Sample records for jian carp cyprinus

  1. Effects of anthraquinone extract from rhubarb Rheum officinale Bail on the crowding stress response and growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Xie; Bo Liu; Qunlan Zhou; Yongteng Su; Yijin He; Liangkun Pan; Xianping Ge; Pao Xu

    2008-01-01

    A total of 750 common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, fingerlings were divided randomly into five groups: a control group on a basal diet, four treatment groups fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 4.0% anthraquinone extract, respectively. After 10 weeks, the fish were exposed to crowding stress for 1 and 7 days. In treated fish before the stress

  2. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor ?2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:25675866

  3. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Sibbing

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

  4. Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emili García-Berthou

    2001-01-01

    The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

  5. Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems

    E-print Network

    Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2006-07-25

    perspective is necessary to better assess areas vulnerable to fish introductions, for example to set up policies for prevent- ing or mitigating negative effects of introductions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreo- chromis niloticus...

  6. Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Svobodová; E. Sudová; L. Nepejchalová; S. ?ervinka; B. Vykusová; H. Modrá; J. Kolá?ová

    2006-01-01

    Svobodová Z., E. Sudová, L. Nepejchalová, S. âervinka, B. Vykusová, H. Modrá, J. Koláfiová: Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 571-577. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of medicated feed, Rupin Special gran. ad us. vet. with oxytetracyclini chloridum as active

  7. Indonesian Experience on the Outbreak of Koi Herpesvirus in Koi and Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agus SUNARTO; Akhmad RUKYANI; Toshiaki ITAMI; Harsono RM; Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi

    2005-01-01

    Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) is a new emerging disease known to cause gill and skin damage in koi and carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease suspected to have been introduced into Indonesia through importation of koi from Hongkong. It is currently occurring in Indonesia since March 2002 starting in the area of Blitar in East Java. Since then it has been

  8. Effect of Probiotics on Growth Performance of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dhanaraj; M. A. Haniffa; S. V. Arun Singh; A. Jesu Arockiaraj; C. Muthu Ramakrishanan; S. Seetharaman; R. Arthimanju

    2010-01-01

    A 45-day feeding experiment was conducted to measure the effects of enhancing the diet of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings with lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAD) and\\/or brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cervisiae (SCD). Fish with an average initial weight of 0.26g were fed one of four diets prepared for this study as follows: Diet 1 = basal diet (control); Diet

  9. Perfluorinated compounds in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) fillets from the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xibiao Ye; Heiko L. Schoenfuss; Nathan D. Jahns; Amy D. Delinsky; Mark J. Strynar; Jerry Varns; Shoji F. Nakayama; Larry Helfant; Andrew B. Lindstrom

    2008-01-01

    Ten different perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in 30 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets collected from three sites on the Upper Mississippi River in Minnesota in an effort to evaluate the potential impact of PFAA emissions in this area. Samples upstream of the city of St. Cloud (reference site) had median PFOS concentrations of 8.1 ng\\/g wet

  10. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lígia M. Salvo; Afonso C. D. Bainy; Eliana C. Ventura; Maria R. F. Marques; José Roberto M. C. Silva; Cláudio Klemz; Helena C. Silva de Assis

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 ?g\\/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI)

  11. Acute toxicity of heavy metals to common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed K. Alam; O. Eugene Maughan

    1995-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were conducted on juvenile Cyprinus carpio. The 96 hr LC50 values for Hg, Pb, and Cu were 0.16, 0.44, and 0.30, respectively for smaller (3.5 cm) fish and 0.77, 0.80, and 1.0, respectively for larger (6.0 cm) fish. Replicate LC50 values for Fe, Ni, and

  12. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  13. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  14. Effects of nitric oxide on blood-brain barrier permeability in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kovaci?, Sanja; Rumora, Lada; Gjurcevic, Emil; Klaric, Maja Šegvic; Ivkic, Goran

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine in vivo effects of nitric oxide (NO) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). ANIMALS 148 carp. PROCEDURES Carp received glyceryl trinitrate (1 mg/kg) as an NO donor or received no treatment (control group). Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in carp sera were determined 0.25, 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after treatment. In control and treatment groups, BBB permeability was analyzed by assessment of leakage of Evans blue dye into various brain areas at 6, 12, and 24 hours after glyceryl trinitrate treatment. Brain edema was determined by means of the wet-dry weight method and assessed with light microscopy on H&E-stained preparations of tissues obtained 6 and 24 hours after glyceryl trinitrate treatment. RESULTS Treatment with glyceryl trinitrate induced endogenous synthesis of NO, which was upregulated 6 and 8 hours after treatment. Increased NO synthesis was associated with increased permeability of the BBB, which developed 6 hours after treatment with the NO donor. Although the BBB became impermeable again by 12 hours after glycerol trinitrate treatment, brain edema still persisted 24 hours after treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, treatment with an NO donor caused reversible opening of the BBB and brain edema in common carp. An intact BBB is important to prevent influx of potentially harmful substances into the brain. This investigation highlighted the possibility of BBB disarrangement caused by NO, a substance found in the CNS of all vertebrates evaluated. PMID:26111091

  15. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ježek; H. Buchtová

    2007-01-01

    Ježek F., H. Buchtová: Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Packed in a Modified Atmosphere. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: S83-S92. The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP),

  16. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) following the same experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ai, X; Wang, F; Yang, H; Xu, N; Yang, Q

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone (QCT) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were compared after oral administration of QCT (50 mg/kg body weight) at water temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. Similar QCT plasma concentration-time profiles were found in the three species of cyprinid fish at the same dosage regimen and water temperature, which were all fitted two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. However, different pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in crucian carp, common carp, and grass carp. The absorption rate constants (Ka ) of QCT were 1.65, 1.40 and 1.74/h, respectively and absorption half-lives (t1/2k? ) were 0.42, 0.49, and 0.40/h, respectively. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ) was 2.83, 0.67, and 0.88 h, respectively, and elimination half-lives (t1/2? ) of QCT were 133.97, 63.55, and 40.76 h, respectively. The maximum concentrations (Cmax ) of QCT in plasma were 0.315, 0.182, and 0.139 ?g/mL and the time to peak concentrations (Tp ) were 1.45, 0.96, and 1.08 h, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 12.35, 5.99, and 4.52 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The distribution volumes (Vd /F) of QCT were calculated as 117.81, 128.71, and 220.10 L/kg, respectively. The tissue analysis showed that a similar regularity was obtained in the three species of cyprinids with a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight after oral administration at the same water temperature. The tissue concentration of QCT in each fish was in order of liver>kidney>muscle, while the residues of QCT in the three species of cyprinid fish were in order of crucian carp>common carp>grass carp. PMID:25515188

  18. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    PubMed

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  19. Microspectrophotometric and scanning microphotometric studies of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schindler, J F; de Vries, U; Lindner, E

    1985-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) hemoglobin readily autoxidizes in blood smears. Quantification of Soret-band absorbance in individual erythrocytes by means of scanning cytophotometry therefore requires more elaborate methods of preparation of blood samples. Of the fixatives that have been tested, suspension of whole blood in isotonic salt solutions containing glutaraldehyde was most suitable. Glutaraldehyde-fixed red blood cells are totally resistant to hemolysis. In the course of fixation, hemoglobin is transformed to methemoglobin. Spectrophotometry indicated extensive similarities between glutaraldehyde-fixed carp methemoglobin and human methemoglobin. In aqueous solutions, the intensity of the Soret-peak was pH-dependent. The allosteric modifier organic polyphosphate caused an R----T transition, resulting in increased molar extinctions. Dried preparations showed Soret-spectra that were not influenced from either pH or organic polyphosphate concentration of the aqueous suspensions in which the erythrocytes had been stored. The same was true for slide preparations of cyanomethemoglobin, easily derived from methemoglobin on addition of potassium cyanide. In the absence of oxygen fresh blood cells from carp slowly transform their hemoglobin into deoxyhemoglobin. Spectra of the intermediate stages of deoxygenation, Hb4(O2)3, Hb4(O2)2 and Hb4(O2), as well as mixtures of these intermediates, could be monitored. PMID:3928536

  20. Uptake of sediment-bound bioavailable polychlorobiphenyls by benthivorous carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Roozen, Frank C J M; Zwolsman, John J G; Koelmans, Albert A

    2004-09-01

    It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in lake enclosures treated with different nutrient doses. Routes of PCB uptake were quantitatively evaluated for 15 PCBs (log Kow range 5.6-7.8) using model analysis. Fast-desorbing PCB fractions in the sediment were defined as the ratio of 6-h Tenax-extractable to (total) Soxhlet-extractable concentrations. These fractions varied between 4 and 22% and did not show a clear trend with log Kow. However, bioaccumulation of PCBs in carp correlated much better with Tenax-extractable concentrations than with total-extractable concentrations. Nutrient additions in the enclosures had a positive effect on PCB accumulation. Model results showthat PCB uptake in carp can be explained from (1) uptake through invertebrate food, (2) uptake from fast-desorbing fractions in ingested sediments, and (3) uptake from water, where PCBs are in partitioning equilibrium with fast-desorbing fractions. The main implication of this research is that fast-desorbing PCB fractions in sediments have great predictive potential for bioaccumulation in benthivorous fish. PMID:15461156

  1. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Šev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  2. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  3. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  4. Evaluation of the effects induced by dietary diphenyl diselenide on common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Santi, Adriana; Dias, Glaecir; Pedron, Fábio Araújo; Neto, Joăo Radünz; Salman, Syed Mahammad; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-02-01

    Several diets employed in aquaculture are enriched with selenium (Se), as it is a fundamental element to aquatic vertebrates. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)?], which is a synthetic organoselenium compound, has been considered a potential antioxidant agent in different experimental models. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg for 60 days and to determine its optimal supplemental level for carp, Cyprinus carpio. Neither growth retardation nor hepatoxicity was induced by the inclusion of diphenyl diselenide at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mg/kg. In addition, the inclusion of 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide stimulated the weight and length of the carp. The supplementation with 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide did not produce oxidative damage in the tissues, verified by peroxidation lipid and protein carbonyl assays. However, at 5.0 mg/kg, it caused an increase of the lipid peroxidation in the liver, brain, and muscle, and inhibited the cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. An increase of the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and non-protein thiols content in all tissues and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, and brain was verified in carp fed with the diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide. This diet had advantageous effects for the fish used in experiments. Therefore, this compound could be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for carp nutrition. PMID:23877622

  5. Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Urán, P A; Gonçalves, A A; Taverne-Thiele, J J; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A J; Rombout, J H W M

    2008-12-01

    The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1, most of the inflammation parameters were already present, but at week 3, a strong aggravation of the condition was observed which included a shortening of the mucosal folds, the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, an increased number of goblet cells, a thickened lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa with increased numbers of basophilic granulocytes as well as a decreased uptake capacity of enterocytes (impaired endocytosis and microvilli). Contrary to previous observations made with respect to Atlantic salmon, common carp start to recover from the fourth to the fifth week after switching to SBM feeding. At this stage, the supranuclear vacuoles refill and most of the parameters revert to basal levels. During the enteritis process, a real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to measure the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in the isolated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). The pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha1 (TNF-alpha1) genes were up-regulated during the inflammation process while the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) was down-regulated after an initial up-regulation at week 1. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression showed an up-regulation from week 3 onwards despite the high Ct value and the low primer efficiency shown. This study confirms the contribution of IEL (mainly T-like cells) and basophils in the enteritis process. In addition, the results show a clear involvement of up- and down-regulated cytokine genes in both the onset and recovery of the SBM-induced enteritis in the hindgut of carp. PMID:18954997

  6. Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló

    2000-01-01

    Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

  7. The in vitro effect of CpG-ODNs on the innate immune response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asmi Citra Malina A. R. Tassakka; Masahiro Sakai

    2003-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can activate immune cells. A panel of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides was evaluated in vitro for their ability to enhance the innate immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In vitro addition of CpG-ODNs enhanced the phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production of stimulated kidney phagocytes. The CpG-ODNs also induced lymphocyte

  8. Temperature shifts induce adaptive changes in the physical state of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocyte plasma membranes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indranil Dey; Tibor Farkas

    1992-01-01

    Blood, freshly collected from warm- and cold-acclimated carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was cooled to 5°C for 4h or warmed to 25°C for 4h, respectively, and the fluorescence anisotropy of washed red blood cells was recorded using the fluorescent dye 3-(p-(6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatrienyl) phenyl propionic acid [DPH-PA] (which is restricted to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane) before and after the temperature

  9. Protective effect of zinc on related parameters to bone metabolism in common carp fish ( Cyprinus carpio L.) intoxified with cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedram MalekpouriAli; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Mohammad Kazemian; Mehdi Soltani

    2011-01-01

    The short term effects of waterborne cadmium (Cd+2) on the levels of serum parameters related to bone metabolism including calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Fish were treated with varying concentrations of Cd+2 (0.22, 1.1 and 2.2 mg l?1) daily for 14 days. The results obtained show that serum Pi and

  10. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  11. An optical immunosensor for rapid vitellogenin detection in plasma from carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bulukin, E; Meucci, V; Minunni, M; Pretti, C; Intorre, L; Soldani, G; Mascini, M

    2007-04-30

    Vitellogenin (vtg) has proven to be a sensitive and simple biomarker for assessing exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, in the order of minutes, screening method for the detection of fish vtg. The surface plasmon resonance technique (Biacore Xtrade mark) was coupled with immunodetection for the determination of fish vtg in plasma and mucus from carp (Cyprinus carpio). Monoclonal anti-vtg antibodies were linked on the sensor surface through chemical cross-linking via a capturing antibody. A simple regeneration process allowed the reuse of the sensor surface. Sensor optimisation was carried out using carp vtg. The developed immunosensor was tested with vtg spiked samples and with plasma and mucus from fish exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2). Vitellogenin could be detected in the ppm range in buffer as well as in plasma and mucus. Good discrimination between control and exposed samples was obtained. The results were compared with ELISA and a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.85 (n=9) between the two methods indicated that the immunochemical biosensor could be used for the analysis of vtg in fish plasma samples. The assay time was 20min hence allowing for rapid sample screening. PMID:19071687

  12. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  13. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  14. Risk factors for development of internal neoplasms in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi.

    PubMed

    Ott Knüsel, F; Doherr, M G; Knüsel, R; Wahli, T; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2015-06-01

    Fish, like mammals, can be affected by neoplastic proliferations. As yet, there are only a very small number of studies reporting on the occurrence of tumours in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi and only sporadic reports on the nature of the tumours or on risk factors associated with their development. Between 2008 and 2012, koi with abdominal swelling were examined pathologically: neoplastic lesions were diagnosed and classified histologically. We evaluated possible risk factors for the development of these internal neoplasms in koi carp in Switzerland, using an online 2-part questionnaire sent to fish keepers with koi affected by internal tumours and to fish keepers who had not previously reported any affected koi. Part 1 addressed all participants and focused on general information about koi husbandry and pond technical data; Part 2 addressed participants that had one or several case(s) of koi with internal tumour(s) between 2008 and 2012, and consisted of specific questions about affected koi. A total of 112 internal tumours were reported by the 353 koi keepers participating in the survey. Analysis of the obtained data revealed that tumour occurrence was significantly associated with the location (indoors vs. outdoors) and volume of the pond, frequency of water changes, origin of the koi, number of koi kept in a pond and the use of certain pond disinfectant/medication products. Our results contribute to the identification of possible risk factors, which in turn could help to establish prophylactic measures in order to reduce the occurrence of internal neoplasms in koi. PMID:26036827

  15. Uptake and enantioselective elimination of chlordane compounds by common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.).

    PubMed

    Seemamahannop, Rachadaporn; Berthod, Alain; Maples, Michael; Kapila, Shubhender; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2005-04-01

    An analytical method involving supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by a two-dimensional gas chromatography (2D-GC) analysis was developed to determine the concentration (first GC) and enantiomeric ratio (second GC) of cis- and trans-chlordanes at the ppb (ng/g) level in fish tissue. The SFE method allowed concentration of the compounds of interest, and reduced the number of extraction and sample clean-up manipulations as compared to classical solvent extraction techniques. Four hundred common carp fingerling (Cyprinus carpio, L.) were exposed for three days to water containing 5 ppb (5 ng/g) technical grade chlordane containing about 1 ppb of chlordane isomers. The fish concentrated the pesticides more than 200 times (162 and 312 ng/g of cis- and trans-chlordane, respectively). However, the uptake is not enantioselective. The concentration of the principle constituents and their enantiomeric ratio was followed during a fifty days growth period in chlordane free water. The first order decay of concentration was observed with a half time of about 18 days for both the cis- and trans-chlordane isomers. However it was found that the enantiomeric ratio of the trans-chlordane was significantly altered during this short period of time, decreasing from ER=1 to ER=0.7, while no enantiomeric changes were observed for the cis-chlordane. It seems that the (-)-trans-chlordane is metabolized significantly faster (t(1/2-)=15 days) in the river carp fish than the (+)-trans-enantiomer (t(1/2+)=20 days). PMID:15788172

  16. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevăo; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 ?g/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 ?g/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress. PMID:20888428

  17. Perfluorinated compounds in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Jahns, Nathan D; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Varns, Jerry; Nakayama, Shoji F; Helfant, Larry; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2008-10-01

    Ten different perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in 30 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets collected from three sites on the Upper Mississippi River in Minnesota in an effort to evaluate the potential impact of PFAA emissions in this area. Samples upstream of the city of St. Cloud (reference site) had median PFOS concentrations of 8.1 ng/g wet weight (ng/g wet wt), but median levels increased significantly downstream in the Minneapolis-St. Paul urban area, with concentrations from the Pig's Eye Lake site at 26 ng/g wet wt (p = 0.0015) and the Spring Lake site at 40 ng/g wet wt (p = 0.0004). This latter PFOS concentration is within the advisory range for limiting fish consumption to one meal a week according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Other PFAAs were also found to increase significantly between the reference site and the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, but maximal concentrations remained below 2.0 ng/g wet wt. This study demonstrates the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in a ubiquitous fish species in a major urban area known to have historical inputs of various PFAA compounds. The full extent of this contamination and the potential for accumulation in other species remain to be evaluated. PMID:18439677

  18. Biological uptake and depuration of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Liu, Sisi; Chen, Jingwen; Jiang, Jingqiu; Xie, Qing; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48 d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k 2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84 L kg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838 d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCF kg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73 L kg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish. PMID:25462302

  19. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  20. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  1. Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

  2. Acute and subchronic effects on immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) in feed.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Katzenback, Barbara A; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Schulz, Carsten; Belosevic, Miodrag; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been shown to regularly occur at relevant concentrations in feed designed for aquaculture use, but little is known about the consequences of its presence on the organisms that consume the DON-contaminated feed. Previous studies indicated a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 4 weeks of feeding DON. The present study examined the time course of innate immune responses of carp to orally administered DON. Changes in mRNA levels of immune genes in different organs (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, and intestine) were observed indicating immune-modulating properties of DON. The immune-modulatory effects during the acute phase of DON exposure were characterized by the activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in carp. The subchronic responses to DON were characterized by activation of arginases culminating in increased arginase activity in head kidney leukocytes after 26 days of DON treatment. These results suggest profound effects of this mycotoxin on fish in aquaculture. PMID:25989849

  3. Compensatory responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under ammonia exposure: additional effects of feeding and exercise.

    PubMed

    Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Mauro, Nathalie; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. The toxic effects of ammonia can be modulated by other physiological processes such as feeding and swimming. In this study, we wanted to examine these modulating effects in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (unfed for seven days prior to the sampling), and swimming at a sustainable, routine swimming speed or swum to exhaustion, while being exposed chronically (up to 28 days) to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 1 mg/L ~58.8 ?mol/L as NH4Cl at pH 7.9). Swimming performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and metabolic responses such as oxygen consumption rate (MO2), ammonia excretion rate (Jamm), ammonia quotient, liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), plasma ammonia and lactate, as well as plasma ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and Ca(2+)) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and iono-regulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. Cortisol plays an important role in stress and in both the regulation of energy and the ion homeostasis; therefore plasma cortisol was measured. Results show that during HEA, Jamm was elevated to a larger extent in fed fish and they were able to excrete much more efficiently than the starved fish. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in plasma of HEA exposed fed fish was much slower. MO2 increased considerably in fed fish after exposure to HEA and was further intensified during exercise. During exposure to HEA, the level of cortisol in plasma augmented in both the feeding regimes, but the effect of HEA was more pronounced in starved fish. Energy stores dropped for both fed and the starved fish with the progression of the exposure period and further declined when swimming to exhaustion. Overall, fed fish were less affected by HEA than starved fish, and although exercise exacerbated the toxic effect in both feeding treatments, this was more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that fish become more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise, and feeding protects the fish against the adverse effects of high ammonia and exercise. PMID:24001429

  4. [Population genetic variation and structure analysis on five populations of mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. using microsatellites].

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, population genetic variability and genetic structure of five populations of an important cultivation species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were analyzed using 30 microsatellite loci. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC) and number of effective alleles (Ae) were all determined. The genetic similarity coefficient and Nei's standard genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi2 test. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by FST and Nm. A dendrogram was constructed based on UPGMA methods using PHYLIP software package supported by a bootstrap value of 91.0%. Totally 7,083 fragments were procured. Their lengths were from 102 bp to 446 bp. For each locus, 1-16 alleles were amplified, adding up to 356 alleles in all the 5 populations. We found the genetic variability level was relatively high in all five populations, as shown by Ae = 1.07-2.30, He= 0.70-0.78 and PIC=0.69-0.75, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficients were all above 0.52, indicating their close genetic relationships. The UPGMA phylogenetic tree showed mirror carps sampled from Donggang, Fengcheng and Liaozhong were clustered into one group and the other two populations, both collected from Songpu, were grouped together. There were obvious relations between genetic distances and geographical distributions of the five populations. No fragments were amplified from some loci of EST-SSRs, which may suggest the loss of these loci in mirror carp genome or sequence divergence at the primer binding sites. These null alleles may result from selection because functional genes are under more selection pressure than non-encoding loci. Overall, population genetic variation is high for each of the five mirror carp, and the differentiations are also significant among populations. PMID:17138540

  5. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mustafizur Rahman; Marc Verdegem; Qtae Jo

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5ż68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9ż82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours with a 15-min recording, which was repeated every 3 h. Rohu spent more time

  6. Effect of chronic exposure to prometryne on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Stara, Alzbeta; Kristan, Jiri; Zuskova, Eliska; Velisek, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne, commonly present in surface and ground waters, on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of prometryne (0.51, 8, and 80?g/l) for 14, 30, and 60 days. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) were assessed in brain, gill, intestine, liver, and muscle. After 14 days exposure, decreased GR activity in brain was observed for all prometryne-exposed groups compared with the controls. Changes were observed in SOD activity in brain and gill after 30 days in all exposure groups. Changes in CAT activity were observed only at the highest concentration (80?g/l) in liver and intestine after 60 days. The observed effects on carp antioxidant systems may be a defense against oxidative damage. The study demonstrated changes in antioxidant parameters and the importance of evaluating the potential long-term risk to fish of prometryne, at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.51?g/l). The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments. PMID:24238285

  7. Assessing joint toxicity of four organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using acetylcholinesterase activity as an endpoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2015-07-01

    Mixtures of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems. These pesticides inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have potential to interfere with behaviors that may be essential for the survival of species. Although the effects of individual anticholinesterase insecticides on aquatic species have been studied for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. In the present study, brain AChE inhibition in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a series of concentrations of the organophosphates (malathion and triazophos) as well as the carbamates (fenobucarb and carbosulfan) was measured. In equitoxic mixtures, the observed AChE activity inhibition of the malathion plus triazophos, and triazophos plus carbosulfan mixtures, was synergism. In equivalent concentration mixtures, the combination of malathion plus fenobucarb mixture conformed to synergism, while the observed AChE activity inhibition of the remaining pairings was less than additive. Single pesticide risk assessments are likely to underestimate the impacts of these insecticides on carps in aquatic environment where mixtures occur. Moreover, mixtures of pesticides that have been commonly reported in aquatic ecosystems may pose a more important challenge than previously anticipated. PMID:26071811

  8. Tissue-specific Cu bioaccumulation patterns and differences in sensitivity to waterborne Cu in three freshwater fish: rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp ( Cyprinus carpio), and gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun De Boeck; Wouter Meeus; Wim De Coen; Ronny Blust

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to copper (1–20?M) in softened Antwerp City tap water at pH 7.3 ± 0.1 and with a water hardness of 292.4 ± 8.1mg\\/L CaCO3 (Ca 100.8 ± 3.0mg\\/L; Mg 11.0 ± 0.2mg\\/L). LC50s (96h) were determined and copper accumulation in gills, liver, and kidney

  9. Zinc transferrin stimulates red blood cell formation in the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Fang, Szu-Wei; Jeng, Sen-Shyong

    2013-09-01

    The common carp is one of the few fish able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels. These fish store zinc in their digestive tract tissue and head kidney at concentrations of 300-500?g/g of fresh tissue, which is 5-10 times higher than in other fish. Previous studies have indicated a link between the high zinc levels in the common carp and stress erythropoiesis. In this report, using suspension-cultured common carp head kidney cells with or without ZnCl2 supplementation, we found that zinc stimulated the proliferation of immature red blood cells; however, this effect was only observed when the culture was supplemented with carp serum. We identified the active component of carp serum to be transferrin. The zinc-transferrin complex interacts with the transferrin receptor and stimulates the proliferation of immature red blood cells. In addition, the growth rate of the immature red blood cells was regulated by the supplied ZnCl2 concentration. Under stress, the zinc in the common carp digestive tract tissue was released and used as a signal to induce red blood cell formation in the head kidney. This cell culture system might provide a means for exploring the regulatory role of zinc in hematopoietic cell growth. PMID:23665074

  10. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  11. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  12. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)-A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  13. Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Pyrethroid Cypermethrin on the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Ayd?n; Kenan Köprücü; Mustafa Dörücü; Sibel ?im?ek Köprücü; Murat Pala

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the toxic effects on the embryos and larvae of the common carp were used as a model to investigate the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, which contaminates aquatic ecosystems. Data obtained from the cypermethrin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis Statistical Method. The control and eight test experiments were repeated five times. The number of

  14. Influence of food ration, copper exposure and exercise on the energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Prabesh Singh; Tudorache, Christian; Eyckmans, Marleen; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to extend the understanding of the combined physiological effects of different food rations in combination with sublethal levels of copper in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish acclimated to low (0.5% body weight) and high (5% body weight) food rations were exposed to 1 microM copper for a period of 28 days and kept for a further 14 days in copper free water to examine their recovery. Measurements of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and ammonia accumulation in plasma and muscle were done at various time intervals during the experimental period. Overall, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were significantly affected by food ration in both copper free and copper exposed fish. Additional challenges, such as copper exposure and/or exercise, significantly increased plasma and muscle ammonia in the fish fed a high food ration. Muscle ammonia levels in general responded slower (first increase after 72 h) and recovered within 2 weeks of exposure. There was a significant correlation between plasma ammonia levels, muscle ammonia levels and ammonia excretion rates. Influence of copper in terms of ammonia excretion and plasma ammonia accumulation was observed in high ration fish but low ration fish remained unaffected. This clearly indicates that ammonia metabolism was significantly influenced by copper in this group of fish showing that during unfavourable environmental conditions a high amount of food supply may turn deleterious to fish. PMID:18725322

