmar W. Hutmacher

2007-01-01

157

Histomorphometry of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the histomorphometry of bone outlines methods of biopsy and processing of specimens in the laboratory, the basic principles of morphometry, and the measurements made in order to obtain estimates of the proportional volumes and surfaces occupied by different components of bone. Variability such as that between methods, observers and laboratories is discussed and a brief outline of

P A Revell

1983-01-01

158

Ultrasonic bone densitometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

Hoop, J. M. (inventor)

1974-01-01

159

Synthetic bone graft substitutes.  

PubMed

Replacement of extensive local bone loss is a significant clinical challenge. There are a variety of techniques available to the surgeon to manage this problem, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. It is well known that there is morbidity associated with harvesting of autogenous bone graft and limitations in the quantity of bone available. Alternatively allografts have been reported to have a significant incidence of postoperative infection and fracture as well as the potential risk of disease transmission. During the past 30 years a variety of synthetic bone graft substitutes has been developed with the aim to minimize these complications. The benefits of synthetic grafts include availability, sterility and reduced morbidity. The present article examines the relevance of synthetic bone graft substitutes, their mechanical properties and clinical application. PMID:11409021

Moore, W R; Graves, S E; Bain, G I

2001-06-01

160

Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology  

PubMed Central

This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understanding of the bone remodeling process is critical to appreciation of the value of and interpretation of the results of iliac crest bone histomorphometry. Osteoclast recruitment, activation, and bone resorption is discussed in some detail, followed by a review of osteoblast recruitment and the process of new bone formation. Next, the collagenous and noncollagenous protein components and function of bone extracellular matrix are summarized, followed by a description of the process of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix. The actions of biomechanical forces on bone are sensed by the osteocyte syncytium within bone via the canalicular network and intercellular gap junctions. Finally, concepts regarding bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast function, extracellular matrix, matrix mineralization, and osteocyte function are synthesized in a summary of the currently understood functional determinants of bone strength. This information lays the groundwork for understanding the utility and clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. PMID:18988698

Clarke, Bart

2008-01-01

161

SILICON AND BONE HEALTH  

PubMed Central

Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

2009-01-01

162

Exercise, bone and nutrition.  

PubMed

Predisposition to poor skeletal health resulting in osteoporotic fracture is a major public health problem, the future economical impact of which is likely to be phenomenal. Two mechanisms principally determine adult bone health: (1) maximum attainment of peak bone mass (PBM); (2) the rate of bone loss with advancing age. Both aspects are regulated by a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors, and although genetic influences are believed to account for up to 75% of the variation in bone mass, there is still room for modifiable factors to play a vital role. Weight-bearing physical activity is beneficial to the skeleton, but clarification of the exact type, intensity and duration required for optimum bone mass is needed. Excessive levels of exercise, which result in amenorrhoea, are detrimental to skeletal health. The importance of Ca to bone remains controversial. There is evidence that Ca is effective in reducing late post-menopausal bone loss, but more research is required on the long-term benefit of increased Ca intake on PBM attainment. Vitamin D 'insufficiency' appears to be widespread amongst population groups and is an area of considerable public health concern. The role of other micronutrients on bone metabolism remains to be fully quantified, but data from a combination of experimental, clinical and observational studies suggest a positive link between alkaline-forming foods and indices of bone health. The influence of nutrient-gene interactions on the skeleton requires further elucidation, but it may be useful in the future to target nutrition advice at those individuals who are genetically susceptible to osteoporosis. PMID:11681642

New, S A

2001-05-01

163

Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone  

PubMed Central

Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone’s desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X.

2014-01-01

164

Bone hydatid disease  

PubMed Central

Bone hydatid disease lacks a typical clinical appearance and image characteristics on x ray or CT are similar to those of tuberculosis, metastases and giant cell tumour or bone cysts. However, MRI does show distinctive diagnostic features of bone hydatid disease, especially in the spine. Until recently, treatment of osseous hydatid disease has been entirely surgical. Effective chemotherapy using benzimidazoles, particularly mebendazole, albendazole and combination treatments, has now been achieved in experimental studies and clinical practice. However, most of these drugs are still in the experimental stage or are in the early stages of clinical use. PMID:17675547

Song, X H; Ding, L W

2007-01-01

165

American Society for Bone and Mineral Research: Bone Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the Education Committee of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), this Bone Curriculum website "is intended for use by students from high school to medical school." The website features sections on Bone Cells, Exercise and Nutrition, Hormones that Effect Bone, Collagen and Bone Matrix, and more. The brief text sections are interspersed with great images, diagrams, slide shows, and animations. The site also contains links for related websites, textbooks, and journals.

166

Biomechanics of Bone: Determinants of Skeletal Fragility and Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Bone fragility can be defined by biomechanical parameters, including ultimate force (a measure of strength), ultimate displacement\\u000a (reciprocal of brittleness) and work to failure (energy absorption). Bone fragility is influenced by bone size, shape, architecture\\u000a and tissue ‘quality’. Many osteoporosis treatments build bone mass but also change tissue quality. Antiresorptive therapies,\\u000a such as bisphosphonates, substantially reduce bone turnover, impairing

C. H. Turner

2002-01-01

167

Bone lead in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone lead in dialysis patients. We measured lead and calcium in multiple bone biopsies from 11 cadavers without known excessive past exposure to lead. Paired iliac crest, transiliac and tibial bone biopsies from these cadavers indicated that in bone biopsy specimens the lead\\/calcium ratio is more reproducible than the absolute lead concentration. There were no significant differences between the lead\\/calcium

Frank L Van de Vyver; Patrick C D'Haese; Walter J Visser; Monique M Elseviers; Lutgarde J Knippenberg; Ludwig V Lamberts; Richard P Wedeen; Marc E De Broe

1988-01-01

168

Bone Grafts in Craniofacial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of cranial and maxillofacial defects is a challenging task. The standard reconstruction method has been bone grafting. In this review, we shall describe the biological principles of bone graft healing, as pertinent to craniofacial reconstruction. Different types and sources of bone grafts will be discussed, as well as new methods of bone defect reconstruction. PMID:22110806

Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Genecov, David G.

2009-01-01

169

Bone Biopsy: Indications and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of metabolic bone disorders, obtaining biopsies of iliac bone can be useful for establishing a diagnosis in an individual patient or for investigating pathomechanisms when a series of samples is examined. Although bone specimens are usually decalcified for routine pathology to facilitate sample processing, when investigating metabolic bone disorders it is usually much more informative to analyse

Frank Rauch

2009-01-01

170

Bone pain or tenderness  

MedlinePLUS

... cause of the pain, your doctor may prescribe: Antibiotics Anti-inflammatory medicines Hormones Laxatives (if you develop constipation during prolonged bed rest) Pain relievers If pain is related to thinning bones, you may need treatment for osteoporosis .

171

Immunoregulation of bone remodelling  

PubMed Central

Remodeling, a continuous physiological process maintains the strength of the bones, which maintains a delicate balance between bone formation and resorption process. This review gives an insight to the complex interaction and correlation between the bone remodeling and the corresponding changes in host immunological environment and also summarises the most recent developments occuring in the understanding of this complex field. T cells, both directly and indirectly increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL); a vital step in the activation of osteoclasts, thus positively regulates the osteoclastogenesis. Though various cytokines, chemikines, transcription factors and co-stimulatory molecules are shared by both skeletal and immune systems, but researches are being conducted to establish and analyse their role and / or control on this complex but vital process. The understanding of this part of research may open new horizons in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, resulting into bone loss and that of osteoporosis also. PMID:22837895

Singh, Ajai; Mehdi, Abbass A; Srivastava, Rajeshwer N; Verma, Nar Singh

2012-01-01

172

Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Osteochondroma An osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops during ... the growth plates harden into solid bone. An osteochondroma is an outgrowth of the growth plate and ...

173

[Allergy towards bone cement].  

PubMed

Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate are typically used for fixation of artificial joints. Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses not explained by infection or mechanical failure may lead to allergological diagnostics, which mostly focuses on metal allergy. However, also bone cement components may provoke hypersensitivity reactions leading to eczema, implant loosening, or fistula formation. Elicitors of such reactions encompass acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, or antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). Upon repeated contact with bone cement components, e.g., acrylate monomers, also in medical personnel occasionally hand eczema or even asthma may develop. Therefore, in the case of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty, the allergological diagnostics should include bone cement components. PMID:16865384

Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Summer, B; Mazoochian, F; Thomsen, M

2006-09-01

174

Children with Brittle Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special help given to children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is described, including adapted equipment to allow for writing and use of a classroom assistant to aid participation in a regular classroom. (CL)

Alston, Jean

1982-01-01

175

Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief  

MedlinePLUS

... but men also have this disease. White and Asian women are most likely to have osteoporosis. Other women at great risk include those who: Have a family history of broken bones or osteoporosis Have broken a ...

176

Bone Marrow Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone marrow suppression may occur as a result of a child's disease or treatment of the disease process. Bone marrow suppression\\u000a can result in a decrease in all the areas of hematopoiesis and is one of the most common dose-limiting toxicities of chemotherapy.\\u000a There can be a decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. The

Sandra Doyle

177

Adipokine Effects on Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adipocyte is an important source of factors that act as circulating regulators of bone metabolism. These include estrogens,\\u000a and the adipokines, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and probably others. Leptin acts directly on bone cells, and in some experimental\\u000a models these effects are modified by its actions on the central nervous system, which impact on appetite, body weight, and\\u000a insulin sensitivity.

Ian R. Reid; J. B. Richards

2009-01-01

178

Bones and Cartilages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal anatomy of the bones and cartilages in the SCC region vary considerably and there are numerous normal variants\\u000a that should not be interpreted as signs of disease. Bone age estimation based on the study of the development of the medial\\u000a clavicular epiphysis may be a useful tool in forensic age identification in living individuals, especially if the age

Anne Grethe Jurik

179

Cancer-associated bone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cancer are at risk for many events involving the skeleton, including metastatic disease of bone and treatment-related\\u000a bone loss. Cancer-related therapies that can affect bone include hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and the use of glucocorticoids.\\u000a Screening for bone loss, with lifestyle modifications and the early use of anti-osteoporosis therapies such as bisphosphonates,\\u000a may decrease bone loss and reduce the

Sue A. Brown; Theresa A. Guise

2007-01-01

180

Carpal bone analysis in bone age assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed in our Laboratory based on features extracted from regions of interest (ROI) in phalanges in a digital hand atlas. Due to various factors, including, the diversity of size, shape and orientation of carpal bones, non-uniformity of soft tissue, low contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue, the automatic identification and segmentation

Aifeng Zhang; Arkadiusz Gertych; Sylwia Kurkowska-Pospiech; Brent J. Liu; H. K. Huang

2006-01-01

181

Gene delivery to bone.  

PubMed

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis. PMID:22480730

Evans, C H

2012-09-01

182

GENE DELIVERY TO BONE  

PubMed Central

Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis. PMID:22480730

Evans, C. H.

2012-01-01

183

Vascularized Bone Marrow Transplantation: A New Surgical Approach Using Isolated Femoral Bone\\/Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Orthotopic composite tissue (limb) transplantation in rats is a unique model for vascularized bone marrow transplantation because bone marrow cells and bone marrow stroma are transplanted by microsurgical means, thus creating immediate bone marrow space and engraftment. However, it contains a skin component and other musculoskeletal tissues that complicate issues related to tolerance induction.Materials and methods. To study only

Hidetoshi Suzuki; Narendra Patel; Martha Matthews; Anthony J. DelRossi; Edward J. Doolin; Charles W. Hewitt

2000-01-01

184

Prediction of bone loss using biochemical markers of bone turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The association between baseline levels of eleven bone turnover markers and 5-year rate of bone density change was prospectively\\u000a studied in a population-based sample of 601 75-year-old women. Several bone formation and resorption markers as well as urinary\\u000a osteocalcin were modestly correlated to rate of bone density change.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Prediction of bone loss by bone turnover markers (BTMs) has been investigated

J. Lenora; K. K. Ivaska; K. J. Obrant; P. Gerdhem

2007-01-01

185

Determination of opiates in postmortem bone and bone marrow.  

PubMed

Bone and bone marrow of a fatally poisoned heroin addict were analyzed by FPIA and GC-FID, immediately after death. A piece of the bone from the above case was buried for 1 year and analyzed by the same procedure. Morphine was detected in all specimens at concentrations of 195, 340 and 155 ng/g for bone marrow, bone and buried bone, respectively. A loss of 54.4% of morphine concentration was observed during 1-year burial. Such findings have potential forensic value in cases of skeletonized remains. PMID:11728739

Raikos, N; Tsoukali, H; Njau, S N

2001-12-01

186

Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 1,” “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 2,” “Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Bone,” “Bone and Bones,” “Bone diseases,” “Bone turnover,” “Hemoglobin A Glycosylated,” and “HbA1C.” After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link. PMID:23482417

Starup-Linde, Jakob

2012-01-01

187

Aging mechanisms in bone  

PubMed Central

Advancing age and loss of bone mass and strength are closely linked. Elevated osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoblast number characterize the age-related skeletal changes in humans and rodents. Similar to other tissues, oxidative stress increases in bone with age. This article reviews current knowledge on the effects of the aging process on bone and its cellular constituents, with particular emphasis on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FoxOs, sirtuins and the p53/p66shc signaling cascade alter osteoblast number and bone formation via ROS-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Specifically, activation of the p53/p66shc signaling increases osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis in the aged skeleton and decreases bone mass. FoxO activation in osteoblasts prevents oxidative stress to preserve skeletal homeostasis. However, while defending against stress FoxOs bind to ?-catenin and attenuate Wnt/T-cell cell factor transcriptional activity and osteoblast generation. Thus, pathways that impact longevity and several diseases of ageing might also contribute to age-related osteoporosis. PMID:23705067

Almeida, Maria

2012-01-01

188

Statins, bone metabolism and treatment of bone catabolic diseases.  

PubMed

The discovery that statins had bone anabolic properties initiated many investigations into their use for treatment of bone catabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis. This paper reviews the molecular basis of statin's role in bone metabolism, and animal and human studies on the impact of systemic statins on osteoporosis-induced bone fracture incidence and healing, and on bone density. Limitations of systemic statins are described along with alternative dosing strategies, including local applications and bone-targeting systemic preparations. The principal findings of this review are: (1) traditional oral dosing with statins results in minimal efficacy in the treatment of osteoporosis; (2) local applications of statins show promise in the treatment of accessible bony defects, such as periodontitis; and (3) systemically administered statins which can target bone or inflammation near bone may be the safest and most effective strategy in the treatment of osseous deficiencies. PMID:24407282

Zhang, Yijia; Bradley, Aaron D; Wang, Dong; Reinhardt, Richard A

2014-10-01

189

Rosiglitazone Induces Decreases in Bone Mass and Strength that Are Reminiscent of Aged Bone  

E-print Network

Rosiglitazone Induces Decreases in Bone Mass and Strength that Are Reminiscent of Aged Bone Oxana P, rosiglitazone induces changes in bone reminiscent of aged bone and ap- pears to induce bone loss by altering

Abraham, Nader G.

190

Bone and the perimenopause.  

PubMed

Loss of ovarian function has a profound impact on female skeletal health. Bone mineral density findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation demonstrate an accelerated rate of bone loss during the menopausal transition. The greatest reduction occurs in the year before the final menstrual period and the first 2 years thereafter. Clinical management includes maintenance of adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, attention to modifiable risk factors, and osteoporosis screening. Indications, benefits, and risks of pharmacologic osteoporosis therapy should be assessed individually; there are currently no established guidelines addressing the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in perimenopausal women. PMID:21961717

Lo, Joan C; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M; Finkelstein, Joel S

2011-09-01

191

Vascular tumors of bone.  

PubMed

Vascular tumors of the bone represent a variety of neoplasms, ranging from benign hemangiomas and epithelioid hemangiomas to intermediate grade hemangioendotheliomas to frankly malignant angiosarcomas. Over the years, there has been considerable debate concerning the aggressivity, nomenclature, and mere existence of various nosologic entities, due to morphologic similarities and uncertainty regarding biologic behavior. Such debate has led to confusion among pathologists and clinicians, thus diminishing the prognostic implications in the diagnosis of these lesions. Here we review the current knowledge concerning the primary vascular neoplasms of the bone and correlate clinicopathologic features with tumor behavior. PMID:24680180

Hart, Jesse L; Edgar, Mark A; Gardner, Jerad M

2014-01-01

192

[Analysis of alveolar bone].  

PubMed

Several techniques such as intra-oral dental radiographs, dental panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have been used to evaluate the effects of oral diseases such as periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as osteoporosis on quantity and quality of alveolar bone of the jaws. Advanced imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging might also be applied to evaluate them in the future. However, the analysis and evaluation of alveolar bone should be carefully performed in consideration of some limitations included in each technique. PMID:17272876

Taguchi, Akira

2007-02-01

193

Bone Density Challenge Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the challenge question, which revolves around proving that a cabinet x-ray system can produce bone mineral density images. Students work independently to generate ideas from the questions provided, then share with partners and then with the class as part of the Multiple Perspectives phase of this unit. Then, as part of the associated activity, students explore multiple websites to gather information about bone mineral density and answer worksheet questions, followed by a quiz on the material covered in the articles.

Vu Bioenegineering Ret Program

194

Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D  

E-print Network

Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D Leaflet 4 One common misconception is that calcium is only needed for growing children. In reality, both calcium and vitamin D are needed to maintain of calcium from your bones. Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium in the gut, which is necessary

195

Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... SITE › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Share: Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

196

Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... be limited. Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... anesthesia for a bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy? While you will be given a local anesthetic, ...

197

Oral Health and Bone Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...

198

Exercise for Your Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and Immobilization Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Smoking Partner ...

199

Altered bone turnover during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone turnover. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone turnover was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.

Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.

1982-01-01

200

Cutting thin sections of bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical equipment for obtaining repetitive planoparallel sections of bone to study healing of bone structure under high gravity stress is described. Device consists of modified saw with diamond cutting edges. Construction of device and manner of use are explained.

Ashley, W. W.

1972-01-01

201

Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (233 KB) Related Resources Fitness: Overtraining Risks Peak Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis and African American Women ...

202

Pattern Alteration: Protruding Hip Bone  

E-print Network

People with very thin figures typically have to alter their clothing for protruding hip bones. This is because diagonal wrinkles radiate from the hip bones. This well-illustrated publication shows how to correct this problem in pants and skirts....

2006-08-04

203

Vitamin A and Bone Health  

MedlinePLUS

... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (236 KB) Related Resources Calcium and Vitamin D El calcio y la vitamina D (Calcium ...

204

[Bone mineralization and childhood cancer].  

PubMed

The structure, shape, size, growth and mineralization of bones are results of constant bone creation and its' resorption, described as bone turnover. The two first decades of life, when the peak bone mass is gained, seems to be the most important for further skeletal changes. Thus closer examination of such factors as gender, weight, height, bone age, pubertal status, lean body and fat mass, as well as environmental factors at particular age should be conducted. Since there are no clear criteria for small bone mass in the population of children and adolescents, an even more complicated situation for establishing bone status is with the cohort of children with chronic diseases. Childhood cancer and its' treatment are additional negative influences for bone gain and therefore it could contribute to osteopenia and osteoporosis in the adult. PMID:19531839

Muszy?ska-Ros?an, Katarzyna; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna

2008-01-01

205

Reduced bone density in women with fractures: Contribution of low peak bone density and rapid bone loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is regarded as a disease of the elderly because fractures occur late in life. Although excessive bone loss during aging is likely to contribute to the deficit in bone density, patients with fractures do not consistently have more rapid bone loss, greater bone resorption or lower bone formation (measured using biochemical or histomorphometric markers of bone turnover). The pathogenesis

E. Seeman

1994-01-01

206

Fibrous dysplasia of Sphenoid bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrous dysplasia represents a disturbance of normal bone development specifically a defect in osteoblastic differentiation\\u000a and maturation that originates in the mesenchymal precursor of the bone. In fibrous dysplasia, the lesion expands, which leads\\u000a to a distortion and weakening of bone. Although the lesion is not encapsulated, it tends to remain enclosed within a shell\\u000a of cortical bone. This shell

Harjitpal Singh; C. Mohan

2007-01-01

207

Chemical Makeup of Microdamaged Bone Differs from Undamaged Bone  

SciTech Connect

Microdamage naturally occurs in bone tissue as a result of cyclic loading placed on the body from normal daily activities. While it is usually repaired through the bone turnover process, accumulation of microdamage may result in reduced bone quality and increased fracture risk. It is unclear whether certain areas of bone are more susceptible to microdamage than others due to compositional differences. This study examines whether areas of microdamaged bone are chemically different than undamaged areas of bone. Bone samples (L3 vertebrae) were harvested from 15 dogs. Samples were stained with basic fuchsin, embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate, and cut into 5-{micro}m-thick sections. Fuchsin staining was used to identify regions of microdamage, and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging was used to determine the local bone composition. Results showed that microdamaged areas of bone were chemically different than the surrounding undamaged areas. Specifically, the mineral stoichiometry was altered in microdamaged bone, where the carbonate/protein ratio and carbonate/phosphate ratio were significantly lower in areas of microdamage, and the acid phosphate content was higher. No differences were observed in tissue mineralization (phosphate/protein ratio) or crystallinity between the microdamaged and undamaged bone, indicating that the microdamaged regions of bone were not over-mineralized. The collagen cross-linking structure was also significantly different in microdamaged areas of bone, consistent with ruptured cross-links and reduced fracture resistance. All differences in composition had well-defined boundaries in the microcrack region, strongly suggesting that they occurred after microcrack formation. Even so, because microdamage results in an altered bone composition, an accumulation of microdamage might result in a long-term reduction in bone quality.