  15. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringř, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  16. Investigation of acute toxicity and the effect of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide on the behavior of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rabia Sarikaya; Mehmet Y?lmaz

    2003-01-01

    A 96-h LC50 values of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], a common contaminating agricultural herbicide, were determined on the adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae). The study was conducted in two stages using 130 carp. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method and a 96-h LC50

  17. Fluoride-induced apoptosis and expressions of caspase proteins in the kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Xie, Lingtian

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to investigate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9 in kidney of the carp juveniles exposed to 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg L(-1) of fluoride (in the form of NaF) for 90 days. The results showed that dose- and time-dependent decrease of SOD and GSH and dose- and time-dependent increase of MDA were observed in the carp juveniles, which suggested that fluoride induced oxidative damage accompanied with morphological changes and significant apoptosis in fish exposed to fluoride, especially in the higher doses. Fluoride exposure also significantly elevated the protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress, damages the kidney structure, and results in renal apoptosis by caspase-dependent pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 769-781, 2015. PMID:24459041

  18. Comparative metabolism of phenanthridine by carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and midge larvae ( Chironomus riparius)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. J. Bleeker; L. Noor; M. H. S. Kraak; P. de Voogt; W. Admiraal

    2001-01-01

    Abiotic transformation of azaarenes in the environment has been analysed extensively, but metabolism is less well described. To further elucidate preliminary observations of interspecific differences in azaarene metabolism by aquatic organisms, phenanthridine biotransformation by midge larvae and carp was studied. In both experiments, 6(5H)-phenanthridinone (phenanthridone) was found as an important metabolite. The fish were clearly capable of metabolising phenanthridine, but

  19. Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

  20. Effect of pyrethroids on carbohydrate metabolic pathways in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kamalaveni, K; Gopal, V; Sampson, U; Aruna, D

    2001-12-01

    The activity levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were assessed in various tissues of Cyprinus carpio var communis which had been exposed to lethal concentrations of group-II pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and fluvalinate) for a period of 72 h. The results indicated a steady decrease in SDH activity with a concomitant increase in G6PD activity. The decreased SDH activity indicated inhibition of SDH at mitochondrial level and the increased G6PD activity an enhancement of an alternative pathway of carbohydrate metabolism, viz the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) or pentose phosphate pathway as a biochemical adaptation to overcome the toxic stress. PMID:11802603

  1. Examination of the early infection stages of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Kempter, J; Bergmann, S M

    2015-05-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly infectious disease afflicting common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Various molecular and antibody-based detection methods have been used to elucidate the rapid attachment and dissemination of the virus throughout carp tissues, facilitating ongoing development of effective diagnostic approaches. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used here to determine the target tissues of KHV during very early infection, after infecting carp with a highly virulent KHV isolate. Analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues (i.e. gills, skin, spleen, kidney, gut, liver and brain) during the first 8 h and following 10 days post-infection (hpi; dpi) revealed positive signals in skin mucus, gills and gut sections after only 1 hpi. Respiratory epithelial cells were positive as early as 2 hpi. Viral DNA was also detected within blood vessels of various tissues early in the infection. Notable increases in signal abundance were observed in the gills and kidney between 5 and 10 dpi, and viral DNA was detected in all tissues except brain. This study suggests that the gills and gut play an important role in the early pathogenesis of this Alloherpesvirus, in addition to skin, and demonstrates ISH as a useful diagnostic tool for confirmation of acutely infected carp. PMID:24925228

  2. Construction and characterization of the BAC library for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and establishment of microsynteny with zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. was constructed as a part of ongoing common carp genome project, which is aiming assembly of common carp genome. The library, containing a total of 92,160 BAC clones with an average insert size of 141 kb, was constructed into the restriction site of Hind III on BAC vector CopyControl pCC1BAC, covering 7.7 X haploid genome equivalents. Three dimension pools and superpools of the BAC library were established and 23 positive clones of 14 targets were identified from one-fifth of the BAC library. Pilot project of BAC end sequencing was conducted on 2,688 BAC ends from 1,344 clones and harvested 2,522 high-quality Q20 sequences with average length of 677 bp. The sequencing success rate was 93.8% and pair-end success rate was 92.3%. A total of 212 microsyntenies had been established between common carp and zebrafish genomes as a trial for genome-wide comparative genomics in these two closely related species. PMID:21088980

  3. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD\\/PCDF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Ahokas; D. A. Holdway; S. E. Brennan; R. W. Goudey; H. B. Bibrowska

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding

  4. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine's herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5?mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029?mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07?mg/L, 1.4?mg/L, and 3.5?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5?mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found. PMID:24689046

  5. Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Serpil Mi?e

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

  6. Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

  7. Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:23203105

  8. Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and associations with growth traits in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:23203105

  9. Proteomic analysis of extracellular medium of cryopreserved carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) semen.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    During freezing and thawing, spermatozoa are exposed to physical and chemical stressors that result in adverse changes in sperm structures and physiological functions. The present study provides, for the first time, a comprehensive description of protein changes in the extracellular medium of cryopreserved semen. Using 2D-DIGE and a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, 183 proteins released from sperm to an extracellular medium were identified. The majority of released proteins were involved in metabolism and energy production. Moreover, proteins associated with a response to stress, apoptosis, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein folding and turnover, reproduction and DNA repair were identified. The dominant group of released proteins was related to cytoplasm. Moreover, specific proteins associated with the membrane, mitochondria and nucleus were identified. The identification of a high number of proteins released from sperm provides new insight into the mechanism of cryodamage to the particular sperm structure and to specific metabolic pathways, which were affected by cryopreservation. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins altered by cryopreservation provides a crucial tool for the development of novel potential biomarkers of cryoinjuries and for the improvement of a long-term sperm preservation procedure. PMID:26125334

  10. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 ?g/L and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  12. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  13. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  14. Production of short-chain fatty acids and gas from various oligosaccharides by gut microbes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in micro-scale batch culture.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Minoru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-06-01

    We studied the metabolism of various oligosaccharides by carp (Cyprinus carpio) hindgut microbes by measuring gas productivity and organic acid production in gut contents using a 50-microl-scale batch culture system. Carp hindgut contents were incubated with 500 microg each of raffinose, lactosucrose, kestose, lactulose, gentiobiose, 4'-galactosyllactose and 6'-galactosyllactose and soybean-, xylo-, and isomalto-oligosaccharides or none (blank culture) at 25 degrees C for 6 h. The time-course of gas release from the culture (Y microl/culture) was expressed as an exponential function of incubation time (t) [Y=A+Bx(1-e(-kt))]; A, B and k are constants). Potential production of gas (A+B) from soybean-oligosaccharide and raffinose was larger than for the other saccharides except for kestose, and blank culture. The rate constant of gas (k) for lactosucrose was larger than that for isomalto- and xylo-oligosaccharide, lactulose, kestose or blank culture. Net production of total SCFA (sum of acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid weights) from cultures with soybean- and isomalto-oligosaccharides, raffinose, gentiobiose and lactosucrose was greater than that from blank culture. These results suggested that soybean-oligosaccharide and raffinose were potentially highly fermentable oligosaccharides for carp hindgut microbes. Chemical structures of oligosaccharides seem to play an important role in the fermentability. It is also likely that oligosaccharide utilization differs between mammals and teleosts. PMID:12020649

  15. Alternative techniques for producing a quality surimi and kamaboko from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

    2008-11-01

    The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol-gel transition stage (at 75 degrees C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G' for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. PMID:19021796

  16. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  17. Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

  18. Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Linhart; J. Cosson; S. D. Mims; M. Rodina; D. Gela; W. L. Shelton

    2003-01-01

    In the present study was summarize the factors activating and\\/or inhibiting the motility of intact and\\/or demembranated spermatozoa of common carp and paddlefish as teleostean and chondrostean models using methods of sperm demembranation. The movement of spermatozoa of cyprinids species, common carp, is influenced by osmotic pressure or high concentration of ions. The movements of spermatozoa of chrondrostean species, paddlefish,

  19. Effects of environmental temperature on the development of the myotomal white muscle in larval carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, H; Bergot, P; Rouel, M; Goldspink, G

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to determine the effects of environmental temperature experienced by embryos and larvae on the development of myotomal white muscle. Eggs from one female were divided into two groups following fertilisation and incubated at constant pre-hatch temperatures of 18 or 28 degrees C. At hatching, larvae from the 18 degrees C-incubated eggs were divided into two groups and either reared at the same temperature of 18 degrees C ('cold' group) or transferred over a period of 5 days (at 2 degrees C per day) to 28 degrees C ('transferred' group). Larvae hatched from eggs incubated at 28 degrees C were reared at the same temperature of 28 degrees C ('warm' group). Larvae were sampled at two developmental stages (stage 1, inflation of the back chamber of the swimbladder; stage 2, inflation of the front chamber of the swimbladder) and at 26 days post-hatching. The maturation of myotome shape during larval life was studied in parallel with the changes occurring in the organisation of white fibres. At stage 1, the epaxial part of the myotomes surrounding the vent had the shape of lamellae inclined backwards, and only one central layer of white fibres was present. At stage 2, the epaxial part of the myotomes began to acquire a V-shape, which was well developed at 26 days post-hatch. At stage 2 and at 26 days post-hatch, two layers of white fibres were identified: the initial central layer and a second apical layer. These differ in their orientation, the initial central layer being orientated backwards and the apical layer forwards, and in the mean fibre diameter, which is greater in the initial central layer. Studies on the effects of temperature (constant 18 degrees C, constant 28 degrees C, transfer from 18 to 28 degrees C at hatching) were carried out according to both the developmental stage and the length of the larvae. At stage 1, no significant differences were found between the three groups for larval standard length and muscle variables. The number of fibres in one quadrant of epaxial white muscle sectioned at the level of the vent was 100-111. At stage 2, there were significant differences between groups. Larval standard length and mass were higher in the cold group than in the warm group. The transferred larvae were of intermediate standard length but had a significantly higher cross-sectional area of white muscle than either of the other two groups. This increase in surface area was related to a 50 % greater fibre number (233) in the transferred larvae compared with the cold (165) or the warm (152) larvae. The increase in fibre number was more marked for large-diameter ( >20 microm) white fibres located in the initial central fibre layer (+58-72 % in transferred larvae) than in small-diameter ((less than equal to) 10 microm) white fibres mainly located in the apical layer (+18-35 %). In 26 days post-hatch samples, transferred larvae still showed a higher total number of white fibres than warm larvae, but the difference was no longer significant when the total number of white fibres was regressed against larval standard length, suggesting that this stimulation may be temporary. PMID:11076732

  20. In vivo and in silico analyses of estrogenic potential of bisphenol analogs in medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the estrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA), a member of bisphenol analogs (BPs), in in vitro and in vivo assays. However, limited data are available on the estrogenic potentials and risks of other BPs in aquatic organisms. In addition, the estrogenic effect of chemicals is known to have species-specific responses in teleost fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of BPs on the medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using in vivo and in silico assays. Our quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of several hepatic estrogen-responsive biomarker genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of BPs in a dose-response manner. The order of in vivo estrogenic potencies of BPs was as follows: BPC?BPAF>BPB>BPA?BPP. To further investigate the interaction potential of BPs with medaka estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in silico, a three-dimensional model of the ER? ligand-binding domain (LBD) was built and docking simulations were performed. The docking simulation analysis revealed that BPC interaction potential for medaka ER? LBD was the most potent, followed by BPAF and BPA. Comparing this with carp ER? LBD revealed that the interaction potentials of these BPs to medaka ER? LBD were more stable than to carp ER? LBD. Furthermore, we identified key amino acid residues in medaka ER? LBD that interacted with BPC (Glu356, Arg397, and Cys533), BPAF (Thr350 and Glu356), and BPA (Glu356 and Met424), and found some differences in these key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ER? LBDs. These results of in vivo and in silico analyses showed potential estrogenic effects of BPs in teleost fish, and they also indicated that the differences in interaction potentials and key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ER? LBDs may be due to the differences between the species and estrogenic potencies of the selected BPs. PMID:26086576

  1. Localization of ?-synuclein in teleost central nervous system: immunohistochemical and Western blot evidence by 3D5 monoclonal antibody in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Rosa; Toni, Mattia; Casini, Arianna; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Yu, Shun; D'este, Loredana; Cioni, Carla

    2015-05-01

    Alpha synuclein (?-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of ?-syn aggregates suggested a role for ?-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate ?-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian ?-syn. The distribution of ?-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human ?-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a ?-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that ?-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the ?-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that ?-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates. PMID:25488013

  2. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  3. Chronic exposure to pollutants in Madín Reservoir (Mexico) alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Morachis-Valdez, Gabriela; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Madín Reservoir (MR) is located on the Río Tlalnepantla in Mexico. Previous studies seeking to identify pollutants at this site evidence that MR water contains a considerable metal load as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at concentrations above those determined suitable for aquatic life. This study aimed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to pollutants in MR alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following biomarkers were evaluated in muscle of carp caught in the general area of discharge from the town of Viejo Madín: hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Physicochemical and textural properties of muscle were also evaluated. Results show that the metals Al and Fe were accumulated in muscle of C. carpio at levels of 21.3 and 29.6 ?g L(-1), respectively, and the NSAIDs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at levels from 0.08 to 0.21 ng L(-1). Fish exposed to discharge from the town of Viejo Madín showed significant increases in HPC (9.77 %), LPX (69.33 %), and PCC (220 %) with respect to control specimens (p?

  4. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

  5. Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “L?rinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  6. Novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus with di-cistronic genome from intestinal content of freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Simmonds, Peter; Reuter, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond "L?rinte halastó" located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long--non-in-frame--open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

  7. Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tongqian; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Yulan; Li, Chao; Zheng, Xianhu; Cao, Dingchen; Cheng, Lei; Mahboob, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism. PMID:25339596

  8. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  9. Toxicity and molecular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on CYP1A, SOD, and GPx in Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Sümer, Sibel; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, we evaluated a series of ecotoxicological stress biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as an experimental model to test for alterations in gene expression at a sublethal concentration of 1 mg/L DBP for 4, 24, and 96 h. In gills, an immediate increase in CYP1A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels was observed within the first 4 h and persisted for 96 h. Protein levels were nearly consistent with mRNA levels. However, a time-dependent inhibition was observed in CYP1A levels in the liver within 96 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased gradually in liver with exposure time to a maximum level of 11-fold. Varied responses of different tissues were likely due to xenobiotic metabolism of DBP. In conclusion, evaluating the tissue-specific alterations of CYP1A, SOD, and GPx levels can be used as specific and effective biomarkers for ecotoxicological monitoring of DBP pollution. We strongly recommend using molecular tools to ecotoxicologists for aquatic monitoring of newly emerging pollutants. PMID:26065888

  10. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Echinocephalus carpiae n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) infecting the common carp Cyprinus carpio inhabiting Burullus Lake--a new host record in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab

    2013-12-01

    The present study described a new species of the genus Echinocephalus that was isolated from the intestine of the common carp Cyprinus carpio inhabiting Burullus Lake, Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Thirty-two out of 70 examined specimens (45.71 %) were found to be naturally infected. The adult male worms were elongated and measured 0.79-0.85 mm (0.81?±?0.02) in length and 0.21-0.32 mm (0.28?±?0.002) in width, while females reached 0.89-0.98 mm (0.9?±?0.02) long and 0.25-0.38 mm (0.28?±?0.002) wide. The reported species are investigated microscopically, genetically, and compared with previous related ones. The present study recorded this new nematode parasite as Echinocephalus carpiae with accession no. KC493258, inhabiting new host and locality records in Egypt. It is especially characterized by short body length, cephalic bulb with few (six to eight) multiple rows of spines, clear annulated cuticle, and new genetic sequences, which identify the paraphyly of Gnathostomatinae. PMID:24008982

  11. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-01-01

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp. PMID:25966124

  12. Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Belotsky; Ramy R. Avtalion; Harry Friedmann; Rachel Lubart

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it

  13. Nutritional Evaluation of Seasonal Changes in Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karamik Lake, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sait Bulut; Kazim Uysal; Mustafa Cemek; Veli Gok; S. Feyza Ku?; Mehmet Karaçal?

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine seasonal changes of nutritional value of common carp in Karam?k Lake by determining the fatty acid composition. The levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in 100 g total fatty acid were found to be 28.73, 25.31, and 38.19 g in winter; 29.39, 24.06, and 35.75 g in spring; 31.05, 35.02, and 24.86

  14. A genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L . ) using microsatellites and SNPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhu Zheng; Youyi Kuang; Xiaofeng Zhang; Cuiyun Lu; Dingchen Cao; Chao Li; Xiaowen Sun

    A genetic linkage map is a powerful research tool for mapping traits of interest and is essential to understanding genome\\u000a evolution. The aim of this study is to provide an expanded genetic linkage map of common carp to effectively carry out quantitative\\u000a trait loci analysis and conduct comparative mapping analysis between lineages. Here, we constructed a genetic linkage map\\u000a of

  15. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  16. [Correlation analysis of microsatellite DNA markers with body weight, length and height of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-05-01

    Forty-seven microsatellite markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 92 progenies derived from the recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of common carp, which came from the cross between Barbless carp and Hebao-cold tolerance red carp. The results showed that a total of 162 different alleles were found, and the number of alleles in each locus was 2 to 6. The DNA fragment length was 100 bp to 444 bp, and the number of mean valid alleles was 1.3069 to 4.2288. The value of heterozygosity was 0.2361 to 0.7677, and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5368. A GLM procedure was used to analyze the effects of these 47 microsatellites on body weight, length and height. Results uncovered HLJ695, HLJ716, HLJ739, HLJ759, HLJ774 and K16 had a significant impact on body weight, length and height, and HLJ776 had a significant impact on height. In addition, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. PMID:18487152

  17. Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

    2014-10-01

    The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

  18. Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney. PMID:25434756

  19. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    PubMed Central

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  20. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vukovi?, Rosemary; Galovi?, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvati?, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1mgkg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5mgkg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1mgkg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1mgkg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1mgkg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. PMID:25966047

  1. Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and ?9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our study revealed seasonally-dependent H2A.Z enrichment for active ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters during the carp environmental adaptation. Moreover, seasonal H2A.Zub enrichment appears as a specific mechanism contributing to the regulation of chromatin architecture under natural conditions. The existence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp suggests that the epigenetic regulation in this species constitutes a complex and finely tuned mechanism developed to cope with seasonal environmental changes that occur in its habitat. PMID:23866978

  2. The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

    Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

  3. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; García, E; Paniagua, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2009-03-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of (3)H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant. PMID:19128862

  4. Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076 mg IgY g BW(-1) d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14 mg g BW(-1)) and in carp (0.57 mg g BW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine. PMID:25224559

  5. Effect of coconut oil and tricaprylin vs. triolein on survival, growth and fatty acid composition of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Fontagné; Tomasz Pruszynski; Genevičve Corraze; Pierre Bergot

    1999-01-01

    A 21-day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the ability of first-feeding carp larvae to utilize medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). Six semi-purified diets, with a common casein and soluble fish protein concentrate basis, were tested on triplicate groups of 400 larvae. The diets were isolipidic (23–24% of dry matter). They differed only by triacylglycerol supplementation (10% of diet) which

  6. Impact of PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) and TBT and a mixture of both on swimming behavior, body growth and enzymatic biotransformation activities (GST) of young carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katja; Staaks, Georg B O; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2005-01-18

    The sensitivity of carp to chronical stress due to single and combined mixtures (each 50%) of TBT and PCB was evaluated under laboratory conditions. And concluded, mixed exposures were partially more or less toxic than single ones. Xenobiotic stress led to both decreased mean daily swimming speed and an increased mean swimming speed during darkness. Also a decreased preferred swimming depth (nearer to the surface) during nighttime was observed. We found approximately synergistic effects of TBT and PCB in swimming behavior of carp exposed to those mixtures. PCB did not affect the body growth significantly, TBT-stress led to a decreased body growth and the exposure to PCB-TBT mixture caused an approximately additive decrease of body growth. Measurement of biotransformation potential measured as GST enzyme activity showed both increasing or decreasing activity levels after exposure to single and mixture chemical combinations (approximately additive, antagonistic and synergistic). Nevertheless, we had to conclude that all methods tested were useful to screen subacute effects of single as well as mixed xenobiotic chemicals on carp, which is the prerequisite for an investigation of samples taken from the environment. PMID:15642631

  7. Xenobiotic substances such as PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254) and TBT can influence swimming behavior and biotransformation activity (GST) of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katja; Steinberg, Christian E W; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Staaks, Georg B O

    2004-10-01

    Different groups of carp were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or tributyltin (TBT), and possible effects of the chemicals on the swimming behavior of the carp were examined using the BehavioQuant system. By evaluating quantitative behavioral parameters of the animals, it became evident that exposure to high concentrations of chemicals (organotin, 7 microg L(-1), or polychlorinated biphenyl, 22 microg L(-1)) severely affected the carp, causing a significant change in their swimming speed. TBT stress led to a rapid decrease in mean swimming activity. A decrease in the preferred swimming depth was observed in TBT- and PCB-exposed fish. Animals exposed to PCB reduced their mean daily activity and increased their mean swimming speed in the nighttime during the second week of exposure. Therefore, our findings imply that the fish were adapted to cope with the chemicals after the second week of exposure. Furthermore, our results showed that low concentrations (TBT, 0.3 and 2 microg L(-1), or PCB, 14 microg L(-1)) did not significantly alter any quantified parameters of swimming behavior. In addition, the direct effects of chemicals on enzyme activity (GST) were determined. Measurement of soluble glutathione-S-transferase activity of fish liver or gills showed a significant elevation after exposure to PCB (0.1 or 22 microg L(-1)) or TBT (0.8 or 7 microg L(-1)). We had to conclude that the two different end points tested generally are useful as biomarkers of exposure and for investigations of energy resources in organisms under the influence of toxic stress. PMID:15352262

  8. Comparative study on effects of dietary with diphenyl diselenide on oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia sp.) exposed to herbicide clomazone.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Toni, Cândida; Santi, Adriana; Lópes, Thais; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Neto, Joăo Radünz; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the capacity of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (3.0mg/kg), on reduce the oxidative damage in liver, gills and muscle of carp and silver catfish exposed to clomazone (192h). Silver catfish exposed to clomazone showed increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver and muscle and protein carbonyl in liver and gills. Furthermore, clomazone in silver catfish decrease non-protein thiols (NPSH) in liver and gills and glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid in liver. (PhSe)2 reversed the effects caused by clomazone in silver catfish, preventing increases in TBARS and protein carbonyl. Moreover, NPSH and ascorbic acid were increased by values near control. The results suggest that (PhSe)2 attenuated the oxidative damage induced by clomazone in silver catfish. The clomazone no caused an apparent situation of oxidative stress in carp, showing that this species is more resistant to this toxicant. Altogether, the containing (PhSe)2 diet helps fish to increase antioxidants defenses. PMID:23892285

  9. Swimming performance and energy metabolism of rainbow trout, common carp and gibel carp respond differently to sublethal copper exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Boeck; K. van der Ven; J. Hattink; R. Blust

    2006-01-01

    We compared the effects of sublethal waterborne copper exposure on swimming performance and respiration rates in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with those in less sensitive cyprinid species such as common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. These cyprinids are considerably more resistant to Cu intoxication, and differ from trout in swimming performance and respiratory behaviour. Critical swimming

  10. Acute toxicity of selected organophosphorus pesticides to Cyprinus carpio and Barilius vagra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Alam; O. E. Maughan

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of two organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, diazinon and malathion to Cyprinus carpio and Barilius vagra was determined. Mortalities and LC50–96 hr values for 8. vagra and C. carpio were variable. Both juvenile common carp and B. vagra were extremely sensitive to diazinon. Adult B. vagra were more sensitive to malathion than were juvenile common carp.

  11. A comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time.

    PubMed

    Gluth, G; Hanke, W

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure. PMID:3987597

  12. Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture. PMID:17728150

  13. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada) and Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bokkers, Abraham [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100 {mu}M, none of the diphenylalkanes directly inhibited aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R cells. Environmental exposure of fish to BPA and related diphenylalkanes, depending on the structure, may pose anti-estrogenic, and to a lesser extent estrogenic, risks to development and reproduction.

  14. Construction and characterization of BAC libraries for three fish species; rainbow trout, carp and tilapia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Katagiri; S. Asakawa; S. Minagawa; N. Shimizu; I. Hirono; T. Aoki

    2001-01-01

    Summary Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are important tools for genomic research. We have constructed seven genomic BAC libraries from three fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The two rainbow trout BAC libraries have average insert sizes of 58 and 110 kb. The average size of inserts in the carp BAC library is

  15. Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  16. Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Zuoyan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The first successful case of transgenic fish was achieved in 1984. It is in a model system that the integration and expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in host red common carp (Cyprinus carpio, red var.) have been thoroughly studied. Recently, the integration sites have been recovered and characterized. Compared with non-transgenic peers, hGH-transgenic fish are prior in dietary

  17. Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS

    E-print Network

    , extraction and processing of common carp otoliths are time consuming and require sacrifice of fish. Therefore be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

  18. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovan?i?evi?, Branimir; Simonovi?, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation. PMID:26039743

  19. Enhanced Accumulation of Arsenate in Carp in the Presence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwen Sun; Xuezhi Zhang; Qian Niu; Yongsheng Chen; John C. Crittenden

    2007-01-01

    In this study adsorption of arsenic (As) onto TiO2 nanoparticles and the facilitated transport of As into carp (Cyprinus carpio) by TiO2 nanoparticles was examined. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were conducted by adding As(V) to TiO2 suspensions. Facilitated transport of As by TiO2 nanoparticles was assessed by accumulation tests exposing carp to As(V) contaminated water in the presence of

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MUSCLE VELOCITY AND SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING CARP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE C. ROME; ROEL P. FUNKE

    1990-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate how fish locomote at different muscle temperatures. Sarcomere length excursion and muscle shortening velocity, V, were determined from high-speed motion pictures of carp, Cyprinus carpio (11-14cm), swimming steadily at various sustained speeds at 10, 15 and 20°C. In the middle and posterior regions of the carp, sarcomeres of the lateral red

  1. Biomass-dependent effects of common carp on water quality in shallow ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew M. Chumchal; Weston H. Nowlin; Ray W. Drenner

    2005-01-01

    We examined the biomass-dependent effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on water quality in 10 ponds at the Eagle Mountain Fish Hatchery, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. Ponds contained 0–465 kg ha-1 of common carp. We measured limnological variables at weekly intervals for four weeks in early summer, after which ponds were drained and the biomass of fish and macrophytes was determined. Common

  2. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

  3. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  4. Precision of Scales and Dorsal Spines for Estimating Age of Common Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary J. Jackson; Michael C. Quist; Joseph G. Larscheid; Edward C. Thelen; Michael J. Hawkins

    2007-01-01

    We examined precision in age estimates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) scales and dorsal spines sampled from 28 Iowa lakes (N = 501 individual fish). Exact agreement between two readers was 28.5% for scales and 90.6% for dorsal spines. Agreement of scale ages between readers was poor across the distribution of assigned ages. Agreement of dorsal spine ages increased to

  5. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish. PMID:25572856

  6. THE EFFECT OF HANDLING AND TRANSPORT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE AND CORTISOL IN BLOOD PLASMA OF COMMON CARP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. SVOBODOVÁ; P. KALÁB; L. DU; B. VYKUSOVÁ

    1999-01-01

    Svobodová Z., P. Kaláb, L. Du‰ek, B. Vykusová, J. Koláfiová, D. Janou‰ková: The Effect of Handling and Transport on the Concentration of Glucose and Cortisol in Blood Plasma of Common Carp. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 265-274. The aim of this contribution was to assess the degree of stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) exposed to handling and transport.

  7. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  8. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

  9. Swimming performance and energy metabolism of rainbow trout, common carp and gibel carp respond differently to sublethal copper exposure.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; van der Ven, K; Hattink, J; Blust, R

    2006-10-25

    We compared the effects of sublethal waterborne copper exposure on swimming performance and respiration rates in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with those in less sensitive cyprinid species such as common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. These cyprinids are considerably more resistant to Cu intoxication, and differ from trout in swimming performance and respiratory behaviour. Critical swimming speed (U(crit)), oxygen consumption, plasma ammonia and muscle ammonia, lactate and pH were measured during a 28-day sublethal exposure to 1 microM Cu. U(crit) decreased with 48, 31 and 13% within the first 12-24 h for rainbow trout, common and gibel respectively. Gibel carp recovered quickly and experienced no further reduction in swimming performance. Recovery of swimming capacity in rainbow trout and common carp was only partial. All three species displayed similar plasma ammonia peaks in the first hours to days, and a more gradual muscle ammonia accumulation over time. Whereas no signs of respiratory stress occurred in rainbow trout, common carp experienced a transient reduction in oxygen consumption combined with anaerobic metabolism after 24 h of exposure. At the same time, oxygen consumption was also reduced in gibel carp, but no signs of anaerobic metabolism were detected. Cu accumulated quickly to similar levels (36-39 microg g(-1) dry weight at day 3) in the gills of all three species, after which accumulation leveled off. Liver tissue of rainbow trout had a high Cu level from the start, and Cu concentration did not show any additional accumulation. In contrast, common carp liver showed a significant Cu accumulation from day 3 onwards, while accumulation in gibel livers was much slower and was significant from day 7 onwards. Interestingly, Cu accumulation patterns in plasma and kidney revealed a possibly important role for the kidney in Cu homeostasis of gibel carp. PMID:16956679

  10. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

  11. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  13. Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz Kloskowski

    2009-01-01

    The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates of Carp Oil: Chemical Hydrolysis and Urea Complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valéria T. Crexi; Micheli L. Monte; Maurício L. Monte; Luiz A. A. Pinto

    The aims of this study were to compare three treatments in the chemical hydrolysis reaction of bleached oil from carp (Cyprinus carpio) heads and to obtain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates by urea complexation. The three treatments were carried out\\u000a with different oil:ethanol molar ratios. In the treatment with a 1:39 molar ratio, a higher yield of free fatty acids was

  15. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:25978929

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  17. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  18. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  19. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  20. Silver Carp Egg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  1. Silver and Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  2. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  3. Juvenile Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  4. Differential response of two somatolactin genes to zinc or estrogen in pituitary of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, G E; Perez, A; Navarro, M; Romero, A; Figueroa, J; Kausel, G

    2015-05-01

    Environmental changes affect gene expression that we addressed in the pituitary, a central regulatory organ at the interface between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. With the aim to reveal effects of changes in the aquatic environment on the expression of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors, we characterized somatolactin (SL) in Cyprinus carpio. SL, a fish specific pituitary hormone belonging to the prolactin (PRL) superfamily, is involved in background adaptation, osmoregulation, reproduction and fatty acid metabolism. Two sl genes, ? and ?, were discovered in carp and transcripts of both were detected in pituitaries. Clearly, expression of sl? and sl? was modulated significantly in pituitary of male adult carp in response to treatment with ZnCl2 (Zn), but only sl? responded to 17?-estrogen (E2), relative to control carp as shown by RT-qPCR analyses. Furthermore, the amount of mRNA of related factors was assessed revealing variable effects on prl, growth hormone (gh), and factors involved in sl regulation: the pituitary transcription factor pit1 and hypothalamic pituitary adenylase cyclase activating peptide (pacap). In parallel, the physiological response of the experimental animals to Zn or E2 was confirmed by showing a significant increase of metallothionein (mt) or vitellogenin (vg) gene expression in liver, classical sentinels for exposure to heavy metal or estrogens. These data suggest that the sl genes seem to be involved in the response to Zn, as well as to estrogen, and could contribute to evaluate biological relevant changes in the aquatic environment. PMID:25281789

  5. Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

    2007-03-01

    In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

  6. Electrical coupling between bipolar cells in carp retina

    PubMed Central

    Kujiraoka, Toru; Saito, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made simultaneously from pairs of neighboring bipolar cells by advancing two independent microelectrodes into retinas of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Bipolar cells were identified by their response properties and in several samples were verified by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. Current of either polarity injected into one member of the bipolar cell pair elicited a signconserving, sustained potential change in the other bipolar cell without any significant delay. This electrical coupling was reciprocal, and it was observed between cell types similar in function and in morphology. Our results strongly suggest that there is a spatial summation of signals at the level of bipolar cells, which makes central receptive field areas much larger than their dendritic fields. Images PMID:16593707

  7. Indispensable amino acid concentrations decrease in tissues of stomachless fish, common carp in response to free amino acid- or peptide-based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhang; K. Dabrowski; P. Hliwa; P. Gomulka

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  The premise that free amino acid or dipeptide based diets will resolve the nutritional inadequacy of formulated feeds for\\u000a larval and juvenile fish and improve utilization of nitrogen in comparison to protein-based diets was tested in stomachless\\u000a fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. We examined the postprandial whole body free amino acid (FAA) pool in fish that were offered

  8. Observation on prevalence of ectoparasites in carp fingerlings in two districts of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to find out the prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings during different months of the year 2008-2009. Four groups of ectoparasites viz. myxozoan, ciliophoran, monogenean and crustacean were recorded from 400 fingerlings of Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), Bata (Labeo bata), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Lata (Channa punctatus) collected from different ponds of Nadia and Hooghly district of West Bengal from June 2008 to May 2009. The highest prevalence (51.66%) of infection has been recorded in ciliophorans and the lowest was in crustacean (17.5%) between the months of December and February. The highest ectoparasitic prevalence (36.85%) was recorded during winter season (December-February) while the lowest prevalence (9.16%) recorded during rainy season (June-August). PMID:21526033

  9. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

  10. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  11. Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

  12. Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Detecting BGP Anomalies with Wavelet Jianning Mai ECE Department, UC Davis jnmai@ece.ucdavis.edu Abstract--In this paper, we propose a BGP anomaly detection framework called BAlet that delivers both property and earlier success in applying it for network anomaly detection motivate us to apply the same

  13. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  14. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

    2013-12-01

    In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

  16. Uptake and enantioselective elimination of chlordane compounds by common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachadaporn Seemamahannop; Alain Berthod; Michael Maples; Shubhender Kapila; Daniel W. Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method involving supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by a two-dimensional gas chromatography (2D-GC) analysis was developed to determine the concentration (first GC) and enantiomeric ratio (second GC) of cis- and trans-chlordanes at the ppb (ng\\/g) level in fish tissue. The SFE method allowed concentration of the compounds of interest, and reduced the number of extraction and sample clean-up

  17. Early Ontogeny, Growth and Mortality of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) at Low Concentrations of Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislava Mácová; Petra Doleželová

    Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is an important polar aprotic solvent, less toxic than other members of this class. Because of its excellent solvating power, DMSO is frequently used as solvent for chemical reactions involving salts, especially Finkelstein reactions and other nucleophilic substitutions. Furthermore, DMSO is used as auxiliary substance in toxicity tests on aquatic organisms, usually at concentrations of 0.2 and

  18. Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Çoban, M Zülfü; Ero?lu, Mücahit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of propolis against the toxic effects of chromium (VI) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. Propolis was simultaneously administered to chromium-exposed fish. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, spleen, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. The levels of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in chromium groups compared to controls. Simultaneous administration of propolis ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of propolis might alleviate chromium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22052654

  19. Bioaccumulation and neurotoxicity of dithiopyridine herbicide in the brain of freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal Mohamed

    2013-05-16

    The freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio, was exposed to 0.5 mg (30% of median lethal concentration (LC50)), 1.0 mg (60% of LC50), and 1.6 mg (LC50) of dithiopyridine herbicide per liter for acute (24 h) and 1/10 of LC50 (0.2 mg/L/day) for sublethal (1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days) experiments. The herbicide bioaccumulation was significantly affected by the acute exposure levels and the experimental periods and was positively correlated with them. One-way analysis of variance revealed that the acute and sublethal exposure to the herbicide as well as the experimental periods caused significant reduction in the concentrations of catecholamines (dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE)), elevation of acetylcholine (ACh), and was associated with a marked decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In comparison with the corresponding controls, most levels of the DA and NE and the activity of AChE were significantly decreased, whereas the concentration of ACh was markedly elevated, during acute and sublethal exposure. In the acute and sublethal experiments, the herbicide accumulated in the brain was inversely proportional to the levels of DA and NE and the activity of AChE but has a direct correlation with the concentration of ACh. In addition, the brain's AChE activity was negatively correlated with ACh content during the acute (r = -0.94) and sublethal (r = -0.78) experiments. PMID:23681548

  20. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  1. Effects of pharmaceuticals on the expression of genes involved in detoxification in a carp primary hepatocyte model.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Winter, Matthew J; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-06-01

    Fish in many surface freshwaters are exposed to a range of pharmaceuticals via wastewater treatment works effluent discharges. In mammals the pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a key role in the regulation of a suite of genes involved in drug biotransformation, but information on the role of this response pathway in fish is limited. Here we investigated the effects of exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio) primary hepatocytes to the human PXR agonist rifampicin (RIF) on expression of target genes involved in phase I (cyp2k, cyp3a) and phase II (gst?, gst?) drug metabolism and drug transporters mdr1 and mrp2. RIF induced expression of all target genes measured and the PXR antagonist ketoconazole (KET) inhibited responses of cyp2k and cyp3a. Exposure of the primary carp hepatocytes to the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen (IBU), clotrimazole (CTZ), clofibric acid (CFA) and propranolol (PRP), found responses to IBU and CFA, but not CTZ or PRP. This is in contrast with mammals, where CTZ is a potent PXR-agonist. Collectively our data indicate potential PXR involvement in regulating selected genes involved in drug metabolism in fish, but suggest some divergence in the regulation pathways with those in mammals. The carp primary hepatocyte model serves as a useful system for screening for responses in these target genes involved in drug metabolism. PMID:22559005

  2. [Production of a carp-based hamburger-like product by reducing the water activity].

    PubMed

    Santillán, M; Morales, L J

    1992-06-01

    The experimental conditions were determined in order to conserve lean fish by means of combined factors based on Aw and pH reduction as well as the addition of an antifungal. Theoretical Aw was determined in formulas containing fish, sodium chloride, glycerol and sorbitol applying a mathematic model. From the results of the prediction, 4 formulas were prepared experimentally with (Cyprinus carpio). Phosphoric acid was added to the products in order to obtain a 5.5-6.0 pH. The final formulas were packed in plastic bags and stored with a control product (100% carp pulp) at 25 +/- 2 degrees C and 38 +/- 3% R.H. during one month. Aw, water content and pH determinations were carried at weekly intervals. Results indicated a slight but significative (P < 0.025) lowering of Aw, water content and pH. Microbiological analysis showed an increase in MAB count with no growth of pathogens. A control product (100% carp pulp) was deteriorated in a five day period. Sensory evaluation of the products indicated a slight acceptance among an inexperienced panel. PMID:1341858

  3. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  4. The in vitro interference of synthetic progestogens with carp steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Pujol, Sílvia; Aceńa, Jaume; Perez, Sandra; Barceló, Damiŕ; Porte, Cinta

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spawning processes, this study aimed at assessing the in vitro interference of four currently used progestogens-drospirenone (DRO), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethindrone (NOR) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) - with key enzymatic activities involved in the synthesis of active steroids in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The enzymatic pathways investigated were (a) CYP17 (C17,20-lyase) and CYP11? involved in the synthesis of androgens, (b) CYP19 that catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, and (c) 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) responsible for the synthesis of maturation-inducing hormones. All tested progestogens significantly inhibited the synthesis of androgens: DRO (IC50: 3.8 ?M) was the strongest inhibitor of CYP17 followed by CPA (IC50s: 183 ?M). Moreover, NOR (IC50: 0.4 ?M), DRO (IC50: 1.8 ?M) and CPA (IC50s: 87 ?M) inhibited CYP11?. An inhibition by NOR of ovarian CYP19 activity, and by DRO and CPA of 20?-HSD was also observed, but at rather high concentrations (500 ?M). Overall, this study highlights the potential of synthetic progestogens, and particularly DRO and NOR, to interfere with the biosynthesis of androgens in carp gonads. PMID:25087002

  5. [Analysis of genetic structure of mirror carp population and correlation of microsatellite markers and economic traits].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Wei, Zhen-Bang; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun

    2008-03-01

    The genetic structure of one breeding population of mirror carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) was analysed using thirty-five polymorphic microsatellite markers. The effective number of alleles (Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content(PIC) were all determined. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi-square test. For each locus, 2-7 alleles were detected, with a total of 118 alleles for 35 loci . The value of Ae, Ho, He and PIC showed that the genetic variation of the population was not high .The average effective number of alleles and the mean polymorphism information content were 2.16 and 0.42, respectively, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.431 and 0.4736 , respectively.The probability value of chi-square test showed that more than half of the thirty-five loci have significantly (Plt;0.01) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The correlation of genotype of each locus and individual phenotype data was analysed , and 4 loci seemed associated with body weight and body size . When compared with the result of QTL mapping of common carp, HLJ319 locus was consistent with the mapping result approximately, which was significantly correlated with body size . Several significantly deviated loci were also analysed, and the possible cause of the kind of deviation was discussed . PMID:18332007

  6. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

  8. CARP: Fishing for Novel Mechanisms of Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E Samaras; Yubin Shi; Jeffrey M Davidson

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to

  9. First evidence of comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) to relatively resistant and susceptible Indian farmed carps to Argulus siamensis infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Chakrapani, V; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis. PMID:24998226

  10. Responses of the hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense system and related gene expression in juvenile common carp after chronic treatment with tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, residual organotin compounds have generally been recognised as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the effects of these contaminants on the glutathione (GSH)-antioxidant system of fishes have not been adequately studied. In the current study, the chronic effects of tributyltin (TBT) found within antifouling paints for ships, on the GSH antioxidant system and related gene expression in the liver of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30 and 60 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzymes activities, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were quantified in the fish liver. The levels of malondialdehyde were also measured as a marker of oxidative damage. In addition, the expression levels of gstp1, gr and gpx1 in common carp chronically exposed to TBT were determined. The results of the current study indicate that chronic exposure of TBT results in reactive oxygen species stress in the liver of common carp, and mRNA expression levels are more sensitive than related enzyme levels. In short, the measured GSH-related indices could potentially be used as molecular indicators for monitoring organotin compounds in the aquatic environment. PMID:25582114

  11. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José M

    2009-12-01

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As(III) and As(V) were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST Omega), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As(V). Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST Omega compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As(III) and As(V) can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. PMID:19632019

  12. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  13. Limnological Factors Influencing Growth of Cage-Cultured Bighead Carp ? x Silver Carp ? Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bayne; Ash K. Rai; Purushottam L. Joshi; John C. Williams

    1993-01-01

    Four 2-m cages each stocked with 120 bighead carp ? X silver carp ? hybrids were placed in each of four ponds varying in trophic status from mesotrophic to hypereutrophic. Fish were cultured, without feeding, from 13 March to 1 October, 1987. All fish survived but lost weight (-0.37 g\\/fish\\/day) in the mesotrophic pond. Maximum fish growth rate occured in

  14. Combined effects of different food rations and sublethal copper exposure on growth and energy metabolism in common carp.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shodja; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2008-02-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration; LR) and 5% body weight (high ration; HR), throughout acclimation, sublethal (64 microg/L) Cu exposure for 28 days, and a subsequent 2-week recovery period. Growth, liver water content, and liver energy stores were assessed during this period. Growth rates were elevated in HR fish compared to LR fish, as was the hepatic lipid content. This was associated with a higher water content in the livers of LR fish. Liver glycogen levels were similar in both feeding treatments and remained relatively stable during Cu exposure. Cu exposure caused a significant reduction in growth in both HR and LR fish. Reduction in growth coincided with significant changes in liver and blood composition. Liver lipid levels dropped significantly during the first days of the exposure in both feeding treatments, and the difference between LR and HR lipid levels disappeared during Cu exposure. During the first week of Cu exposure, the difference in liver water content disappeared as well, with a significant reduction of the water levels in the LR fish. A rise of hepatic protein was observed after 2 and 4 weeks of Cu exposure in the LR carp and after 4 weeks of exposure in the HR fish. Cu exposure led to pronounced increases in plasma ammonia concentrations in HR carp. Growth and energy stores recuperated during the 2-week recovery period in both feeding treatments. The observed changes during Cu exposure are probably related to physiological disturbances like hypoxia and stress, as well as an inhibition of ammonia excretion. PMID:17721796

  15. Food Preferences, Food Intake, and Growth of the F1 Hybrid of Grass Carp ? X Bighead Carp ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy M. Young; James P. Monaghan Jr; Roy C. Heidinger

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid carp from the cross grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella ? X bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis ? preferred filamentous algae and Najas guadalupensis over Ceratophyllum demersum. Medium-sized (273 g) and large hybrids (360 g) consumed more plant material and grew faster than small hybrids (77 g) at 14 and 22 C in aquaria. Aquarium data suggest that it will require at

  16. Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

  17. Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

    1983-04-01

    Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

  18. Sparse Bilinear Logistic Regression Jianing V. Shi1,2

    E-print Network

    , such as the Corresponding author's email address: jianing@math.ucla.edu 1 arXiv:submit/0957963[math.OC]15Apr2014 #12;scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) [26] or histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) [7], to construct features for each of the non-zero weights correspond to features that are informative about classifi- cation, therefore leading

  19. Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - mograph. The fish were adapted to the experimental conditions and to a dry pellet diet (see composition measured in fish (Nose, 1972 ; Z6bian, 1977 ; Kaushik, 1977 ; Fauconneau and Luquet, 1979). Salmonid methodological approach has been used in this study to continuously measure the nitrogen excretion of fish kept

  20. Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kálmán

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

  1. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hĺkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  2. Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-02-01

    Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process. PMID:24433788

  3. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Abtahi, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjatollah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2?000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels. PMID:23569972

  4. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 ?g/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 ?g/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 ?g/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 ?g/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla. PMID:25862331

  5. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Dosage Effects in Triploid Grass Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella is used widely in aquaculture for aquatic weed control. Historically, concern about the proliferative growth of nonnative diploid grass carp populations led to development of the hydrostatic pressure shock technique for the production of sterile triploids. Despite the success of this technique in accomplishing management goals, little is known about the cellular physiology of triploids.

  7. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  8. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  9. Homology model and molecular dynamics simulation of carp ovum cystatin.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuan-Chen; Lin, Jin-Chung; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a homology model of carp ovum cystatin was constructed based on the crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin. The results of amino acid sequence alignment indicate that these two proteins exhibit 36.11% of sequence identity. The resultant homology model reveals that carp ovum cystatin shares similar folds as chicken egg white cystatin, particularly in the conserved regions of Q48-V49-G52 and P98-W99 and the locations of two disulfide bonds, C67-C76 and C90-C110. However, the results of 1 ns molecular dynamics simulations show that carp ovum cystatin exhibits less structural integrity than chicken egg white cystatin in explicit water at 300 K. The relatively hydrophilic Met62 of carp ovum cystatin, corresponding to the hydrophobic Leu68 of human cystatin C and Ile66 of chicken egg white cystatin, may destabilize the hydrophobic core and form a dimeric structure more easily through domain swapping. A total of 16 positively charged residues are equally distributed on the surface of carp ovum cystatin, resulting in agglutination with the negatively charged spermatozoa via electrostatic interaction. Thus, carp ovum cystatin is considered to be important in preventing carp eggs from polyspermy. PMID:16080717

  10. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  11. 72 FR 59019 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-10-18

    ...fish ploidy (the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or an organism) is most commonly...analysis does not estimate the decreased probability of unintentional introduction, or the decreased probability of a black carp population...

  12. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  13. Recent advances in carp seed production and milt cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Routray; D. K. Verma; S. K. Sarkar; N. Sarangi

    2007-01-01

    The fish-seed production industry in India has recorded remarkable growth over the last three decades. The hypophysation technique\\u000a was successfully introduced into India in 1957 and steady progress towards the refinement of the technique has been registered,\\u000a which has revolutionized carp seed production in the Indian subcontinent. Advancement of carp maturity through brood stock\\u000a management and multiple breeding has enabled

  14. Bioaccumulation studies of organochlorinated pesticides in tissues of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayan, Shanta; Ramakant; Satyanarayan, Ahana

    2005-01-01

    Freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was selected for the study of bioaccumulation of organochlorinated pesticides in tissues like gills, muscle, intestine, kidney, and liver in a continuous fed system. The pesticides used were Aldrin, Dieldrin, BHC, and DDT. The bioaccumulation of Dieldrin was maximum of 85.0 microg g(-1) wet weight in liver tissue while minimum of 7.30 microg g(-1) wet weight for DDT at 30 days exposure time. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) has followed the same trend in liver tissue for Dieldrin and DDT. The rate of bioaccumulation was found to be maximum of 4.3879 microg g(-1) wet weight in liver tissue and minimum of 0.0021 microg g(-1) wet weight in gill tissue for 30 days exposure. As evidenced by the increasing values of BCF, pesticide uptake also showed increased trend with the increase in exposure time. A high correlation coefficient ranging between 0.7247 and 0.9616 between the pesticide concentration and exposure time was observed. Based on actual BCF values, log Kow were calculated and the values are well within the reported values of 6.5 indicating efficient relationship between BCF and log Kow because beyond the 6.5 the bioconcentration levels off. PMID:15913013

  15. Growth and Food Habits of Cage-Cultured Bighead Carp x Silver Carp Hybrids in Ponds of Varying Trophic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bayne; Purushottam L. Joshi; Ash K. Rai; John C. Williams

    1991-01-01

    Four 20m cages stocked with 120 bighead carp x silver carp hybrids per cage were placed in each of four ponds varying in trophic status from mesotrophic to hypereutophic. Fish were cultured, without feeding, from 13 March to 1 Octorber 1987. Fish in the mesotrophic pond survived but lost weight (-0.37 g\\/fish\\/d). The mesotrophic pond produced insufficient food to sustain

  16. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

  17. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  18. Sublethal copper exposure induces respiratory stress in common and gibel carp but not in rainbow trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Boeck; K. Van der Ven; W. Meeus; R. Blust

    2007-01-01

    Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 ?M) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. PaO2 was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased this further. The decrease was transient for common carp but persistent in

  19. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Plants, Water Quality, and Public Satisfaction in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Bonar; Bruce Bolding; Marc Divens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the

  20. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Plants, Water Quality, and Public Satisfaction in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Bonar; Bruce Bolding; Marc Divens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Wash- ington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of

  1. CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

  2. Tissue-Specific Metabolic Responses of Cyprinus flammans to Copper.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Yan; Ye, Yang-Fang; Xue, Liang-Yi; Tang, Ze-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination is serious in China, with ?2.76 mg/L in some waters. Exposure to Cu causes a high toxicity to the aquatic organisms and subsequent ecological risk. To understand fish responses to Cu exposure, we analyzed the metabonomic changes in multiple tissues (gill, liver, and muscle) of Cyprinus flammans using an nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic technique. Our results showed that metabolic alterations are dose-dependent. No significant metabolic alterations in three tissues of fish are caused by 0.25 mg/L Cu. However, 1.53 mg/L Cu caused changes of energy-related metabolites and amino acids, which we suggest are due to enhanced metabolic acidosis in gill and muscle, decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in muscle, increased gluconeogenesis from amino acids in liver, and improved glycogenesis in liver and muscle. The Cori cycle between liver and muscle is concurrently triggered. Furthermore, high concentration of Cu resulted in the alteration of choline metabolism such that we hypothesize that Cu induces membrane damage and detoxification of CuSO4 in gill as well as altered osmoregulation in all three tissues. Choline-O-sulfate in gill may be used as a biomarker to provide an early warning of Cu exposure in C. flammans. Moreover, Cu exposure caused alterations of nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism in both gill and muscle. These findings provide a new insight into the metabolic effects of Cu exposure on C. flammans and highlight the value of metabonomics in the study of metabolic metal disturbance in fish. PMID:25827945

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  4. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  5. Action of Cypermethrin on Tissue Transamination during Nitrogen Metabolism in Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Philip; B. H. Rajasree

    1996-01-01

    Freshwater fish,Cyprinus carpio,was exposed to sublethal concentration (3 ?g liter?1) of cypermethrin for 5 and 10 days to examine the changes in the transamination process during the formation of nitrogenous end products in four functionally different tissues, namely, gill, liver, brain, and muscle. Increases in total and soluble protein contents were noticed in all the tissues of exposed fish with

  6. Karyotypic Diversity in Polyploid Gibel Carp, Carassius Auratus Gibelio Bloch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhou; J. F. Gui

    2002-01-01

    Polyploid gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an excellent model system for evolutionary genetics owing to its specific genetic background and reproductive modes. Comparative karyotype studies were performed in three cultured clones, one artificially manipulated group, and one mated group between two clones. Both the clones A and P had 156 chromosomes in their karyotypes, with 36 metacentric, 54 submetacentric,

  7. Low-Density Triploid Grass Carp Stockings for Submersed Vegetation Control in Small Impoundments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Blackwell; Brian R. Murphy

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of low-density triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stockings to provide partial control of submersed vegetation (maintain 10–40% coverage) in four small impoundments. Triploid grass carp were stocked during May 1991 at densities ranging from 4.0 to 7.5 per surface ha; additional triploid grass carp (5.0 per surface ha) were added to one impoundment during June 1992.