Ruppel,M.; Burr, D.; Miller, L.

2006-01-01

208

Bone disease in female athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise and physical activity have many health benefits for both females and males. In particular, weight-bearing exercise has a protective effect on the skeleton, and can even be osteogenic (stimulating to bone formation). However, achievement of optimal bone mineral density and regulation of bone maintenance depend upon a combination of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Adequate hormonal status (oestrogen

Connie Lebrun

2006-01-01

209

Bone flap management in neurosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bone flap removal procedure is growing in frequency in neuro- surgical practice. Decompressive craniotomy has gained more scientifical evidences of its therapeutical value in post-traumatic brain swelling, in cerebrovascular diseases and in brain edema non-responding to clinical treatment after elective surgeries. Bone flap destination after craniotomy has many possible fates. We present a literature review of bone flap management

Andrei Fernandes Joaquim; João Paulo Mattos; Feres Chaddad Neto; Armando Lopes; Evandro de Oliveira

210

Bone health in pediatric epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of skeletal mineralization. Peak bone mineral density achieved by the end of adolescence determines the risk for later pathological fractures and osteoporosis. Chronic disease and medication often adversely affect bone health. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions occurring in persons under the age of 21. Epilepsy may affect bone in a

Raj D. Sheth

2004-01-01

211

Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone remodeling in pathologic conditions was studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Benign and malignant ossification were examined in cases of myositis ossificans, ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, and osteosarcoma, Resorption of bone due to invasion by non-ossifying tumors was found in cases of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ameloblastoma, and multiple myeloma. Bone formation due to excessive production of

J. Sela

1977-01-01

212

Space Stations: Bones of Contention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

Byerly, Diane; Institute, Lunar A.

2006-01-01

213

Bone microarchitecture evaluated by histomorphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of densitometric devices for assessing bone fragility has progressively strengthened the assumption that mass is the most important property determining bone mechanical competence. Nevertheless, structure and microarchitecture are relevant aspects of bone strength. The study of microarchitecture is based on the measure of width, number, and separation of trabeculae as well as on their spatial organization. There

L. Dalle Carbonare; M. T. Valenti; F. Bertoldo; M. Zanatta; S. Zenari; G. Realdi; V. Lo Cascio; S. Giannini

2005-01-01

214

Scaffold Design for Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The use of bone grafts is the standard to treat skeletal fractures, or to replace and regenerate lost bone, as demonstrated by the large number of bone graft procedures performed worldwide. The most common of these is the autograft, however, its use can lead to complications such as pain, infection, scarring, blood loss, and donor-site morbidity. The alternative is allografts, but they lack the osteoactive capacity of autografts and carry the risk of carrying infectious agents or immune rejection. Other approaches, such as the bone graft substitutes, have focused on improving the efficacy of bone grafts or other scaffolds by incorporating bone progenitor cells and growth factors to stimulate cells. An ideal bone graft or scaffold should be made of biomaterials that imitate the structure and properties of natural bone ECM, include osteoprogenitor cells and provide all the necessary environmental cues found in natural bone. However, creating living tissue constructs that are structurally, functionally and mechanically comparable to the natural bone has been a challenge so far. This focus of this review is on the evolution of these scaffolds as bone graft substitutes in the process of recreating the bone tissue microenvironment, including biochemical and biophysical cues. PMID:24730250

Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E.

2014-01-01

215

Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9?m. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

2014-03-01

216

Bones Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Bones, Joints, And Articular Cartilage C400–C419 Peripheral Nerves And Autonomic Nervous System C470–C479 Connective, Subcutaneous, And Other Soft Tissues C490–C499 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

217

Are Bones Alive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

2005-01-01

218

Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

1980-11-01

219

Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are associated with bone structure. In an in vitro study on 20 cubes of trabecular bone, we measured broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and two newly defined parameters—ultrasound velocity through bone (UVB) and ultrasound attenuation in bone (UAB). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone structure was assessed

C. C. Gluer; C. Y. Wu; M. Jergas; S. A. Goldstein; H. K. Genant

1994-01-01

220

Transdifferentiation between bone and fat on bone metabolism  

PubMed Central

The transdifferentiation of bone and fat is a new insight in studying the increasingly bone marrow fat in the process of osteoporosis of elderly or menopause crowd which is increasing in prevalence. The loss of bone mass in osteoporosis is multifactorially determined and includes genetic, hormonal and environmental determinants. Although it has long been considered whether the transdifferentiation process does exist in vivo and whether it could be find in the same individual, interaction between skeleton and adipose tissue has been proved pre-clinically and clinically by increasing evidence. Here we focus on the current understanding of the transdifferentiation between bone and fat, the molecular interactions and future clinical implications of recent studies linking the transdifferentiation to bone metabolism diseases. Furthermore, a set of recommendations of bone and fat transdifferentiation on bone metabolism are also presented to facilitate evaluation of this magic process. PMID:24966894

Gao, Bo; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

2014-01-01

221

Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones  

PubMed Central

Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analia M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

2013-01-01

222

Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

2012-01-01

223

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

224

Space flight and bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

Doty, St B.

2004-01-01

225

Endocrine aspects of bone metastases.  

PubMed

Skeletal lesions are a frequent complication of breast and prostate cancer and a hallmark of multiple myeloma. Endocrine and paracrine factors modulate various aspects of bone metastases, including tumour proliferation, skeletal susceptibility to tumour homing, the microenvironment needed to support tumour persistence, and the initiation of a vicious cycle between tumour and bone-resident cells that further promotes tumour growth. Endocrine changes, such as oestrogen or vitamin D deficiency, contribute to a fertile bone microenvironment that might promote bone metastases. Bone health could be impaired further by existing cancer treatments, especially sex hormone deprivation. In this Review, we discuss the effect of hormones and associated local factors on cross-talk between bone metabolism and tumour biology. We review the biology of osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions, with a focus on endocrine aspects, and outline potential therapeutic targets. We also summarise endocrine aspects of the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of bone metastases and provide an update on existing and future treatments. PMID:24880565

Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rachner, Tilman D; Coleman, Robert E; Jakob, Franz

2014-06-01

226

[Bone tissue: Rebuilding and inflammation].  

PubMed

In this review the author summarizes the knowledge related to structural elements of bone tissue. The process of bone reorganisation and knowledge about the special feature of bone metabolism in human are also discussed. It is noted that due to the reorganisation, there is a complete renewal of bone tissue in every 10 years, and this renewal lasts throughout the life. However, there are life periods when osteoclast activity is low, e.g. in childhood and the second decade of life when the gain of bone mass may be as much as 40% of the final bone mass. Overactivity of osteoclasts occurs at age 60 years in men and somewhat earlier in women. Reorganization of bone tissue is an elementary requirement for the physiological functions (locomotion, hemopoiesis, immune functions). The RANK-RANKL-osteoprotegerin axis plays an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Bone mass is dependent on osteocytes; osteoblasts are building up while osteoclasts are reabsorbing bone tissue. In this process transcription factors, hormone-like substances and a large number of cytokines are involved. In addition, the inflammatory process within the bone tissue as well as the defending, reparative inflammation and specific immune response are of great importance in bone reorganisation. This is particularly valid for ?2-macroglobulin and transforming growth factor, although the exact role in bone reorganization has not been fully explored. It can be concluded that the elements, which participate in bone reorganization and in defending inflammatory and specific immunological processes, are essentially identical. Therefore, the existence of an osteo-immunological complex system has been emerged. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(40), 1575-1583. PMID:25261988

Jakab, Lajos

2014-10-01

227

Reversing bone loss by directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration by systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is problematic due to the inability to control the MSCs' commitment, growth, and differentiation into functional osteoblasts on the bone surface. Our research group has developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by conjugating a synthetic peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) that has high affinity for activated ?4?1 integrin on the MSC surface, with a bisphosphonates (alendronate) that has high affinity for bone (LLP2A-Ale), to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that mobilization of LLP2A-Ale to hydroxyapatite accelerated MSC migration that was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase and osteoblastogenesis. LLP2A-Ale increased the homing of the transplanted MSCs to bone as well as the osteoblast surface, significantly increased the rate of bone formation and restored both trabecular and cortical bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency or advanced age in mice. These results support LLP2A-Ale as a novel therapeutic option to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone for the treatment of established bone loss related to hormone deficiency and aging. PMID:23818248

Yao, Wei; Guan, Min; Jia, Junjing; Dai, Weiwei; Lay, Yu-An E; Amugongo, Sarah; Liu, Ruiwu; Olivos, David; Saunders, Mary; Lam, Kit S; Nolta, Jan; Olvera, Diana; Ritchie, Robert O; Lane, Nancy E

2013-09-01

228

Primary Bone Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary bone tumours of the sternocostoclavicular region include a diverse group of lesions of osseous and cartilaginous origin.\\u000a Radiological assessment is an essential component of the management of these tumours. Evaluation usually includes conventional\\u000a chest radiography to detect and localise the lesion, cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) to further characterise and define\\u000a tumour extent, and anatometabolic correlations with FDG PET\\/CT.

Ukihide Tateishi; Umio Yamaguchi; Mototaka Miyake; Tetsuo Maeda; Hirokazu Chuman; Yasuaki Arai

229

Exploring Bone Mineral Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore two given websites to gather information on Bone Mineral Density and how it is measured. They will also learn about X-rays in general, how they work and their different uses, along with other imaging modalities. They will answer guiding questions as they explore the websites and take a short quiz after to test the knowledge they gained while reading the articles.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

230

Percutaneous bone lesion ablation.  

PubMed

Benign tumors and metastatic bone lesions can be treated by ablation techniques performed either alone or in combination with other percutaneous techniques. Ablation techniques include ethanol or acetic acid injection and thermal ablation by means of energy deposition [including laser, radiofrequency, microwave, cryoablation, radiofrequency ionization and magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)]. Goal definition of the therapy is crucial: ablation techniques can be proposed as curative treatments in benign bone tumors or oligometastatic disease (<3 lesions). Alternatively, these techniques can be proposed as palliative treatments aiming at reduction of pain, local control of the disease and tumor decompression. Depending on the lesion's location ablation can be combined with cementation with or without further metallic augmentation; local tumor control can be enhanced by combining ablation with transarterial bland embolization or chemoembolization. Thermal ablation of bone and soft tissues is characterized by high success and relatively low rates of potential complications, mainly iatrogenic thermal damage of surrounding sensitive structures. Successful thermal ablation requires a sufficient ablation volume and thermal protection of the surrounding vulnerable structures. This article will describe the general principles governing ablation and the mechanism of action for each technique and in addition will review the literature about safety and effectiveness of percutaneous imaging-guided ablation for benign and malignant (primary and metastatic) lesions. PMID:24894924

Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Tutton, Sean; Kelekis, Alexis

2014-07-01

231

Bone fragility and imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

Bone fragility is a silent condition that increases bone fracture risk, enhanced by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue that lead to osteoporosis. Fragility fractures are the major clinical manifestation of osteoporosis. A large body of epidemiological data indicates that the current standard for predicting fragility fracture risk is an areal BMD (aBMD) measurement by DXA. Although mineral density measurements assess the quantity of bone, the quality of the tissue is an important predictor of fragility. Thus, bone strength is explained not only by BMD but also by macrostructural and microstructural characteristics of bone tissue. Imaging diagnostics, through the use of X-rays, DXA, Ultrasonography, CT and MR, provides methods for diagnosis and characterization of fractures, and semi- and quantitative methods for assessment of bone consistency and strength, that become precious for bone fragility clinical management if they are integrated by clinical risk factors. The last employment of sophisticated non-invasively imaging techniques in clinical research as high-resolution CT (hrCT), microCT (?-CT), high-resolution MR (hrMR) and, microRM (?RM), combined with finite element analysis methods, open to new challenges in a better bone strength assessment to enhance the comprehension of biomechanical parameters and the prediction of fragility fractures. PMID:22461252

D'Elia, Giovanni; Caracchini, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Loredana; Innocenti, Paolo

2009-01-01

232

Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induces Bone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 mug of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day

Elizabeth A. Wang; Vicki Rosen; Josephine S. D'Alessandro; Marc Bauduy; Paul Cordes; Tomoko Harada; David I. Israel; Rodney M. Hewick; Kelvin M. Kerns; Peter Lapan; Deborah H. Luxenberg; David McQuid; Ioannis K. Moutsatsos; John Nove; John M. Wozney

1990-01-01

233

EXPERIMENTAL BONE MARROW REACTIONS  

PubMed Central

1. The effect produced by intravenous administration of gum shellac solution varied directly with the strength of the solution and the amount injected. (a) Strong solutions were intensely toxic and fatal to all the animals injected. Toxicity was abolished by the presence of carbon particles in the solution. (b) Medium strength solutions produced a marked normoblastosis followed by an erythroblastosis if injections were continued, accompanied either by an initial rise of red blood cells and hemoglobin followed by a decrease or an initial decline followed by an increase. The decrease of erythrocytes and hemoglobin did not amount to an actual anemia, and was usually concomitant with the greatest outpouring of nucleated red cells. (c) Small doses elicited the same kind of response except that the normoblastosis was less marked, the decrease of red cells and hemoglobin minimal or absent, the increase of red blood cells and hemoglobin marked in most instances. (d) Minimal doses elicited no appreciable reaction. 2. The bone marrow in animals killed after a course of injections showed intense erythrocytic hyperplasia. This disappeared after a variable length of time with a return of the bone marrow to apparently normal condition. 3. Toxic effects with non-fatal doses in form of hemorrhages were produced mainly in the bone marrow and occasionally in the kidney under the following conditions. (a) After one injection in an animal with hyperplastic marrow (hemorrhages ih the bone marrow only). (b) After the fourth and fifth dose when administered at long intervals (4 to 19 day intervals). (c) After one injection given 40 days after several successive injections (one animal only). 4. Small and divided doses administered at long intervals produced no apparent ill effect. 5. Subcutaneous administrations did not elicit any marked systemic reactions. Locally there was induration and edema. 6. The conclusion was drawn that gum shellac solution stimulates markedly the production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The mechanism of stimulation is not clear, but it seems unlikely that it is due to destruction of red blood cells in the peripheral blood stream. PMID:19869286

Muller, Gulli Lindh

1927-01-01

234

Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density  

E-print Network

Bone-composition imaging using coherent-scatter computed tomography: Assessing bone health beyond bone mineral density Deidre L. Batchelara and Melanie T. M. Davidson Imaging Research Laboratories analysis of bone composition is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone

Cunningham, Ian

235

Effect of cadmium on bone resorption in cultured fetal bone  

SciTech Connect

Itai-itai disease which occurred in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, was thought to be due, at least partly, to chronic cadmium poisoning. Patients suffered severe pain in the waist, back and joints as well as kyphosis spinal column. In addition, x-ray film of these patients revealed abnormalities in the humerus and ribs. These bone lesions have been considered to be caused secondarily by dysfunction of other tissues, especially that of the kidneys, but there are some reports that the bone lesions appear before the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidneys of Cd-administered rat. It is currently unclear whether bone lesions by Cd are due to the direct action on the bone or indirect action which is caused by dysfunction of the kidney or intestine. To clarify the direct action of Cd on the bone, we studied the effect of Cd on the ossification of chick-embryo cultured bones biochemically and histologically. The results showed that Cd inhibited the bone matrix formation and brought about a malfunction in the ossification process. In the present work the effect of Cd on demineralization was studied using /sup 45/Ca-prelabeled bone in tissue culture and low levels of Cd were found to stimulate /sup 45/Ca from the bone.

Miyahara, T.; Miyakoshi, M.; Kozuka, H.

1980-08-01

236

Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

2003-10-01

237

[Coupling and communication between bone cells].  

PubMed

Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Coupling has been understood as a balanced induction of osteoblastic bone formation in response to osteoclastic bone resorption. An imbalance of this coupling is often linked to various bone diseases. TGF-? and IGF released from bone matrix during osteoclastic bone resorption are the favored candidates as classical coupling factor. Recently, several reports suggest that osteoclast-derived molecules/cytokines (clastokine) mediate directional signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts into the bone microenvironment. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in bone cell communication and coupling is critical for a deeper understanding of the skeletal system in health and disease. PMID:24870836

Nakashima, Tomoki

2014-06-01

238

[An experimental research on different temperature sintered bone as carrier of bone morphogenetic protein].  

PubMed

This study was conducted to find perfect temperature sintered bone as carrier of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). The different temperature active sintered bones, which were made up of calcine bone and bone morphogenetic protein, were implanted into the defects of rabbit radius. Compared with the sintered bone of 600 degrees C, the sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C could induce more pieces of bone formation and be replaced by new bone. There were more pieces of new bone formation in sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1200 degrees C than those in sintered bone of 600 degrees C (P<0.05). There was no difference between the sintered bone of 900 degrees C and 1 200 degrees C (P>0.05). In comparison with the sintered bone of 600 degrees C and 1200 degrees C, the sintered bone of 900 degrees C may be the choicest carrier of bone morphogenetic protein. PMID:16706368

Zang, Hongmin; Liu, Yiheng; Chen, Junchang; Wang, Kunzheng

2006-04-01

239

Stress fractures and bone pain  

SciTech Connect

Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method.

Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

1984-01-01

240

Bone Health in The Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our bones are continuously being remodeled through repeated cycles of destruction and rebuilding. By some estimates, this remodeling process is so extensive that it completely regenerates the adult skeleton every 10 years. Remodeling most likely serves a repair function, especially in bones subjected to mechanical stress. This article introduces a special issue of Science on recent advances in our understanding of the cell and molecular biology of bone remodeling and how these advances are being applied to the development of new therapeutics.

Paula Kiberstis (AAAS;); Orla Smith (AAAS;); Colin Norman (AAAS;)

2000-09-01

241

Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

1982-08-01

242

CD47 regulates bone mass and tumor metastasis to bone.  

PubMed

CD47, also called integrin-associated protein, plays a critical role in the innate immune response and is an atypical member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with and activates beta3 integrins. beta3 integrin(-/-) mice have defective platelet and osteoclast function and are protected from bone metastasis. The role of CD47 in skeletal homeostasis and bone metastasis has not been described. CD47(-/-) mice had increased bone mass and defective osteoclast function in vivo. Although the number of functional osteoclasts formed by differentiating CD47(-/-) bone marrow macrophages was decreased, high doses of RANKL rescued differentiation and function of CD47(-/-) osteoclasts ex vivo and rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47(-/-) mice. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which is expressed at higher levels in CD47(-/-) osteoclasts, also rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47(-/-) cells. We then examined the consequences of this osteoclast defect in bone metastasis. In a model of tumor metastasis to bone, bone tumor burden was decreased in the CD47(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls, with no decrease in s.c. tumor growth in CD47(-/-) mice. There was decreased tumor-associated bone destruction in the CD47(-/-) mice compared with WT controls, consistent with a defect in osteoclast function that was not rescued by the presence of tumor. Our data show that CD47 regulates osteoclastogenesis, in part, via regulation of NO production, and its disruption leads to a decrease in tumor bone metastasis. CD47 is a novel therapeutic target to strengthen bone mass and diminish metastatic tumor growth in bone. PMID:19276363

Uluçkan, Ozge; Becker, Stephanie N; Deng, Hongju; Zou, Wei; Prior, Julie L; Piwnica-Worms, David; Frazier, William A; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

2009-04-01

243

CD47 Regulates Bone Mass and Tumor Metastasis to Bone  

PubMed Central

CD47, also called integrin-associated protein, plays a critical role in the innate immune response and is an atypical member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with and activates ?3 integrins. ?3 integrin?/? mice have defective platelet and osteoclast function and are protected from bone metastasis. The role of CD47 in skeletal homeostasis and bone metastasis has not been described. CD47?/? mice had increased bone mass and defective osteoclast function in vivo. Although the number of functional osteoclasts formed by differentiating CD47?/? bone marrow macrophages was decreased, high doses of RANKL rescued differentiation and function of CD47?/? osteoclasts ex vivo and rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47?/? mice. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which is expressed at higher levels in CD47?/? osteoclasts, also rescued the osteoclast defect in CD47?/? cells. We then examined the consequences of this osteoclast defect in bone metastasis. In a model of tumor metastasis to bone, bone tumor burden was decreased in the CD47?/? mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls, with no decrease in s.c. tumor growth in CD47?/? mice. There was decreased tumor-associated bone destruction in the CD47?/? mice compared with WT controls, consistent with a defect in osteoclast function that was not rescued by the presence of tumor. Our data show that CD47 regulates osteoclastogenesis, in part, via regulation of NO production, and its disruption leads to a decrease in tumor bone metastasis. CD47 is a novel therapeutic target to strengthen bone mass and diminish metastatic tumor growth in bone. PMID:19276363

Uluckan, Ozge; Becker, Stephanie N.; Deng, Hongju; Zou, Wei; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Frazier, William A.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

2009-01-01

244

Bone density in competitive cyclists.  

PubMed

To investigate current theories of the contributing factors to osteopenia/osteoporosis in competitive cyclists, we present a narrative review of published cross-sectional studies investigating plausible etiologies of decreased bone density in competitive cyclists. Aggregate from multiple published studies as cited. Bone mineral density in cyclists appears to be correlated positively to the cumulative amount of bone loading forces experienced over a lifetime. However, decreases in bone mineral density are noted over the short term if bone loading forces are removed, despite previous gains. There also appears to be a negative correlation between bone mineral density and dermal calcium losses during exercise. Data are mixed on whether calcium supplementation improves bone mineral density in this setting. No correlation was found between sex hormones and bone mineral density in the competitive cyclists studied. Knowledge of the underlying contributors to reduced bone mineral density in cyclists can aid in making preventative and therapeutic recommendations that potentially could decrease the morbidity and mortality related to osteoporosis. PMID:21068568

Beatty, Tricia; Webner, David; Collina, Steven J

2010-01-01

245

[Bone targeted therapies: new agents].  

PubMed

The development of bisphosphonates and anti-RANK/RANKL agents was associated with a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes of bone remodeling. New agents are now developed in this context targeting factors associated with osteoclastogenesis (TGF?, PTHrP), with signaling pathways activated during bone remodeling (Src, Cathepsin K) or with tumor cells homing into bone (chemokines). This review aims to present the underlying rationale for these developments as well as the clinical results. The emergence of new bone targeting therapies is discussed. PMID:24158596

Barth, Claire; Massard, Christophe; Vignot, Stéphane

2013-11-01

246

Osteocyte-driven bone remodeling.  

PubMed

Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone, have been long postulated to detect and respond to mechanical and hormonal stimuli and to coordinate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The discovery that the inhibitor of bone formation sclerostin is primarily expressed in osteocytes in bone and downregulated by anabolic stimuli provided a mechanism by which osteocytes influence the activity of osteoblasts. Advances of the last few years provided experimental evidence demonstrating that osteocytes also participate in the recruitment of osteoclasts and the initiation of bone remodeling. Apoptotic osteocytes trigger yet-to-be-identified signals that attract osteoclast precursors to specific areas of bone, which in turn differentiate to mature, bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Osteocytes are also the source of molecules that regulate the generation and activity of osteoclasts, such as OPG and RANKL; and genetic manipulations of the mouse genome leading to loss or gain of function or to altered expression of either molecule in osteocytes markedly affect bone resorption. This review highlights these investigations and discusses how the novel concept of osteocyte-driven bone resorption and formation impacts our understanding of the mechanisms by which current therapies control bone remodeling. PMID:24002178

Bellido, Teresita

2014-01-01

247

Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

248

Dilatational band formation in bone  

PubMed Central

Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

2012-01-01

249

Bones in Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Our bones change throughout our lives, building and increasing in density to our 30's and then decreasing in density thereafter. People who don't get exercise, such as those who must remain in bed for long periods of time, can suffer early osteoporosis. But why don't bears, who hibernate for half a year, experience the same problem?

2009-10-05

250

Bovine bone implant with bovine bone morphogenetic protein in healing a canine ulnar defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenograft is considered an alternative material for bone transplantation, but its bone healing capacity is inferior compared to that of autografts and allografts. Here, we tested whether bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) addition enhances the suitability of demineralized xenogeneic bovine bone for bone grafting in dogs, and whether xenogeneic bone is a suitable carrier material for BMPs. The capacity of demineralized

T. Tuominen; T. Jämsä; J. Tuukkanen; A. Marttinen; T. S. Lindholm; P. Jalovaara

2001-01-01

251

Bone disease in predialysis, hemodialysis, and CAPD patients: Evidence of a better bone response to PTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone disease in predialysis, hemodialysis, and CAPD patients: Evidence of a better bone response to PTH. The spectrum of bone disease in predialysis and dialysis patients has changed during the last decade. The incidence of aplastic bone disease has increased and this can not be attributed to bone aluminum deposition; moreover, low bone cellular activity is present despite a moderate

Armando Torres; Victor Lorenzo; Domingo Hernández; José C Rodríguez; María Teresa Concepción; Aurelío P Rodríguez; Alexis Hernández; Eduardo de Bonis; Ernesto Darias; José M González-Posada; Manuel Losada; Margarita Rufino; Arnold J Felsenfeld; Mariano Rodríguez

1995-01-01

252

Elastic intramedullary nailing and DBM-Bone marrow injection for the treatment of simple bone cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Simple or unicameral bone cysts are common benign fluid-filled lesions usually located at the long bones of children before skeletal maturity. METHODS: We performed demineralized bone matrix and iliac crest bone marrow injection combined with elastic intramedullary nailing for the treatment of simple bone cysts in long bones of 9 children with a mean age of 12.6 years (range,

Anastasios D Kanellopoulos; Andreas F Mavrogenis; Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos; Panayotis N Soucacos

2007-01-01

253

Interrelationship Between Bone and Other Tissues: Brain–Bone Axis and Bone-Adipo Axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It has been widely assumed that bone metabolism is controlled mostly by the local environment and does not affect the metabolism\\u000a of other tissues. In other words, bone was thought to constitute an independent domain from the rest of the body. However,\\u000a the discovery of neuronal control of bone mass by leptin has shed light on a novel pathway that

Shu Takeda

254

Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

2012-02-01

255

Endocortical bone loss in osteoporosis: the role of bone surface availability  

E-print Network

Age-related bone loss and postmenopausal osteoporosis are disorders of bone remodelling, in which less bone is reformed than resorbed. Yet, this dysregulation of bone remodelling does not occur equally in all bone regions. Loss of bone is more pronounced near the endocortex, leading to cortical wall thinning and medullary cavity expansion, a process sometimes referred to as "trabecularisation" or "cancellisation". Cortical wall thinning is of primary concern in osteoporosis due to the strong reduction in bone mechanical properties that it is associated with. In this paper, we examine the possibility that the nonuniformity of microscopic bone surface availability could explain the nonuniformity of bone loss in osteoporosis. We use a simple computational model of bone remodelling, in which microscopic bone surface availability influences bone turnover rate, to simulate the evolution of the bone volume fraction profile across the midshaft of a long bone. We find that bone loss is accelerated near the endocortica...

Buenzli, Pascal R; Clement, John G; Pivonka, Peter

2012-01-01

256

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

2012-04-01

257

Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF (168 KB) Español Chinese (??) Related Resources Bone Health for Life What Is Bone? Partner Resources Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means ...

258

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

2011-04-01

259

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

2013-04-01

260

21 CFR 888.3015 - Bone heterograft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone heterograft. 888.3015 Section 888.3015...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3015 Bone heterograft. (a) Identification. Bone heterograft is a device intended to be...

2011-04-01

261

21 CFR 888.3015 - Bone heterograft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone heterograft. 888.3015 Section 888.3015...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3015 Bone heterograft. (a) Identification. Bone heterograft is a device intended to be...

2013-04-01

262

21 CFR 888.3015 - Bone heterograft.  

...8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone heterograft. 888.3015 Section 888.3015...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3015 Bone heterograft. (a) Identification. Bone heterograft is a device intended to be...

2014-04-01

263

21 CFR 888.3015 - Bone heterograft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone heterograft. 888.3015 Section 888.3015...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3015 Bone heterograft. (a) Identification. Bone heterograft is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 888.3015 - Bone heterograft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone heterograft. 888.3015 Section 888.3015...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3015 Bone heterograft. (a) Identification. Bone heterograft is a device intended to be...

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sonometer. (a) Identification . A bone sonometer is a device that transmits ultrasound energy into the human body to measure acoustic properties of bone that indicate overall bone health and fracture risk. The primary components of the device are a...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sonometer. (a) Identification . A bone sonometer is a device that transmits ultrasound energy into the human body to measure acoustic properties of bone that indicate overall bone health and fracture risk. The primary components of the device are a...

2012-04-01

267

Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods  

E-print Network

building up to whole bone.scales involved in building up to whole bone. At its heart,bone growth and remodeling [72,73,74]. Discounting NCPs, the three major elements described previously are the building

Lee, Hoe Yun; Lee, Hoe Yun

2012-01-01

268

[Bone metastasis and RANKL].  

PubMed

The mice with a disruption of Rank or Rankl exhibit normal mammary development during puberty, but their mammary epithelium fails to proliferate and form lobuloalveolar structures during pregnancy, resulting in the death of newborns. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Importantly, specific deletion of RANK in mammary epithelium cells prevents both the onset and progression of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) -driven mammary cancer and impairs self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. Furthermore, RANK is highly expressed in several cancer cells. Functionally, it has been shown that RANKL can stimulate the directed migration of mammary epithelial cells as well as prostate cancer and melanoma cells toward a source of RANKL. In an in vivo metastasis model, OPG reduced the tumor burden in bones and ameliorated clinical paralysis, but did not affect the frequency of the spread of metastases into other tissues. These findings show that the RANK/RANKL system is crucial for mammary development, breast tumorigenesis and bone metastasis. PMID:25065872

Nakashima, Tomoki

2014-08-01

269

Intrinsic material properties of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The G171V mutation (high bone mass, HBM) is autosomal dominant and is responsible for high bone mass in humans. Transgenic\\u000a HBM mice in which the human LRP5 G171V gene is inserted also show a similar phenotype with greater bone mass and biomechanical\\u000a performance than wild-type mice, as determined by whole bone testing. Whole bone mechanics, however, depend jointly on bone

Gloria E. Lopez Franco; Robert D. Blank; Mohammed P. Akhter

2011-01-01

270

Bone fracture repair - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Fractures of the bones are classified in a number of ways. A simple fracture involves a single fracture line through ... off or burned (cauterized). If examination of the fracture shows that a quantity of bone has been lost as a result of the ...

271

Space Radiation and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

2011-01-01

272

Hydrazine-deproteinated bone mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described employing 95% hydrazine which completely deproteinates and slightly dehydrates bone under nearly anhydrous conditions with only moderate heating. This method induced only minor chemical changes and no alterations in structural properties of the mineral phase. Physicochemical data are presented demonstrating that although rat bone crystals more closely resemble synthetic controls made in carbonate-rather than hydroxide-rich media,

J. D. Termine; E. D. Eanes; D. J. Greenfield; M. U. Nylen; R. A. Harper

1973-01-01

273

Bone health and prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone metastases are a substantial burden to men with advanced prostate cancer as they often cause pain and can cause fractures and spinal cord compression. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are both pathologically activated in the setting of prostate cancer bone metastases. As osteoclast activation is associated with disease progression, skeletal complications and death, osteoclast-targeted therapies are a rational approach to disease

P J Saylor; M R Smith

2010-01-01

274

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

275

Animal Models of Bone Metastasis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Animal models are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis and develop treatment strategies for bone metastases in humans. However, there are few spontaneous models of bone metastasis despite the fact that rodents (rats and mice) and other animals (dogs and cats) often spontaneously develop cancer. Therefore, most experimental models of bone metastasis in rodents require injection or implantation of neoplastic cells into orthotopic locations, bones, or the left ventricle of the heart. METHODS The current study reviews the natural incidence and clinical manifestation of bone metastases of mammary and prostate carcinoma in animals, as well as the experimental models developed in mice using animal and human-derived neoplasms. RESULTS Rats, mice, dogs, and cats often develop spontaneous mammary carcinoma, but bone metastases are rare. Intact and neutered dogs develop prostate carcinoma that is usually androgen independent and may be associated with regional bone invasion or distant bone metastasis. Normal dog prostate tissue induces new bone formation in vivo and can serve as a model of osteoblastic metastasis without concurrent bone destruction. Experimental models of osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone metastases include syngeneic rodent neoplasms or human xenografts implanted at orthotopic sites (e.g., breast or prostate glands) in immunodeficient mice, injection of cancer cells into the left ventricle of the heart, or direct injection into bones. New transgenic mouse models of cancer have a low incidence of spontaneous bone metastasis, but cell lines derived from these tumors can be selected in vivo for increased incidence of bone metastasis. It is essential to validate and correctly interpret the lesions in models of bone metastasis to accurately correlate the data from animal models to human disease. Animal models have provided support for the “seed and soil” hypothesis of bone metastasis. However, the roles of vascular patterns in the metaphyses of long bones and rapid bone turnover in young animals in the pathogenesis of metastasis in experimental models are uncertain. Improvements in the imaging of experimental animals in vivo using fluorescent markers or light emitted from luciferase have led to increased sensitivity of detection and more accurate quantification of bone metastases. For example, imaging of human prostate carcinoma PC-3M cells transfected with luciferase, following injection into the left ventricle, has demonstrated that there is rapid localization of tumor cells to bones and other organs, such as the kidneys and lungs. CONCLUSIONS Animal models of metastasis have supported drug development and have been useful for identification of metastasis suppressor and promoter genes as novel targets for the development of novel therapies. Further refinement of these models will involve spatiotemporal analysis of the metastatic process by imaging and use of image data to stage disease and guide tissue sampling for gene expression profiling via gene array technology. In the future, integrated analyses of these models will be needed to understand the complexities of this important disease process. PMID:15043188

Rosol, Thomas J.; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H.; LeRoy, Bruce E.; Mandl, Stefanie; Contag, Christopher H.

2011-01-01

276

Cystic lesion in carpal bone.  

PubMed

Six cases of symptomatic cystic lesions of carpal bones which underwent operative treatment were reviewed. Definite diagnosis, etiology and treatment were also discussed. The lesions occurred in the scaphoid, lunate, capitate and triquetrum, and were multiple lesions in four of the six cases. Juxta-articular bone cyst was diagnosed in three cases: intraosseous cavity surrounded by fibrous membrane containing gelatinous material, and "bone cyst-like pathologic change" in three cases which contained fibrous connective tissue resembled the thick inner wall of juxta-articular bone cyst histologically. They were treated by curettage and cancellous bone grafting; the outcomes were favourable without complication. It is suggested that the minor trauma resulting from the carpal loading serves as a basis for intraosseous lesion, which initiates intramedullary metaplasia followed by fibrous connective tissue proliferation with/without mucin secretion, and forms cystic cavity. PMID:11089185

Ikeda, M; Oka, Y

2000-07-01

277

Bone Positron Emission Tomography with or without CT Is More Accurate than Bone Scan for Detection of Bone Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Objective Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Materials and Methods Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Results In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% = 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p < 0.05). In the lesion-based analysis (43 lesions in 14 patients; 31 malignant and 12 benign), the sensitivity of bone PET (100% = 31/31) was significantly greater than that of bone scan (38.7% = 12/31) (p < 0.01), and the specificity of bone PET (75.0% = 9/12) was also significantly higher than that of bone scan (8.3% = 1/12) (p < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that bone PET was significantly more accurate than the bone scan in the patient (p = 0.0306) and lesion (p = 0.0001) based analyses. Conclusion Na18F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation. PMID:23690722

Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

2013-01-01

278

Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally applied alendronate has an optimum dose with respect to bone resorption and formation. Further, we questioned whether the addition of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), would stimulate bone formation. Finally, we studied the effect of high levels of antibiotics on bone allograft healing, since mixing allograft bone with antibiotics might reduce the infection risk. Methods 25 goats received eight bone conduction chambers in the cortical bone of the proximal medial tibia. Five concentrations of alendronate (0, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL) were tested in combination with allograft bone and supplemented with cefazolin (200 ?g/mL). Allograft not supplemented with alendronate and cefazolin served as control. In addition, allograft mixed with demineralized bone matrix, with and without alendronate, was tested. After 12 weeks, graft bone area and new bone area were determined with manual point counting. Results Graft resorption decreased significantly (p < 0.001) with increasing alendronate concentration. The area of new bone in the 1 mg/mL alendronate group was significantly (p = 0.002) higher when compared to the 10 mg/mL group. No differences could be observed between the group without alendronate, but with demineralized bone, and the control groups. Conclusions A dose-response relationship for local application of alendronate has been shown in this study. Most new bone was present at 1 mg/mL alendronate. Local application of cefazolin had no effect on bone remodelling. PMID:22443362

2012-01-01

279

Bone microdamage and cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Accumulation of microdamage in bone leads to the reduced strength of our skeleton. In health, bone adapts to the prevailing mechanical needs of the organism and is also capable of self-repair, sensing, removing and replacing damaged or mechanically insufficient volumes of bone. In disease and old age these characteristics are reduced. In order to undertake both of the processes of functional adaptation and repair the bone resorbing and forming cells must be very accurately targeted to areas of physiological need. The mechanism by which cells are precisely targeted to areas requiring repair is both clinically relevant and poorly understood. The osteocyte has been assumed to play a role in sensing damage and signaling for its removal, due largely to its abundance throughout the mineralized bone matrix. However, until recently there has been little evidence that osteocyte function is modified in the vicinity of the microdamage. Here I outline the possibility that the targeted removal of bone containing microcracks might involve signals derived from the apoptotic death of the osteocyte. I shall discuss data that support or refute this view and will consider the possible molecular mechanisms by which controlled cell death might contribute to the signals for repair in the light of work involving cells in bone and other tissue systems. PMID:14710370

Noble, B

2003-12-21

280

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The bone  

E-print Network

Bone marrow: all the cells of the immune system are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow immune cells, like all blood cells, arise in the bone marrow from so-called stem cells. Some develop. The bone marrow is the site of origin of red blood cells, white cells (including lymphocytes

Morante, Silvia

281

Myxoid chondrosarcoma of sphenoid bone  

PubMed Central

The myxoid variant of chondrosarcoma is usually seen in soft tissues where it is known as chordoid sarcoma or parachordoma. Rarely, it involves bone and when it does, cranial bones are the preferred location. This tumor is frequently amalgamated with the chondroid variant of chordoma, especially when the lesion occurs in the sphenoid bone/spheno-occipital region, because of their similar clinical presentations, anatomical locations, radiological findings, and mistaken histopathological features. It is essential to distinguish myxoid chondrosarcoma from the chondroid variant of chordoma, because of the different treatment protocol and prognostic importance. We present such a location-based diagnostic dilemma, solved successfully with ancillary immunohistochemistry. PMID:23189013

Chowhan, Amit K; Rukmangadha, Nandyala; Patnayak, Rashmi; Bodapati, Chandra Mouliswara Prasad; Bodagala, Vijaya Laxmi; Reddy, Mandyam Kumaraswamy

2012-01-01

282

[Allergy to bone cement components].  

PubMed

Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses may lead to allergological diagnostics, which focus mainly on metal allergy. However, bone cement may also contain potential allergens, e.g. acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide (BPO), N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, and antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). In the Munich implant allergy clinic, we found that 28 of 113 patients (24.8%) with cemented prostheses had contact allergies to bone cement components, mostly to gentamicin (16.8%) and BPO (8.0%). The clinical significance of test results cannot always be shown, but we still recommend including bone cement components in the allergological diagnostics of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty. PMID:18227996

Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Eben, R; Thomsen, M

2008-02-01

283

Give the Dog a Bone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ten bones are hidden in the squares of a blank 1-100 grid. Students are given the numbers of the squares one at a time. They attempt to locate the numbers in the hundreds chart and find all 10 bones within 60 seconds. Numbers of the incorrectly guessed squares are left in place to help with the search. The game helps students understand the structure and patterns of our base-10 number system. Children can be encouraged to make use of a found bone to locate the next one.