  8. Sublethal copper exposure induces respiratory stress in common and gibel carp but not in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; Van der Ven, K; Meeus, W; Blust, R

    2007-01-01

    Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 microM) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (P(aO(2))) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. P(aO(2)) was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased this further. The decrease was transient for common carp but persistent in gibel carp and coincided with an elevation in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(aCO(2))) indicating that all gas exchange was compromised in both cyprinid species. The disturbed gas exchange resulted in acidosis, which was respiratory and metabolic for common carp but mainly respiratory for gibel carp. Gibel carp produced ethanol as end product of their alternative anaerobic pathway. The hypothesis that hypertrophy and hyperplasia, resulting in increased diffusion distances, are reducing P(aO(2)) appeared invalid. Hypoventilation seems a more likely cause. Ionoregulatory parameters responded more uniform among species. Fast and pronounced decreases in plasma sodium and chloride developed for all three species, independent of the observed gill damage. Rainbow trout lost 20% of their plasma Na in the first 3 days, while common and gibel carp had only lost 13 and 16% respectively at that time. This difference might be crucial when challenged with Cu exposure and allow a fish to survive the first shock phase and supports it the hypothesis that sodium turnover is a key factor in predicting Cu toxicity. PMID:17196885

  9. Data-driven tight frame construction and image Jian-Feng Caia

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    per- forms better in image denoising than those wavelet tight frames designed for a class of images performance. Key words: tight frame, image de-noising, wavelet thresholding, sparse approximation 1Data-driven tight frame construction and image denoising Jian-Feng Caia , Sibin Huangb , Hui Ji

  10. Data-driven tight frame construction and image Jian-Feng Caia

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    in image denoising than those wavelet tight frames designed for a class of images. Moreover, by ensuring frame, image de-noising, wavelet thresholding, sparse approximation 1. Introduction In the past decadesData-driven tight frame construction and image denoising Jian-Feng Caia , Hui Ji,b , Zuowei Shenb

  11. Gaussian Process Learning for Cyber-Attack Early Warning Jian Zhang1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jian

    Gaussian Process Learning for Cyber-Attack Early Warning Jian Zhang1 , Phillip Porras1 , Johannes With the fast growth of the Internet, there has been a great increase in the number of cyber attacks. This has- gressive attack sources, as such information can help to proactively defend their networks. For this pur

  12. Is ALOHA Causing Power Law Delays? Predrag R. Jelenkovic and Jian Tan

    E-print Network

    Jelenkovic, Predrag

    Is ALOHA Causing Power Law Delays? Predrag R. Jelenkovi´c and Jian Tan Department of Electrical interest in ALOHA-based Medium Access Con- trol (MAC) protocols stems from their proposed applications study the distributional properties of packet transmission delays over an ALOHA channel. We discover

  13. AUTOMATIC MEDICAL IMAGE ANNOTATION AND RETRIEVAL USING SEMI-SECC Jian Yaoa,1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhongfei "Mark"

    AUTOMATIC MEDICAL IMAGE ANNOTATION AND RETRIEVAL USING SEMI-SECC Jian Yaoa,1 , Zhongfei Zhanga is growing faster than ever. In this paper, we present a novel medical image retrieval method based on SEMI Medical images play a central role in patient diagnosis, ther- apy, surgical planning, medical reference

  14. REPRESENTATIONS OF LITTLE q-SCHUR ALGEBRAS JIE DU, QIANG FU AND JIAN-PAN WANG

    E-print Network

    Du, Jie

    REPRESENTATIONS OF LITTLE q-SCHUR ALGEBRAS JIE DU, QIANG FU AND JIAN-PAN WANG Abstract. In [18] and [24], little q-Schur algebras were introduced as homomorphic images of the infinitesimal quantum modules for little q-Schur algebras and classify semisimple little q-Schur algebras. Moreover, through

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of H3O : The 1 Fundamental Band Jian Tang and Takeshi Oka

    E-print Network

    Oka, Takeshi

    Infrared Spectroscopy of H3O : The 1 Fundamental Band Jian Tang and Takeshi Oka Department, Illinois 60637 E-mail: t-oka@uchicago.edu Received December 24, 1998 The infrared spectrum of H3O 113.6(1)°. © 1999 Academic Press Key Words: infrared spectroscopy; H3O ; vibration

  16. Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier

    E-print Network

    Tessier, Russell

    Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier Department@doc.ic.ac.uk Abstract Most commercial and academic floating point libraries for FPGAs provide only a small fraction of all possible floating point units. In contrast, the floating point unit gen- eration approach outlined

  17. Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier

    E-print Network

    Mencer, Oskar

    Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier Department Sciences Center Bell Labs, Lucent Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 Abstract Floating point units form an important component of many reconfigurable computing applications. The creation of floating point units under

  18. Fitness Inheritance in MultiObjective Optimization JianHung Chen

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Fitness Inheritance in Multi­Objective Optimization Jian­Hung Chen Dept. of Information Engineering­objective problems. This paper investi­ gates fitness inheritance way speed multi­objective genetic evolutionary algo­ rithms. Convergence population­sizing mod­ derived compared with experimental results in cases: fitness

  19. A Generalization of the Weighted Set Covering Problem Jian Yang,1

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian

    A Generalization of the Weighted Set Covering Problem Jian Yang,1 Joseph Y-T. Leung2 1 Department a generalization of the weighted set covering problem where every element needs to be covered multiple times. When similar to the one for the classical weighted set covering problem studied by D.S. Johnson [Approximation

  20. Design of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster Jian F. Li, Class of 2006

    E-print Network

    Choueiri, Edgar

    Design of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster (MiPPT) Jian F. Li, Class of 2006 Submitted of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster (MiPPT) i ABSTRACT The performance of gas-fed pulsed plasma microwave discharges as an plasma initiation source in GFPPTs. The purpose of this project is to design

  1. Multi-Objective Evolutionary Optimization of Flexible Manufacturing Jian-Hung Chen

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Multi-Objective Evolutionary Optimization of Flexible Manufacturing Systems Jian-Hung Chen Dept. of Information Engineering Feng Chia University Taichung, Taiwan 407, R.O.C. jh.chen@ieee.org Shinn-Ying Ho Dept). Moon et al. proposed an evolutionary algorithm for solving the flexible process sequencing problems

  2. Physics and model of strengthening by parallel stacking faults W. W. Jian,1

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Yuntian T.

    Physics and model of strengthening by parallel stacking faults W. W. Jian,1 G. M. Cheng,1 W. Z. Xu that parallel stacking faults (SFs) can tremendously increase the strength of a magnesium alloy engineered with parallel spaced stacking faults over a wide range of fault spacing. VC 2013 AIP Publishing

  3. Is Sampled Data Sufficient for Anomaly Detection? Jianning Mai Chen-Nee Chuah

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    Is Sampled Data Sufficient for Anomaly Detection? Jianning Mai Chen-Nee Chuah University such as traffic matrix estimations, but recently it has also been used in numerous anomaly detection algo- rithms techniques distort traffic features critical for effective anomaly detection. We sampled packet traces cap

  4. Context-Dependent Term Relations for Information Retrieval Jing Bai Jian-Yun Nie Guihong Cao

    E-print Network

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    Context-Dependent Term Relations for Information Retrieval Jing Bai Jian-Yun Nie Guihong Cao DIRO,nie,caogui}@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract Co-occurrence analysis has been used to determine related words or terms in many NLP-related applications such as query expansion in Information Retrieval (IR). However, related words are usually

  5. Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles Jian Feng Gu, Stephan Gorgutsa, and Maksim Skorobogatiya

    E-print Network

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles Jian Feng Gu, Stephan Gorgutsa, and Maksim production volumes make the fibers interesting for various smart textile applications. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3488351 Smart textiles or e-textiles can sense and respond

  6. Survey on anonymous communications in computer networks Jian Ren a,*, Jie Wu b

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Survey on anonymous communications in computer networks Jian Ren a,*, Jie Wu b a Michigan State o Article history: Available online 20 November 2009 Keywords: Communication anonymity Source anonymous message authentication Sender anonymity Recipient anonymity Relationship anonymity a b s t r a c

  7. Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1

    E-print Network

    Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1 A. K. McMahan,2 M. D a systematic analysis of the spectral properties of -plutonium with varying 5f occupancy. The LDA Hamiltonian properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, plutonium is probably the most complicated element

  8. Some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with wide environmental distribution inhibit TCDD-induced EROD activity in primary cultured carp ( Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V Kuiper; Ĺ Bergman; J. G Vos; M van den Berg

    2004-01-01

    Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a catalytic function of the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) microsomal oxygenase subfamily, is a popular biomarker for exposure to xenobiotics, polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in particular. It has found wide use in aquatic pollution assessment both in vivo and in vitro. In such studies, subjects are often exposed to complex mixtures where various constituents can interfere with

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  10. [Effect of furosemide on GABAA-induced 36Cl transport on ATPase activity in synaptic membranes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].

    PubMed

    Meznikov, S A; Meznikova, O V

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of furosemide on GABAA-induced 36Cl transport and GABAA-induced Cl- -ATPase activity in synaptic membranes of fish brain. At physiological pH of 7.4, GABA (0.1-100 microM) stimulated 36Cl transport in synaptoneurosomes and Cl- -ATPase activity in synaptic membranes. Furosemide (0.1-0.5 mM) removed the activating effect of the mediator on chlorine transport and enzyme activity (I50 equaled 0.16 and 0.12 mM, respectively). In the absence of the mediator, picrotoxin (50 microM) activated the basal 36Cl influx in synaptoneurosomes and the basal Mg2+ -ATPase activity of synaptic membranes. Furosemide (1 mM) removed the activating effect of picrotoxin on both biochemical processes. The obtained data demonstrated similar sensitivities of GABAA-induced transport of 36Cl in synaptoneurosomes and of GABAA-induced Cl- -ATPase activity in synaptic membranes to furosemide and indicated the involvement of the ATPase in GABAA-induced processes. The soluble ATPase, recovered by sodium deoxycholate solubilization of the membranes, remained sensitive to GABAA-ergic ligands, which suggested proximity of their binding sites with ATP hydrolysis sites of protein molecule and their structural contingency. PMID:15768629

  11. Expression of MhcCyca class i and class ii molecules in the early life history of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro N. S Rodrigues; Trudi T Hermsen; Ank van Maanen; Anja J Taverne-Thiele; Jan H. M. W Rombout; Brian Dixon; Rene J. M Stet

    1998-01-01

    In this study transcription of class I ? chain (Cyca-UA), ?2-microglobulin (Cyca-B2m) and class II ? (Cyca-DXA) and ? (Cyca-DAB) during the early stages of embryo development was investigated by semi-quantitative PCR. No transcripts of the genes under investigation were detected in the unfertilized egg. The expression of the genes encoding for the class II molecules revealed to be synchronized

  12. Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Xu; Wei Huang; Chengrong Zhong; Daji Luo; Shuangfei Li; Zuoyan Zhu; Wei Hu

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish

  13. Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    (Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

  14. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, E.L.; Goodbred, S.L.; May, T.W.; Alvarez, David; Echols, K.R.; Wieser, C.M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are influenced by levels of certain metals in the Lake Mead environment. ?? 2011.

  15. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Patińo, Reynaldo; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik L; Goodbred, Steven L; May, Thomas W; Alvarez, David; Echols, Kathy R; Wieser, Carla M; Ruessler, Shane; Torres, Leticia

    2012-02-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p<0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WBcarp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are influenced by levels of certain metals in the Lake Mead environment. PMID:22206697

  16. Quantitative dietary lysine requirement of juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Wang; Yong-Jian Liu; Li-Xia Tian; Ming-Quan Xie; Hui-Jun Yang; Yong Wang; Gui-Ying Liang

    2005-01-01

    A 90-day feeding trail was conducted to determine the dietary lysine requirement of juvenile grass carp using six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (38% protein, 14 MJ digestible energy kg?1) with wheat gluten–casein–gelatin as protein resource supplemented with six graded levels of crystalline lysine (from 0.69% to 3.08% of dry diet). Crystalline amino acid mixtures were supplemented to simulate the amino

  17. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Meng; Jianzhong Shao; Lixin Xiang

    2003-01-01

    In mice and humans, B cells, antigen-presenting cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and natural killer cells can be stimulated directly or indirectly by the bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing the CpG motifs (CpG DNA). Using head kidney macrophages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of several CpG-ODNs on fish

  18. Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann

    1978-01-01

    Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

  19. The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

    Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

  20. Age Structure and Growth of Common Carp Populations in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Age Structure and Growth of Common Carp Populations in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Principal"isnearingcompletionandtargetedforpublicationinNorthAmericanJournalofFisheriesManagement. Asecondmanuscriptentitled:"Ageandgrowthofcommoncarp(Cyprinuscarpio)inMalheurNationalWildlife Refuge be used to estimate age. Age and growth.--Age and growth varied for carp populations within the refuge

  1. Tales of two fish: the dichotomous biology of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L.)) in northern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismo J. Holopainen; William M. Tonn; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

    1997-01-01

    Crucian carp, a common Eurasian cyprinid fish, shows striking dichotomies in several aspects of its physiology and ecology, at both the individual and population levels. These dichotomies consistently reflect the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, contrasting crucian carp that occur in \\

  2. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  3. Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments from 5 females that had completed vitellogenesis. The percentages of mature oocytes were consistently

  4. The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level, 30-059 Krakow, Poland * Laboratoire de Physiologie des Poissons, LN.R.A. 78350 Jouy en Josas, France. Summary. In environmental conditions in Poland, new vitellogenesis began in carp just after the spawning

  5. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

    1990-01-01

    Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

  6. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  7. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Concetta Elia; Alessia Fanetti; Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr; Maria I. Taticchi

    2008-01-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The

  8. Jian-Wei-Yu-Yang granules in treatment of experimental gastric ulcer in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-Bang Li; Yong-Li Tian; Wen-Hong Cheng; Guo-Liang Xiong

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the therapeutic mechanism of Jian-Wei- Yu-Yang (JWYY) granules. METHODS:The authors used Okabe's method to establish gastric ulcer models in rats. Seventy-six SD rats were ran- domly divided into four groups. Except the normal control group, the other three groups were operated and treated with distilled water, WeiSu and JWYY respectively. After 7 or 14 days of treatment, the

  9. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  10. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  11. An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, Brian Gene

    1993-01-01

    of 7.5 triploid grass carp/surface hectare southern naiad Najas guadalupensis was removed in one growing season from an impoundment containing only southern naiad. In a mixed vegetation community southern naiad nearly was eliminated in one growing...

  12. The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

    2007-01-01

    Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

  13. N-Acetylcysteine provides dose-dependent protection against fenthion toxicity in the brain of Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevin Üner; Yusuf Sevgiler; Hülya Durmaz; Petek Piner; Emine Ç?nk?lo?lu

    2009-01-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, a low-molecular weight thiol compound, with two different doses was used to prevent fenthion, an organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide, related oxidative stress in the brain of a model organism, Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal and nominal concentration of fenthion after intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 400 mg\\/kg NAC. Brain tissues were then dissected and homogenized to analyse GSH,

  14. Tissue Biochemical Alterations of Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Commercial Herbicide Containing Clomazone Under Rice-Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Cattaneo; Bibiana Silveira Moraes; Vania Lucia Loro; Alexandra Pretto; Charlene Menezes; Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi Sartori; Bárbara Clasen; Luis Antonio de Avila; Enio Marchesan; Renato Zanella

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate toxicological responses of Cyprinus carpio exposed to the commercial herbicide clomazone (500 mg l?1). Fish were exposed to 0.5 mg l?1 of the formulated herbicide for 7, 30, and 90 days. Fish were exposed to clomazone in field conditions (7, 30, or 90 days\\u000a trapped in submersed cages together with rice crops) and in laboratory conditions where the

  15. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-02-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty acid composition of farmed bighead carp varied significantly with seasons and tissues. The highest lipid content was determined in viscera while the highest EPA and DHA composition were observed in muscle compared to the other tissues. Significantly higher ?EPA+DHA (%) was recorded in all tissues in summer (June) when compared with those of the other three seasons (p?carp caught in summer could better balance the n-3 PUFA needs of consumers. The byproducts of bighead carp can be utilized for the production of fish oil. PMID:25694699

  16. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extręmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problčmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit ętre réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  17. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 ?m) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP ?) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p < 0.05), but C/EBP ? declined at 20 dpf. Expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increased from 2 to 16 dpf and then declined. In addition, immunoreaction of PPAR ? was positive on hepatocytes after fertilization for 15 days. These results implied that the early developmental stage of adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue. PMID:25893904

  18. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  19. Haptic Subdivision: an Approach to Defining Level-of-detail in Haptic Rendering Jian Zhang, Shahram Payandeh and John Dill

    E-print Network

    Haptic Subdivision: an Approach to Defining Level-of-detail in Haptic Rendering Jian Zhang, Shahram the user the same reaction force as before subdivision. 1. Introduction In recent years, haptic feedback interactive haptic feedback applications. Some work has been done on FEM models to make a trade-off between

  20. Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia,

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia, China Tao Xie, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Abstract: Software analytics is to utilize data-driven approaches to enable software practitioners to perform data exploration

  1. Exploratory Analysis of Time-series with ChronoLenses Jian Zhao, Fanny Chevalier, Emmanuel Pietriga, Ravin Balakrishnan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exploratory Analysis of Time-series with ChronoLenses Jian Zhao, Fanny Chevalier, Emmanuel Pietriga includes (A) a charts panel showing the time- series; (B) a lens creation toolbar; (C) a lens analysis of time-series are useful for tasks such as identifying trends, patterns and anomalies in the data. Many

  2. Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani Jean-Philippe Martin Lorenzo Alvisi Mike Dahlin

    E-print Network

    Venkataramani, Arun

    Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani Jean-Philippe Martin Lorenzo access confidential data to provide service. For example, an online bank service must access a user, integrity, and confidentiality are essential. By availability, we mean that services must provide service 24

  3. Byzantine FaultTolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani JeanPhillipe Martin Lorenzo Alvisi Mike Dahlin

    E-print Network

    Dahlin, Michael D.

    Byzantine Fault­Tolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani Jean­Phillipe Martin Lorenzo access confidential data to provide service. For example, an online bank service must access a user, integrity, and confidentiality are essential. By availability, we mean that services must provide service 24

  4. Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani Jean-Phillipe Martin Lorenzo Alvisi Mike Dahlin

    E-print Network

    Dahlin, Michael D.

    Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Confidentiality Jian Yin Arun Venkataramani Jean-Phillipe Martin Lorenzo access confidential data to provide service. For example, an online bank service must access a user, integrity, and confidentiality are essential. By availability, we mean that services must provide service 24

  5. Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian Kuang, and George Luhrs

    E-print Network

    Zuo, Lei

    1 Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Rectifier Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian Brook Stony Brook, NY, 11794 *Email: lei.zuo@stonybrook.edu Abstract. Energy-harvesting shock absorber, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused

  6. Composite Templates for Cloth Modeling and Sketching Hong Chen, Zi Jian Xu, Zi Qiang Liu and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    Composite Templates for Cloth Modeling and Sketching Hong Chen, Zi Jian Xu, Zi Qiang Liu and Song,zjxu,zqliu,sczhu}@stat.ucla.edu Abstract Cloth modeling and recognition is an important and challenging problem in both vision and graphics of composite graphical templates to ac- count for the wide variabilities of cloth configurations, such as T

  7. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  8. Different changes in mastication between crisp grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus C.et V) and grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) after heating: The relationship between texture and ultrastructure in muscle tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Ling Lin; Qing-Xiao Zeng; Zhi-Wei Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In order to study special mastication of Crisp grass carp (CGC), the relationships between the texture and ultrastructure in raw fresh and heated CGC and grass carp (GC) were studied. In raw samples, all textural results of raw CGC (RCGC) were higher than those of raw GC (RGC). From the ultrastructural results, short muscle fiber diameter, dense fiber density, large

  9. Until May 31, 2009, retirees belonging to Member Associations of CURAC/ARUCC may join CARP (or existing CARP members may extend their memberships) at the discounted rates given below (25% off

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    Until May 31, 2009, retirees belonging to Member Associations of CURAC/ARUCC may join CARP (or existing CARP members may extend their memberships) at the discounted rates given below (25% off advertised membership fees). After May 31, 2009, members of CURAC/ARUCC Associations will continue

  10. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  11. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, ?-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  12. Comparison of the protective effects of antioxidant compounds in the liver and kidney of Cd- and Cr-exposed common carp.

    PubMed

    Karaytug, Sahire; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Karayakar, Fahri

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether the taurine (TAU), alpha-lipoic acid (LA), curcumin (CUR), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protection against oxidative stress caused by heavy metals is owed to the metal-decreasing or antioxidative effect. In this context, liver and kidney tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) were exposed in vivo to model toxicants cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). The tissues were dissected 96 h after intraperitoneal injection of the metals and antioxidant substances. Cd and Cr levels were determined in the liver using the ICP-OES, but we could not obtain enough kidney tissue to make the same measurements in the kidney. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx, and the GSH redox status and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. Of all investigated antioxidants, only NAC decreased metal levels in the liver. Cd had little effect on oxidative stress parameters, while Cr showed a weak prooxidative effect. Cotreatment with TAU/LA/CUR/NAC and Cr significantly increased liver SOD activity. Chromium induced kidney SOD and CAT, but all antioxidants lowered CAT activity. Cadmium reduced liver and increased kidney GSSG. NAC increased liver GSH, but the increase did not correlate with decrease in Cd. Curcumin given with Cd increased kidney and decreased liver lipid peroxidation, whereas TAU with Cr increased lipid peroxidation in both tissues. N-Acetylcysteine was the most effective antioxidative agent, owing to its metal-decreasing function as well as to its effects on the GSH redox status. We believe that the investigated antioxidant substances which may have been involved in the reduction of Cr caused an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in CAT activity. Changes in the GSSG levels in both tissues might be an adaptive response to the prooxidative potential of Cd. Because of their respective tissue- and metal-dependent prooxidative effects, CUR and TAU deserve particular attention in regard to their use against metal toxicity, Cr in particular. PMID:21987389

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated with liver enzyme gene expression in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Melis; Var??l?, Lokman; Korkmaz, Kemal; Özayd?n, Okan; Perçin, Fatih; Orhan, Hilmi

    2014-10-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and liver enzyme responses in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were caught at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR): the origin, the Sarayköy station, and the estuary. Seventeen OCPs were quantified in liver tissue, as well as in river water by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detection, and structures were confirmed by negative chemical ionization-GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of CYP1A, GST, Se-GPx, CAT, and SODs were determined by spectrophotometry or fluorimetry. The mRNA levels of CYP1A, GST, and SOD1 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. CYP1A and antioxidant enzyme activities were dramatically higher at the Sarayköy station, where OCP pollution is higher than the other two stations. Mn-SOD is responsible for the increase in total SOD activity in the Sarayköy samples. However, gene expression levels of certain enzymes were heavily suppressed. Our findings show that the transcriptional and functional responses of CYP1A and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated. PMID:24583044

  14. Action of cypermethrin on tissue transamination during nitrogen metabolism in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Philip, G H; Rajasree, B H

    1996-07-01

    Freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, was exposed to sublethal concentration (3 microg liter-1) of cypermethrin for 5 and 10 days to examine the changes in the transamination process during the formation of nitrogenous end products in four functionally different tissues, namely, gill, liver, brain, and muscle. Increases in total and soluble protein contents were noticed in all the tissues of exposed fish with a decrease in free amino acids and protease activity. Activity levels of both the transaminases, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase were elevated, indicating active transamination and oxidative deamination. Attenuation of ammonia was consistent in both treatment groups. However, urea level decreased at the 5-day exposure period but increased by Day 10, manifesting the conversion of toxic ammonia to urea. Glutamine content was consistently raised upon exposure to the toxicant. In support of this, increases in glutamine synthetase and suppression of glutaminase were noticed. It clearly indicates that ammonia is not stored in the tissues in spite of active oxidative deamination when the fish is in a polluted environment. All the observations made demonstrate that the fish has adopted more than one compensatory mechanism during the process of transamination of nitrogenous products. PMID:8812184

  15. Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Sandra; McConville, Mikaela; Li, Guihua; Ossa, Alex; Arola, D

    2015-03-01

    In this investigation the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio was evaluated as a function of environmental temperature. Tear specimens were prepared from scales obtained from three characteristic regions (i.e. head, mid-length and tail) of multiple fish. The fracture resistance was characterized in Mode III loading and over temperatures ranging from -150°C to 21°C. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in tear resistance with decreasing temperature and the lowest resistance to fracture was obtained at -150°C. There was a significant difference in the relative tear toughness between scales from the three locations at ambient conditions (21°C), but not below freezing. Scales obtained near the head exhibited the largest resistance to fracture (energy ? 150 ± 25 kJm(-2)) overall. The fracture resistance was found to be primarily dependent on the thickness of the external mineralized layer and the number of external elasmodine plies, indicating that both the anatomical position and the corresponding microstructure are important to the mechanical behavior of elasmoid fish scales. These variables may be exploited in the design of bioinspired armors and should be considered in future studies concerning the mechanical behavior of these interesting natural materials. PMID:25481741

  16. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  17. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  18. Cytosolic CARP Promotes Angiotensin II- or Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through Calcineurin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ci; Shen, Liang; Cao, Shiping; Li, Xixian; Xuan, Wanling; Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Xiaobo; Bin, Jianping; Xu, Dingli; Li, Guofeng; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Liao, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The gene ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) is an enigmatic gene and may exert pleiotropic function dependent on its expression level, subcellular localization and even types of pathological stress, but it remains unclear how these factors influence the fate of cardiomyocytes. Here we attempted to investigate the role of CARP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), angiotensin II (Ang II) increased the expression of both calpain 1 and CARP, and also induced cytosolic translocation of CARP, which was abrogated by a calpain inhibitor. In the presence of Ang-II in NRVCs, infection with a recombinant adenovirus containing rat Ankrd1 cDNA (Ad-Ankrd1) enhanced myocyte hypertrophy, the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide and ?-myosin heavy chain genes and calcineurin proteins as well as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Cyclosporin A attenuated Ad-Ankrd1-enhanced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Intra-myocardial injection of Ad-Ankrd1 in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) markedly increased the cytosolic CARP level, the heart weight/body weight ratio, while short hairpin RNA targeting Ankrd1 inhibited TAC-induced hypertrophy. The expression of calcineurin was also significantly increased in Ad-Ankrd1-infected TAC mice. Olmesartan (an Ang II receptor antagonist) prevented the upregulation of CARP in both Ang II-stimulated NRVCs and hearts with pressure overload. These findings indicate that overexpression of Ankrd1 exacerbates pathological cardiac remodeling through the enhancement of cytosolic translocation of CARP and upregulation of calcineurin. PMID:25089522

  19. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  20. Observations on two new species of Myxobolus Butschli, 1882 from minor carps of Tripura, India.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Remya; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Santosh, B

    2013-04-01

    Tripura is a north-eastern state of India with a total geographical area of 10,491 sq.km. Labeo bata, L. calbasu, L. gonius of the genus Labeo Cuvier and Cirrhinus reba of genus Cirrhinus Oken are the most popular and commercially important native minor carps of the state. During a detailed survey on the protozoan parasites of the minor carps of Tripura, two new species of myxozoan (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) parasites Myxobolus tripurensis sp.n. and Myxobolus potularis sp.n. were encountered on the gill filaments of the host fishes. Distinctive characteristics of the plasmodia and the spores have been described. PMID:24431542

  1. The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems

    E-print Network

    Elder, Howard Stanton

    1994-01-01

    THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  2. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Frani?, Zdenko; Marovi?, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:17343962

  3. Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Pal, A K; Manush, S M; Das, T; Dalvi, R S; Chandrachoodan, P P; Ravi, P M; Apte, S K

    2007-05-01

    Apart from increased temperature, thermal effluents discharged through cooling systems of nuclear power plants may often contain chlorine (used against bio-fouling), which may affect the immune status of fish. Therefore, a 28-day trial was undertaken to delineate the effect of high temperature and a persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure on immunomodulation in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings. Fish were acclimated to four different temperatures (26, 31, 33 and 36 degrees C) and maintained for 30 days in two different groups. One group was exposed to persistent chlorine (0.1mgL(-1)) and was compared with their respective temperature control groups (without chlorine exposure). Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp 70) was tested in muscle after 28 days using Western blotting. Haematological parameters (erythrocyte count, leucocyte count, haemoglobin), serum parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio) and respiratory burst activity were tested to assess immuno-competence of C. carpio in response to temperature and chlorine exposure. Results indicated that hsp 70 was induced at 36 degrees C in temperature control groups but not in their respective temperatures in the presence of chlorine. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts appeared depressed in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups. Serum protein and globulin were affected due to chlorine exposure at different acclimation temperatures. A decrease in NBT activity was recorded in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups. Overall results indicate that increasing acclimation temperatures alters the immune status of C. carpio advanced fingerlings and persistent sub-lethal exposure to chlorine augments this temperature induced immunosuppression. PMID:17046286

  4. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver\\u000a diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 ?g\\/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment),

  5. Characterization of grass carp reovirus minor core protein VP4

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a tentative member in the genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridae, contains eleven segmented (double-stranded RNA) dsRNA genome which encodes 12 proteins. A low-copy core component protein VP4, encoded by the viral genome segment 5(S5), has been suggested to play a key role in viral genome transcription and replication. Results To understand the role of minor core protein VP4 played in molecular pathogenesis during GCRV infection, the recombinant GCRV VP4 gene was constructed and expressed in both prokaryotic and mammalian cells in this investigation. The recombinant His-tag fusion VP4 products expressed in E.coli were identified by Western blotting utilizing His-tag specific monoclonal and GCRV polyclonal antibodies. In addition, the expression of VP4 in GCRV infected cells, appeared in granules structure concentrated mainly in the cytoplasm, can be detected by Immunofluorescence (IF) using prepared anti-VP4 polyclonal antibody. Meanwhile, VP4 protein in GCRV core and infected cell lysate was identified by Immunoblotting (IB) assay. Of particular note, the VP4 protein was exhibited a diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus in transfected cells, suggesting that VP4 protein may play a partial role in the nucleus by regulating cell cycle besides its predicted cytoplasmic function in GCRV infection. Conclusions Our results indicate the VP4 is a core component in GCRV. The cellular localization of VP4 is correlated with its predicted function. The data provide a foundation for further studies aimed at understanding the role of VP4 in viroplasmic inclusion bodies (VIB) formation during GCRV replication and assembly. PMID:22559058

  6. Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu. 2. David L. Sutton, professor (aquatic weeds), retired; Vernon V. Vandiver Jr., associate professor (aquatic weeds specialist), retired; and Jeffrey E

  7. NONYLPHENOL AND NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES IN CARP, WATER, AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES FROM CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of the occurrence of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Cuyahoga, Ohio, river system revealed that high levels of total APEs (NP 0 to 2 EO) occur in carp starting at the Akron WWTP and continues to the river mouth near Cleveland, e.g., 0.9 to 0.46 ppm wet weight, respectively. T...