Cogan, Mark

2002-01-01

284

Raman Assessment of Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Progress in the diagnosis and prediction of fragility fractures depends on improvements to the understating of the compositional\\u000a contributors of bone quality to mechanical competence. Raman spectroscopy has been used to evaluate alterations to bone composition\\u000a associated with aging, disease, or injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  In this survey we will (1) review the use of Raman-based compositional measures of bone quality, including mineral-to-matrix

Michael D. Morris; Gurjit S. Mandair

285

Do Men and Women Fracture Bones at Similar Bone Densities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   When the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the definition of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women were identified\\u000a similar proposals were not developed for men as there was insufficient evidence about the relationship between bone density\\u000a and fracture in men. We have therefore examined the relationship between bone density and vertebral fracture in men and women\\u000a attending for assessment of

P. L. Selby; M. Davies; J. E. Adams

2000-01-01

286

Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The replacement of bone by means of foreign materials was already carried out in prehistoric times. Nowadays autogenous bone grafting is designated as the “golden standard” to fill large osseous defects which result from traumas, tumors, or birth defects. However, its disadvantages such as limited supply of autogenous bone and donor site morbidity have favored the use of bone

Reinhard Schnettler; Jens Peter Stahl; Volker Alt; Theodoros Pavlidis; Elvira Dingeldein; Sabine Wenisch

2004-01-01

287

Role of carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis.  

PubMed

Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including beta (?)-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, ?-carotene, astaxanthin, and rutin), ?-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), has been found to have a stimulatory effect on bone calcification in vitro. ?-cryptoxanthin has stimulatory effects on osteoblastic bone formation and inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. ?-cryptoxanthin has an effect on the gene expression of various proteins that are related osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resororption in vitro. The intake of ?-cryptoxanthin may have a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human or postmenopausal women. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role of ?-cryptoxanthin as a sustainable nutritional approach to improving bone health of human subjects. ?-Cryptoxanthin may be an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects. PMID:22471523

Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

2012-01-01

288

Air-filled (Pneumatic) Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just like birds, some dinosaurs had air-filled (pneumatic) bones, which made the dinosaurs' skeletons lighter. In this activity, learners bake chicken or turkey bones and then rub the ends off the bones with sandpaper to expose air spaces inside. This activity would be great during Thanksgiving vacation, or any other holiday when you have bones left over from dinner.

Science, Lawrence H.

2005-01-01

289

Sticks and Stones Will Break That Bone!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the strength of bones and methods of helping to mend fractured bones. During a class demonstration, a chicken bone is broken by applying a load until it reaches a point of failure (fracture). Then, working as biomedical engineers, students teams design their own splint or cast to help repair a fractured bone, learning about the strength of materials used.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

290

How common medicines can affect bone health.  

PubMed

Many people have weak bones and this is a global public health concern. Lifestyle factors can reduce bone density, as can some common drugs. This article describes some of these drugs, the conditions for which they may be prescribed and how they can threaten bone health. Strategies to reduce the risk of fracture and weak bones are outlined. PMID:25188968

Rees, Sharon

291

Bone Distribution simulation during damage-repair bone remodeling in human proximal femur  

E-print Network

and fracture may form and grow in a bone as a result of daily loading activities. On the other hand. In the past decades, the crucial to conduct the research on bone damage caused by bone fractures and related in modern biology, fatigue and fracture form and grow in the bone the accumulation of the bone damage

Qin, Qinghua

292

How Tough Is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone  

E-print Network

to resist fractures. In osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, genetic mutations affect the quality and/or quantity of collagen, dramatically increasing bone fracture risk. Here we reveal how Research. KEY WORDS: BRITTLE BONE; BONE FRACTURE; FRACTURE MECHANICS; MOUSE BONE; CRACK INITIATION; CRACK

Ritchie, Robert

293

Printing bone : the application of 3D fiber deposition for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone chips are used by orthopaedic surgeons for treating spinal trauma and to augment large bone defects. A potential alternative to autologous bone is regeneration of bone tissue in the lab by developing hybrid implants consisting of osteogenic (stem) cells seeded on supportive matrices. Application of large bone grafts in the operation room is not a clinical reality yet due

N. E. Fedorovich

2011-01-01

294

Doc.381, 'Nose flutes and shell trumpets'  

E-print Network

. Serua, August 1957. Arranged recording. Davui ni ika bula [11.48-12.15]; Davui ni mati [12.22-12.37]; Davui ni soqoni [12.40-12.52]; Davui ni cere [12.54-13.11] Fijian music, songs and dances, recorded by George Kingsley Roth in Fiji in the 1950s. Most...

Roth, George Kingsley

295

Bone disease in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by emaciation due to self-starvation and displays a unique hormonal profile. Alterations in gonadal axis, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor I levels, hypercortisolemia and low triiodothyronine levels are almost universally present and constitute an adaptive response to malnutrition. Bone metabolism is likewise affected resulting in low bone mineral density, reduced bone accrual and increased fracture risk. Skeletal deficits often persist even after recovery from the disease with serious implications for future skeletal health. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying bone disease are quite complicated and treatment is a particularly challenging task. PMID:24722126

Dede, Anastasia D; Lyritis, George P; Tournis, Symeon

2014-01-01

296

Bare Bones of Bioactive Glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paul Ducheyne, a principal investigator in the microgravity materials science program and head of the University of Pernsylvania's Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering, is leading the trio as they use simulated microgravity to determine the optimal characteristics of tiny glass particles for growing bone tissue. The result could make possible a much broader range of synthetic bone-grafting applications. Bioactive glass particles (left) with a microporous surface (right) are widely accepted as a synthetic material for periodontal procedures. Using the particles to grow three-dimensional tissue cultures may one day result in developing an improved, more rugged bone tissue that may be used to correct skeletal disorders and bone defects. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research.

2000-01-01

297

Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

298

JAMA Patient Page: Bone Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

Ring Fixator With Pins and Wires Intramedullary Nail Cast Internal Fixation External Fixation Simple Fracture, Displaced Comminuted Fracture Simple Fracture, Undisplaced Long-Leg Plaster Cast Types of Treatment for Bone Fractures B O ...

299

Does methamphetamine affect bone metabolism?  

PubMed

There is a close relationship between the central nervous system activity and bone metabolism. Therefore, methamphetamine (METH), which stimulates the central nervous system, is expected to affect bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of METH in bone metabolism. Mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group receiving saline injections, and the 5 and 10mg/kg METH groups (n=6 in each group). All groups received an injection of saline or METH every other day for 8 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray computed tomography. We examined biochemical markers and histomorphometric changes in the second cancellous bone of the left femoral distal end. The animals that were administered 5mg/kg METH showed an increased locomotor activity, whereas those receiving 10mg/kg displayed an abnormal and stereotyped behavior. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were normal compared to the controls, whereas the serum protein concentration was lower in the METH groups. BMD was unchanged in all groups. Bone formation markers such as alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin significantly increased in the 5mg/kg METH group, but not in the 10mg/kg METH group. In contrast, bone resorption markers such as C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b did not change in any of the METH groups. Histomorphometric analyses were consistent with the biochemical markers data. A significant increase in osteoblasts, especially in type III osteoblasts, was observed in the 5mg/kg METH group, whereas other parameters of bone resorption and mineralization remained unchanged. These results indicate that bone remodeling in this group was unbalanced. In contrast, in the 10mg/kg METH group, some parameters of bone formation were significantly or slightly decreased, suggesting a low turnover metabolism. Taken together, our results suggest that METH had distinct dose-dependent effects on bone turnover and that METH might induce adverse effects, leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24582730

Tomita, Masafumi; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Watanabe, Yoko; Okuyama, Toshiko; Fushimi, Shigeko; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Osamu

2014-05-01

300

Deformation and Fracture of Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microscopic yield stress (the stress to produce a plastic strain of 2×10?6 in.?in.) and the variation of plastic strain with applied stress have been established for bone. A feature of the deformation is the large anelastic contraction which occurs after unloading plastically strained specimens. The fracture characteristics of bone, as determined in impact loading and tensile experiments, are a

W. Bonfield; C. H. Li

1966-01-01

301

Bone Diseases of the Jaws  

PubMed Central

Lesions specific for the jaws and not occurring in any other bones mostly are related to the teeth or to odontogenic tissues. Moreover, the jaws may harbor nonodontogenic bone lesions not seen in any other part of the skeleton. This paper pays attention to the diseases that are specific for the jaws, odontogenic as well as nonodontogenic. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities will be discussed. PMID:20379356

Slootweg, Pieter Johannes

2010-01-01

302

Linear Acoustics of Trabecular Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the two recent decades, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods have been developed for in vivo diagnostics of trabecular\\u000a bone. Mostly, trabecular bone QUS measurements are conducted in through-transmission and pulse-echo geometry. Since the first\\u000a in vivo QUS measurements at the heel, the research efforts have also been focused on enabling QUS measurements at important\\u000a fracture sites, such as proximal femur

Janne P. Karjalainen; Ossi Riekkinen; Juha Töyräs; Jukka S. Jurvelin

303

Research opportunities in bone demineralization, phase 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of bone demineralization during space flight, observations in bone demineralization and experiments related to bone loss planned for Spacelab flights, and suggestions for further research are investigated. The observations of the working group focused upon the following topics: (1) pathogenesis of bone demineralization, (2) potential for occurrence of renal stones consequent to prolonged hypercalciuria, (3) development of appropriate ground based and inflight models to study bone demineralization, (4) integration of research efforts, and (5) development of effective countermeasures.

Anderson, S. A. (editor); Cohn, S. H. (editor)

1984-01-01

304

Determinants of Long Bone Structural Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of our research is to determine whether a non-invasive determination of long bone cross-sectional areal properties using only the mineral component of bone accurately predicts the true structural properties. In this study section properties of a whole long bone were compared using two methods: (1) special analysis of bone densitometry data, and (2) experimental determination of flexural rigidities from bone surface strain measurements during controlled loading.

Cleek, T. M.; Katz, B.; Whalen, R. T.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

305

Percutaneous osteoplasty in treatment of bone lymphangiomatosis  

PubMed Central

Primary bone lymphangiomatosis is a disease of unknown etiology that can cause lytic lesions in long bones, the pelvis, the spinal column and the cranium. We are presenting the case of a woman with localized bone lymphangiomatosis in the left knee. The authors believe this is the first case in which percutaneous osteoplasty was used in long bones for the treatment of bone lesions resulting from this disease showing good clinical results. PMID:24133314

Mifsut, Damián; Renovell, Pablo; Gomar, Francisco; Saravia, Marcos

2013-01-01

306

[Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].  

PubMed

(99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

2013-03-01

307

Bone involvement and osteoporosis in mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Bone involvement is frequent in patients with systemic mastocytosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone manifestation, but diffuse osteosclerosis or focal osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesions are not infrequent. The risk of osteoporotic fractures is high, especially at the spine and in men. Routine measurements of bone mineral density and vertebral morphometry are warranted. The bone turnover markers indicate the involvement of complex bone metabolism in mastocytosis-related manifestations. Bisphosphonates represent the first-line treatment for osteoporosis-related mastocytosis. PMID:24745681

Rossini, Maurizio; Zanotti, Roberta; Viapiana, Ombretta; Tripi, Gaia; Orsolini, Giovanni; Idolazzi, Luca; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Schena, Donatella; Escribano, Luis; Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide

2014-05-01

308

Bone culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

Partridge, Nicola C.

1993-01-01

309

Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats  

SciTech Connect

During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

Nurmio, Mirja, E-mail: Mirja.Nurmio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Joki, Henna, E-mail: Henna.Joki@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Kallio, Jenny, E-mail: Jenny.Kallio@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Maeaettae, Jorma A., E-mail: jorma.maatta@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku (Finland); Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo, E-mail: kalervo.vaananen@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toppari, Jorma, E-mail: Jorma.Toppari@utu.fi [Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Finland); Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku (Finland); Jahnukainen, Kirsi, E-mail: Kirsi.Jahnukainen@utu.fi [Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina, E-mail: tilale@utu.fi [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Turku (Finland)

2011-08-01

310

Multicentric epithelioid angiosarcoma of bone.  

PubMed

Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is rare and generally shows positive immunostaining for epithelial markers. Multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is easily misdiagnosed as carcinoma, including metastatic carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and multiple lymphoma of bone. This article describes a case of multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was first misdiagnosed as having metastatic carcinoma. Examination showed osteolytic lesions in the bilateral heels and the lower left humerus. The diagnosis was confirmed postoperatively and corrected after immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsy. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor mass was strongly positive for CD31, factor VIII, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. The patient refused chemotherapy and died of lung metastasis 4 months postoperatively.Most bone epithelioid angiosarcomas are immunopositive for epithelial markers (ie, keratin, cytokeratin, high-molecular-weight keratin, and epithelial membrane antigen), vascular endothelial markers (ie, CD31, CD34, and von Willebrand factor), and factor VIII-associated antigen. Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma shows a relatively high degree of malignancy. Patients often die of distant metastasis, including those found in the lung and lymph node tissue. A wide excision of epithelioid angiosarcoma should be performed during the operation of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the clinicopathologic features of this disease may help to clarify the confusion, provide better treatment, and improve the clinical prognosis. PMID:22868625

Yang, Zhengming; Tao, Huimin; Ye, Zhaoming; Yang, Disheng

2012-08-01

311

Bone age in cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693

Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros

2013-01-01

312

[Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate].  

PubMed

Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) remain an important material for anchorage of artificial joints. Polymers based on PMMA originally developed for dental surgery have been successfully used in bone surgery for more than 40 years. At first sight the cold-curing PMMA bone cement seems to be a rather simple material consisting of a powder and a liquid. But in fact it is a complex material fulfilling various functions at its application site after the implantation. Its properties vary according to the composition of its basic elements. They already play a decisive role for the working behavior during mixing of both components. The differences in the working behavior considerably affect the cementing technique and the accurate application in vivo. These influence the mechanical performance of the cured cement mantle and the long-term results of the implantation. Standardized test methods are used to characterize bone cements,whereas the clinical relevance of the test methods has to be evaluated critically.Additionally,PMMA bone cements act as a drug delivery system as a local carrier of antibiotics. This paper gives a review of the composition and properties of PMMA bone cements and their influence on practical application. PMID:12557085

Breusch, S J; Kühn, K-D

2003-01-01

313

Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.  

PubMed

Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life. PMID:24695889

Rizzoli, René

2014-05-01

314

Comparable bone healing capacity of different bone graft matrices in a rabbit segmental defect model  

PubMed Central

We compared the bone healing capacity of three different demineralized bone matrix (DBM) products applied using different carrier molecules (hyaluronic acid [HA] vs. carboxymethylcellulose [CMC]) or bone compositions (cortical bone vs. cortical bone and cancellous bone) in a rabbit segmental defect model. Overall, 15-mm segmental defects in the left and right radiuses were created in 36 New Zealand White rabbits and filled with HA-based demineralized cortical bone matrix (DBX), CMC-based demineralized cortical bone matrix (DB) or CMC-based demineralized cortical bone with cancellous bone (NDDB), and the wound area was evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. DBX showed significantly lower radiopacity, bone volume fraction, and bone mineral density than DB and NDDB before implantation. However, bone healing score, bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and residual bone area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation revealed no significant differences in bone healing capacity. Overall, three DBM products with different carrier molecules or bone compositions showed similar bone healing capacity. PMID:24675830

Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Gonhyung

2014-01-01

315

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism  

E-print Network

PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism Beata Obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis are major public health concerns. Current estimates indicate of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent

Toledo, University of

316

Spine Bone Texture Assessed by Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) to Evaluate Bone Health in Thalassemia Major.  

PubMed

Due to the increasing survival of thalassemic patients, osteopathy is a mounting clinical problem. Low bone mass alone cannot account for the high fracture risk described; impaired bone quality has been speculated but so far it cannot be demonstrated noninvasively. We studied bone quality in thalassemia major using trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel texture measurement extracted from spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), proposed in postmenopausal and secondary osteoporosis as an indirect index of microarchitecture. TBS was evaluated in 124 adult thalassemics (age range 19-56 years), followed-up with optimal transfusional and therapeutical regimens, and in 65 non-thalassemic patients (22-52 years) undergoing DXA for different bone diseases. TBS was lower in thalassemic patients (1.04 ± 0.12 [range 0.80-1.30]) versus controls (1.34 ± 0.11 [1.06-1.52]) (p < 0.001), and correlated with BMD. TBS and BMD values correlated with age, indicating that thalassemia negatively affects both bone quality and quantity, especially as the patient gets older. TBS was 1.02 ± 0.11 [0.80-1.28] in the osteoporotic thalassemic patients, 1.08 ± 0.12 [0.82-1.30] in the osteopenic ones and 1.15 ± 0.10 [0.96-1.26] in those with normal BMD. No gender differences were found (males: 1.02 ± 0.13 [0.80-1.30], females 1.05 ± 0.11 [0.80-1.30]), nor between patients with and without endocrine-metabolic disorders affecting bone metabolism. Our findings from a large population with thalassemia major show that TBS is a valuable tool to assess noninvasively bone quality, and it may be related to fragility fracture risk in thalassemic osteopathy. PMID:25348077

Baldini, M; Ulivieri, F M; Forti, S; Serafino, S; Seghezzi, S; Marcon, A; Giarda, F; Messina, C; Cassinerio, E; Aubry-Rozier, B; Hans, D; Cappellini, M D

2014-12-01

317

Remineralized bone matrix as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

There is a need for improved biomaterials for use in treating non-healing bone defects. A number of natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used for the regeneration of bone tissue with mixed results. One approach is to modify native tissue via decellularization or other treatment for use as natural scaffolding for tissue repair. In this study, our goal was to improve on our previously published alternating solution immersion (ASI) method to fabricate a robust, biocompatible, and mechanically competent biomaterial from natural demineralized bone matrix (DBM). The improved method includes an antigen removal (AR) treatment step which improves mineralization and stiffness while removing unwanted proteins. The chemistry of the mineral in the remineralized bone matrix (RBM) was consistent with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (brushite), a material used clinically in bone healing applications. Mass spectrometry identified proteins removed from the matrix with AR treatment to include ?-2 HS-glycoprotein and osteopontin, noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) and known inhibitors of biomineralization. Additionally, the RBM supported the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro as well or better than other widely used biomaterials including DBM and PLG scaffolds. DNA content increased more than 10-fold on RBM compared to DBM and PLG; likewise, osteogenic gene expression was significantly increased after 1 and 2 weeks. We demonstrated that ASI remineralization has the capacity to fabricate mechanically stiff and biocompatible RBM, a suitable biomaterial for cell culture applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 4480-4490, 2014. PMID:24616346

Soicher, Matthew A; Christiansen, Blaine A; Stover, Susan M; Leach, J Kent; Yellowley, Clare E; Griffiths, Leigh G; Fyhrie, David P

2014-12-01

318

Intersample variation in bone histomorphometry: Comparison between parameter values measured on two contiguous transiliac bone biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to evaluate the intersample variations for bone histomorphometric parameters in various metabolic bone diseases,\\u000a either for a group or for one single patient, two complete contiguous transiliac bone biopsies were taken in 55 subjects.\\u000a The diagnoses were osteoporosis (OP), renal osteodystrophy (ROD), osteomalacia (OM), primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), metastatic\\u000a bone disease, fluorosis, thyrotoxic bone, and “normal” bone. The following

Pascale M. Chavassieux; Monique E. Arlot; Pierre J. Meunier

1985-01-01

319

Extravascular albumin in bone tissue.  

PubMed Central

1. The amount of albumin in extravascular tissue fluid in bone, kidney, intestine, skin and muscle and in plasma of young rabbits has been measured by radial immunodiffusion. 2. The majority of extravascular albumin in kidney, intestine, skin and muscle is exchangeable with plasma albumin, whereas in bone, only the proportion which is in tissue fluid is readily exchangeable; the remaining fraction in calcified matrix is more permanently fixed. 3. About 27% of the albumin in young bone is in tissue fluid, about 57% in calcified matrix and about 16% is intravascular. The total amount of extravascular albumin per unit mass of bone is similar to that found in soft tissues. 4. The volume of intravascular plasma in tissues was determined in two ways: from 51Cr-erythrocyte radioactivity and the venous haematocrit and from the '5 min 125I-fibrinogen space'. 5. The rate of egress of albumin from blood vessels has been estimated from the initial slope of the ratio of extravascular radioactivity in the tissue to plasma radioactivity plotted against time after injection of 125I-albumin. 6. The rate of clearance of the albumin in extravascular tissue fluid in bone is approximately once every hour. This is more rapid than in skin and muscle, comparable with intestine and less rapid than in kidney. 7. The amount of albumin incorporated into calcified matrix of bone per day is calculated to be less than 0-5% of the total albumin passing through the tissue fluid of bone per day. PMID:950595

Owen, M; Triffitt, J T

1976-01-01

320

Role of angiogenesis in bone repair.  

PubMed

Bone vasculature plays a vital role in bone development, remodeling and homeostasis. New blood vessel formation is crucial during both primary bone development as well as fracture repair in adults. Both bone repair and bone remodeling involve the activation and complex interaction between angiogenic and osteogenic pathways. Interestingly studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis precedes the onset of osteogenesis. Indeed reduced or inadequate blood flow has been linked to impaired fracture healing and old age related low bone mass disorders such as osteoporosis. Similarly the slow penetration of host blood vessels in large engineered bone tissue grafts has been cited as one of the major hurdle still impeding current bone construction engineering strategies. This article reviews the current knowledge elaborating the importance of vascularization during bone healing and remodeling, and the current therapeutic strategies being adapted to promote and improve angiogenesis. PMID:25034215

Saran, Uttara; Gemini Piperni, Sara; Chatterjee, Suvro

2014-11-01

321

Bone metastasis: mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is one of the most common sites for metastatic cancer, and tumors arising from the breast or prostate possess an increased propensity to spread to this site. The growth of disseminated tumor cells in the skeleton requires tumor cells to inhabit the bone marrow, from which they stimulate local bone cell activity. Crosstalk between tumor cells and resident bone and bone marrow cells disrupts normal bone homeostasis, which leads to tumor growth in bone. The metastatic tumor cells have the ability to elicit responses that stimulate bone resorption, bone formation or both. The net result of these activities is profound skeletal destruction that can have dire consequences for patients. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these painful and often incurable consequences of tumor metastasis to bone are beginning to be recognized, and they represent promising new molecular targets for therapy. PMID:21200394

Suva, Larry J.; Washam, Charity; Nicholas, Richard W.; Griffin, Robert J.

2011-01-01

322

Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

1982-01-01

323

Bone tissue engineering with human stem cells  

PubMed Central

Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of bone development, disease and drug discovery. A source of human cells that can be derived in large numbers from a small initial harvest and predictably differentiated into bone forming cells is critically important for engineering human bone grafts. We discuss the characteristics and limitations of various types of human embryonic and adult stem cells, and their utility for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20637059

2010-01-01

324

Bone anabolics in osteoporosis: Actuality and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Vertebral and nonvertebral fractures prevention is the main goal for osteoporosis therapy by inhibiting bone resorption and/or stimulating bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs decrease the activation frequency, thereby determining a secondary decrease in bone formation rate and a low bone turnover. Bisphosphonates are today’s mainstay among antiresorptive treatment of osteoporosis. Also, oral selective estrogen receptor modulators and recently denosumab have a negative effect on bone turnover. Agents active on bone formation are considered a better perspective in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. Recombinant-human parathyroid hormone (PTH) has showed to increase bone formation and significantly decrease vertebral fractures in severe patients, but with a modest effect on nonvertebral fractures. The study of Wnt signaling pathway, that induces prevalently an osteoblastic activity, opens large possibilities to antagonists of Wnt-inhibitors, such as sclerostin antibodies and dickkopf-1 antagonists, with potential effects not only on trabecular bone but also on cortical bone. PMID:25035827

Montagnani, Andrea

2014-01-01

325

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027...3027 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027...3027 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

327

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

...false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027...3027 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to...

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027...3027 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to...

2012-04-01

329

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027...3027 Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to...

2011-04-01

330

Hormonal regulation of bone growth and remodelling.  

PubMed

Many systemic and local hormones influence bone growth and remodelling. These include calcium regulating hormones, systemic growth regulators and local growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PHT) is a potent stimulator of osteoclastic bone resorption and a direct inhibitor of osteoblastic collagen synthesis. However, intermittent low-dose PTH administration can increase bone formation in vivo. PTH may act indirectly via local factors. It has been shown to increase prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) release from bone. Both PGE2 and TGF-beta have complex effects on bone metabolism and are likely to be physiological regulators of bone remodelling. Oestradiol has been shown to inhibit bone resorption in vivo but not in vitro. While there is evidence for oestrogen receptors in cultured bone cells, the effect could still be indirect. Oestradiol can inhibit bone PGE2 release in an in vivo-in vitro model in the rat. Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of bone formation and inhibit PGE2 and interleukin 1 production both in vivo and in vitro. While many regulatory factors affect prostaglandin production in bone, the complex effects of PGE2 on bone metabolism make it difficult to predict the ultimate response. The major effects of PGE2 are stimulation of bone formation and resorption and an increase in bone turnover. However, opposite effects can occur at certain times and concentrations. Interactions among these factors could explain some physiological, pathological, and therapeutic responses in skeletal tissue. PMID:3068012

Raisz, L G

1988-01-01

331

Percutaneous ablation of bone tumors.  

PubMed

Percutaneous ablation (radiofrequency or cryotherapy) of bone tumors is most often performed for palliative purposes. Many studies have shown that percutaneous ablation of a painful bone metastasis can significantly and sustainably reduce symptoms. It is therefore an alternative to radiotherapy and to long-term opiates. Percutaneous ablation can also be performed for curative purposes. In this situation, its efficacy has however only been studied to a very small extent (apart from radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas in which the success rate is almost 100%). In our experience, the success rate after radiofrequency ablation of a bone metastasis is 75% if it is less than 3cm in diameter and fall significantly over this (to 40%, P=0.04). This treatment can therefore be justified in oligometastatic patients whose disease is progressing slowly. Its benefit on survival has however not been assessed in this selected population. Whether it is performed for palliative or curative reasons, percutaneous ablation should ideally be followed by an injection of cement if the metastasis being treated is lytic and located in a bone, which is subject to mechanical forces. The aim of consolidating cementoplasty is to counterbalance the additional risk of fracture due to destruction of the percutaneously ablated bone. PMID:25017149

Deschamps, F; Farouil, G; de Baere, T

2014-01-01

332

Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved. PMID:22939815

Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

333

Inhibition of bone formation during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters of bone formation and resorption were measured in rats orbited for 19.5 days aboard the Soviet Cosmos 782 biological satellite. The most striking effects were on bone formation. During flight, rats formed significantly less periosteal bone than did control rats on the ground. An arrest line at both the periosteum and the endosteum of flight animals suggests that a complete cecessation of bone growth occurred. During a 26-day postflight period, the defect in bone formation was corrected. No significant changes in bone resorption were observed.

Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.

1978-01-01

334

Mechanisms of guided bone regeneration: a review.  

PubMed

Post-extraction crestal bone resorption is common and unavoidable which can lead to significant ridge dimensional changes. To regenerate enough bone for successful implant placement, Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is often required. GBR is a surgical procedure that uses barrier membranes with or without particulate bone grafts or/and bone substitutes. There are two approaches of GBR in implant therapy: GBR at implant placement (simultaneous approach) and GBR before implant placement to increase the alveolar ridge or improve ridge morphology (staged approach). Angiogenesis and ample blood supply play a critical role in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24894890

Liu, Jie; Kerns, David G

2014-01-01

335

The effects of hormonal contraceptives on bone turnover markers and bone health.  

PubMed

Sex hormones are important regulators of bone metabolism. As hormonal contraceptives contain either oestrogens or progestins, or a combination thereof, it is conceivable that these widely used agents have an effect on bone metabolism and bone health. The main users of hormonal contraceptives, adolescent girls and young women, are still building bone and accruing bone mass and may therefore be particularly susceptible to the effects of hormonal contraceptives on bone. Despite these concerns, the effects of hormonal contraceptives on bone health are still poorly understood. As biochemical markers of bone turnover have been proven useful tools in the assessment and monitoring of bone metabolism, we reviewed the effects of combined and gestagen-only hormonal contraceptives on bone turnover markers and related effects on bone mineral density and fracture risk in premenopausal women, as documented in the literature until January 2009. PMID:19740118

Herrmann, Markus; Seibel, Markus J

2010-05-01

336

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

337

Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Bone is the most common site of cancer metastasis, with an estimated 300,000–400,000 US cancer patients aff ected by bone\\u000a metastases (BM) each year.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a While BM may be asymptomatic, they commonly cause signifi cant morbidity and functional impairment due to pain, pathologic\\u000a fracture, or spinal cord compression (SCC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The workup of bone metastases includes a detailed pain

Alysa Fairchild; Stephen Lutz

338

The response of bone to unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During spaceflight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1-g environment, and some redistribution of bone from the lower extremities to the head appears to take place. Although changes in calcitropic hormones have been demonstrated during skeletal unloading (PTH and 1,25(OH)2D decrease), it remains unclear whether such changes account for or are in response to the changes in bone formation and resorption. Bed rest studies with human volunteers and hindlimb elevation studies with rats have provided useful data to help explain the changes in bone formation during spaceflight. These models of skeletal unloading reproduce a number of the conditions associated with microgravity, and the findings from such studies confirm many of the observations made during spaceflight. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. Such investigations couple biophysics to biochemistry to cell and molecular biology. Although studies with cell cultures have revealed biochemical responses to mechanical loads comparable to that seen in intact bone, it seems likely that matrix-cell interactions underlie much of the mechanocoupling. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH, and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs, and TGF-beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to mechanical load with increased bone formation are further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, with the expectation that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis.

Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B. P.

1999-01-01

339

Imaging of the muscle-bone relationship.  

PubMed

Muscle can be assessed by imaging techniques according to its size (as thickness, area, volume, or alternatively, as a mass) and architecture (fiber length and pennation angle), with values used as an anthropometric measure or a surrogate for force production. Similarly, the size of the bone (as area or volume) can be imaged using MRI or pQCT, although typically bone mineral mass is reported. Bone imaging measures of mineral density, size, and geometry can also be combined to calculate bone's structural strength-measures being highly predictive of bone's failure load ex vivo. Imaging of muscle-bone relationships can, hence, be accomplished through a number of approaches by adoption and comparison of these different muscle and bone parameters, dependent on the research question under investigation. These approaches have revealed evidence of direct, mechanical muscle-bone interactions independent of allometric associations. They have led to important information on bone mechanoadaptation and the influence of muscular action on bone, in addition to influences of age, gender, exercise, and disuse on muscle-bone relationships. Such analyses have also produced promising diagnostic tools for clinical use, such as identification of primary, disuse-induced, and secondary osteoporosis and estimation of bone safety factors. Standardization of muscle-bone imaging methods is required to permit more reliable comparisons between studies and differing imaging modes, and in particular to aid adoption of these methods into widespread clinical practice. PMID:25095743

Ireland, Alex; Ferretti, José Luis; Rittweger, Jörn

2014-12-01

340

Does quantitative ultrasound of bone reflect more bone mineral density than bone microarchitecture?  

PubMed

Relationships among quantitative ultrasound of bone (QUS), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture have been poorly investigated in human calcaneus.Twenty-four specimens, from 12 men and 12 women (mean age 78 +/- 10 years; range 53-93), removed from cadavers were studied. The feet were axially sectioned above the ankle. Two variables were measured for QUS (Achilles, Lunar): broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS). A third variable, the stiffness index (SI), which is a combination of both BUA and SOS, was also calculated. BMD (a lateral view) was measured on a QDR 2000 densitometer (Hologic). Bone microarchitecture was assessed by computed tomography (CT) using a conventional CT-system. Fifteen sagittal sections (1 mm in width and 2 mm apart) were selected for CT. Methods used for characterizing bone microarchitecture consisted in structural (trabecular network characterization) and a fractal analyses. The relationships between QUS and bone microarchitecture were assessed by simple linear regression analysis with and without adjustment for BMD (partial correlation) and by backward stepwise regression analysis. Strong relationships were found between BMD and QUS. Adjusted r(2) values were 0.545 for SOS and 0.717 for SI. Two microarchitectural variables were also significantly correlated with both SOS and SI: apparent trabecular separation (App Tr Sp) and trabecular bone pattern factor (App TBPF). After adjustment for BMD few correlations between QUS and microarchitectural variables were always significant. Adjusted squared semipartial coefficients of correlation (rsp2) values between SOS and bone microarchitecture were 6%, 6.8%, 13.2% and 4.6% for App BV/TV, App Tr Sp, App TBPF and fractal dimension (FD), respectively. For SI, corresponding figures were 3.7%, 4.1%, 5.2% and 3.2%. Backward stepwise regression analysis using BMD and microarchitecture showed a slight increase of r(2) values that varied from 8.4% for SI to 17.8% for SOS, compared with BMD alone. The current study suggests that although BMD is a major determinant of acoustic properties of human calcaneus, significant density independent relationships with bone microarchitecture should also be taken into account. PMID:14517711

Cortet, B; Boutry, N; Dubois, P; Legroux-Gérot, I; Cotten, A; Marchandise, X

2004-01-01

341

Bone stiffness predicts strength similarly for human vertebral cancellous bone in compression and for cortical bone in tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield strength and ultimate strength of cortical and cancellous bone tissue are very highly correlated to bone stiffness. For samples of human vertebral cancellous bone in compression and for bovine cortical bone in tension, the coefficient of determination (r2) for regression between ultimate strength and stiffness was 0.89 and 0.92, and between yield strength and stiffness it was 0.94

D. P Fyhrie; D Vashishth

2000-01-01

342

Appropriate use of bone densitometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss current capabilities of three common bone densitometry techniques--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomography--and potential capabilities of new innovations of each of these techniques. They believe that use of bone densitometry is valid in the following four clinical applications and recommend its usage to (a) assess patients with metabolic diseases known to affect the skeleton, (b) assess perimenopausal women for initiation of estrogen replacement therapy, (c) establish a diagnosis of osteoporosis or assess its severity in the context of general clinical care, and (d) monitor the efficacy of treatment interventions or the natural course of disease.

Genant, H.K.; Block, J.E.; Steiger, P.; Glueer, C.C.; Ettinger, B.; Harris, S.T.

1989-03-01

343

Bone Woman: poetry and fictions  

E-print Network

between the objects and ideas; by recognizing what perhaps already existed between them, one lays down the bones that have been collected to form a skeleton, which will always be as unique as the individual who encompassed it, and yet remains that of a... between the objects and ideas; by recognizing what perhaps already existed between them, one lays down the bones that have been collected to form a skeleton, which will always be as unique as the individual who encompassed it, and yet remains that of a...

Airheart-Martin, Tria Ellen

2012-06-07

344

Mechanical Behavior of Bone Cells micrograph view of bone  

E-print Network

Press. #12;6 14 A parallel-plate flow chamber of the type used by Frangos et al., 1988 From: Brown, 2001 actuator From: Brown, 2001, In: Bone Mechanics , S. Cowin, Ed., CRC Press. 9 The longitudinal substrate., CRC Press. 12 Conceptual schematic con-and-plate shear stress mechanostimulus used by Dewey, 1984 From

Gefen, Amit

345

Quantitative Estimation of Bone Density and Bone Quality Using Acoustic Parameters of Cancellous Bone for Fast and Slow Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, two longitudinal waves, the fast and slow waves, were observed in cancellous bone. The propagation speed of the fast wave increases with bone density and that of the slow wave remains almost constant. The attenuation constant of the fast wave is much higher than that of the slow wave and is independent of bone density, but the

Takahiko Otani

2005-01-01

346

Myeloma Bone Disease: Current and Future Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... of The Bone and Cancer Foundation What Is Multiple Myeloma? Multiple Myeloma is a cancer that results from a malignant ... normally helps fight infections. Incidence in the U.S. Multiple Myeloma is the most common cancer to involve bone, ...

347

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2013-04-01

348

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2010-04-01

349

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2011-04-01

350

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 892.1170 - Bone densitometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1170 Bone densitometer. (a) Identification. A bone densitometer...

2012-04-01

352

21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.  

...MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom-shaped device intended to be implanted made of either silicone elastomer or ultra-high molecular weight...

2014-04-01

353

United States Bone and Joint Decade  

MedlinePLUS

... President's Corner USBJI Board Staff Global Bone & Joint Decade Contact Us Bylaws Members & Friends Founding Members Participating ... Meeting 2012 Resources Musculoskeletal Summits Bone and Joint Decade Global Network Conference 2009 2011 Musculoskeletal Summit 2013 ...

354

Mechanical bone strength in the proximal tibia  

E-print Network

Six bone slices from one canine tibia were tested by compressive load to determine the ultimate strength as a function of distance from the knee. Both the ultimate compressive strength and overall modulus of elasticity of tibial bone increased...

Prommin, Danu

2012-06-07

355

Estimation of Trabecular Bone Axis for Characterization of Cancellous Bone Using Scattered Ultrasonic Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method has been proposed to measure the thickness and the interval of trabecular bones for diagnosing osteoporosis, in which the ultrasound signals scattered by trabecular bones are analyzed by modeling cancellous bone as a multilayered grating.For applying this technique to actual diagnosis, the estimation of the direction of the trabecular bone axis is necessary.In this paper an estimation

Kiyotaka Kitamura; Hidetaka Nishikouri; Sadayuki Ueha; Shigeo Kimura; Naoki Ohtomo

1998-01-01

356

Relationship between bone mineral content, bone mineral density and anaerobic power in professional jumpers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive effect of physical activity and exercise on bone mass is well documented in several studies comparing with sedentary subjects. Recent studies have reported that cardiovascular fitness and weight-bearing exercise affect bone mass beneficially. Although it is widely accepted that muscle strength is significantly correlated with bone mass, little is known about anaerobic power and its relation to bone

Mahdi Haydari; Nader Rahnama; Khalil Khayambashi; Mohammad Marandi

2010-01-01

357

An Osteoprotegerin-like Peptidomimetic Inhibits Osteoclastic Bone Resorption and Osteolytic Bone Disease in Myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple myeloma is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow and the development of osteolytic bone disease. Myeloma cells express the receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), induce RANKL expression in the bone marrow, and down-regulate expression of the decoy receptor osteoprote- gerin, thereby promoting bone resorption. Targeting this system

Deborah J. Heath; Karin Vanderkerken; Xin Cheng; Orla Gallagher; Matthew Prideaux; Ramachandran Murali; Peter I. Croucher

2007-01-01

358

Predicting the structural integrity of bone defects repaired using bone graft materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone defects create stress concentrations which can cause fracture under impact or cyclic loading. Defects are often repaired by filling them with a bone graft material; this will reduce the stress concentration, but not completely, because these materials have lower stiffness than bone. The fracture risk decreases over time as the graft material is replaced by living bone. Many new

Emma Brazel; David Taylor

2009-01-01

359

The Influence of Bone Volume Fraction and Ash Fraction on Bone Strength and Modulus  

E-print Network

The Influence of Bone Volume Fraction and Ash Fraction on Bone Strength and Modulus C. J. HERNANDEZ Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Although bone strength and modulus are known of these two parameters remains unknown. Single-parameter power law functions are used widely to relate bone

Stanford University

360

Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption In vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term thiazide diuretic use is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced hip fracture rates, which are attributed to increased serum calcium levels and decreased parathyroid activity that lead to decreased bone resorption. The present study shows that 1–100 µM hydro-chlorothiazide (HCTZ) dose dependently inhibits bone resorption by isolated rat osteoclasts in the bone slice assay with an IC50

T. J. Hall; M. Schaueblin

1994-01-01

361

Effect of oral clodronate on bone pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although osteosclerotic metastases are characteristic of prostatic carcinoma, bone resorption is also accelerated. Since clodronate\\u000a inhibits bone resorption and relieves bone pain, we have given it to patients with painful bone disease from prostatic cancer\\u000a after failure of hormonal therapy. All patients received estramustine phosphate orally. Simultaneously they were randomly\\u000a allocated to clodronate (36) and placebo (39) groups. Clodronate was

I. Elomaa; T. Kylmälä; T. Tammela; J. Viitanen; J. Ottelin; M. Ruutu; K. Jauhiainen; M. Ala-Opas; L. Roos; J. Seppänen; O. Alfthan

1992-01-01

362

Culture system for bone metabolic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms governing bone remodelling is essential for a clear understanding of not only pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, but also microgravity-induced bone loss. The scope of this MAP project is the further development (including technical development and biological validation) of an ex vivo culture system for trabecular bone explants, which can be submitted to controlled mechanical stimuli. This should allow the evaluation of the causal relationship between biochemical and mechanical parameters and bone remodelling.

Vander Sloten, Jos; Jones, David; Richards, R. Geoff; Vico, Laurence; Gasser, Jürg A.; Koller, Bruno; Pugh, Sydney M.