  8. LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    E-print Network

    TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri-Columbia by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri-Columbia, 2007 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

  9. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  10. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ?8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  11. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  12. Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

    2001-01-01

    Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

  13. Comparative Study of the Blood Biochemistry of Three Species of Indian Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Das

    1961-01-01

    Samples of three species of Indian carp, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, and Labeo rohita, were examined when they were 480 days old by biochemical tests and electrophoresis of the blood and plasma. The three species did not differ significantly in total plasma protein (micro-Kjeldahl), relative amounts of total plasma protein and total lipoprotein, and plasma albumin. Significant differences were found

  14. A Battery of Tests for Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Pentachlorophenol on Common Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Xiang Han; Jia-Hong Wang; Wen Zhou Lv

    2009-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a highly toxic contaminant of chlorophenols. Due to its slow and incomplete biodegradation, it can be found in surface, groundwater, and in soils. In this study, immunotoxicity, defensive toxicity, cytotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and mitochondrial toxicity test of common carp exposed to PCP for 24 and 72 h were examined. The results showed that the lymphocyte and granulocyte

  15. Parnum11 Gordon and Gordon AN OVERVIEW OF THE CARP-CG ALGORITHM

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Dan

    Parnum11 Gordon and Gordon AN OVERVIEW OF THE CARP-CG ALGORITHM Dan Gordon Dept. of Computer Science, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel. gordon@cs.haifa.ac.il Rachel Gordon Dept. of Aerospace-7, 2011 #12;Gordon and Gordon Parnum11 The usual approach to solving problems with large off

  16. Age differences in neural distinctiveness revealed by multi-voxel pattern analysis Joshua Carp a,

    E-print Network

    Age differences in neural distinctiveness revealed by multi-voxel pattern analysis Joshua Carp a multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to measure age differences in the distinctiveness of neural less distinctive in old age, a phenomenon known as dedifferentiation. The present study used multi-voxel

  17. Effectiveness of Three Barrier Types for Confining Grass Carp in Embayments of Lake Seminole, Georgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Maceina; Jeffery W. Slipke; John M. Grizzle

    1999-01-01

    Three types of barriers were evaluated in Lake Seminole (13,158 ha) to determine the success of confining triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in two embayments (250 and 350 ha) that were almost entirely covered with submersed macrophytes. In 1995, two different physical barriers that permitted boat passage were constructed. One had tandem V-shaped weirs placed at the entrance of a

  18. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

  19. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs. PMID:25194259

  20. Triploid origin of the gibel carp as revealed by 5S rDNA localization and chromosome painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Zhu; D. M. Ma; J. F. Gui

    2006-01-01

    5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was isolated and sequenced from the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio with 162 chromosomes and crucian carp Carassius auratus with 100 chromosomes, and fluorescent probes for chromosome localization were prepared to ascertain the ploidy origin and\\u000a evolutionary relationship between the two species. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), major 5S rDNA signals were localized to the short

  1. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ?16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  2. The neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Luyun; Wu, Xiaosa; Lv, Yanfang; Xu, Yongxia; Mi, Geng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-06-01

    To observe the neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of the grass carp protein hydrolysates (GPH) obtained from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin by enzymatic hydrolysis. GPH prepared using Protamex, at different (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 %) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The DPPH radial scavenging, reducing power and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation activities of GPH were significantly improved by a low DH (5 %) compared with those of GPH with a higher DH (p?

  3. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  4. Identification of an "alcohol dehydrogenase-activating" protease in grass carp hepatopancreas as a chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Lau, K K; Chan, E Y; Fong, W P

    1997-12-01

    Previous investigation [Tsui et al. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1269: 41-46] showed that two active forms of alcohol dehydrogenase can be purified from grass carp. The use of a protease inhibitor and the results of SDS-PAGE analysis of the enzymes suggest that one form (ADH-C) is a proteolytic product of the other (ADH-I). In this study, the protease responsible for the cleavage was purified. The cleavage enzyme had a subunit molecular weight of 28 kDa. An inhibitor study identified it as a serine protease. It exhibited a strong chymotrypsin activity in both esterase and amidase assays with a pH optimum in the range 7.5-8.5. The purified chymotrypsin also cleaved the intact grass carp ADH-I into the two-fragment ADH-C, with an accompanying increase in enzyme activity. A similar effect was not found using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:9442919

  5. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2014-09-18

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580?bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A?+?T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  7. Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  8. Z .Aquaculture 160 1998 317328 Initiation of carp spermatozoa motility and early

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Z .Aquaculture 160 1998 317­328 Initiation of carp spermatozoa motility and early ATP reduction of 8­9 nmolr108 spermatozoa, an initial velocity of 100­160 mm sy1 and a flagellar Zbeat frequency around 30­50 Hz, 10 s after a 1r2000 dilution in an activating medium 45 mM y1.NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 30 mM Tris

  9. Distribution and Cytogenetic Features of Triploid Males of Crucian Carp in Azov Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Abramenko; E. V. Nadtoka; M. A. Makhotkin; O. V. Kravchenko; T. G. Poltavtseva

    2004-01-01

    When studying uni-bisexual crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) populations in the Azov basin in 1995–2000, we found triploid males, which constituted 2.5%, on average, of the total numbers of studied samples. The areas of nuclei of erythrocytes of triploid males were, on average, 1.35 times those in diploid males. At the same optical density of DNA, the sizes of mature

  10. Seasonality of glycogen phosphorylase activity in crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L . )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Vornanen; Jaakko Haverinen

    Seasonal changes in the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen degradation, were examined\\u000a in an anoxia-tolerant fish species, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.). In muscle and brain, the activity of GP remained constant throughout the year when tested at 25°C. In contrast, the\\u000a activities of liver and heart GP displayed striking increases in summer. When

  11. Identification and expression analysis of two IFN-inducible genes in crucian carp ( Carassius auratus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Bing Zhang; Jian-Fang Gui

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) exerts its antiviral effects mainly through activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), but relatively few of fish ISGs have been isolated and characterized so far. Here, we report two fish ISGs, termed CaIFI58 and CaIFI56, cloned from a subtractive cDNA library constructed with mRNAs obtained from crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells infected

  12. Metabolic Quotient Measured by Free-Water Method in Six Enclosures with Different Silver Carp Densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; Noriko Takamura; Michio Fukushima

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-continuous DO and pH measurements (total 47 days) were conducted during enclosure experiments (6 enclosures; 5 × 5 × 2.5 m), in which a biomass gradient of silver carp was created. After subtracting the air–water exchanges of O2 and CO2, the chemical and biochemical changes in DO (dissolved oxygen) and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) were estimated in order to evaluate MQ

  13. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

    2008-01-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

  14. Molecular cytogenetic detection of paternal chromosome fragments in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Yi; Y. Q. Li; J. D. Liu; L. Zhou; Q. X. Yu; J. F. Gui

    2003-01-01

    In gynogenesis, sperm from related species activates egg and embryonic development, but normally does not contribute genetically\\u000a to the offspring. In gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, however, gynogenetic offspring often show some phenotypes apparently derived from the heterologous sperm donor. This\\u000a paternal effect of allogynogenesis is outstanding in an artificial clone F produced by cold treatment of clone E

  15. Catecholamine-induced changes in oxygen affinity of carp and trout blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Holk; Gunnar Lykkeboe

    1995-01-01

    Carp and trout blood maintained at low constant oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions was ?-stimulated. This activated the Na+H+-exchanger of the red cell membrane, leading to increases in red cell pH (pHi) and cell water content, the latter resulting in dilution of hemoglobin and organic phosphates. The increase in pHi was rapid and maintained throughout the experimental period, the trout

  16. Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui

    2001-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

  17. Effect of Free-Floating Macrophyte, Azolla pinnataon Water Physico-Chemistry, Primary Productivity, and the Production of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in Fertilized Earthen Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab

    2006-01-01

    In subtropical fish ponds, many ecological processes depend on aquatic macrophytes, especially free-floating plants. The hypothesis that different free-floating macrophytes would be linked with different biological mechanisms, especially out-competing plankton, was tested here. The effect of free-floating plant, Azolla pinnatacover on water physico-chemistry, phytoplankton biomass, zooplankton abundance, and fish growth in fertilized fish ponds was compared experimentally. In 250-m fish

  18. Carbon nanotube-based nanocarrier loaded with ribavirin against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases of viral origin cause major aquatic production losses in different parts of the world. Because of formidable barriers for gastrointestinal tract, skin and cell, large amounts of antiviral drugs have limited therapeutic effect. In the current study, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as a drug carrier to carry antiviral drug for the treatment of viral diseases on fish. The results show that increasing antiviral drug (ribavirin) intake was observed by SWCNTs carrier and therapeutic dosage to kill grass carp reovirus is significantly reduced. At 12d post infection, survival rate and infection rate were 29.7% and 50.4% for naked ribavirin treatment group exposed to the highest concentration (20mg/L); however, survival rate of 96.6% and infection rate of 9.4% were observed in 5mg/L ribavirin-SWCNTs treatment group. In addition, the drug detention time in different organs and tissues (blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney and intestine) was also significantly extended (about 72h) compared with the same dosage in naked ribavirin treatment group. Moreover, the toxicity of functionalized SWCNTs in grass carp can be minimal, and physiological markers (some antioxidant enzymes activities, apoptotic factors activities and their corresponding genes expression) remained within normal ranges following treatment. Our results indicated that drug delivery with functionalized SWCNTs can improve the antiviral effect on grass carp and has a potential application value to control fish viral diseases in aquaculture. PMID:25796971

  19. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  20. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  1. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  2. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  3. Factors influencing the grass carp gut microbiome and its effect on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiajia; Yan, Qingyun; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota have attracted extensive attention recently because of their important role in host metabolism, immunity and health maintenance. The present study focused on factors affecting the gut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and further explored the potential effect of the gut microbiome on metabolism. Totally, 43.39 Gb of screened metagenomic sequences obtained from 24 gut samples were fully analysed. We detected 1228 phylotypes (116 Archaea and 1112 Bacteria), most of which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria. Totally, 41335 of the detected open reading frames (ORFs) were matched to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was the main matched pathway deduced from the annotated ORFs. Redundancy analysis based on the phylogenetic composition and gene composition of the gut microbiome indicated that gut fullness and feeding (i.e. ryegrass vs. commercial feed, and pond-cultured vs. wild) were significantly related to the gut microbiome. Moreover, many biosynthesis and metabolism pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids were significantly enhanced by the gut microbiome in ryegrass-fed grass carp. These findings suggest that the metabolic role played by the gut microbiome in grass carp can be affected by feeding. These findings contribute to the field of fish gut microbial ecology and also provide a basis for follow-up functional studies. PMID:24256454

  4. Replacement of fish meal by rendered animal protein ingredients with lysine and methionine supplementation to practical diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menghong Hu; Youji Wang; Qian Wang; Min Zhao; Bangxi Xiong; Xueqiao Qian; Yujiang Zhao; Zhi Luo

    2008-01-01

    The effect of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) by rendered animal protein ingredients: poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM), alone or in combination, with lysine and methionine supplementation in the practical diets for gibel carp was studied. Eight isonitrogenous (crude protein 37.5%) and isolipidic (crude lipid 7%) diets were formulated to feed juvenile gibel carp

  5. Changes in the fish community of the Ömerli Reservoir (Turkey) following the introduction of non-native gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and other human impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özcan Gaygusuz; Ali Serhan Tarkan; Gürsoy Gaygusuz

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the relative density (catch per unit effort; CPUE) of introduced gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and native fish species were monitored over four years in the Ömerli Reservoir, a temperate drinking-water reservoir in northwestern Turkey. Following the species' introduction, the CPUE of gibel carp increased significantly with the decrease in CPUE of large- bodied native fish species.

  6. Learning from the past: Rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored ``Hare's Fur'' (HF) strips and the silvery ``Oil Spot'' (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis.

  7. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five ?-helixes, eight ?-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  9. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  10. Design of Unitary Precoders for ISI Channels Jian-Kang Zhang 1 , Aleksandar Kav ci c 1 , Xiao Ma 1 and Kon Max Wong 2

    E-print Network

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    i Design of Unitary Precoders for ISI Channels Jian-Kang Zhang 1 , Aleksandar Kav#20;ci#19;c 1 for suppressing the intersymbol interference (ISI) and being robust to fre- quency selective channels interblock interference and devising simple but e#11;ective precoders for suppress- ing ISI and being robust

  11. Second Harmonic Studies of Ions Crossing Liposome Membranes in Real Time Jian Liu, Mahamud Subir, Kim Nguyen, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*

    E-print Network

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Second Harmonic Studies of Ions Crossing Liposome Membranes in Real Time Jian Liu, Mahamud Subir of the positively charged triphenylmethane dye, malachite green (MG+ ), across liposome bilayers effects of these ionophores on the kinetics and extent of MG+ crossing into the liposome, investigated using the interface

  12. Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions Lifa Zhang,1 Jian-Sheng Wang,1 and Baowen Li1,2,*

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions Lifa Zhang,1 Jian-Sheng Wang manuscript received 8 February 2010; published 22 March 2010 We study ballistic thermal transport in three-terminal atomic nanojunctions by the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find that there is ballistic

  13. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  14. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  15. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  16. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  17. Impact of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges Dams on habitat suitability of carps in the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Project are the two largest hydraulic projects in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Although these projects have yielded benefits to local communities by providing flood control, water supply, and safe navigation, they also have changed the physical habitat of the Yangtze River. As a consequence, aquatic organisms, including rare species and fishes with economic value, have been affected. The Yangtze River's four major carp species (YFMCS)—black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp ( Ctenop haryngodon idellus), silver carp ( Hypoph thal michthys molitrix), and big-head carp ( Aristichyths nobilis)—have significant importance to the fresh water fishery in China. According to field surveys, the percentage of the YFMCS in the total catch of fish from Tongting Lake has gradually reduced. The percentages were 22%, 14.1%, 11.84%, and 8.5% in 1963, 1980-1982, 1997, and 2002, respectively. These reductions in species population are mainly attributed to the loss of spawning ground caused by dam construction. Considering the spawning characteristics of the YFMCS, a habitat suitability index model (HSI) has been established. A one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model was also developed to simulate and predict aspects of the physical habitat situation for the YFMCS. By coupling the habitat suitability curves and the 1-D mathematical model, a HSI model for the YFMCS was established. The HSI model was validated by comparing measured data with predictions from the model. These comparisons show that the computed results agree well with the measured results. The HSI model for the YFMCS is used to suggest a minimum instream flow and suitable daily discharge increase during the reproduction season for the carp species. The minimum discharge needed for the YFMCS in the middle reach of the Yangtze River is 3000 m 3/s. Different daily discharge increases are required for different initial discharges, too small or too large of an increase in daily discharge is not good for carps spawning. Therefore, adjusting reservoir operations to create reasonable water level fluctuations is a key method to improve the habitat suitability of carps spawning sites.

  18. Effects of sodium fluoride on MAPKs signaling pathway in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Klerks, Paul; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of fluoride can cause a variety of adverse effects in fish. Previously we showed that fluoride causes injuries and apoptosis in the gills of Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of fluoride on caspase-3 activity and on accumulation of proteins in the MAPKs pathways were evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods in vivo and in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the caspase-3 activity increased with fluoride exposure level in a dose-dependent pattern Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results indicated that ERK relative activation tended to decrease as a function of fluoride exposure concentration. In contrast, relative activation of JNK increased with fluoride exposure level. Fluoride exposure did not appear to affect p38 activation. Furthermore, pretreatment of branchial cells with MAPK-specific inhibitors effectively prevented JNK induction and ERK inhibition, respectively, as well as reversed caspase-3 activity in fluoride-treated branchial cells. Our results indicate that activation of JNK and inactivation of ERK were caused by increased ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in the gills of chronically exposed C. carpio described previously, which eventually caused the observed apoptosis in the fluoride-exposed gills and cells in C. carpio. JNK activation and ERK inactivation mechanism play a crucial role in gill impairment induced by chronic fluorosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the initial molecular and cellular events in the gill of fish chronically exposed to fluoride. PMID:24780358

  19. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA (United States). Division of Environmental Contaminants; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  20. Metabolic Disposition and Elimination of Cyadox in Pigs, Chickens, Carp, and Rats.

    PubMed

    Lingli, Huang; Ning, Xu; Harnud, Sechenchogt; Yuanhu, Pan; Dongmei, Chen; Yanfei, Tao; Zhenli, Liu; Zonghui, Yuan

    2015-06-10

    The metabolism, distribution, and elimination of cyadox (CYA) is investigated in pigs, chickens, carp, and rats to identify the marker residue and target tissue of CYA in food animals for food safety concerns. Following a single oral gavage of [(3)H]-CYA, the total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with more than 95% of the dose excreted within 14 days in the four species. Fecal excretion of the total radioactivity was 66.2% and 51.6%, and urinary excretion of the total radioactivity was 28.35% and 44.3% in rats and pigs, respectively. Radioactivity was observed in nearly all of the tissues in the first 6 h after 7 days of consecutive oral dosing. The highest radioactivity and longest persistence were in the livers and kidneys, where the majority of the radioactivity was cleared within 7 days. A total of 15 metabolites were identified in rats, pigs, chickens, and carp, and eight new metabolites were identified for the first time in vivo. No parent drug could be detected in the tissues of rats and pigs. The major metabolites of CYA were Cy1, Cy3, and Cy6 in pigs, Cy1, Cy5, and Cy6 in chickens, Cy1, Cy2, and Cy4 in carp, and Cy1, Cy2, Cy4, and Cy5 in rats. Cy1 was suggested to be the marker residue, and the kidneys were identified as the target tissue of CYA in pigs and chickens. These results provide comprehensive information for the food safety evaluation of CYA in food animals and will improve the understanding of the pharmacology and toxicology of CYA in animals. PMID:25973850

  1. [The features of studies on cold pathogenic diseases in Yi zong jin jian (Golden mirror of orthodox medicine)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai

    2003-01-01

    As a voluminous work compiled and published by the Qing palace, Yi zong jin jian (Golden Mirror of Orthodox medicine) contains a "Revised Complete Book of Zhongjing" as its first volume which is very unique, systematic, and comprehensive. It re-categorizes the entries of the original Shang han lun (Treatiseon cold Tathogenic Diseases) based on its sections and chapters. and reasonably incorporates entries with similar contents. It also reasonably annotates those complex entries, boldly revises the wrong and missing entries, and applies the theories of "tripartite 3 outlines" as the basis for compiling the chapters and sections of Taiyang diseases, and as the tools for explaining the entries. Among them, some are compiled in verses for easy memory. PMID:12921589

  2. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that surgical implantation of ultrasonic transmitters had indeed caused significantly negative effects on the physiological response of bighead carp. However, all the negative influences on stress response, tissue damage and nutritional status had disappeared in 14 days after surgery, and the presence of transmitters had no significant negative impact. Therefore, the bighead carp should be temporary cultured at least 14 days for the recovery of physiological response and then released into the free water for the ultrasonic telemetry research. PMID:24844600

  3. The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems 

    E-print Network

    Elder, Howard Stanton

    1994-01-01

    Trinity River. To determine if food habits of grass carp in the lower Trinity River include aquatic vegetation present in the Trinity Bay estuary. METHODS The Trinity River enters Trinity Bay near Anahuac, Texas, approximately 200 km east of Houston... was divided into two sections. The upper section was defined as a 12-km portion of the Trinity River north of IH-10 to Moss Bluff, Texas (Liberty County). The lower section was defined as a 5-km portion of the Trinity River and delta region south of IH-10...