2005-10-01

363

Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by reduced bone mass and a deterioration of bone structure\\u000a which results in an increased fracture risk. Since the disease is preventable, diagnostic techniques are of major importance.\\u000a Standard techniques determine bone mineral density, whereas some of the newer techniques focus on trabecular structure. This\\u000a article reviews structure analysis techniques

T. M. Link; S. Majumdar; S. Grampp; G. Guglielmi; C. van Kuijk; H. Imhof; C. Glueer; J. E. Adams

1999-01-01

364

Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLocal malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft\\/implant composite.Design and patientsThe long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection

Adel Refaat Ahmed; Jun Manabe; Noriyoshi Kawaguchi; Seiichi Matsumoto; Yasushi Matsushita

2003-01-01

365

Bone Builders: The Discoveries Behind Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. Every year, more than 800,000 people in the United States receive bone biomaterials, including bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Bone is the most commonly transplanted tissue after blood transfusions. Unlike most tissues, bone is able to regenerate and reform without scarring, given the proper conditions and materials. Researchers and scientists have learned to exploit this property over many centuries to create modern day bone grafts and bone biomaterials used as substitutes for bone grafts.

Margie Patlak (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Office of Public Affairs)

2001-08-01

366

Alveolar bone regeneration for immediate implant placement using an injectable bone substitute: an experimental study in dog.  

E-print Network

1 TITLE PAGE Alveolar bone regeneration for immediate implant placement using an injectable bone for bone regeneration around dental implants placed into fresh extraction sockets. Methods Third and fourth significantly increase bone regeneration around immediate implants. HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00176539,version1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

BoneJ: free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ  

PubMed Central

Bone geometry is commonly measured on computed tomographic (CT) and X-ray microtomographic (?CT) images. We obtained hundreds of CT, ?CT and synchrotron ?CT images of bones from diverse species that needed to be analysed remote from scanning hardware, but found that available software solutions were expensive, inflexible or methodologically opaque. We implemented standard bone measurements in a novel ImageJ plugin, BoneJ, with which we analysed trabecular bone, whole bones and osteocyte lacunae. BoneJ is open source and free for anyone to download, use, modify and distribute. PMID:20817052

Doube, Michael; Klosowski, Michal M; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Cordelieres, Fabrice P; Dougherty, Robert P; Jackson, Jonathan S; Schmid, Benjamin; Hutchinson, John R; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2011-01-01

368

Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

1987-01-01

369

Soft Bone – Hard Arteries: A Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease is characterized by mineral and various bone disorders associated with extraosseous and cardiovascular calcifications. Experimental studies and clinical observations in the general population and in chronic kidney disease patients show an inverse relationship between the extent of cardiovascular calcifications and bone mineral density or bone metabolic activity. Arterial calcification and osteoporosis are frequently observed in the same

Gérard M. London

2011-01-01

370

Engineering Polymeric Scaffolds for Bone Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopedic injuries resulting from trauma or improper development often require surgical intervention to restore natural tissue function. Currently, over one million operations are performed annually for the surgical reconstruction of bone [50]. The well-known limitations associated with autografts, allografts, and bone cements have led to the investigation of synthetic polymers as support matrices for bone tissue engineering. Polymers are long-chain

Martha W. Betz; Diana M. Yoon; John P. Fisher

371

Vascular Calcification and Renal Bone Disorders  

PubMed Central

At the early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the systemic mineral metabolism and bone composition start to change. This alteration is known as chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It is well known that the bone turnover disorder is the most common complication of CKD-MBD. Besides, CKD patients usually suffer from vascular calcification (VC), which is highly associated with mortality. Many factors regulate the VC mechanism, which include imbalances in serum calcium and phosphate, systemic inflammation, RANK/RANKL/OPG triad, aldosterone, microRNAs, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and effects of vitamins. These factors have roles in both promoting and inhibiting VC. Patients with CKD usually have bone turnover problems. Patients with high bone turnover have increase of calcium and phosphate release from the bone. By contrast, when bone turnover is low, serum calcium and phosphate levels are frequently maintained at high levels because the reservoir functions of bone decrease. Both of these conditions will increase the possibility of VC. In addition, the calcified vessel may secrete FGF23 and Wnt inhibitors such as sclerostin, DKK-1, and secreted frizzled-related protein to prevent further VC. However, all of them may fight back the inhibition of bone formation resulting in fragile bone. There are several ways to treat VC depending on the bone turnover status of the individual. The main goals of therapy are to maintain normal bone turnover and protect against VC. PMID:25136676

Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao; Yen, Jen-Fen; Liu, Wen-Chih

2014-01-01

372

Physical activity increases bone mass during growth  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1990?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy to improve peak bone mass, including some aspects of nutrition. Design Publications within the field were searched through Medline (PubMed) using the search words: exercise, physical activity, bone mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, BMC, BMD, skeletal structure and nutrition. We included studies dealing with exercise during growth and young adolescence. We preferably based our inferences on randomised controlled trials (RCT), which provide the highest level of evidence. Results Exercise during growth increases peak bone mass. Moderate intensity exercise intervention programs are beneficial for the skeletal development during growth. Adequate nutrition must accompany the exercise to achieve the most beneficial skeletal effects by exercise. Conclusion Exercise during growth seems to enhance the building of a stronger skeleton through a higher peak bone mass and a larger bone size. PMID:19109652

Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

2008-01-01

373

CORTICAL BONE FRACTURE R. O. RITCHIE  

E-print Network

component of the body, serving as a protective load-bearing skeletal framework. As a structural material with an increased risk of fracture. However, low bone mass is not the sole reason why bone becomes more prone for understanding how other factors control bone fracture. Much of this renewed emphasis is currently be- ing

Ritchie, Robert

374

Allogeneic Fetal Bone Cranioplasty in Macaca mulatta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teratogen-induced herniation of the occipital lobes (encephalocele) associated with cranium bifidum in monkey fetuses (Macaca mulatta) were repaired by amputation and cranioplasty in utero or postnatally. Fetal allogeneic cranial bone which had been fresh frozen was used in conjunction with a bone paste to provide a protective covering of the neural tissue following repair of the encephalocele. The bone graft

John D. Bacher; Maria Michejda

1988-01-01

375

Vibrational spectroscopy in biomedical science: bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIR) and Raman Microspectroscopy are powerful tools for characterizing the distribution of different chemical moieties in heterogeneous materials. FTIR and Raman measurements have been adapted to assess the maturity of the mineral and the quality of the organic component (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) of the mineralized tissue in bone. Unique to the FTIRI analysis is the capability to provide the spatial distribution of two of the major collagen cross-links (pyridinoline, and dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine) and through the study of normal and diseased bone, relate them to bone strength. These FTIR parameters have been validated based on analysis of model compounds. It is widely accepted that bone strength is determined by bone mass and bone quality. The latter is a multifactorial term encompassing the material and structural properties of bone, and one important aspect of the bone material properties is the organic matrix. The bone material properties can be defined by parameters of mineral and collagen, as determined by FTIR and Raman analysis. Considerably less attention has been directed at collagen, although there are several publications in the literature reporting altered collagen properties associated with fragile bone, in both animals and humans. Since bone is a heterogeneous tissue due to the remodeling process, microscopic areas may be carefully selected based on quantitative Backscattered Electron Imaging or histological staining, thus ensuring comparison of areas with similar metabolic activity and mineral content. In conclusion, FTIRI and Raman vibrational spectroscopy are proving to be powerful tools in bone-related medical research.

Gamsjäger, Sonja; Zoehrer, R.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Mendelsohn, R.; Paschalis, E. P.

2009-02-01

376

BONE CARE FOR THE POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMAN  

E-print Network

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration in the microarchitecture of bone tissue, leading to an increased risk of fracture. Osteoporosis occurs when the bone mass decreases more fracture). Osteoporosis has no signs or symptoms until a fracture occurs ­ this is why it is often called

Shihadeh, Alan

377

Haversian Bone Remodelling in Human Fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haversian bone remodelling used to be considered an attribute of adult bone. In the present paper, typical haversian remodelling was observed in the humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula and 6th and 7th ribs as soon as the 24th week. Its aspect suggests an already ancient occurrence. Remodelling was found in the same bone pieces of the neonate as well

P. Burton; C. Nyssen-Behets; A. Dhem

1989-01-01

378

21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device...

2011-04-01

379

21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device...

2010-04-01

380

21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device...

2012-04-01

381

21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device...

2014-04-01

382

21 CFR 872.4760 - Bone plate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone plate. 872.4760 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Surgical Devices § 872.4760 Bone plate. (a) Identification. A bone plate is a metal device...

2013-04-01

383

Effects of Implant Design Characteristics on Bone  

E-print Network

White et al. (1977) Stage 1: Bone fails through original fracture site; has low stiffness similar to soft tissue stiffness. Fracture site has low stiffness and low strength Stage 2: Bone fails through original fracture site, but stiffness is more similar to mineralized tissue. Fracture site has normal bone

Gefen, Amit

384

Embryonic stem cells in bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased life expectancy of humans the number of patients with age related skeletal compliciations has increased. These patients but also patients suffering from complications due to trauma or disease often need surgical interventions in which additional bone is required for optimal recovery. Currently the most frequently used bone replacement is autologous or allogeneic bone, but both methods have

Sanne Karijn Both

2008-01-01

385

Better Bones Buddies: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although osteoporosis typically surfaces in later life, peak bone mass attained before age 20 is a key factor in its prevention. However, most American children's diets lack sufficient calcium during the critical growth periods of preadolescence and adolescence to achieve peak bone mass. "Better Bones (BB) Buddies" is an educational program…

Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Horner, Arlene

2005-01-01

386

Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens  

E-print Network

Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age as well as an economical problem. Parallel with reduced shell quality the bone strength declines

387

38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4.44 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities...permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone, some degree of angulation is to be...

2013-07-01

388

38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4.44 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities...permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone, some degree of angulation is to be...

2012-07-01

389

38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4.44 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities...permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone, some degree of angulation is to be...

2014-07-01

390

38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4.44 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities...permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone, some degree of angulation is to be...

2010-07-01

391

38 CFR 4.44 - The bones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The bones. 4.44 Section 4.44 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.44 The bones. The osseous abnormalities...permanent residuals. With shortening of a long bone, some degree of angulation is to be...

2011-07-01

392

Inflammatory bone loss: pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a tissue undergoing continuous building and degradation. This remodelling is a tightly regulated process that can be disturbed by many factors, particularly hormonal changes. Chronic inflammation can also perturb bone metabolism and promote increased bone loss. Inflammatory diseases can arise all over the body, including in the musculoskeletal system (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), the intestine (for example, inflammatory

Kurt Redlich; Josef S. Smolen

2012-01-01

393

Cyst arising in a free bone graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyst which arose in an autogenous iliac crest bone graft is presented. The cyst developed unilaterally 8 years following secondary alveolar bone grafting. The cyst, which was lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, is believed to be the result of implantation of small particles of nasal epithelium into the bone transplant during the grafting procedure.

C. Lekkas; L. M. H. Smets; F. van Hoeken

2001-01-01

394

Holographic nondestructive testing in bone biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holographic interferometry is widely used in nondestructive testing of objects. During the work of the bone biomechanics the antler stress in nasal bone region of five Finnish male moose skulls showing four different nasal bone types were tested with the forces representing dynamic and static stresses.

Raimo Silvennoinen; Kaarlo Nygren; Juha Paatsama; Markku Kaernae

1991-01-01

395

What Is Paget's Disease of Bone?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease of Bone Paget's Disease Basics What Is Paget's Disease of Bone? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of ... Paget's Disease Facts for New Patients Partner Resources Paget's Disease of Bone (NIHSeniorHealth) Be An Active Member of Your Health ...

396

Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

Colnot, C. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States)]. E-mail: colnotc@orthosurg.ucsf.edu; Huang, S. [University of California at San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110 (United States); Helms, J. [Stanford University, 257 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

2006-11-24

397

Vitamin K and bone health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade it has become evident that vitamin K has a significant role to play in human health that is beyond its well-established function in blood clotting. There is a consistent line of evidence in human epidemiologic and intervention studies that clearly demonstrates that vitamin K can improve bone health. The human intervention studies have demonstrated that vitamin

Peter Weber

2001-01-01

398

PASSCLAIM - Bone health and osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: The EC Concerted Action PASSCLAIM aims to produce a generic tool for assessing the scientific support for health-related claims for foods and food components. Aim: The task of the ITGB Working Group was to critically evaluate the categories of scientific evidence needed to support claims in relation to bone health and osteoporosis. Methods: A framework was developed to

Ann Prentice; Jean-Philippe Bonjour; Francesco Branca; Cyrus Cooper; Albert Flynn; Michèle Garabedian; Detlef Müller; Daphne Pannemans; Peter Weber

2003-01-01

399

Physical properties of trabecular bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relation between compressive strength and density of human vertebral bone, the relation between trabecular orientation and compressive strength, and the effects of the strain rate on compressive strength. A total of 71 samples obtained at 23 post mortem examinations were investigated. Density determinations were made and two different densities were calculated:

J. Galante; W. Rostoker; R. D. Ray

1970-01-01

400

How Is Bone Cancer Staged?  

MedlinePLUS

... when the patient is first diagnosed. AJCC Staging System The American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) system is used to stage all bone cancers. It ... grouped stage of a cancer using the AJCC system, find the stage number below that contains the ...

401

Physical activity and bone health.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis and related fractures cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and result in enormous costs to affected individuals and society. Lifestyle choices across the lifespan impact osteoporosis and fracture risk. Physical activity is a viable strategy for the prevention and treatment of low bone mass. PMID:24645301

Carter, Melissa I; Hinton, Pamela S

2014-01-01

402

Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

1988-01-01

403

Severe bone disease and low bone mineral density after juvenile renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe bone disease and low bone mineral density after juvenile renal failure.BackgroundLittle is known about the late effects of juvenile end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on bone integrity. To establish clinical manifestations of metabolic bone disease and bone mineral density (BMD) in young adult patients with juvenile ESRD, we performed a long-term outcome study.MethodsA cohort was formed of all Dutch patients

Jaap W Groothoff; Martin Offringa; Berthe LF Van Eck-Smit; Mariken P Gruppen; Nicole J Van De Kar; Eric D Wolff; Marc R Lilien; Jean Claude Davin; Hugo SA Heymans; Friedo W Dekker

2003-01-01

404

[Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Increase in bone fragility from the viewpoint of bone structural properties].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic renal disease (CKD) show the dissociation between their bone mineral density (BMD) and their fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) contributes to investigate the deterioration of structural properties in these diseases. In type2 DM, the increase in cortical porosity account for its high fracture risk. In CKD, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is anabolic in trabecular bone and catabolic in cortical bone, which produces complicated bone feature. If hyperparathyroidism is severe, cortical thinning and increased cortical porosity appear in the compact bone, and irregular thickened trabeculae and dissecting intra-trabecular resorption appear in the cancellous bone. Even in the early stage of CKD, the bone microstructural changes are observed. For further investigation of the structural changes in relation to biomechanical properties in type2 DM and CKD, the longitudinal studies are required using in vivo HR-pQCT. PMID:25355145

Ito, Masako; Chiba, Ko

2014-11-01

405

Bone age assessment in young children using automatic carpal bone feature extraction and support vector regression.  

PubMed

Boundary extraction of carpal bone images is a critical operation of the automatic bone age assessment system, since the contrast between the bony structure and soft tissue are very poor. In this paper, we present an edge following technique for boundary extraction in carpal bone images and apply it to assess bone age in young children. Our proposed technique can detect the boundaries of carpal bones in X-ray images by using the information from the vector image model and the edge map. Feature analysis of the carpal bones can reveal the important information for bone age assessment. Five features for bone age assessment are calculated from the boundary extraction result of each carpal bone. All features are taken as input into the support vector regression (SVR) that assesses the bone age. We compare the SVR with the neural network regression (NNR). We use 180 images of carpal bone from a digital hand atlas to assess the bone age of young children from 0 to 6 years old. Leave-one-out cross validation is used for testing the efficiency of the techniques. The opinions of the skilled radiologists provided in the atlas are used as the ground truth in bone age assessment. The SVR is able to provide more accurate bone age assessment results than the NNR. The experimental results from SVR are very close to the bone age assessment by skilled radiologists. PMID:21347746

Somkantha, Krit; Theera-Umpon, Nipon; Auephanwiriyakul, Sansanee

2011-12-01

406

Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

2008-01-01

407

Comparison of lead residues among avian bones.  

PubMed

To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock bones over a wide range of Pb concentrations (3-311 microg/g). In eider, where bone-Pb concentrations were low (<10 microg/g), leg bones had significantly higher Pb concentrations (approximately 30-40%) than wing bones from the same individuals. The variation among individual birds was greater than the variation among different bones within a bird. Based on our findings, we conclude that one type of bone may be substituted for another in bone-Pb studies although the same bone type should be analyzed for all birds within a study, whenever possible. PMID:16815605

Ethier, A L M; Braune, B M; Scheuhammer, A M; Bond, D E

2007-02-01

408

Engineering endochondral bone: in vivo studies.  

PubMed

The use of biomaterials to replace lost bone has been a common practice for decades. More recently, the demands for bone repair and regeneration have pushed research into the use of cultured cells and growth factors in association with these materials. Here we report a novel approach to engineer new bone using a transient cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. Chondrocyte/chitosan scaffolds (both a transient cartilage scaffold-experimental-and a permanent cartilage scaffold-control) were prepared and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Bone formation was evaluated over a period of 5 months. Mineralization was assessed by Faxitron, micro computed tomography, backscatter electrons, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Histological analysis provided further information on tissue changes in and around the implanted scaffolds. The deposition of ectopic bone was detected in the surface of the experimental implants as early as 1 month after implantation. After 3 months, bone trabeculae and bone marrow cavities were formed inside the scaffolds. The bone deposited was similar to the bone of the mice vertebra. Interestingly, no bone formation was observed in control implants. In conclusion, an engineered transient cartilage template carries all the signals necessary to induce endochondral bone formation in vivo. PMID:18759673

Oliveira, Serafim M; Mijares, Dindo Q; Turner, Gloria; Amaral, Isabel F; Barbosa, Mário A; Teixeira, Cristina C

2009-03-01

409

Engineering Endochondral Bone: In Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

The use of biomaterials to replace lost bone has been a common practice for decades. More recently, the demands for bone repair and regeneration have pushed research into the use of cultured cells and growth factors in association with these materials. Here we report a novel approach to engineer new bone using a transient cartilage scaffold to induce endochondral ossification. Chondrocyte/chitosan scaffolds (both a transient cartilage scaffold—experimental—and a permanent cartilage scaffold—control) were prepared and implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Bone formation was evaluated over a period of 5 months. Mineralization was assessed by Faxitron, micro computed tomography, backscatter electrons, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Histological analysis provided further information on tissue changes in and around the implanted scaffolds. The deposition of ectopic bone was detected in the surface of the experimental implants as early as 1 month after implantation. After 3 months, bone trabeculae and bone marrow cavities were formed inside the scaffolds. The bone deposited was similar to the bone of the mice vertebra. Interestingly, no bone formation was observed in control implants. In conclusion, an engineered transient cartilage template carries all the signals necessary to induce endochondral bone formation in vivo. PMID:18759673

Oliveira, Serafim M.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Turner, Gloria; Amaral, Isabel F.; Barbosa, Mário A.

2009-01-01

410

Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin), serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX), N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX), pyridinolines (DPD and PYD), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion) or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis). Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL) is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics. PMID:24839355

Fardellone, Patrice; Sejourne, Alice; Paccou, Julien; Goeb, Vincent

2014-01-01

411

Bone histomorphometry, bone mass, and related parameters in alcoholic males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Bone mass and related metabolic variables were studied in 50 males known to be, or to have been, regular alcohol abusers.\\u000a Subjects were divided into those who were still drinking and those who had abstained for at least 3 months, and the former\\u000a further subdivided into moderate and heavy drinkers. Twenty-five had at least two atraumatic spinal crush fractures. In

Richard G. Crilly; Colin Anderson; David Hogan; Liliane Delaquerrière-Richardson

1988-01-01

412

Anorexia Nervosa, Obesity and Bone Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa and obesity are conditions at the extreme ends of the nutritional spectrum, associated with marked reductions versus increases respectively in body fat content. Both conditions are also associated with an increased risk for fractures. In anorexia nervosa, body composition and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content are important determinants of low bone density, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength. In addition, anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in marrow adiposity and decreases in cold activated brown adipose tissue, both of which are related to low bone density. In obese individuals, greater visceral adiposity is associated with greater marrow fat, lower bone density and impaired bone structure. In this review, we discuss bone metabolism in anorexia nervosa and obesity in relation to adipose tissue distribution and hormones secreted or regulated by body fat content. PMID:24079076

Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

2014-01-01

413

TDAG8 activation inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption.  

PubMed

Although the roles of acids in bone metabolism are well characterized, the function of proton-sensing receptors in bone metabolism remains to be explored. In this study, we evaluated the role of proton-sensing receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) in osteoclastic activity during bone loss after ovariectomy. Through observations of bone mineral content, we found that pathological bone resorption was significantly exacerbated in mice homozygous for a gene trap mutation in the Tdag8 gene. Furthermore, osteoclasts from the homozygous mutant mice resorbed calcium in vitro more than the osteoclasts from the heterozygous mice did. Impaired osteoclast formation under acidic conditions was ameliorated in cultures of bone marrow cells by Tdag8 gene mutation. Extracellular acidification changed the cell morphology of osteoclasts via the TDAG8-Rho signaling pathway. These results suggest that the enhancement of TDAG8 function represents a new strategy for preventing bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:24221084

Hikiji, Hisako; Endo, Daisuke; Horie, Kyoji; Harayama, Takeshi; Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Hidemitsu; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Yanagida, Keisuke; Takeda, Junji; Koji, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takao; Ishii, Satoshi

2014-02-01

414

Cancer and bone: a complex complex.  

PubMed

Primary and secondary bone cancers are rare events. However, once settled, a complex process is started involving an extensive amount of factors and interactions. The bone micro-environment is a preferential site for (metastatic) tumor cells to enter, stay, colonize and expand. The fact that the tumor cells affect the complete bone environment involving many cell types and regulatory pathways to stimulate their own growth and escape from therapy is devastating for the patient. Many efforts have been made to get more insight into the mechanisms underlying the communication between bone cells and cancer cells and progress is made in therapeutic interventions. This review will discuss the biological mechanisms of primary bone malignancies (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, multiple myeloma) and secondary bone malignancies (bone metastases) and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25046842

van Driel, Marjolein; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

2014-11-01

415

Imagistic evaluation of matrix bone interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problematic elements of bone regenerative materials are represented by their quality control methods. The defects repaired by bone grafting material were evaluated by en face optical coherence tomography and by synchrotron radiation micro-CT. The images obtained by efOCT show defects in some of the investigated samples, at the bone interface with different osteoconductive bone substitutes and we were able to detect gaps as small as 50 ?m. After the common synchrotron radiation micro-CT investigations, the slides were reconstructed and the 3D model was obtained. Along with the possibility of navigating inside the structure, one big advantage of this technique was pointed out: the remaining regenerative materials can be separated from the normal bone and the new bone can be visualized. Optical coherence tomography can be performed in vivo and can provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the bone augmentation procedure.

Negruţiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Manescu, Adrian; Topal?, Florin I.; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; M?rc?uţeanu, Corina; Duma, Virgil; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2014-01-01

416

High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

2014-03-01

417

In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ?65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and non-unions. Compromised innate bone healing reactions of patients with bone diseases are exacerbated with protective bone therapy. Once these patients sustain a fracture, bone healing is a challenge, especially when fracture stabilization is unsuccessful. Traditional stabilizing screw and plate systems were designed with emphasis on bone mechanics rather than biology. Bone grafts are often used with fixation devices to provide skeletal continuity at the fracture gap. Current bone grafts include autologous bone tissue and donor bone tissue; however, the quality and quantity demanded by fragility fractures sustained by high-risk geriatric patients and patients with bone diseases are not met. Consequently, bone tissue engineering strategies are advancing towards functionalized bone substitutes to provide fracture reconstruction while effectively mediating bone healing in normal and diseased fracture environments. In order to target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should be tailored to allow bone regeneration and fracture stabilization with bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. The clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted treatment strategy should focus on simulating, in vitro, a physiological bone environment to predict clinical effectiveness of engineered bone and understand cellular responses due to the proposed agents and bioactive scaffolds. An in vitro test system can be the necessary catalyst to reduce implant failures and non-unions in fragility fractures.

Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

418

New developments in bone densitometry  

SciTech Connect

The new development in QCT and DPA will reduce the time of diagnostic studies to several minutes and improve precision severalfold. It may therefore be feasible to do selective screening procedures at costs as low as $50 to $100. Thus, these advances in QCT and DPA are promising to provide capabilities that have been needed in bone densitometry--high reliability, excellent patient throughput, and services at economical levels.

Genant, H.K.; Steiger, P.; Glueer, C.C.

1989-04-01

419

Cadmium and postmenopausal bone loss  

SciTech Connect

Neither ovariectomy alone nor dietary cadmium exposure alone caused statistically significant decreases in the mean calcium contents and calcium/dry weight ratios of the femurs and lumbar vertebrae. Exposure to 50 ppM dietary Cd caused a significant increase in the loss of bone calcium after ovariectomy such that the calcium contents and calcium to dry weight ratios of both femurs and lumbar vertebrae were strikingly lower than those of all other groups.

Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Moretti, E.S.; Dare, H.A.

1987-01-01

420

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high

Manfred Fischer; Willm U. Kampen

2012-01-01

421

Bone health in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who are disabled with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of osteoporosis. This review discusses issues\\u000a relevant to bone health in MS and makes practical recommendations regarding prevention and screening for osteoporosis and\\u000a fracture risk in MS. A search of the literature up until 5 April 2011 was performed using key search terms, and articles pertinent\\u000a to

J. C. Gibson; G. D. Summers

422

Nonsteroid immunosuppressive agents and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive agents introduced to enhance the action of glucocorticoids and to prevent organ rejection had a dramatic\\u000a impact on reducing the incidence of organ rejection, enhancing donor organ, and hence patient survival following transplantation.\\u000a However, these agents, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, termed calcineurin inhibitors (CIs) also have side effects, including the promotion of rapid and severe bone loss in vivo

Solomon Epstein; Angela M. Inzerillo

2004-01-01

423

Surgical Management of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthopaedic and spinal surgery can provide significant palliation to patients with symptoms arising for bony metastatic involvement\\u000a in addition to patients that are at risk for skeletally related events (SREs). This chapter will review the role of surgery\\u000a in the management of bone metastases and discuss factors that need to be considered prior to surgery. The treatment of pathologic\\u000a fractures

Markku Nousiainen; Cari M. Whyne; Albert Yee; Joel Finkelstein; Michael Ford

424

[Bone metastases in breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

The case of a 66-year-old patient with multiple osteolytic bone metastases caused by breast cancer is presented. The patient refused conventional pain therapy although she suffered from severe pain. A complementary therapy with homoeopathic high potencies, devil's-claw extract, enzymes, alendronate and orthomolecular substitution as well as physiotherapy resulted in effective pain relief over a period of 1 year. The case is discussed. PMID:16582551

Teut, Michael; Warning, Albrecht

2006-02-01

425

Nothing but skin and bone  

PubMed Central

Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues. PMID:16670754

Ross, F. Patrick; Christiano, Angela M.

2006-01-01

426

Syndromes with congenital brittle bones  

PubMed Central

Background There is no clear definition of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The most widely used classification of OI divides the disease in four types, although it has been suggested that there may be at least 12 forms of OI. These forms have been named with numbers, eponyms or descriptive names. Some of these syndromes can actually be considered congenital forms of brittle bones resembling OI (SROI). Discussion A review of different syndromes with congenital brittle bones published in the literature is presented. Syndromes are classified in "OI" (those secondary to mutations in the type I pro-collagen genes), and "syndromes resembling OI" (those secondary to mutations other that the type I pro-collagen genes, identified or not). A definition for OI is proposed as a syndrome of congenital brittle bones secondary to mutations in the genes codifying for pro-collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2). Summary A debate about the definition of OI and a possible clinical and prognostic classification are warranted. PMID:15339338

Plotkin, Horacio

2004-01-01

427

Burn-induced Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the issue of bone loss that accompanies severe burn injury. Why is this important? How does it happen? How can we treat it? Methods: The published findings on this subject are reviewed and integrated into a conceptual framework. Results: Bone loss occurs quickly following a severe burn, is sustained, and increases the risk of postburn fracture. The likely mechanisms responsible are the increase in endogenous glucocorticoid production resulting from the stress response and resorptive cytokines resulting from the systemic inflammatory response and likely aggravated by progressive vitamin D deficiency. Calcium metabolism is also disrupted as the patients develop hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism likely due to an upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor, possibly due to inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Treatment is achieved by use of anabolic agents and vitamin D supplementation. Studies of acute administration of the antiresorptive agent pamidronate are also promising. Conclusion: Postburn bone loss should be looked for in patients with a burn injury of 40% or greater total body surface area. The cause is inherent to the adaptive mechanisms following burn injury. Methods are available to treat this condition. PMID:16921418

Klein, Gordon L.

2006-01-01

428

Vascularization strategies for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

The functional regeneration of thick vascularized tissues such as bone and muscle is complicated by the large volume of lost tissue, challenging biomechanical environment, and the need to reproduce the highly organized structure of both the native tissue extracellular matrix and its vascular support system. Stem cell or progenitor cell delivery approaches, for example, continue to be plagued by low viability and engraftment in part due to the initial absence of a vascular supply. Recognition of diffusion limitations in thick tissues has prompted regenerative strategies that seek to accelerate establishment of a functional vasculature. The successful design of robust regeneration strategies for these challenging clinical scenarios will rely on a thorough understanding of interactions between construct design parameters and host biological and biomechanical factors. Here, we discuss the critical role of vascularization in normal bone tissue homeostasis and repair, vascular network adaptation to the local biomechanical environment, and the future directions of revascularization approaches being developed and integrated with bone regeneration strategies. PMID:24468975

Krishnan, Laxminarayanan; Willett, Nick J; Guldberg, Robert E

2014-02-01

429

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-01-01

430

Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.  

PubMed Central

Normal bone remodelling requires the coordinated regulation of the genesis and activity of osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. Any interference with these integrated cellular systems can result in dysregulation of remodelling with the consequent loss of bone matrix. Bacteria are important causes of bone pathology in common conditions such as periodontitis, dental cysts, bacterial arthritis, and osteomyelitis. It is now established that many of the bacteria implicated in bone diseases contain or produce molecules with potent effects on bone cells. Some of these molecules, such as components of the gram-positive cell walls (lipoteichoic acids), are weak stimulators of bone resorption in vitro, while others (PMT, cpn60) are as active as the most active mammalian osteolytic factors such as cytokines like IL-1 and TNF. The complexity of the integration of bone cell lineage development means that there are still question marks over the mechanism of action of many well-known bone-modulatory molecules such as parathyroid hormone. The key questions which must be asked of the now-recognized bacterial bone-modulatory molecules are as follows: (i) what cell population do they bind to, (ii) what is the nature of the receptor and postreceptor events, and (iii) is their action direct or dependent on the induction of secondary extracellular bone-modulating factors such as cytokines, eicosanoids, etc. In the case of LPS, this ubiquitous gram-negative polymer probably binds to osteoblasts or other cells in bone through the CD14 receptor and stimulates them to release cytokines and eicosanoids which then induce the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts. This explains the inhibitor effects of nonsteroidal and anticytokine agents on LPS-induced bone resorption. However, other bacterial factors such as the potent toxin PMT may act by blocking the normal maturation pathway of the osteoblast lineage, thus inducing dysregulation in the tightly regulated process of resorption and replacement of bone matrix. At the present time, it is not possible to define a general mechanism by which bacteria promote loss of bone matrix. Many bacteria are capable of stimulating bone matrix loss, and the information available would suggest that each organism possesses different factors which interact with bone in different ways. With the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and M. tuberculosis, organisms responsible for much bone pathology in developed countries only two generations ago, we would urge that much greater attention should be focused on the problem of bacterially induced bone remodelling in order to define pathogenetic mechanisms which could be therapeutic targets for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:8698454

Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

1996-01-01

431

FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis  

PubMed Central

Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic cytokine expression, such as TNF? and IL-1, underlining the correlation of pituitary-bone axis to the immune system. PMID:23818914

Cuscito, Concetta; Colucci, Silvia

2013-01-01

432

Predicting Bone Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone from DXA, MRI, and Fractal Dimensional Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project was aimed at making predictions of bone mechanical properties from non-invasive DXA and MRI measurements. Given the bone mechanical properties, stress calculations can be made to compare normal bone stresses to the stresses developed in exercise countermeasures against bone loss during space flight. These calculations in turn will be used to assess whether mechanical factors can explain bone loss in space. In this study we assessed the use of T2(sup *) MRI imaging, DXA, and fractal dimensional analysis to predict strength and stiffness in cancellous bone.

Harrigan, Timothy P.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Hogan, Harry A.; Shackleford, Linda; Webster, Laurie; LeBlanc, Adrian; Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan

1997-01-01

433

Short- and long-term effects of vertebroplastic bone cement on cancellous bone.  

PubMed

Vertebroplasty using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is the most common method to treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures. However, several questions of interest remain to be clarified, including how does PMMA affect the cement-bone interface area and surrounding bone tissue, can damaged bone tissues be repaired, how will PMMA change the bone interface over the long-term, and what happens to PMMA itself? The purpose of this study is to investigate these concerns and provide a basis for clinical evaluation. We made bone defects in the lumbar vertebrae of New Zealand rabbits as a model of osteoporosis and injected them with bone cement. A mechanical testing machine was used to perform axial compression, three-point bending, and twisting resistance tests to observe and investigate the short- and long-term biomechanical properties of PMMA after implantation. Optical, fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation were used to observe the changes in the interface microstructure. PMMA can rapidly establish the strong support with stable function in the near future. Biomechanical experiments showed that biomechanical property of bone cement group was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05) biomechanical property of bone cement group may decline with the time, but it?s still better than that of OP in the control group (P<0.05). Histomorphological observation result shows that under osteoporosis state the bone grows slower, also bone?s rebuilding time extended. And in the later period, main bone?s continuous osteoporosis has some impact on the interface. Nano-indentation testing shows that the young modulus and stiffness of the interface among bone, material and interface were significantly differences (P<0.05). Bone cement had gave the best nano indentation hardness, then was interface and bone tissue. PMMA bone cement was able to quickly support and stabilize the defect in the short term, and bone growth restarted at the bone interface and was tightly integrated. However, over the long-term, fluorescent signal was weakened, osteoclasts appeared, the mechanical indicators for both the interface and the whole vertebra decreased, and bone resorption was eventually greater than bone formation, resulting in bone loss. Therefore, vertebroplasty is not the end of treatment, and we need to further study ways to improve the bone cement material, which is crucial for long-term vertebroplasty efficacy, to better treat osteoporosis. PMID:24762857

Quan, Renfu; Ni, Yueming; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Jinwei; Zheng, Xuan; Yang, Disheng

2014-07-01

434

[Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. The relationship between incretin and bone metabolism].  

PubMed

There are two kinds of incretin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) . GIP directly affects osteoblasts and osteoclasts, resulting in increasing bone mass by enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption. On the other hand, GLP-1 does not affect bone directly. GLP-1 is reported to stimulate calcitonin secretion in thyroid gland and then indirectly increase bone mass. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which activate the function of incretin, may decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures. In addition, it has been shown that osteoblast-derived osteocalcin stimulates GLP-1 secretion. Therefore, there may be an interaction between bone and digestive tract. PMID:25355151

Kanazawa, Ippei

2014-11-01

435

[Bone adaptive digital analysis for femur bone being in disuse and overload condition].  

PubMed

Mature femur bone, through the process of bone remodeling, renews itself and adapts to mechanical load. In this study, a biomechanical model involving strain and other variable parameters was developed for bone remodeling and used to simulate the removal of bone mass and bone regeneration in the disuse and overload condition. The results exhibit that elastic modulus in bone lateral portion is decreasing and porosity is increasing for acquiring equilibrium strain. The conclusion of simulation for reality femur model is more accurate than what is obtained from simplified model or from only one volume element. These indicate the significance of acquiring scientific data to the development of consummate simulation model. PMID:19024449

Chen, Xirui; Gong, Xiansheng

2008-10-01

436

Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

2011-04-01

437

Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts  

PubMed Central

The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

Grayson, Warren L.; Frohlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

438

Traumatic Bone Bruises in the Athlete's Knee  

PubMed Central

Context: Mobile water within the bone marrow is a physiological phenomenon that is identifiable on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and signal changes can result from blood pooling, reactive hyperemia, edema, and microfracture. When these MR lesions are associated with an acute traumatic event, the findings are referred to as bone bruises and so represent a unique manifestation of injury. This review discusses bone bruises in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, patella dislocations, occult fractures, and contusions. Methods: A PubMed search of the literature from 1982 to December 2009 was conducted with the terms knee and bone bruise. Results: Bone bruises are associated with ACL tears, patella dislocations, occult fractures, and contusions. For each injury, a unique pattern of bone bruising is found on MR imaging, which results from the acute trauma. When acute trauma produces a subchondral lesion with low T1-weighted and high T2-weighted signal intensity, the resulting bony contusion is best described as a bone bruise. Conclusions: Bone marrow edema is identified using MR imaging and may result from traumatic or atraumatic causes. Bone bruises can be characterized by their pattern at presentation, by the mechanism of injury, and by their associated injuries. This type of bone edema can accompany contact and noncontact ACL ruptures as well as patella dislocations. Although increased marrow edema can be associated with an occult fracture, the long-term significance of these lesions is unclear. PMID:23015967

DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Spindler, Kurt P.

2010-01-01

439

Bone Tissue Engineering: Recent Advances and Challenges  

PubMed Central

The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648

Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.

2013-01-01

440

The temporal response of bone to unloading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. The effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of suspension was investigated using radio iostope incorporation (with Ca-45 and H-3 proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. This model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed in the accretion of bone mass, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days, despite continued skeletal unloading. This cycle of inhibition and resumption of bone formation has profound implication for understanding bone dynamics durng space flight, immobilization, or bed rest and offers an opportunity to study the hormonal and mechanical factors that regulate bone formation.

Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

1984-01-01

441

Reduced vertebral bone density in hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry were used to determine bone density at the lumbar spine and radial shaft in 62 patients with absorptive hypercalciuria, 27 patients with fasting hypercalciuria, and 31 nonhypercalciuric stone formers. Lumbar bone density was significantly lower in patients with absorptive (-10%) as well as in those with fasting hypercalciuria (-12%), with 74 and 92% of patients displaying values below the normal mean, whereas only 48% of the nonhypercalciuric stone formers had bone density values below the normal mean. In contrast, radial bone density was similar in all three groups of renal stone formers investigated. The comparison of urinary chemistry in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria and low normal bone density compared to those with high normal bone density showed a significantly increased 24 h urinary calcium excretion on random diet and a trend toward a higher 24 h urinary uric acid excretion and a higher body mass index in patients with low normal bone density. Moreover, among the patients with absorptive hypercalciuria we found a statistically significant correlation between the spinal bone density and the 24 h sodium and sulfate excretion and the urinary pH. These results gave evidence for an additional role of environmental factors (sodium and animal proteins) in the pathogenesis of bone loss in absorptive hypercalciuria. In conclusion, our data suggest an osteopenia of trabecular-rich bone tissues in patients with fasting and absorptive hypercalciurias.

Pietschmann, F.; Breslau, N. A.; Pak, C. Y.

1992-01-01

442

Effortless Effort in Bone Regeneration: A Review  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the concept of osteoconduction in bony changes in the oral cavity showed a wide range of biomaterials and their osteoinductive potential that emerged gradually and has to a large extent improved the quality of the bone prior to the placement of an implant. Alveolar bone loss is a major concern after tooth extraction in patients and therefore atraumatic extraction procedures should be followed to avoid further bone loss. To overcome the alveolar bone loss and to augment support for placing dental implants, many bone regenerative substitutes are available such as allografts, autografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials and osteoactive agents. In light of the steady progress in bone grafting techniques and graft materials, it has become possible to improve the volume, width, and height of bone in deficient areas of the oral cavity. These advances in regenerative dentistry thus facilitate an easy and convenient placement of an implant in an ideal position and angulations resulting in superior esthetics and function. Bone grafting materials and their substitutes are the alternative filler materials, which facilitate to reduce additional surgical procedures, risks, chances of cross infection involved in placing autografts and allografts into the bony structures. This review literature highlights various biomaterials that are helpful in bone healing and thus create an anatomically favorable base for ideal implant placement. How to cite the article: Nazirkar G, Singh S, Dole V, Nikam A. Effortless effort in bone regeneration: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):120-4. PMID:25083047

Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Dole, Vinaykumar; Nikam, Akhilesh

2014-01-01

443

Physiological effects of microgravity on bone cells.  

PubMed

Life on Earth developed under the influence of normal gravity (1g). With evidence from previous studies, scientists have suggested that normal physiological processes, such as the functional integrity of muscles and bone mass, can be affected by microgravity during spaceflight. During the life span, bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks but also adapts for efficiency. The lack of weight-bearing forces makes microgravity an ideal physical stimulus to evaluate bone cell responses. One of the most serious problems induced by long-term weightlessness is bone mineral loss. Results from in vitro studies that entailed the use of bone cells in spaceflights showed modification in cell attachment structures and cytoskeletal reorganization, which may be involved in bone loss. Humans exposed to microgravity conditions experience various physiological changes, including loss of bone mass, muscle deterioration, and immunodeficiency. In vitro models can be used to extract valuable information about changes in mechanical stress to ultimately identify the different pathways of mechanotransduction in bone cells. Despite many in vivo and in vitro studies under both real microgravity and simulated conditions, the mechanism of bone loss is still not well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent research on bone cells under microgravity conditions based on advances in the field. PMID:24687524

Arfat, Yasir; Xiao, Wei-Zhong; Iftikhar, Salman; Zhao, Fan; Li, Di-Jie; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

2014-06-01

444

Pathologic bone tissues in a Turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.  