  4. Phosphate and phosphatase distribution in sediment depths of rockphosphate treated carp culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sahu; B. B. Jana

    1994-01-01

    Distribution pattern of phosphates (A1-P, Ca-P, Fe-P), available-P, citrate soluble-P and phosphatases (acid and alkaline) was examined in three sediment layers (0–2.5 cm, 2.6–5.0 cm, 5.1–7.5 cm) of carp (Cirrhinus mrigala) culture system fertilized with varying levels (43.66 kg and 87.32 kg P) and frequencies (7, 15 and 30 days) of rock phosphate. Whereas layer differences of phosphate and phosphatases

  5. Spermiation of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) stimulated with injection of LHRH analogue and carp pituitary powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otomar Linhart; Steve D. Mims; Boris Gomelsky; Anna E. Hiott; William L. Shelton; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; David Gela

    2001-01-01

    The potential of carp pituitary powder (CPP) at one dose, or the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, des–Gly10,(d–Ala6)–LH-RH–ethylamide, at three different doses to stimulate spermiation in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) was tested. Single injections of the LH-RH analogue at 0.2, 0.1, or 0.05 mg·kg–1 increased the number of spermatozoa per kilogram of body weight (kg–1 b.w.) by 4.7, 3.4, and 3.4

  6. A Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler, Andrew Studenski and Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    and transmitters are surgically inserted under their skin before they are introduced back into the lake. These tags to monitor common carp tagged with radio transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design localizing tagged fish. I. INTRODUCTION A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of inexpensive, low

  7. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  8. [The genetic diversity of diploid and triploid crucian carp from six populations in Heilongjiang River System].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Ying; Shi, Lian-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-11-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers from silver crucian carp were used to investigate the genetic structuring of the diploid and triploid crucian carp from six natural populations in Heilongjiang River System. In the six populations, the number of average allele (A) is from 5.8 to 6.8, the number of effective allele (Ne) is from 2.8 to 4.6, the expected heterozygosity value (He) is from 0.5592 to 0.6962 and the average PIC value is from 0.5962 to 0.648, which indicated that the genetic diversity of the populations investigated is rich. According to genetic deviation index (d), deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found in these populations and all of them showed heterozygosity excess. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there was no significant variance in different ploid level and populations. No extra alleles that present with the increase of ploid level were found. The coefficient of gene differentiation between populations(GST)was 0.0398 which indicated low values of genetic differentiation between these populations. Genetic distance was calculated and cluster analysis was also carried out. The results showed that distance between polyploid and diploid in same water was the nearest. Among populations, Songhua River and Ussuri River were the nearest, Xinhuangpao Lake and Moon Bay Lake were nearer, and Shuangfeng reservoir has the largest genetic distance with others. PMID:19073556

  9. Divergent functions of fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Sun, Yi-Wen; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1) is a novel FGF receptor (FGFR) lacking an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs control the proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells in various tissues. However the functions of FGFRL1 in teleost fish are currently unknown. In this study, we report the identification of two fgfrl1 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that share 56% amino acid sequence identity. Both fgfrl1a and 1b were transcribed throughout embryogenesis, and mRNA levels were particularly high during somitogenesis. Using in situ hybridization, fgfrl1a transcripts were detected in notochord, somites, brain and eye at 14, 24 and 36h post fertilization (hpf). In contrast, fgfrl1b was transcribed mainly in the endoderm at 14hpf, in the gut and proctodeum at 24hpf, and in the lens, pharyngeal arch and proctodeum at 36hpf. In adult fish, fgfrl1a was abundantly expressed in heart, brain and muscle, while fgfrl1b was expressed strongly in eye, muscle and gill. Furthermore, both genes were significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated in muscle and brain during starvation and returned to normal levels rapidly after re-feeding. Exogenous treatment with different doses of human growth hormone down-regulated the expression of both genes in brain and muscle (p<0.05). These results suggest that Fgfrl1a and 1b play divergent roles in regulating growth and development in grass carp. PMID:25981703

  10. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  11. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Enomoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Totsuka, Yukari; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2006-09-12

    The cabbage butterflies Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae have unique enzymes, named pierisin-1 and -2, respectively, that catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of guanine residues of DNA, which has been linked with induction of apoptosis and mutation in mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation activity targeting DNA in six kinds of edible clam. Similar to our observations with pierisin-1 and -2, crude extracts from the clams Meretrix lamarckii, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Corbicula japonica incubated with calf thymus DNA and beta-NAD resulted in production of N(2)-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine. The DNA ADP-ribosylating protein in the hard clam M. lamarckii, designated as CARP-1, was purified by column chromatography, and its cDNA was cloned. The cDNA encodes a 182-aa protein with a calculated molecular mass of 20,332. The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2. However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity. CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells. The finding of clam ADP-ribosylating protein targeting guanine residues in DNA could offer new insights into the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation of DNA. PMID:16945908

  12. Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp—An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; Rřhr, Ĺsmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

  13. Time-dependent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinlin; Gu, Xueyuan; Song, Rui; Zhang, Qian; Geng, Jinju; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-07-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and are a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play an important role in the toxicity mechanism of MCs on fish, but most studies were based on relatively high concentrations. In this study, the effect of time-dependent oxidative stress in livers of Cyprinus carpio L. (C. carpio) exposed to 10 ?g l(-1) of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) for 0-14 days was investigated. MC-LR induced histopathological changes in liver and gills were also assessed after 14 days exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum was used to directly investigate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fish liver and results showed that hydroxyl radical ((?)OH) was significantly induced at 0.5 day and then tended to decline with an increase of exposure period. As a response of antioxidant, catalase (CAT) activity increased slightly at first and then decreased with exposure period. A pronounced promotion of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) indicated that the conjugation reaction of MC-LR and GSH occurred. A time-dependent decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) with an increase of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level suggested GSH was involved in detoxification of MC-LR in the liver. Oxidative damage was evidenced by the significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level at 2-6 days. After 14 days exposure, a series of pathological changes, like partially dissolved parenchymal architecture, vacuolar degeneration, necrosis, hemorrhage and slight inflammatory cells infiltration in fish liver tissues could be observed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies showed that dissolved MC-LR could also result in pathological changes like partial broken epithelial cells, deformed taste buds and loose gill filament and lamella in gill tissues. These results suggest that although a restoring response occurred, C. carpio could still be adversely affected by MC-LR at 10 ?g l(-1). PMID:21455607

  14. N-Acetylcysteine provides dose-dependent protection against fenthion toxicity in the brain of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Uner, Nevin; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Durmaz, Hülya; Piner, Petek; Cinkilo?lu, Emine

    2009-07-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine, a low-molecular weight thiol compound, with two different doses was used to prevent fenthion, an organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide, related oxidative stress in the brain of a model organism, Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal and nominal concentration of fenthion after intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 400 mg/kg NAC. Brain tissues were then dissected and homogenized to analyse GSH, GSSG, TBARS, and protein contents. Enzymes that constitute the first line antioxidant defence, namely SOD and CAT, GSH-related enzymes, GR and GST, together with AChE activities were also determined spectrophotometrically. Fenthion did not cause any alteration in SOD and CAT activities while increasing GSH content, GSH/GSSG ratio and GST specific enzyme activity and decreasing GSSG, TBARS, and protein contents. Although, the highest induction in SOD and GST enzymes activities and the highest increase in GSH content were observed in the 0.5 mg/kg NAC-injected fish, their protein contents showed a decrease. 400 mg/kg NAC impeded the activation of the GST enzyme and a higher decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed. Fish were also protected against protein depletion by the higher dose NAC application. AChE activity was not influenced by fenthion exposure. Xenobiotic and GSH transporters may cause mild oxidative stress conditions in brain. Cellular redox status could trigger a series of reactions that result in an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in protein content. Based on the present results, it was suggested that the usefulness of NAC against fenthion depends on applied dose and tissue characteristics. Species-specifity and concentration selection should be taken into consideration in studies dealing with anticholinesterases. PMID:19444991

  15. Structural characterisation of a cyprinid (Cyprinus carpio L.) CRH, CRH-BP and CRH-R1, and the role of these proteins in the acute stress response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Huising; J. R. Metz; Schooten van C; J. J. Taverne-Thiele; G. J. Hermsen; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; G. Flik

    2004-01-01

    We elucidated the structure of the principle factors regulating the initiation of the acute stress response in common carp: corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH-receptor 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that these proteins are evolutionarily well conserved in vertebrates. CRH and CRH-BP expression are not co-localised in the same hypothalamic perikarya. On the contrary, CRH-BP expression is limited

  16. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  17. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC) belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC), triploid (abbreviated 3nCC) and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC) population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates. PMID:21276259

  18. Rapid conversion and reversible conjugation of glutathione detoxification of microcystins in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping; He, Jun; Guo, Xiaochun; Tuo, Xun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Laiyan

    2014-02-01

    The glutathione and cysteine conjugates of microcystin (MC-GSH and MC-Cys, respectively) are two important metabolites in the detoxification of microcystins (MCs). Although studies have quantitated both conjugates, the reason why the amounts of MC-GSH are much lower than those of MC-Cys in various animal organs remains unknown. In this study, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys were respectively i.p. injected into the cyanobacteria-eating bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), to explore the biotransformation and detoxification mechanisms of the two conjugates. The contents of MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH, MC-RR-Cys and MC-RR-N-acetyl-cysteine (MC-RR-Nac, the acetylation product of MC-RR-Cys) in the liver, kidney, intestine and blood of bighead carp in both groups were quantified via liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the MC-RR-GSH-treated group, the MC-RR-Cys content in the kidney increased 96.7-fold from 0.25 to 0.5h post-injection, demonstrating that MC-RR-GSH acts as a highly reactive intermediate and is rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys. The presence of MC-RR in both MC-RR-GSH- and MC-RR-Cys-treated groups indicates, for the first time, that MC conjugation with the thiol of GSH/Cys is a reversible process in vivo. Total MC-RR concentrations dissociated from MC-RR-Cys were lower than those from MC-RR-GSH, suggesting that MC-RR-Cys is more capable of detoxifying MC-RR. MC-RR-Cys was the most effectively excreted form in both the kidney and intestine, as the ratios of MC-RR-Cys to MC-RR reached as high as 15.2, 2.9 in the MC-RR-GSH-treated group and 63.4, 19.1 in the MC-RR-Cys-treated group. Whereas MC-RR-Nac could not be found in all of the samples of the present study. Our results indicate that MC-RR-GSH was rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys and then excreted, and that both glutathione and cysteine conjugates could release MC-RR. This study quantitatively proves the importance of the GSH detoxification pathway and furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism by which bighead carp are resistant to toxic cyanobacteria. PMID:24362245

  19. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulations in allogeneic grafted scales of ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta; Toda, Hideaki; Imabayashi, Nozomi; Nishino, Tatsuyuki; Uzumaki, Kosuke; Hatanaka, Chihiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2015-09-01

    In mammals the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity including T cells. Recently, considerable studies reveal the existence of helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets in fish. Here we investigate the kinetics of CD4(+) and CD8?(+) T cells along with sIgM(+) cells and phagocytic cells in an allogeneic scale graft model using ginbuna crucian carp for understanding the mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response. The results showed that CD4(+) T cells first infiltrated into allogeneic scales followed by CD8?(+) and sIgM(+) cells, and finally phagocytic cells appeared in the graft. Furthermore, most of the CD8?(+) T cells appeared on the border of the allografted scales at the time of rejection. These results suggest that T cells play crucial roles and work together with other cell types for completion of allograft rejection. PMID:25917429

  20. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  1. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in ?-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in ?-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity. PMID:24128554

  2. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from carp with high electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongfang; Song, Huihui; Li, Hao; Wang, Hui; Mao, Xuefeng; Ji, Shan

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a low-cost and nitrogen-containing carbon material with mesopores and high surface area is synthesized by carbonizing carp with SiO2 nanoparticles as template. It is found that pyridinic-N dominates the N species on the surface of obtained carbon material, which can act as active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The BET surface area of obtained carbon material is 401.7 m2 g-1 and the pore size is ca. 11.1 nm. Due to its high pyridinic-N content and mesoporous architecture, the ORR activity of obtained carbon material in alkaline media is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. In addition, it shows a higher methanol tolerance than Pt/C catalyst, making it a potential alternative to Pt-based catalysts.

  3. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found. PMID:24491750

  4. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  5. Immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from Alcaligenes faecalis FY-3 to crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, G-X; Li, F-Y; Cui, J; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Han, J; Lei, Y

    2011-07-01

    A strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from Weihe river in Shaanxi province (108°03'E 34°14'N), which was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis by 16S rRNA analysis. A compound M showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. The structure of the compound M was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra and identified as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product. We evaluated the immune effects of the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on the basis of serum lysozyme activity, bacterial agglutination titre assay, superoxide anion production and phagocytic activity assay, and they were found to be significantly increased by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The effects of cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on immune-related gene expression were further investigated. The outcomes of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) proved that the transcribing level of interleukin 6? (IL-6?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase 1? (iNOS-1?) mRNA in the blood leucocytes have been augmented by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The challenge experiment showed that crucian carp injected the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative mortality (13.0%) compared with the control (45.4%) after infection with live Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggested that cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 is a possible immunostimulant and may strengthen the immune response and protect the heath status of crucian carp against A. hydrophila. PMID:21332568

  6. Chitosan Influences the Expression of P-gp and Metabolism of Norfloxacin in Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Xie, Xinyan; Zhao, Yi-Ni; Li, Yi; Ruan, Jiming; Li, Hao-Ran; Jin, Tianyi; Yang, Xian-Le

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the administration of chitosan (CTS), expression of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and the metabolism of norfloxacin (NOR) in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were administrated with a single dose of either NOR, CTS, 1:5 NOR-CTS or 1:10 NOR-CTS. The P-gp expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. The concentration of NOR was determined using HPLC. The mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in the fish intestine was significantly enhanced following a single dosage of 40 mg/kg NOR, and peak expression occurred at 3 h after drug administration (P < 0.05). A single dosage of both 1:5 NOR-CTS and 1:10 NOR-CTS reduced the intestinal P-gp expression to levels significantly lower than that from NOR alone (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than that from the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CTS alone also led to a slight decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, pharmacokinetic assays revealed a marked increase in area under the curve (AUC) of NOR with 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS, by approximately 1.5-fold and threefold, respectively. Finally, the relative bioavailability of NOR after a single oral dosage of 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS was enhanced to 148.02% and 304.98%, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the transmembrane glycoprotein P-gp regulates NOR metabolism in the intestine of Grass Carp, suggesting that NOR may be a direct substrate of P-gp. More importantly, we showed that CTS can inhibit P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner and improve the relative bioavailability of NOR in this species. Received August 25, 2014; accepted November 12, 2014. PMID:25997556

  7. Effect of “Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction” on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in a Mouse Model of Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Yu, Wenjing; Wei, Li; Lee, Minkyoung; Wang, Sumei

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3?-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each); control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism. PMID:24812567

  8. High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging to Evaluate Liver Fibrosis Progression in Rats and Yi Guan Jian Herbal Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiun-Yu; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Kuo, Chia-Wen; Chuang, Chia-Hui; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2013-01-01

    The animals used in liver fibrosis studies must usually be sacrificed. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to have the ability to diagnose hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in experimental small-animal models. However, few studies have used high-frequency ultrasound (HFU, 40?MHz) to monitor changes in the rat liver and other hollow organs longitudinally. In this study, liver fibrosis was induced by administering dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in SD rats, aged 8 weeks, for three consecutive days per week for up to 4 weeks. A Chinese herbal medicine Yi Guan Jian (YGJ) was orally administered (1.8?g/kg daily) to DMN-induced liver fibrosis rats for 2 weeks. Compared with the normal control rats, rats treated with DMN for either 2 weeks or 4 weeks had significantly lower body weights, liver indexes and elevation of hydroxyproline, GOT, and GPT contents. YGJ herbal treatment remarkably prevented rats from DMN-induced liver fibrosis. The HFU scoring results among the normal controls, 2-week DMN-treated rats, 4-week DMN-treated rats, and combined 2-week YGJ therapy with 4-week DMN-treated rats also reached statistical significance. Thus, HFU is an accurate tool for the longitudinal analysis of liver fibrosis progression in small-animal models, and the YGJ may be useful in reversing the development of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:24250714

  9. Effect of "jian-pi-zhi-dong decoction" on gamma-aminobutyric Acid in a mouse model of tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Daohan; Wei, Li; Lee, Minkyoung; Wang, Sumei

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each); control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism. PMID:24812567

  10. A comparative study of COI and 16 S rRNA genes for DNA barcoding of cultivable carps in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Mausumee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Lakshman; Das, Paramananda

    2015-02-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, 16?S rRNA has also been advocated for DNA barcoding in many animal species. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16?S rRNA in discriminating six cultivable carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba from India. Analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individuals indicated close genetic relationship between Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The results of the present study indicated COI to be more useful than 16?S rRNA for DNA barcoding of Indian carps. PMID:24047160

  11. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-03-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  12. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  13. Chromaticity of synaptic inputs to H1 horizontal cells in carp retina: analysis by voltage-clamp and spectral adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yamada; John C. Low; Mustafa B. A. Djamgoz

    1992-01-01

    Cone photoreceptor inputs to H1 horizontal cells (H1 HCs) in carp retina were studied by measuring light-modulated currents (IL) to monochromatic stimuli (460, 533, 688 nm) under a voltage-clamp condition. By using double-barrelled micro-electrodes H1 HCs were voltage-clamped whilst perfusing with dopamine to uncouple the cells. The IL of the H1 HCs driven by each cone input was segregated by

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 ( IPS1) gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianguo Su; Teng Huang; Chunrong Yang; Rongfang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    IPS-1 (interferon-? promoter stimulator 1), also known as MAVS\\/VISA\\/Cardif, plays a central role in antiviral immunity. In this manuscript, we cloned and characterized IPS-1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiIPS-1). The CiIPS-1 cDNA is 2412 bp long and consists of a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 124 bp, a 3? UTR of 497 bp with three cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA)

  15. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamila Mitrowska; Andrzej Posyniak; Jan Zmudzki

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-VIS\\/FLD method for the analysis of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in carp muscle has been described. The method consists in an extraction with acetonitrile-buffer mixture followed by partioning with dichloromethane. Clean up and isolation were performed on SCX solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using phenyl-hexyl column with

  16. Effects of different dietary wheat starch levels on growth, feed efficiency and digestibility in grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Xia Tian; Yong Jian Liu; Hui Jun Yang; Gui Ying Liang; Jin Niu

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary wheat starch on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency and digestibility. Five isoproteic (23.5%) and isolipidic (5.7%) diets with\\u000a five supplemented levels of wheat starch (D20, D26, D33, D40 and D47 with 20, 26, 33, 40 and 47%, respectively) were fed to\\u000a triplicate groups of

  17. Effects of Vegetation Control by Grass Carp on Selected Water-Quality Variables in Four Florida Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Larry E. Nall; Jess M. Van Dyke

    1983-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (50\\/hectare) were introduced into three central-Florida lakes with dense infestations of the aquatic macrophyte hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored for 43 months. They also were introduced (61\\/hectare) into a north-Florida reservoir with dense populations of Illinois pondweed Potamogeton illinoensis and Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored

  18. Effects of Chitosan Coatings Enriched with Different Antioxidants on Preservation of Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during Cold Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Zhang; Yongkang Luo; Sumei Hu; Huixing Shen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chitosan composite coatings for maintaining the quality of grass carp portions, indictors of microbiological (total bacteria count, TBC), chemical (pH; total volatile basic nitrogen, TVB-N; 2-thiobarbituric acid, TBA; K-value) and sensory characteristics were analyzed periodically. The results showed that chitosan (1.5%, w\\/v) + acetic acid (1.0%, v\\/v) + tea polyphenol (TP, 0.5%, w\\/v) coating significantly

  19. Toxicities of p -nitrotoluenes and their effects on blood corpuscles and ovaries in Crusian carps ( Carassius auratus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoping Kuag; Feng Song

    2006-01-01

    p-nitrotoluene is an important organic intermediate widely used in pesticide, foamed plastics, dyestuff and medicine industries.\\u000a In this paper, Crusian carps (Carassius auratus) were exposed to dilute p-nitrotoluene solutions with different concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 240 and 320 ?g\\/L; the subsequent physiological\\u000a responses to the chemical were observed, and the variation characteristics of blood corpuscles, ovaries

  20. Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Ruebush, Blake C; Arbieva, Zarema H; McClelland, Michael A; Epifanio, John M; Sass, Greg G

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from across the MRB to characterize the extent of interspecific gene flow. We assayed 2798 individuals from nine locations with a suite of species-diagnostic SNPs (57 nuclear and one mitochondrial). Forty-four per cent (n = 1244) of individuals displayed hybrid genotypes. Moreover, the composition of hybrid genotypes varied among locations and represented complex hybrid swarms with multiple generations of gene flow. Introgressive hybrids were identified from all locations, were bidirectional and followed a bimodal distribution consisting primarily of parental or parental-like genotypes and phenotypes. All described hybrid categories were present among individuals from 1999 to 2008, with parents and later-generation backcrosses representing the largest proportion of individuals among years. Our mitochondrial SNP (COII), tested on a subset of 730 individuals, revealed a silver carp maternal bias in 13 of 21 (62%) F1 hybrids, in all silver carp backcrosses, and maintained throughout many of the bighead carp backcrosses. The application of this suite of diagnostic markers and the spatial coverage permits a deeper examination of the complexity in hybrid swarms between two invasive, introduced species. PMID:26096550

  1. Seasonal fluctuation of Myxobolus gibelioi (myxosporea) plasmodia in the gills of the farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guitang Wang; Weijian Yao; Xiaoning Gong; Jianguo Wang; Pin Nie

    2003-01-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of the plasmodia ofMyxobolus gibelioi Wu et Wang, 1982 in the gill filaments of the allogynogenetic gibel carpCarassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in a fish pond in Hubei Province of China was investigated from August 1999 to July 2000. A total of 445 fish was\\u000a examined; the overall prevalence of the plasmodium infection in the fish was 64.94%

  2. Effect of subacute exposure to silver nanoparticle on some hematological and plasma biochemical indices in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Shaluei, F; Hedayati, A; Jahanbakhshi, A; Kolangi, H; Fotovat, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is rapidly increasing, but there are limited data on their effects on the aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of subacute concentrations of Ag-NPs (Nanocid®: average particle size of 61 nm) on hematological and plasma biochemical indices of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, after 3, 7 and 14 days. The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Nanocid for silver carp were estimated at 0.810, 0.648, 0.383 and 0.202 mg/L, respectively; 20% and 10% of the 96-h LC50 values (0.04 and 0.02 mg/L) were selected for subacute study. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) count and hematocrit (Hct) level were significantly reduced at both concentrations tested (p < 0.05). White blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cortisol and glucose levels in Nanocid-treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ag-NPs intoxication resulted in erythrocyte reduction, hematological disturbances, leucocytosis and stress response in silver carp and offered a simple tool to evaluate toxicity-derived alterations. PMID:23632006

  3. Effects and bioaccumulation of 17?-estradiol and 17?-ethynylestradiol following long-term exposure in crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoman; Liu, Jingliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Renmin; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and effects of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were assessed by crucian carp (Carassius auratus) following single and binary mixture exposures in flow-through exposure system for 16 months. In comparison with water control (DWC) and solvent control (SC), a significant reduction in body weight, body length and gonadosomatic index (GSI), and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of E2 and EE2 in fish muscle ranged from 3.2 to 40 and from 64 to 123, respectively. Crucian carp were found to be more sensitive to EE2 than E2. The bioaccumulation and toxicological effects in binary mixture exposed fish (mixture of E2 and EE2) were more significant than exposure of individual compound. Crucian carp is sensitive to E2 and EE2 in long-term laboratory exposure experiments and can be used as a potential model species for investigating the toxicity of hormones. PMID:25463868

  4. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. PMID:25863331

  5. [Investigations of ectoparasite fauna of some fish species (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758; Cobitis simplicispinna Hanko, 1924) from Lake Ak?ehir (Konya)].

    PubMed

    Kartal, Kür?at; Oztürk, Mehmet O?uz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the presence of metazoan ectoparasites on 7 Cyprinus carpio and 90 Cobitis simplicispinna from Lake Aksehir, Turkey were investigated between July 2004 and June 2005. Three parasite species were identified on the host fishes: Gyrodactylus elegans Nordmann, 1832 (42.9%, 293.6+/-482.0 parasite/fish) and Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932 (85.7%, 9.8+/-6.8), were found on gills of C. carpio, and Gyrodactylus cobitis Bychowsky, 1933 (68.9%, 15.6+/-18.5) on gills and fins of C. simplicispinna. Of these species, G. cobitis is a new record for parasite fauna of Turkey. In addition, minimum-maximum and mean intensity of parasites and infection prevalence were determined using seasonal data and size distribution of the host fish. PMID:19367558

  6. Carpe Diem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Sheila M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a spur-of-the-moment curriculum development activity involving primary-school students researching the "real" Leonardo, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo behind the names of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Notes that the products of the research were shared during a classroom pizza party. (RS)

  7. A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Bird, Steve; Raes, Geert; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Schijns, Virgil E. J. C.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I-) type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. Conclusion/Significance We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR) in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite. PMID:21305002

  8. Effects of salt concentration on biogenic amine formation and quality changes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 and 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Yin, Xiaofei; Wu, Hua; Bao, Yulong; Hong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    The effects of different salt concentrations on the quality changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets were evaluated in terms of biogenic amines, adenosine triphosphate and its related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable counts during 4 and 20 °C storage. Grass carp fillets were brined in solutions of 2% NaCl (T1) and 10% NaCl (T2), and unsalted carp fillets were used as controls (CK). T1 and T2 showed higher sensory scores than CK. According to the TVB-N values, CK, T1, and T2 could maintain the freshness of carp for approximately 9, 12, and 27 days, respectively, when stored at 4 °C. The higher salt concentration had better inhibitory effect on the accumulation of some biogenic amines, such as tryptamine (TRM), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), and cadaverine (CAD). TVB-N of untreated grass carp fillets showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TRM, PHE, PUT, and CAD during storage. PUT and CAD showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB-N for T2 at 20 °C and T1 at 4 °C. PMID:24780335

  9. Aquatic Studies at the Proposed George Parkhouse I Reservoir Site on the South Sulphur River in Northeast Texas

    E-print Network

    Gelwick, Frances P.; Burgess, Christine C.

    2002-12-31

    Dorosoma petenense Threadfin shad 6 Cyprinella lutrensis Red shiner 7 Cyprinus carpio Common carp 8 Hybognathus nuchalis Mississippi silvery minnow 9 Lythrurus fumeus Ribbon shiner 10 Lythrurus umbratilis Redfin shiner 11 Notropis...

  10. Auditory exostoses and evidence for fishing at Vlasac

    E-print Network

    Frayer, David W.

    1988-01-01

    % of the vertebrate fauna recovered at Vlasac is fish. Species identified in clude pike (Esox lucius), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and catfish (Silurus glanis). Bokonyi does not give minimum individual counts but does note that catfish were the most important...

  11. Most people are familiar with the beautiful and often strikingly

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    to describe in this profile; however, many books are dedicated to the topic. Taxonomy Goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus 1758), and common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus 1758), are members of the family

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Prey Capture Behavior of Native

    E-print Network

    Gibb, Alice C.

    predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common

  13. Measuring the Potential to Adopt Self Governance for the Management of a Common Pool Resource

    E-print Network

    Colin Castillo, Sergio

    2012-02-14

    or largemouth bass), Ictalurus punctatus (bagre or channel catfish), Cyprinus carpio (common carp), Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia) and Pomoxis annularis (robaleta or white crappie) and Lepomis macrochirus (mojarra or bluegill). In general, weak...

  14. Characterizations of two grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella HMGB2 genes and potential roles in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rao, Youliang; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Qingmei

    2013-10-01

    High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) protein is a chromatin-associated nonhistone protein, involved in transcriptional regulation and nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses in mammalian. However, the function of piscine HMGB2 in innate immune responses is still unknown. In the present study, two HMGB2 homologue genes (CiHMGB2a, CiHMGB2b) were identified and characterized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Both CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b genes encode proteins with 213 amino acids, sharing 71.4% identities and containing two basic HMG boxes and an acidic tail. The deduced protein sequences showed the most identities to HMGB2a (93%) and HMGB2b (86.4%) of zebrafish (Danio rerio), respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were constitutively expressed in all the 15 tested tissues. Post grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, mRNA levels of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were strongly up-regulated in spleen and head kidney and mildly modulated in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Meanwhile, mRNA expressions of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were significantly regulated by viral pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) polyinosinic-polycytidylic potassium salt (poly(I:C)) and bacterial PAMPs lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) challenge in CIK cells. In CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b over-expression cells, expressions of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b facilitated each other; transcription levels of CiTRIF, CiMyD88, CiIPS-1 and CiMx1 were remarkably enhanced, whereas CiIFN-I was inhibited, compared with those in cells transfected with pCMV (control plasmid); after GCRV challenge, all those tested genes were up-regulated with divergent expression profiles. Antiviral activities of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were manifested by the delayed appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) and inhibition of GCRV yield. All those results demonstrate that CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b not only mediate antiviral immune responses but also involve in responding to viral/bacterial PAMPs challenge, which provides novel insights into the essential role of HMGB2 in innate immunity. PMID:23756189

  15. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory ?B (I?B) ? and ? proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  16. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  17. [Composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode Digramma interrupta (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea)].