PubMed

We report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from Transylvania. Both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. Our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. On the basis of the observed morphology of the periosteal reactive bone in the turkey vulture and the Transylvanian dinosaur, we propose that the radial fibrolamellar bone tissues observed in mature dinosaurs may have had a pathological origin. Our analysis also shows that on the basis of origin, location, and morphology, pathologically derived endosteal bone tissue can be similar to medullary bone tissues described in nonavian dinosaurs. As such, we caution the interpretation of all endosteally derived bone tissue as homologous to avian medullary bone. PMID:19711479

Chinsamy, Anusuya; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison

2009-09-01

445

Streptozotocin, Type I Diabetes Severity and Bone  

PubMed Central

As many as 50% of adults with type I (T1) diabetes exhibit bone loss and are at increased risk for fractures. Therapeutic development to prevent bone loss and/or restore lost bone in T1 diabetic patients requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the bone pathology. Because cell culture models alone cannot fully address the systemic/metabolic complexity of T1 diabetes, animal models are critical. A variety of models exist including spontaneous and pharmacologically induced T1 diabetic rodents. In this paper, we discuss the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1 diabetic mouse model and examine dose-dependent effects on disease severity and bone. Five daily injections of either 40 or 60 mg/kg STZ induce bone pathologies similar to spontaneously diabetic mouse and rat models and to human T1 diabetic bone pathology. Specifically, bone volume, mineral apposition rate, and osteocalcin serum and tibia messenger RNA levels are decreased. In contrast, bone marrow adiposity and aP2 expression are increased with either dose. However, high-dose STZ caused a more rapid elevation of blood glucose levels and a greater magnitude of change in body mass, fat pad mass, and bone gene expression (osteocalcin, aP2). An increase in cathepsin K and in the ratio of RANKL/OPG was noted in high-dose STZ mice, suggesting the possibility that severe diabetes could increase osteoclast activity, something not seen with lower doses. This may contribute to some of the disparity between existing studies regarding the role of osteoclasts in diabetic bone pathology. Examination of kidney and liver toxicity indicate that the high STZ dose causes some liver inflammation. In summary, the multiple low-dose STZ mouse model exhibits a similar bone phenotype to spontaneous models, has low toxicity, and serves as a useful tool for examining mechanisms of T1 diabetic bone loss. PMID:19495918

2009-01-01

446

The bone care nurse project  

PubMed Central

In today's society, citizens are called to play an increasingly active role in decision planning related to the various aspects of work, social and political life. This trend has been also confirmed in the health’s field. In fact, the citizen is also required to have the skills to take responsibility for his/her own health, to have knowledge of the health care system, understand the advice and instructions of health professionals, actively participating with them in the therapeutical path. The lack or an inadequate level of these skills will affect both the health of the individual and the costs related to the National Health System. The nursing staff that interfaces between physicians and patients plays a key role in health’s promotion as an important determinant of health and welfare of the patient-citizen. With regard to osteoporosis, due to better knowledge of its determining causes, it is now possible an easy access to diagnosis and treatment options before fragility fractures occur, providing a real prevention to such complications. Prevention must be addressed to two different, but related, objectives: 1) prevention of osteoporosis; and 2) prevention of fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In the context of both primary and secondary prevention, the nurse can better informed the patients and/or citizens about either the risks related to an inappropriate behavior or situations and events particularly dangerous to health, as well as provide information to simply and effectively implement protective measures. This project aims to raise awareness and create competent and specialized nurse figures, with a good understanding of the bone diseases, through the organization of seminars and training courses. Thus, it will be create clinical pathways and welfare in which the figure of the "Bone Care Nurse” will be responsible for administration of questionnaires relating to lifestyle and, for patients in drug treatment, questionnaires designed to assess the relevance of the adherence/compliance to the prescribed therapy. The "Bone Care Nurse” will also provide specific information leaflets aimed at improving lifestyle, compliance and adherence to therapy prescribed by physician. Specifically, this program will cover not only the prevention of fragility fractures in patients with low bone mass but also will provide general information on healthy lifestyles, such as adequate diet and physical activity, helpful to prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity. An increase patient’s compliance in taking the antiosteoporotic therapy, as also other concomitant medications will be obtainable. The information collected will be stored in an electronic database, subject to statistical analysis and will be informative on both the degree of knowledge of disease by the patient at the first and follow-up meetings of the Bone Care Nurse project. PMID:22461806

Casentini, Cristiana; Chiaramonti, Giuseppe; Amedei, Antonietta; Cioppi, Federica; Falchetti, Alberto; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2011-01-01

447

The bone care nurse project.  

PubMed

In today's society, citizens are called to play an increasingly active role in decision planning related to the various aspects of work, social and political life. This trend has been also confirmed in the health's field. In fact, the citizen is also required to have the skills to take responsibility for his/her own health, to have knowledge of the health care system, understand the advice and instructions of health professionals, actively participating with them in the therapeutical path. The lack or an inadequate level of these skills will affect both the health of the individual and the costs related to the National Health System. The nursing staff that interfaces between physicians and patients plays a key role in health's promotion as an important determinant of health and welfare of the patient-citizen. With regard to osteoporosis, due to better knowledge of its determining causes, it is now possible an easy access to diagnosis and treatment options before fragility fractures occur, providing a real prevention to such complications. Prevention must be addressed to two different, but related, objectives: 1) prevention of osteoporosis; and 2) prevention of fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis. In the context of both primary and secondary prevention, the nurse can better informed the patients and/or citizens about either the risks related to an inappropriate behavior or situations and events particularly dangerous to health, as well as provide information to simply and effectively implement protective measures. This project aims to raise awareness and create competent and specialized nurse figures, with a good understanding of the bone diseases, through the organization of seminars and training courses. Thus, it will be create clinical pathways and welfare in which the figure of the "Bone Care Nurse" will be responsible for administration of questionnaires relating to lifestyle and, for patients in drug treatment, questionnaires designed to assess the relevance of the adherence/compliance to the prescribed therapy. The "Bone Care Nurse" will also provide specific information leaflets aimed at improving lifestyle, compliance and adherence to therapy prescribed by physician. Specifically, this program will cover not only the prevention of fragility fractures in patients with low bone mass but also will provide general information on healthy lifestyles, such as adequate diet and physical activity, helpful to prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity. An increase patient's compliance in taking the antiosteoporotic therapy, as also other concomitant medications will be obtainable. The information collected will be stored in an electronic database, subject to statistical analysis and will be informative on both the degree of knowledge of disease by the patient at the first and follow-up meetings of the Bone Care Nurse project. PMID:22461806

Casentini, Cristiana; Chiaramonti, Giuseppe; Amedei, Antonietta; Cioppi, Federica; Falchetti, Alberto; Masi, Laura; Brandi, Maria Luisa

2011-01-01

448

The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel) and bone wax on bone healing in goats’ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT) measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV) and bone density (BD) were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation. PMID:24932041

Nooh, Nasser; Abdullah, Walid A; Grawish, Mohammed El-Awady; Ramalingam, Sundar; Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

2014-01-01

449

Repair of large segmental bone defects: BMP-2 gene activated muscle grafts vs. autologous bone grafting  

PubMed Central

Background Common cell based strategies for the treatment of osseous defects require the isolation and expansion of autologous cells. Since this makes such approaches time-consuming and expensive, we developed a novel expedited technology creating gene activated muscle grafts. We have previously shown that large segmental bone defects in rats can be regenerated by implantation of muscle tissue fragments activated by BMP-2 gene transfer. Results In the present study, we compared the bone healing capacities of such gene activated muscle grafts with bone isografts, mimicking autologous bone grafting, the clinical gold standard for treatment of bone defects in patients. Two of 14 male, syngeneic Fischer 344 rats used for this experiment served as donors for muscle and bone. Muscle tissue was harvested from both hind limbs and incubated with an adenoviral vector carrying the cDNA encoding BMP-2. Bone was harvested from the iliac crest and long bone epiphyses. Bone defects (5 mm) were created in the right femora of 12 rats and were filled with either BMP-2 activated muscle tissue or bone grafts. After eight weeks, femora were evaluated by radiographs, micro-computed tomography (?CT), and biomechanical testing. In the group receiving BMP-2 activated muscle grafts as well as in the bone-grafting group, 100% of the bone defects were healed, as documented by radiographs and ?CT-imaging. Bone volume was similar in both groups and biomechanical stability of the two groups was statistically indistinguishable. Conclusions This study demonstrates that treatment of large bone defects by implantation of BMP-2 gene activated muscle tissue leads to similar bone volume and stability as bone isografts, mimicking autologous bone grafting. PMID:23927083

2013-01-01

450

Bone sialoprotein plays a functional role in bone formation and osteoclastogenesis  

PubMed Central

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) are both highly expressed in bone, but their functional specificities are unknown. OPN knockout (?/?) mice do not lose bone in a model of hindlimb disuse (tail suspension), showing the importance of OPN in bone remodeling. We report that BSP?/? mice are viable and breed normally, but their weight and size are lower than wild-type (WT) mice. Bone is undermineralized in fetuses and young adults, but not in older (?12 mo) BSP?/? mice. At 4 mo, BSP?/? mice display thinner cortical bones than WT, but greater trabecular bone volume with very low bone formation rate, which indicates reduced resorption, as confirmed by lower osteoclast surfaces. Although the frequency of total colonies and committed osteoblast colonies is the same, fewer mineralized colonies expressing decreased levels of osteoblast markers form in BSP?/? versus WT bone marrow stromal cultures. BSP?/? hematopoietic progenitors form fewer osteoclasts, but their resorptive activity on dentin is normal. Tail-suspended BSP?/? mice lose bone in hindlimbs, as expected. In conclusion, BSP deficiency impairs bone growth and mineralization, concomitant with dramatically reduced bone formation. It does not, however, prevent the bone loss resulting from loss of mechanical stimulation, a phenotype that is clearly different from OPN?/? mice. PMID:18458111

Malaval, Luc; Wade-Guéye, Ndéyé Marième; Boudiffa, Maya; Fei, Jia; Zirngibl, Ralph; Chen, Frieda; Laroche, Norbert; Roux, Jean-Paul; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Duboeuf, François; Boivin, Georges; Jurdic, Pierre; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Amédée, Joëlle; Vico, Laurence; Rossant, Janet; Aubin, Jane E.

2008-01-01

451

Rosiglitazone induces decreases in bone mass and strength that are reminiscent of aged bone  

PubMed Central

PPAR? regulates both glucose metabolism and bone mass. Recent evidence suggests that the therapeutic modulation of PPAR? activity with anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones elicits unwanted effects on bone. In this study, the effects of rosiglitazone on the skeleton of growing (1 month), adult (6 month), and aged (24 month) C57BL/6 mice were determined. Aging was identified as a confounding factor for rosiglitazone-induced bone loss that correlated with the increased expression of PPAR? in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The bone of young growing mice was least affected, although a significant decrease in bone formation rate was noted. In both adult and aged animals bone volume was significantly decreased by rosiglitazone. In adult animals bone loss correlated with attenuated bone formation, whereas in aged animals bone loss was associated with increased osteoclastogenesis, mediated by increased RANKL expression. PPAR? activation led to changes in marrow structure and function such as a decrease in osteoblast number, an increase in marrow fat cells, an increase in osteoclast number, and a loss of the multipotential character of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, rosiglitazone induces changes in bone reminiscent of aged bone and appears to induce bone loss by altering the phenotype of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:17332064

Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Rzonca, Sylwia O.; Hogue, William R.; Swain, Frances L.; Suva, Larry J.; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

2007-01-01

452

Rosiglitazone induces decreases in bone mass and strength that are reminiscent of aged bone.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) regulates both glucose metabolism and bone mass. Recent evidence suggests that the therapeutic modulation of PPARgamma activity with antidiabetic thiazolidinediones elicits unwanted effects on bone. In this study, the effects of rosiglitazone on the skeleton of growing (1 month), adult (6 month), and aged (24 month) C57BL/6 mice were determined. Aging was identified as a confounding factor for rosiglitazone-induced bone loss that correlated with the increased expression of PPARgamma in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The bone of young growing mice was least affected, although a significant decrease in bone formation rate was noted. In both adult and aged animals, bone volume was significantly decreased by rosiglitazone. In adult animals, bone loss correlated with attenuated bone formation, whereas in aged animals, bone loss was associated with increased osteoclastogenesis, mediated by increased receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression. PPARgamma activation led to changes in marrow structure and function such as a decrease in osteoblast number, an increase in marrow fat cells, an increase in osteoclast number, and a loss of the multipotential character of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, rosiglitazone induces changes in bone reminiscent of aged bone and appears to induce bone loss by altering the phenotype of marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:17332064

Lazarenko, Oxana P; Rzonca, Sylwia O; Hogue, William R; Swain, Frances L; Suva, Larry J; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

2007-06-01

453

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 but not bone morphogenetic protein-4 and -6 stimulates chemotactic migration of human osteoblasts, human marrow osteoblasts, and U2OS cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have important functions for the differentiation of bone cells, but the exact role for bone remodeling and bone healing still needs to be defined. Migration of bone forming cells is an important physiological event both during bone healing and bone remodeling. The Chemotactic properties of the bone morphogenetic protein family of growth factors have not been

M. Lind; E. F. Eriksen; C. Bünger

1996-01-01

454

Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to ensure that the beneficial effects are seen in space flight. As we begin to plan for missions to go back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions are yet to be answered. Maintaining bone is one of the greatest challenges, but with a better understanding of the mechanical processes of bone loss, countermeasures can be designed more efficiently, and the solution (or solutions) may be just over the horizon.

Smith, Scott M.

2004-01-01

455

Marrow Fat and Bone--New Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Context: There is growing interest in the relationship between bone mineral density, bone strength, and fat depots. Marrow adipose tissue, a well-established component of the marrow environment, is metabolically distinct from peripheral fat depots, but its functional significance is unknown. Objective: In this review, we discuss animal and human data linking the marrow adipose tissue depot to parameters of bone density and integrity as well as the potential significance of marrow adipose tissue in metabolic diseases associated with bone loss, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and anorexia nervosa. Potential hormonal determinants of marrow adipose tissue are also discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that whereas most animal and human data demonstrate an inverse association between marrow adipose tissue and measures of bone density and strength, understanding the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue and its hormonal determinants will be critical to better understanding its role in skeletal integrity and the role of marrow adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of bone loss. PMID:23393168

Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Horowitz, Mark C.; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Scheller, Erica L.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Rosen, Clifford J.

2013-01-01

456

Physiopathology of Bone Modifications in ?-Thalassemia  

PubMed Central

?-thalassemia major (?TM) or Cooley anemia is characterized by significantly reduced or absent synthesis of ?-globin chains, which induces important pathologic consequences including hemolytic anemia, altered erythropoiesis, and bone marrow overstimulation. The pathogenesis of bone changes in patients with ?TM is not yet completely understood. However, an unbalance in bone mineral turnover resulting from increased resorption and suppression of osteoblast activity has been detected in ?TM patients. The abnormal regulation of bone metabolism may be related to hormonal and genetic factors, iron overload and iron chelation therapy, nutritional deficits, and decreased levels of physical activity. Here, we review the most recent findings on the physiopathology of bone abnormalities in ?TM. Clinical presentation and radiological features of ?TM-related bone changes are also discussed. PMID:22693660

Perisano, Carlo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Calla, Cinzia Anna Maria; Graci, Calogero; Maccauro, Giulio

2012-01-01

457

Bone in vivo: Surface mapping technique  

E-print Network

Bone surface mapping technique is proposed on the bases of two kinds of uniqueness of bone in vivo, (i) magnitude of the principal moments of inertia, (ii) the direction cosines of principal axes of inertia relative to inertia reference frame. We choose the principal axes of inertia as the bone coordinate system axes. The geographical marks such as the prime meridian of the bone in vivo are defined and methods such as tomographic reconstruction and boundary development are employed so that the surface of bone in vivo can be mapped. Experimental results show that the surface mapping technique can both reflect the shape and help study the surface changes of bone in vivo. The prospect of such research into the surface shape and changing laws of organ, tissue or cell will be promising.

Fan, Yifang; Lin, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng

2010-01-01

458

Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

1985-01-01

459

Author's personal copy Rolling bones Taphonomy of Jurassic dinosaur bones inferred from diagenetic  

E-print Network

, the altered chemical composition of fossil bones, especially rare earth elements (REE) (e.g. Trueman and Bento their fossilization. Characteristic desiccation cracks in the dinosaur bones indicate deposition on the soil surface

Schöne, Bernd R.

460

Bone Allografts: What Is the Risk of Disease Transmission with Bone Allografts?  

MedlinePLUS

... Bone Allografts What is the risk of disease transmission with bone allografts? An allograft is a graft ... therapy and there are no reports of disease transmission during the 30-year history of using freeze- ...

461

Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts with saucerization and bone marrow injection in children.  

PubMed

In four consecutive children, healing of large, active aneurysmal cysts of the long bones was achieved with saucerization, closure of the periosteum, and instillation of autologous bone marrow into the cavity. The saucerization procedure consisted of excision of the subperiosteal new bone with its attached cyst contents and curettage of the remaining cortical bone. A centripetal pattern of bone healing was observed in which an ossification front advanced from the periphery to the center of the cavity. We conclude that autologous bone marrow injections are a simple means of augmenting the healing of aneurysmal cysts of long bones treated with saucerization. The procedure avoids the morbidity and costs associated with alternative methods of bone grafting. PMID:10413010

Hemmadi, S S; Cole, W G

1999-01-01

462

Effects of glucan on bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow damage represents a significant problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, it is clear that the pharmacologic protection against bone marrow damage is of considerable interest, since the development of novel and effective medical approaches to combat radiation or cytotoxic damage are of major importance not only to the medical field but also to several industries and the military. This review represents a summary of our knowledge of the effects of various glucans on bone marrow protection. PMID:25332994

Vannucci, Luca; Vetvicka, Vaclav

2014-01-01

463

Effects of thyroid hormone on bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is relatively well established that thyroid hormone has a clinically significant effect on bone. Although some aspects,\\u000a such as the bone mineral loss associated with overt thyrotoxicosis have been relatively well described, others remain much\\u000a less clear. A major focus of this review is on the effects of chronic exogenous thyroid hormone administration on bone physiology.\\u000a When thyroid hormone

Nikolaos Stathatos; Leonard Wartofsky

2004-01-01

464

Comparison of lead residues among avian bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if significant differences exist in lead (Pb) accumulation in different bones, especially those most often used for bone-Pb studies in wildlife, we compared Pb concentrations in radius, ulna, humerus, femur, and tibia of Common Eider (Somateria mollissima); and radius\\/ulna (combined), femur, and tibia of American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). There were no significant differences in bone-Pb concentrations among woodcock

A. L. M. Ethier; B. M. Braune; A. M. Scheuhammer; D. E. Bond

2007-01-01

465

Effects of obesity on bone metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical\\u000a loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although\\u000a body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation\\u000a is beneficial

Jay J Cao

2011-01-01

466

Primary Neoplasms of the Carpal Bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary neoplasms of the carpal bones are rare. We found 44 primary tumors of the carpal bones of 26,800 bone neoplasms (prevalence, 0.16%). Original histologic slides and original radiographs were reviewed in 36 and 29 cases, respectively. Thirty-eight tumors (86%) were benign; 6 (14%) were malignant. The average patient age was 35 years. Benign lesions were diagnosed at a younger

Peter M. Murray; Richard A. Berger; Carrie Y. Inwards

1999-01-01

467

Biology of Bone Allograft and Clinical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bone allografts have become an accepted technology to replace bone loss as a result of tumor resection, trauma and failed\\u000a total joint ar-throplasty. Since fresh allograft invokes an immune rejection response, bone is usually processed by freezing\\u000a or freeze-drying to reduce the immune response. The significance of biological events of incorporation include hemorrhage\\u000a and inflammation, osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction and effective

Victor M. Goldberg

468

Methods in Bone Histomorphometry for Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Animal models are essential for preclinical skeletal research, notably in the study of physiopathology of metabolic bone diseases\\u000a as well as in the evaluation of a test agent for the prevention