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, I A; Pronin, N M; Dugarov, Zh N

    2011-01-01

    The composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (Carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with Digramma interrupta. The composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from Lake Baikal basin has a lymphoid character. Compared to the crucian carp from the European part of Russia, in the fish from Baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. This is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. In the fish infected with digramma, the immune suppression of proliferation of blasts and young forms of eosinophils was revealed. On the other hand, the inflammatory and humoral specific immune reactions are enhanced. Partial suppression of the immune response of C. auratus to invasion by D. interrupta facilitates development of the parasite. PMID:22292296

  18. Local and systemic adaptive immune responses toward viral infection via gills in ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Miura, Yuhei; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Nakao, Miki

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on fish immunity highlighted the significance of gills as mucosal immune tissues. To understand potential of gills as vaccination sites for inducing adaptive systemic immunity, we investigated virus-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses following a "per-gill infection method", which directly exposes virus only to gills. The viral load in crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected gills decreased after peaking at a particular time point. Furthermore, the viral titers in the gills following the secondary infection were lower than that after the primary infection, indicating that local adaptive immunity helped the elimination of virus. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that IFN-? in gills and perforin in kidney were increased after the gill infection. CD8(+) cells in kidney leukocytes increased after the secondary infection, whereas IgM(+) cells decreased. These results suggest that IFN-? and CTL contribute in controlling CHNV-replication in gills and kidney. Gill infection could induce specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and secretion of CHNV-specific IgM in serum, indicating that local priming of the gill site can generate adaptive systemic immunity. Thus, the gills could be prospective antigen-sensitization sites for mucosal vaccination. PMID:25936589

  19. Antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-C from Cynanchum atratum against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Liang, Jing-Han; Wang, Bin

    2014-07-23

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-C, isolated from Cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat I. multifiliis. The cynatratoside-C at 0.25 mg/L demonstrated a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. The 5 h median effective concentration (EC50) of cynatratoside-C to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/L. In addition, cynatratoside-C at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.06 mg/L could completely terminate the reproduction of encysted tomonts. The cynatratoside-C at 2 mg/L could cure the infected grass carp within 48 h. The exact mechanism of cynatratoside-C for killing I. multifiliis is unknown, but it manifests itself microscopically through loss of membrane integrity of nonencysted tomonts or through releasing immature theronts from encysted tomonts. The immature theronts finally died before infecting fish. On the basis of these results, cynatratoside-C could be used as a natural anti-I. multifiliis agent. PMID:24980562

  20. Some quality aspects of fish patties prepared from an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S

    2008-05-01

    Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days. PMID:17852491

  1. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

    2014-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus. PMID:24426310

  2. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-01

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

  3. A bioenergetic model to estimate feed requirement of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Zhou; Shouqi Xie; Wu Lei; Xiaoming Zhu; Yunxia Yang

    2005-01-01

    The feeding chart for gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio was established by energetic modeling.Several sub-models were used as follows:Body energy content:E(kJ\\/fish)=exp?(1.476+1.128×ln?W(g));Fish growth:SGRe(%\\/d)=exp?(?6.320+0.667×T?0.011×T2?0.025×T×ln?W)?0.25;Feces lost:FE(kJ\\/d)=0.077×C(kJ\\/d);Non-feces excretion (nitrogenous excretion):UE+ZE(kJ\\/d)=0.052×C(kJ\\/d);Maintenance energy:HEm(kJ\\/d)=exp?(?0.830+0.021×T?(°C)+0.670×ln?W?(g))×24×13.54\\/1000;Heat increment:Hi?E(kJ\\/d)=exp?(?6.243+0.698×ln?W(g)+1.941*ln?T(°C)).Where the E, SGRe, FE, (UE+ZE), HEm, HiE, W, and T were energy content in fish body, specific growth rate in energy, feces excretion in energy, energy loss in nitrogenous excretion, energy used

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi from Chinese carp ponds.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Liang-Kun; Yang, Ya-Lin; Ge, Xian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. During the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the actinosporean of echinactinomyxon type CZ with 4 branches at the end of the caudal processes was identified as Myxobolus wulii, and the neoactinomyxum type JD was identified as Thelohanellus wangi Yuan, Xi, Wang, Xie, Zhang, 2015 (JX458816), a recently nominated species from the gills of allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio. In addition, actinosporeans of aurantiactinomyxon type JD, neoactinomyxum type CZ-1, neoactinomyxum type CZ-2, and neoactinomyxum type CZ-3 showed high genetic similarity to T. wuhanensis (96.3-96.5%), T. nikolskii (98.0-99.1%), T. wuhanensis (97.8-98.9%), and T. hovorkai (98.7-98.9%), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these actinosporeans were robustly clustered in the Thelohanellus spp. clade. PMID:26036829

  5. An improved RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Luo, Qing; Fang, Qin; Wang, Yaping

    2010-10-01

    An improved simple, rapid and sensitive method for detecting grass carp reovirus (GCRV) based on RT-PCR was developed by combining an advanced RNA extraction technique and targeting segment 10 as a template. The results indicate that highly efficient RT-PCR amplification of GCRV genome segments can be obtained using column-extracted RNA as a template, which is suitable not only for full-length gene amplification up to a size of 1.5 kb, but also for partial genome detection. Moreover, by targeting the highly divergent segment 10, the sensitivity of RT-PCR detection is improved significantly; as little as 1.0 fg of the 515 bp S10 dsRNA can be detected by one-step RT-PCR amplification. Furthermore, this method exhibits good reproducibility and specificity, and no amplicons were observed when RNA fragments other than those from GCRV were used as templates. The entire detection process can be completed within 4-5h from RNA extraction, much faster than methods reported previously. Overall, the improved detection technique may be applied for rapid diagnosis of GCRV or other dsRNA viruses. PMID:20599564

  6. Use of Spatial Resources by Fishes in Grayrocks Reservoir, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne A. Hubert; Daniel T. OShea

    1992-01-01

    Relative abundance of fishes in different habitat types and sampling areas of a reservoir in eastern Wyoming was assessed with experimental gill nets during summer 1989. Seven of 12 species captured in the gill nets were numerous enough to enable statistical evaluation: quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum),

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Huang, Teng; Yang, Chunrong; Zhang, Rongfang

    2011-01-01

    IPS-1 (interferon-? promoter stimulator 1), also known as MAVS/VISA/Cardif, plays a central role in antiviral immunity. In this manuscript, we cloned and characterized IPS-1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiIPS-1). The CiIPS-1 cDNA is 2412 bp long and consists of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 124 bp, a 3' UTR of 497 bp with three cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA) and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA), and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1791 bp encoding a polypeptide of 596 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64.1 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Structural analysis showed that the CiIPS-1 protein contained an N-terminal CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain), a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Similarity analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the CiIPS-1 by MatGAT software revealed that the CiIPS-1 shared 27.8-76.4% identity and 47.4-85.2% similarity with other known piscine IPS-1 sequences. The CiIPS-1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the examined tissues, higher in spleen, and was induced by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) injection by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the CiIPS-1 mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in vivo and in vitro after GCRV infection, and the CiIPS-1 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro post the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic potassium salt (poly(I:C)) stimulation. These results indicated that CiIPS-1 was an inducible acute-phase protein and involved in the immune reaction to GCRV in grass carp. PMID:21078397

  8. Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

  9. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL(-1), respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (?1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (?2-glu), beta globulin (?-glu) and gamma globulin (?-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of ?2-glu and ?-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  10. Gill lesions in the major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Sampoorani, V; Kavitha, M; Ramasamy, V K; Chandrakala, A; Aruna, K C

    2004-07-01

    The major carp, Labeo rohita were exposed to (0.873%) lethal and sublethal (0.073%) concentrations of tannery effluent for 24h and 40 days respectively under static bioassay condition. The surface architecture of gill revealed severe damages such as : fusion and clumping in the middle and distal parts of the primary lamellae, swelling and deterioration of the cells. The interlamellar space was filled either with hyperplastic epithelial or mucous cells. Secondary lamellae lost their identity and appeared finger like in structure in the lethal concentration and necrosis was observed in the primary and secondary epithelium. Swelling of primary and secondary epithelial cells was evident in sublethal concentration. PMID:15847345

  11. Proteomic identification, characterization and expression analysis of Ctenopharyngodon idella VDAC1 upregulated by grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaobao; Wang, Tu; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

    2014-03-01

    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane are mitochondrial porins that play central roles in regulating cell life and death. In this present report, the VDAC protein 1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiVDAC1) was found to be upregulated by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein analysis of infected C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. The full-length cDNA of CiVDAC1 was 995 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 852 bp that encodes a putative 283-amino acid protein. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the complete ORF of CiVDAC1 demonstrated high identity with well characterized mammalian homologs. The deduced CiVDAC1 protein contains an ?-helix at the amino terminal, 19 membrane-spanning ?-strands, and one eukaryotic mitochondrial porin signature motif. Tissue tropism analysis indicated that CiVDAC1 is abundant in muscle, heart, skin, swim bladder, trunk kidney and spleen. Transcriptional expression profiles indicated that the CiVDAC1 gene was upregulated upon viral challenge in a manner similar to the Mx2 gene, which is a marker gene used to indicate activation of innate antiviral immunity. Similar expression patterns of the CiVDAC1 gene were observed in CIK cells stimulated with poly (I:C), as well as grass carp kidney tissue challenged with GCRV in vivo. CiVDAC1 silencing in CIK cells had no impact on progeny virus production, but over-expression of CiVDAC1 in vivo showed strongly protect against challenge with live virus. To interpret the role of other VDAC proteins in viral pathogenesis, CiVDAC2 was characterized and showed to respond positively to GCRV challenge, which suggested that CiVDAC2 might functionally complement CiVDAC1 in C. idella. The present data did demonstrate that CiVDAC1 might be mediated grass carp antiviral immune response. PMID:24434647

  12. 5?-Terminal Sequences of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus RNA Synthesized In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kailash C.; Bishop, David H. L.; Roy, Polly

    1979-01-01

    Sequence analyses have been undertaken on the 5? termini of the RNA species synthesized in vitro at 22°C by Spring viremia of carp virion (SVCV)-associated transcriptase by using virus grown in mammalian BHK-21 cells. SVCV product RNA was synthesized in the absence or presence of low (0.56 ?M) or high (0.8 mM) concentrations of added S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Two major sequences obtained in the absence (or in low concentrations) of SAM have been shown to be GpppAp and GpppAmpAp(C). A minor sequence detected when a low concentration of [3H]SAM was added to reaction mixtures was 7mGpppAmpAp. Larger quantities of the 7mGpppAmpAp(C) sequence, in addition to the GpppAmpAp(C) sequence, were obtained when high concentrations of SAM were used, and under these conditions no GpppAp sequences were detected. It has further been shown that with low concentrations of [3H]SAM the principle in vitro methylation of adenosine in SVCV product RNA occurred at the 2?-O-ribose position; no methylation at the N6-adenosine position and no internal product RNA methylation were detected. Comparison of the SVCV results to the published data on the 5?-terminal structures of the in vitro or in vivo mRNA species of vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey suggests that the 5? sequences of transcript RNA of different rhabdoviruses may have been conserved. PMID:16789178

  13. Enhanced grass carp reovirus resistance of Mx-transgenic rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping; Jang, Songhun; Liao, Lanjie

    2009-06-01

    In the interferon-induced antiviral mechanisms, the Mx pathway is one of the most powerful. Mx proteins have direct antiviral activity and inhibit a wide range of viruses by blocking an early stage of the viral genome replication cycle. However, antiviral activity of piscine Mx remains unclear in vivo. In the present study, an Mx-like gene was cloned, characterized and gene-transferred in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus, and its antiviral activity was confirmed in vivo. The full length of the rare minnow Mx-like cDNA is 2241 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 625 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 70.928 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 7.33. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the mature peptide contains an amino-terminal tripartite GTP-binding motif, a dynamin family signature sequence, a GTPase effector domain and two carboxy-terminal leucine zipper motifs, and is the most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) Mx3 sequence with an identity of 89%. Both P0 and F1 generations of Mx-transgenic rare minnow demonstrated very significantly high survival rate to GCRV infection (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of Mx gene was consistent with survival rate in F1 generation. The virus yield was also concurrent with survival time using electron microscope technology. Rare minnow has Mx gene(s) of its own but introducing more Mx gene improves their resistance to GCRV. Mx-transgenic rare minnow might contribute to control the GCRV diseases. PMID:19138747

  14. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  15. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild crucian carp and exposure estimation of dietary intake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yang-Cheng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2014-08-01

    The concentration and distribution of PBDEs in liver, heart, brain, egg and muscle tissues of market farmed fish and wild river fish (crucian carp) from Taizhou, which is a large e-waste recycling site in China, were quantitatively measured using gas chromatography -negative chemical ion tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The dietary intake of PBDEs via the consumption of fish by the population of this region was also estimated. The results showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in the muscle of river fish samples near the e-waste recycling site were significantly higher than those in the market farmed fish without obviously polluted sources of PBDEs. The distribution of PBDEs in various tissues was not even, and the highest and lowest mean concentrations of total PBDEs ( sigma PBDEs) were 18.82 ng x g(-1) and 1.97 ng x g(-1) (wet weight), in heart and egg tissues, respectively. A similar PBDE congener profiles in different tissues of farmed fish were found. Among PBDE congeners, BDE-47 was predominant in various tissues accounting for above 50% of the total PBDEs, and followed by BDE-183 (about 20%), BDE-99 and BDE-153. While different profiles of PBDEs in muscle tissues between wild fish in river and market farmed fish were observed, that BDE-47, -153 and -99 were dominant for the former type. These facts suggested primitive e-waste recycling behavior to be a pollution source of high levels of PBDEs in wild fish. The average estimated daily intake of PBDEs via river fish consumption by local residents near the e-waste recycling site in Taizhou was approximately 29.0 ng, slightly higher than that in other regions. PMID:25338396

  16. Subnanometer-resolution structures of the grass carp reovirus core and virion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Fang, Qin; Shah, Sanket; Atanasov, Ivo C; Zhou, Z Hong

    2008-09-26

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a member of the Aquareovirus genus of the family Reoviridae, a large family of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses infecting plants, insects, fishes and mammals. We report the first subnanometer-resolution three-dimensional structures of both GCRV core and virion by cryoelectron microscopy. These structures have allowed the delineation of interactions among the over 1000 molecules in this enormous macromolecular machine and a detailed comparison with other dsRNA viruses at the secondary-structure level. The GCRV core structure shows that the inner proteins have strong structural similarities with those of orthoreoviruses even at the level of secondary-structure elements, indicating that the structures involved in viral dsRNA interaction and transcription are highly conserved. In contrast, the level of similarity in structures decreases in the proteins situated in the outer layers of the virion. The proteins involved in host recognition and attachment exhibit the least similarities to other members of Reoviridae. Furthermore, in GCRV, the RNA-translocating turrets are in an open state and lack a counterpart for the sigma1 protein situated on top of the close turrets observed in mammalian orthoreovirus. Interestingly, the distribution and the organization of GCRV core proteins resemble those of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, a cypovirus and the structurally simplest member of the Reoviridae family. Our results suggest that GCRV occupies a unique structure niche between the simpler cypoviruses and the considerably more complex mammalian orthoreovirus, thus providing an important model for understanding the structural and functional conservation and diversity of this enormous family of dsRNA viruses. PMID:18625243

  17. Screening and analysis on the protein interaction of the protein VP7 in grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuying; Xie, Jiguo; Li, Jie; Shuanghu, Cai; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2015-06-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has caused serious economic losses for several decades in China. The protein VP7 is one of the important structural proteins in GCRV. Recent studies indicated that the protein VP7 had the commendable antigenicity and immunogenicity. The protein VP7 cooperated with VP5 could change the conformation of the cell membrane and facilitate entry of GCRV into host cells. We speculated that the protein VP7 should play an important role in the pathogenesis of GCRV. In order to explore the function of the protein VP7, the bait protein expression plasmid pGBKT7-vp7 and the cDNA library of CIK cells were constructed. By yeast two-hybrid system, after multiple screening with the high screening rate medium, rotary verification, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, the interactions of the protein VP7 with ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b (eIF3b) in CIK cells were identified. RPS20 played the important roles in the generation of influenza B virus and a variety of diseases. eIF3b was relative to the infection of some viruses. This study suggested that the protein VP7 played the role in viral replication and most likely interacted with host proteins by RPS20 and eIF3b. The interaction mechanisms of the protein VP7 with RPS20 and eIF3b, and the subsequent effector mechanisms needed to be further studied. The corresponding protein interaction of the protein VP7 was not acquired in bioinformatics. The protein VP7 and its untranslated region may have the unknown special function. This study laid the foundation for deeply exploring the function of the protein VP7 in GCRV and had the important scientific significance for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of GCRV. PMID:25860999

  18. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202

  19. Deltamethrin multifactorial activity toward carp larva mobility related to calcium, humic acids, and pH.

    PubMed

    Ghillebaert, F; Prodorutti, D; Chaillou, C; Roubaud, P

    1996-12-01

    The toxicity of pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin was assessed by the "escaping capability" of carp larvae out of a trap. Mobility was tested after 1, 4, and 12 hr exposure to eight deltamethrin concentrations in standard water and after 24 hr exposure to seven deltamethrin concentrations in 18 media derived from the combinations of pH levels of 6.9, 7.8, 9.0, calcium concentrations of 2 . 10(-4) and 2 . 10(-2) M, and humic acid concentrations on 0, 5 and 100 mg/liter. In standard water, a 1-hr exposure at 4 microg/liter deltamethrin increased the mobility, while a 4-hr 32 microg/liter exposure decreased it. After 24 hr without deltamethrin, mobility was reduced at pH 6.9 and 7.8 and 2 . 10(-4) M calcium. It was also reduced in 100 mg/liter humic acids, especially when the former pH and calcium conditions were used. Humic acid effects could partly result from a calcium concentration reduction in water, and darkness due to humic acid coloration could play a minor role. Increasing humic acid concentration, calcium concentration, and pH reduced deltamethrin activity. In 0 or 5 mg/liter humic acids the No Observed Effect Concentration was 1 microg/liter, and in 100 mg/liter humic acid it was 2 microg/liter. Compared to previous results on deltamethrin-induced lethality, the escape test appeared less reproducible, but was 2 or 4 times more sensitive. PMID:9007004

  20. COMPARISON OF CARP PITUITARY EXTRACT, CATFISH PITUITARY EXTRACT, OR LHRHA FOR INDUCED SPAWNING OF CHANNEL CATFISH FEMALES TO PRODUCE CHANNEL CATFISH X BLUE CATFISH HYBRID FRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish x blue catfish hybrids have improved growth, disease resistance, and meat yield compared to channel catfish. However, production of hybrid fry requires hormone induced spawning of female channel catfish. Objectives of this study were to compare efficacy of carp pituitary extract, c...

  1. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  2. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jia-Le; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) binds to Janus kinase 2 (JAK?) to initiate the JAK?/STAT? signal transduction pathway, which plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, immune regulation, reproduction, lipid metabolism, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, the cDNA sequence of the STAT? gene from grass carp was cloned using RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). Twelve characteristics of the STAT? gene and its encoded protein sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods; these features included the general physical and chemical properties, the hydrophobicity, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect grass carp STAT? expression pattern in different tissues. The results showed that the full-length STAT? gene from grass carp is 2739-bp long and contains a 216-bp 5'UTR, a 300-bp 3'UTR, and a 2223-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 740-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein exhibited 99%?94% homology to the STAT? protein of zebra?sh (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis), mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and green pufferfish (Tetraodon ?uviatilis). The deduced grass carp STAT? protein contains a protein interaction domain, an alpha domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. The STAT? protein of grass carp is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein, and its molecular mass and isoeletronic point were found to be 98,5412.1 Da and 6.39, respectively. The structural elements of STAT? included ?-helixes, ?-sheets, and loops. The grass carp STAT? is expressed in all of the six tissues tested, which were the liver, spleen, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. The highest expression level was found in the liver (P < 0.05), whereas a significantly lower expression level was found in the spleen, gills, brain, and muscle (P < 0.05), and the lowest expression level was found in the heart (P < 0.05). This study provides a basis for further structural and functional exploration of the STAT? from grass carp, including its deduced protein and its signal transduction function. PMID:24055509

  3. Inhibition of spring viraemia of carp virus replication in an Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line by RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; Besch, R; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an aetiological agent of a serious disease affecting carp farms in Europe and is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family of viruses. The genome of SVCV codes for five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful tool to inhibit gene transcription and is used to study genes important for viral replication. In previous studies regarding another member of Rhabdoviridae, siRNA inhibition of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene provided in vitro and in vivo protection against rabies. In this study, synthetic siRNA molecules were designed to target SVCV-N and SVCV-P transcripts to inhibit SVCV replication and were tested in an epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line. Inhibition of gene transcription was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The efficacy of using siRNA for inhibition of viral replication was analysed by RT-qPCR measurement of a reporter gene (glycoprotein) expression and by virus endpoint titration. Inhibition of nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein gene expression by siRNA reduced SVCV replication. However, use of tandem siRNAs that target phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein worked best at reducing SVCV replication. PMID:24460815

  4. Characterization of Foxp3 gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): a rapamycin-inducible transcription factor in teleost immune system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wei, He; Zhao, Taiqiang; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we cloned grass carp foxp3 (gcfoxp3) gene including 5' flanking region and determined its expression profiles in vivo under immunosuppressive conditions. Sequence analysis revealed that the promoter of gcfoxp3 contains AP-1, AML-1/Runx1, NF-?b and GATA-3 binding sites, which positively or negatively regulate mammalian foxp3 expression. In addition, the intron II of gcfoxp3 contains some putative binding sites including AP-1, NFAT, Smad3, RAR, CREB/ATF and FOXO1, which are corresponding to their locations in the proximal intronic enhancers of human foxp3. In an in vivo model of grass carp, an immunosuppressive agent rapamycin was showed to stimulate gcfoxp3 mRNA expression in thymus, gill, head kidney and spleen after bacterial challenge. Moreover, rapamycin increased gcFoxp3 protein levels with an additive manner in the infected fish. These findings support the involvement of fish Foxp3 in immune response and highlight a possible signaling pathway that regulates teleost Foxp3 expression. PMID:22613483

  5. 2,4-dichlorophenol induces apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoning; Qiu, Qian; An, Zhen; Qi, Yongmei; Huang, Dejun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2013-09-15

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a major type of chlorophenols, has been widely used to produce some herbicides and pharmaceuticals, yet due to its incomplete degradation and bioaccumulation characteristics, it is toxic to aquatic organisms. Apoptosis is one of the most severe outcomes of cell poisoning and injury. So far, the potential molecular mechanism of 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis has not been reported. This study showed that 2,4-DCP significantly induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). 2,4-DCP exposure upregulated mRNA of caspase-3, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, while protection of mitochondria with acetyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride (ALC) rescued 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis, restored the ??m and reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, this is the first study that has identified that 2,4-DCP exposure induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in primary hepatocytes of grass carp. PMID:23774520

  6. Using Structured Expert Judgment to Assess Invasive Species Prevention: Asian Carp and the Mississippi—Great Lakes Hydrologic Connection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

  7. Using structured expert judgment to assess invasive species prevention: Asian carp and the Mississippi-Great Lakes hydrologic connection.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M

    2014-02-18

    Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

  8. Construction and analysis of liver suppression subtractive hybridization library of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) intraperitoneally injected with microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiancheng; Zhang, Kaiyue; Cui, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2011-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most frequently studied cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. The toxin accumulates rapidly in the liver where it exerts most of its damage, but the molecular mechanisms behind its toxicity remain unclear. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify alterations in gene transcription of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) after exposure to MC-LR. After hybridization and cloning, the forward and reverse subtractive cDNA libraries were obtained. At random, 150 positive clones (70 forward and 80 reverse) were selected and sequenced from the subtractive libraries, which gave a total of 88 gene fragment sequences (48 forward and 40 reverse). Sequencing analysis and homology searches showed that these ESTs represented 75 unique genes and 13 duplicates. Of the 75 unique genes, 38 shared high homology with fish genes of known functions, including immune-related genes, transporters and some involved in cell metabolism. Four sequenced genes (Fs59, Fs70, Rs2 and Rs15) were analyzed further using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The genes from the forward library (Fs59 and Fs70) were found to be transcriptionally upregulated, while the genes from the reverse library (Rs2 and Rs15) were found to be transcriptionally downregulated. These results confirmed the successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library that was enriched for genes that were differentially transcribed in the silver carp liver challenged with MC-LR. PMID:21718658

  9. Comparative study of digestive enzymes in fish with different nutritional habits. Proteolytic and amylase activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C Hidalgo; E Urea; A Sanz

    1999-01-01

    This work provides a comparative study of the proteolytic and amylase activities in six species of fish with different nutritional habits: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and tench (Tinca tinca). Trout and carp showed the highest digestive proteolytic activity. When proteolytic activity was determined in a

  10. Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Six Fish Species Included in Human Diet, Inhabiting Freshwaters of the Nature Park “Hutovo Blato” (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeta Has-Schön; Ivan Bogut; Valentina Rajkovi?; Stjepan Bogut; Milan ?a?i?; Janja Horvati?

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles,\\u000a liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: Cyprinus carpio, tench: Tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: Lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: Carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: Salmo dentex, eel: Anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

  11. Recombinant lactobacillus expressing G protein of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) combined with ORF81 protein of koi herpesvirus (KHV): A promising way to induce protective immunity against SVCV and KHV infection in cyprinid fish via oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Chun; Guan, Xue-Ting; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yong; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2015-06-17

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) are highly contagious and pathogenic to cyprinid fish, causing enormous economic losses in aquaculture. Although DNA vaccines reported in recent years could induce protective immune responses in carps against these viruses via injection, there are a number of consequences and uncertainties related to DNA vaccination. Therefore, more effective and practical method to induce protective immunity such as oral administration would be highly desirable. In this study, we investigated the utilities of a genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) coexpressing glycoprotein (G) of SVCV and ORF81 protein of KHV as oral vaccine to induce protective immunity in carps via oral vaccination. The surface-displayed recombinant plasmid pYG-G-ORF81 was electroporated into L. plantarum, giving rise to LP/pYG-G-ORF81, where expression and localization of G-ORF81 fusion protein from the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 was identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Bait feed particles containing the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 were used as vaccine to immunize carps via gastrointestinal route. Compared to control groups, the carps orally immunized with the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 were induced significant levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM), and its immunogenicity was confirmed by viral loads reduction detected by PCR assay after virus challenge followed by an effective protection rate 71% in vaccinated carps and 53% in vaccinated koi until at days 65 post challenge, respectively. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L. plantarum as oral vaccine against SVCV and KHV infection in carps, suggesting a practical multivalent strategy for the control of spring viremia of carp and koi herpesvirus disease. PMID:25981489

  12. Environmental history and tephrostratigraphy at Carp Lake, southwestern Columbia Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Bartlein, P.J.; Nickmann, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from Carp Lake provide a pollen record of the last ca. 125,000 years that helps disclose vegetational and climatic conditions from the present day to the previous interglaciation (120-133 ka). The core also contained 15 tephra layers, which were characterised by electron-microprobe analysis of volcanic glass shards. Identified tephra include Mount St. Helens Ye, 3.69 ka; Mazama ash bed, 7.54 ka; Mount St. Helens layer C, 35-50 ka; an unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra, 75-150 ka; the tephra equivalent of layer E at Pringle Falls, Oregon, <218 ka; and an andesitic tephra layer similar to that at Tulelake, California, 174 ka. Ten calibrated radiocarbon ages and the ages of Mount St. Helens Ye, Mazama ash, and the unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra were used to develop an age-depth model. This model was refined by also incorporating the age of marine oxygen isotope stage (IS) boundary 4/5 (73.9 ka) and the age of IS-5e (125 ka). The justification for this age-model is based on an analysis of the pollen record and lithologic data. The pollen record is divided into 11 assemblage zones that describe alternations between periods of montane conifer forest, pine forest, and steppe. The previous interglacial period (IS-5e) supported temperate xerothermic forests of pine and oak and a northward and westward expansion of steppe and juniper woodland, compared to their present occurrence. The period from 83 to 117 ka contains intervals of pine forest and parkland alternating with pine-spruce forest, suggesting shifts from cold humid to cool temperate conditions. Between 73 and 83 ka, a forest of oak, hemlock, Douglas-fir, and fir was present that has no modem analogue. It suggests warm wet summers and cool wet winters. Cool humid conditions during the mid-Wisconsin interval supported mixed conifer forest with Douglas-fir and spruce. The glacial interval featured cold dry steppe, with an expansion of spruce in the late-glacial. Xerothermic communities prevailed in the early Holocene, when temperate steppe was widespread and the lake dried intermittently. The middle Holocene was characterised by ponderosa pine forest, and the modem vegetation was established in the last 3900 yr, when ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, fir, and oak were part of the local vegetation.

  13. Cloning, identification of the two cytokine receptor family B subunits CRFB1 and CRFB5 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huarong; Liu, Wenqun; Wang, Binhua; Mao, Huiling; Sun, Zhicheng; Hou, Qunhao; Mi, Yichuan; Fan, Lihua; Hu, Chengyu

    2015-08-01

    Similar to the mammalian counterparts, fish type I interferon (IFN) performs its potential biological activities via binding to the corresponding receptor on target cell membrane. Fish type I IFN receptor, a kind of enzyme-linked receptor, consists of two subunits and belongs to the class II cytokine receptor family B (CRFB). In the present study, we cloned and identified two putative grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) type I interferon receptor subunits (termed CiCRFB1 and CiCRFB5) by homology cloning techniques. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that CiCRFB1 and CiCRFB5 shared highly homology to Danio rerio CRFB1 and CRFB5 respectively. CiCRFB1 and CiCRFB5 were up-regulated after the stimulation with Grass Carp Hemorrhagic Virus (GCHV) and Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), indicating that they are related to the intracellular antiviral activity. In order to know more about the roles of CiCRFB1 and CiCRFB5 in the process, the extracellular domains of CiCRFB1 (CiCRFB1-EC) and CiCRFB5 (CiCRFB5-EC), as well as grass carp type I IFN (CiIFN) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind resin. Cross-linking reactions were employed to analyze the affinity of the ligand (CiIFN) with the two putative receptor subunits (CiCRFB1-EC and CiCRFB5-EC). The result suggested the formation of (CiCRFB5)2 homodimer was more easily than that of (CiCRFB1)2 under the induction of CiIFN in vitro. However, CiIFN was inclined to bind to (CiCRFB1)2 homodimer. Interestingly, although CiIFN seemed unable to facilitate the formation of (CiCRFB1 + CiCRFB5) heterodimer in the absence of DSS cross linker, however it can bind to the heterodimer in the presence of DSS. This indicated that the homodimer and the heterodimer were the potential receptor for CiIFN. PMID:25891274

  14. Effect of eutrophication on mercury, selenium, and essential fatty acids in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from reservoirs of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Razavi, N Roxanna; Arts, Michael T; Qu, Mingzhi; Jin, Binsong; Ren, Wenwei; Wang, Yuxiang; Campbell, Linda M

    2014-11-15

    Analyses of the risks and benefits of consuming fish assess the content of beneficial fatty acids found in fish relative to harmful pollutants such as methylmercury (MeHg). Quantifying the effect of eutrophication on mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and essential fatty acids (EFAs) in fish is necessary to determine how measures of risk vary with productivity. Total Hg and MeHg, Se and fatty acids, including the EFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were analyzed in Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) dorsal muscle tissue from seven subtropical reservoirs of eastern China. Individual elements and fatty acids, as well as derived measures of risk (Se:Hg and hazard quotient, HQ(EFA)) were regressed against indicators of eutrophication, including total phosphorous (TP), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phytoplankton species composition. We found low MeHg concentrations (range=0.018-0.13 ?g/g ww) and Se concentrations (range=0.12-0.28 ?g/g ww), and Se:Hg molar ratios that were well above 1.0, indicating a low risk of Hg toxicity. Bighead Carp had a high content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (?PUFAs=44.2-53.6%), which included both EPA (6.9-12.5%) and DHA (16.1-23.2%). However, fish had significantly lower Se:Hg molar ratios in reservoirs with high TP, and lower EPA content with increasing plankton density (i.e. higher chl-a). Phytoplankton species composition predicted Se concentrations, but not Hg concentrations or EFA content. Overall, Hg concentrations in Bighead Carp were very low relative to consumption guidelines, and Se concentrations were adequate to confer protective benefits against MeHg toxicity. Our findings suggest that changes to plankton species composition and density with eutrophication may result in fish of lower nutritional value and thus increase risks to fish consumers by changing the availability of Se and EPA relative to MeHg. PMID:25173860

  15. Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds. PMID:23285303

  16. Ecological Impacts of an Exotic Benthivorous Fish in Large Experimental Wetlands, Delta Marsh, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal H. J. Badiou; L. Gordon Goldsborough

    2010-01-01

    The Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an exotic benthivorous fish that can have negative impacts in aquatic ecosystems. This study examines the direct and\\u000a indirect ecological impacts of Common Carp on water column nutrient concentrations, suspended solids, sedimentation, and submersed\\u000a macrophytes in large (5–7 ha) experimental wetlands in Delta Marsh, Manitoba, Canada. In general, the effects of Common Carp\\u000a on water

  17. The effect of malathion, diazinon, and various concentrations of zinc, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and mercury on fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Alam; O. E. Maughan

    1992-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests for malathion, diazinon, copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), and\\u000a iron (Fe) were conducted. Mortalities ofBarilius vagra andCyprinus carpio (common carp) were variable but LC50-96 hr were similar for pesticides. AdultB. vagra seem to be more sensitive to malathion than juvenile carp. Both juvenile carp and adultB. vagra were extremely sensitive

  18. Effects of dietary ?-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shimei; Pan, Yu; Luo, Lin; Luo, Li

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the efficacy of three immunomodulators viz., ?-1,3 glucan, chitosan and raffinose on the innate immune response of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi. Kois were divided into 4 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without immunostimulant for 56 days. Total leukocyte counts (WBC), the non-specific humoral (lysozyme, alternative complement pathway and superoxide dismutase) and cellular (phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst activity) responses were determined and compared with controls (no supplement) after 7, 14, 21 and 56 days of feeding. The results of 8 weeks feeding trial showed that ?-1,3 glucan supplementation significantly enhanced koi growth, whereas other immunostimulants did not. Variation in the levels of responses was evident among different supplements. Compared with chitosan or raffinose, ?-1,3 glucan could maintain the immunity of kois at a higher level during the experimental period. However, continuously applying ?-1,3 glucan, chitosan or raffinose into the diet caused immunity fatigue in koi. No significant change in alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity was observed for any of the three supplements over the four different periods. After feeding for 14 days, the total leukocyte count (WBC), respiratory burst activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the kois fed with chitosan or raffinose continuously remained relatively unchanged, subsequently decreased on the 56th day, but SOD did not. Meanwhile, lysozyme activity was no longer significantly higher on the 7th day, and for phagocytic capacity on the 14th day. After 56 days, these three immunostimulants groups also exhibited a decrease in the cumulative symptom rates compared to the controls when challenged with Aeromonas veronii. These results indicated that dietary intake containing immunostimulants could enhance the immune responses of koi and improve its resistance to infection by A.veronii. Especially supplementation with ?-1,3 glucan to the kois for 56 days showed considerable improvement in the growth, survival and immune response of the kois. PMID:21784160

  19. Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization of the Aldehyde-Alcohol Redox-coupling Reaction in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment. PMID:24217249

  20. Reversible brain swelling in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in response to high external ammonia and anoxia.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Michael P; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Couturier, Christine S; Sidhu, Sanya; Sandvik, Guro K; Nilsson, Göran E

    2015-06-01

    Increased internal ammonia (hyperammonemia) and ischemic/anoxic insults are known to result in a cascade of deleterious events that can culminate in potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals. It is less clear, however, if the brains of fishes respond to ammonia in a similar manner. The present study demonstrated that the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was not only able to endure high environmental ammonia exposure (HEA; 2 to 22 mmol L(-1)) but that they experienced 30% increases in brain water content at the highest ammonia concentrations. This swelling was accompanied by 4-fold increases in plasma total ammonia (TAmm) concentration, but both plasma TAmm and brain water content were restored to pre-exposure levels following depuration in ammonia-free water. The closely related, ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus) responded similarly to HEA (up to 3.6 mmol L(-1)), which was accompanied by 4-fold increases in brain glutamine. Subsequent administration of the glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (MSO), reduced brain glutamine accumulation by 80% during HEA. However, MSO failed to prevent ammonia-induced increases in brain water content suggesting that glutamine may not be directly involved in initiating ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes. Although the mechanisms of brain swelling are likely different, exposure to anoxia for 96 h caused similar, but lesser (10%) increases in brain water content in crucian carp. We conclude that brain swelling in some fishes may be a common response to increased internal ammonia or lower oxygen but further research is needed to deduce the underlying mechanisms behind such responses. PMID:25582543

  1. Myxobolus oralis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Whipps, Christopher M; Nie, Pin; Gu, Zemao

    2014-12-01

    During a survey on the myxosporean fauna of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China, a species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 that did not conform to any known species was found. The species is characterised by the presence of round to ellipsoidal plasmodia of 2.6-4.0 mm in diameter in the palate of host. Mature spores are obovate in frontal view and lemon-shaped in lateral view, with the following range, mean and standard deviation of dimensions: 10.8-12.8 ?m (11.7 ± 0.4 ?m) long, 8.2-9.9 ?m (8.9 ± 0.4 ?m) wide and 6.0-7.5 ?m (6.8 ± 0.3 ?m) thick. Two polar capsules are pyriform, 4.0-5.5 ?m (4.8 ± 0.3 ?m) long by 2.9-3.6 ?m (3.0 ± 0.2 ?m) wide. Polar filaments are coiled, with 5 to 6 turns. A small proportion of spores possesses a short caudal process. Scanning electron microscopy revealed discoid spores with a low sutural ridge and middle bulge. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of this species did not match any available sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, this species is sister to M. nielii (Nie et Li, 1973) and M. hearti Chen, 1998 in a Henneguya-Myxobolus clade with robust support. Given the morphological and molecular differences between this species and other Myxobolus species, we propose the name Myxobolus oralis sp. n. for this parasite from gibel carp. PMID:25651691

  2. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    PubMed

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential. PMID:26030976

  3. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Patrick R.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  4. Regulation of Growth Hormone Release in Common Carp Pituitary Cells by Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: Signal Transduction Involves cAMP and Calcium-Dependent Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Xiao; Mable M. S. Chu; Eric K. Y. Lee; Hao-Ran Lin; Anderson O. L. Wong

    2002-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon\\/secretin peptide family and its molecular structure is highly conserved among vertebrates. In this study, the role of PACAP in regulating growth hormone (GH) secretion in fish was examined in vitro using common carp pituitary cells under column perifusion. A dose-dependent increase in GH release was observed after exposing pituitary

  5. POLYCULTURE OF GRASS CARP AND NILE TILAPIA WITH NAPIER GRASS AS THE SOLE NUTRIENT INPUT IN THE SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE OF NEPAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan P. Pandit; Madhav K. Shrestha; Yang Yi; James S. Diana

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in outdoor concrete tanks (4.9 m x 4.8 m x 1.75 m) at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) of Nepal to evaluate the growth of grass carp and Nile tilapia fed with napier grass in polyculture, to evaluate water quality regimes of pond water, to determine the compositions of foods consumed by Nile

  6. The effects of less-expensive plant protein sources replaced with soybean meal in the juvenile diet of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ): growth, nutrient utilization and body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenan Köprücü; Ebru Sertel

    In this study, the effects of less-expensive protein sources replaced with soybean meal on growth performance, nutrient utilization\\u000a and body composition of juvenile grass carp were investigated. For this purpose, a control diet containing 42% soybean meal\\u000a was prepared. Cotton seed meal (CSM), sunflower meal (SFM) and corn meal (CM) were added to the experimental diets by replacing\\u000a 100% of

  7. Monooxygenase activities in carp as biochemical markers of pollution by polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: choice of substrates and effects of temperature, gender and capture stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Machala; Karel Nezveda; Marek Pet?ivalský; Alžb?ta Jarošová; Vladimír Pia?ka; Zdenka Svobodová

    1997-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities (7-ethoxyresorufin, 7-pentoxyresorufin and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-dealkylases and aminopyrine N-demethylase) were measured in hepatopancreatic microsomes of carp collected in one control and one polychlorinated biphenyl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted ponds in the Czech Republic. The magnitudes of responses of monooxygenase activities to the exposure to polycyclic and polyhalogenated aromatic compounds (PAC), namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls,

  8. Sequence and Tissue Expression of a Novel Human Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein, CARP2, Mapping to Chromosome 19q13.3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Bellingham; Kevin Gregory-Evans; Cheryl Y. Gregory-Evans

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we report the identification and characterisation of a novel carbonic anhydrase related-protein. We have determined that the full length coding sequence of an anonymous expressed sequenced tag, D19S799E, encodes a novel carbonic anhydrase related-protein (CARP-2) that is 328 amino acids in length. This peptide exhibits between 23.1-28.8% amino acid identity with the seven active human carbonic anhydrase

  9. Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDAlmost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.AIMSTo characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.METHODSTissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism

  10. Reproduction phase-related variations in the GnRH immunoreactive fibers in the pineal of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amul Sakharkar; Praful Singru; Nishikant Subhedar

    2005-01-01

    We studied GnRH immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala during different phases of reproductive cycle. In the resting phase (December–January), GnRH immunoreactive (-ir) fibers\\u000a were organized as paired fascicles above the posterior commissure that ascend in the stalk and distribute widely in the pineal\\u000a gland. The GnRH-ir fiber density significantly declined (P<0.001) during the

  11. Analysis of genetic heterogeneity among five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, based on detection of RAPD molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhou; Y. Wang; J. F. Gui

    2000-01-01

    The gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is a unique model system for studying evolutionary genetics and selective breeding, owing to its specific genetic background and reproductive modes. Five gynogenetic clones were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, using 30 10-nucleotide-long primers. Twenty-six primers produced well-amplified DNA fragments with reproducible banding patterns, and 24 primers were

  12. Observation of the middle intestinal tight junction structure, cloning and studying tissue distribution of the four Claudin genes of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Ye, Yuan-Tu; Cai, Chun-Fang; Wu, Ping; Song, Lin; Liu, Meng; Yao, Lin-Jie; Dong, Jiao-Jiao; Huang, Yu-Wei; Gong, Zhi; Qin, Jie; Song, Liang

    2014-12-01

    To confirm the existence of the tight junction (TJ) in middle intestine and obtain the genetic information of Claudin-3, Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc of grass carp, we observed the physical structure of TJ by transmission electron microscopy and cloned the partial cDNAs of the four Claudins using reverse transcriptase PCR technique. The four partial cDNAs consist of 1,261, 490, 776 and 662 bp encoded 131, 150, 195 and 171 amino acids, respectively. Homology analysis showed that the grass carp Claudin shared high homology with other teleost species, especially with Danio rerio and Carassius auratus. Multi-alignments of the four Claudin amino acid sequences have seen the two conserved cysteines existing in the first extracellular loop of Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc, and the sequence diversity of the four Claudins mainly lies within the C-terminal tails, which usually end with the -Y-V motif, except the -F-V motif in Claudinb. Tissue distributions of the four Claudins were measured by applying quantitative real-time PCR technique. Results showed that Claudin-3 was mainly expressed in liver and middle intestine and Claudinb was ubiquitously expressed with a higher expression in middle intestine while Claudin-15a and Claudinc were mainly expressed in middle intestine. Our study revealed the existence of the TJ in the middle intestinal and obtained the genetic information of Claudin-3, Claudin-15a, Claudinb and Claudinc of grass carp, aiming to found the molecular biology basis for the further study of the intestinal barrier function of grass carp. PMID:25074470

  13. The use of a tea polyphenol dip to extend the shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during storage in ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjiao Fan; Yuanlong Chi; Shuo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a tea polyphenols (TP) dip treatment on quality changes of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during iced storage were examined over a period of 35 days. TP (0.2%, w\\/v) solution was used for the dip treatment. The control and the treated fish samples were analysed periodically for microbiological (total viable count), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TBA, K-value), and sensory

  14. Effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on the hematological and biochemical parameters and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-xin; Pang, Su-feng; Chen, Xiao-xuan; Yu, Yan-mei; Zhou, Jin-min; Chen, Xi; Pang, Li-jiao

    2013-04-01

    The effect of dietary intake of Coriolus versicolor Polysaccharides (CVP) on the hematological and biochemical indices of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) was investigated. Fish were fed CVP supplemented diets (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CVP kg(-1)) for 56 days. The RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin content, ESR in blood and TP, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, CHO, TG, and BUN in serum were measured on day 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56. After feeding of 56 days, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results indicated that feeding crucian carp with suitable dose of CVP enhanced the RBC, WBC counts, hemoglobin and TP content, ALP activity, and decreased the ESR, ALT, AST, GLU, CHO, TG and BUN. There was no effect in fish at low dose (0.25 g kg(-1)). Unexpectedly, the higher CVP dose used here (2.0 and 4.0 g kg(-1)) has a negative effect in fish. The results of challenge experiment indicated that a moderate level of CVP in the diet (1.0 g kg(-1)) was the most effective to enhance the survival of fish after infected with A. hydrophila. In summary, the use of CVP, as dietary supplements, can improve the innate defense of crucian carp providing resistance to pathogens. PMID:22791194

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of six splice variants of activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Song, Chunlei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

    2009-10-01

    Activin type II receptor (ActRII) is crucial for the assembly of the ligand/receptor complex and the activation of downstream cascades in activin signaling pathway. In this study, we identified six variants of grass carp ActRIIA which can be generated through three alternative splicing events (defined as AS1, AS2 and AS3). AS1 induces a spliced segment encoding 14 amino acids located in the external juxtamembrane region of the receptor. However, both AS2 and AS3 occur at the same cleavage site of kinase domain and induce a premature termination codon. Indeed, AS2 inserts a fragment of 79 bp while AS3 generates a new 3' terminal of cDNA with poly(A) signals. The full length cDNA of the shortest variant was shown to be 2001 bp encoding 514 amino acids with sequence identity of 79-95% to counterparts in other species. Homology modeling studies showed grass carp ActRIIA exhibits a characteristic three-finger toxin fold in the extracellular domain and a conserved bilobal architecture in the intracellular kinase domain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that six variants showed different expression patterns in selected tissues of grass carp. This study will be helpful for a better understanding of the physiological role of activin signaling in lower vertebrates. PMID:20154420

  16. Malathion-induced changes in the haematological profile, the immune response, and the oxidative/antioxidant status of Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Ural, Mevlüt ?ener; Silici, Sibel; Yonar, M Enis

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of propolis against malathion toxicity in the blood and various tissues of carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg/kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level, and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), immune response (white blood cell count, oxidative radical production, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin levels, and the phagocytic activity), and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) of the fish. The findings of this study demonstrate that malathion has a negative effect on the haematological parameters, immune response, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, the administration of propolis ameliorated the malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:24480596

  17. Protective role of propolis in chlorpyrifos-induced changes in the haematological parameters and the oxidative/antioxidative status of Cyprinus carpio carpio.

    PubMed

    Enis Yonar, M; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Ural, Mevlüt ?ener; Silici, Sibel; Dü?ükcan, Mustafa

    2012-08-01

    The protective effect of propolis on haematological parameters and antioxidant status were evaluated in the blood and various tissues of carp exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF (0.040 and 0.080 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their oxidant-antioxidant status, including the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The samples were also measured for changes in the haematological parameters, such as the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), the haematocrit (Ht) level, and the erythrocyte indices: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The findings of this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish; this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of propolis. The present results suggest that propolis can be effective in the protection of CPF-induced toxicity in fish. PMID:22634289

  18. Chinese Medicine Formula "Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction" Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dao-Han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Su-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350?mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50?mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and JPZDD (20?g kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased (11)C-?-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

  19. Effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Yi Shen Jian Gu granules on aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal symptoms: a study protocol for a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely used as an adjuvant endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. One of the main adverse effects of AIs is musculoskeletal symptoms, which leads to a lower quality of life and poor adherence to AI treatment. To date, no effective management of aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS) has been developed. Methods/design To determine whether the traditional Chinese medicine Yi Shen Jian Gu granules could effectively manage AIMSS we will conduct a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms after taking AIs will be enrolled and treated with traditional Chinese medicine or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures include Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Modified Score for the Assessment and Quantification of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands, which will be obtained at baseline and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. Discussion The results of this study will provide a new strategy to help relieve AIMSS. Trial registration ISCTN: ISRCTN06129599 (assigned 14 August 2013). PMID:24885324

  20. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-hua; Jiang, Shan-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of 1,2 dichlorobenzene in the Indian major carp, Catla catla L. using alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Nirmala; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Sathya, T N

    2013-12-01

    The genotoxic effect of 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB), a volatile organic compound in the Indian Major Carp, Catla catla L. was assessed using the alkaline comet assay in the gills and blood. Fish were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations of 1,2 DCB in vivo. At 24 h, DNA damage scores (expressed as arbitrary units) increased at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L whereas at 28 days, there was a statistically significant increase in the DNA damage score at all the doses tested (0.175, 0.23, 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L). When the DNA damage scores were considered in the blood samples, the trend was similar to that observed in the gills - significant increase at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L at 24 h and at all doses at 28 days. The results indicate that 1,2 DCB induces genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of fish as evidenced by the alkaline comet assay. PMID:24114273

  2. Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A.; Mather, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10?5) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

  3. Otolith microchemistry of modern versus well-dated ancient naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii: Implication for water evolution of Lake Qinghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.

  4. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; Zarei, Neda; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions) in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to Aphanius sophiae from the Kor River and that Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to Aphanius arakensis plus Aphanius sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection. PMID:22936871

  5. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran.

    PubMed

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; Zarei, Neda; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensissp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10-12 anal fin rays, 28-32 lateral line scales, 10-13 caudal peduncle scales, 8-10 gill rakers, 12-19, commonly 15-16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions) in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to Aphanius sophiae from the Kor River and that Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to Aphanius arakensis plus Aphanius sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection. PMID:22936871

  6. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-02-11

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

  7. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  8. Study on effect of salinity level of water on electrocardiogram and some of blood serum minerals in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Ala; Peyghan, Rahim; Papahn, Ahmad Ali; Khadjeh, Gholam-Hosain

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of salinity on the electrocardiogram and some of blood serum minerals in grass carp were investigated. For this purpose, grass carp were exposed to concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 salinities and electrocardiogram of all fish was recorded. Blood samples were also collected from all fish and serum minerals were measured. Our results indicated that mineral level in the studied groups was significantly different. The average of heart rate per minute in control group and 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 were 10.15, 10.06, 12.17 and 7.79 beat per min, respectively. In 8 g L-1 group only the average of QT and ST segment decreased significantly in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). In 12 g L-1 group the average of heart rate per minute decreased significantly in comparison with 8 g L-1 group (p < 0.05) and no difference in the average of heart rate per minute was observed in all groups. The average of RR, PT and ST segment in the 12 g L-1 group were significantly more than the other groups (p < 0.05). The results showed that water salinity level increased to concentrations above 8 g L-1 can have significant effect on the electrocardiogram and mineral level of blood serum in grass carp. These changes are probably can be considered as one of the causes of impairment of health and death of this fish species in the salinities more than 8 g L-1 due to ion imbalance and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25593686

  9. Diversity of Beta-Propeller Phytase Genes in the Intestinal Contents of Grass Carp Provides Insight into the Release of Major Phosphorus from Phytate in Nature?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shao, Na; Wang, Guozeng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Phytate is the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in nature, and microbial mineralization of phytate by phytase is a key process for phosphorus recycling in the biosphere. In the present study, beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene fragments were readily amplified from the intestinal contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) directly or from phytate-degrading isolates from the same source, confirming the widespread occurrence of BPP in aquatic communities. The amounts of sequences collected using these two methods differed (88 distinct genes versus 10 isolates), but the sequences showed the same general topology based on phylogenetic analysis. All of the sequences fell in five clusters and were distinct from those of Anabaena, Gloeobacter, Streptomyces, Flavobacterium, Prosthecochloris, and Desulfuromonas, which have never been found in the grass carp intestine. Analysis of the microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that unculturable bacteria were dominant bacteria in the grass carp intestine and thus the predominant phytate-degrading organisms. The predominant cultured species corresponding to the phytate-degrading isolates, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Shewanella species, might be the main source of known BPPs. A phytase from Brevundimonas was first obtained from cultured species. Combining our results with Lim et al.'s inference that phytate-mineralizing bacteria are widely distributed and highly diverse in nature (B. L. Lim, P. Yeung, C. Cheng, and J. E. Hill, ISME J. 1:321-330, 2007), we concluded that BPP is the major phytate-degrading enzyme in nature, that most of this enzyme might originate from unculturable bacteria, and that the distribution of BPP may be related to the type of niche. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally estimate BPP diversity in situ. PMID:19151187

  10. The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), Tumor Necrosis Factor ? (TNF-?) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P<0.05) up regulated IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P<0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. PMID:25449378

  11. Application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) as a possible control measure for Opisthorchis viverrini infection in cultured carp (Puntius gonionotus).

    PubMed

    Khamboonruang, C; Keawvichit, R; Wongworapat, K; Suwanrangsi, S; Hongpromyart, M; Sukhawat, K; Tonguthai, K; Lima dos Santos, C A

    1997-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis due to Opisthorchis viverrini and transmitted through infected freshwater cyprinoid fish (carps) affects more than 8 million people in Thailand, People's Democratic Republic of Lao, and Vietnam. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-concept has been recommended by FAO and WHO to be included in programs to control foodborne trematode infections (FBT). HACCP is a multifactorial approach to control food hazards through surveillance of diseases, foods, and operations and education. This study describes the first attempt to apply HACCP to the prevention and control of Opisthorchis viverrini in pond culture carp (Puntius gonionotus). The experiment was designed and carried out by a multidisciplinary "HACCP team" including experts in the field of public health, parasitology, epidemiology, aquaculture, fisheries extension and fish inspection. The investigation was performed in two fish ponds in the District of Sun Pa Tong, Chiang Mai, Thailand. In the experimental pond, fish was cultured according to HACCP principles and compared with the control pond, which followed conventional aquaculture practices. Water supply to the pond, fish fry, fish feed and pond conditions during the growing period were identified as critical control points (CCPs). Hazards were identified and analyzed, as well as control measures, critical limits, monitoring procedures, corrective actions, and record keeping developed for each one of the above CCPs. Complete pond preparation, particularly aiming to eliminate contamination of pond water with O. viverrini eggs, fish infected with parasite meacercariae and the first intermediate host (Bithynia spp), was conducted. After the pond was filled with water, O. viverrini metacercaria-free fry were released into the pond. The preliminary results obtained indicate that HACCP-based principles applied to carp pond culture could be used as a strategy to prevent and control O. viverrini. Further studies should be undertaken aiming to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:9656352

  12. Functional characterization of two CITED3 homologs (gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b) in the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background CITED proteins belong to a family of non-DNA-binding transcriptional co-regulators that are characterized by a conserved ED-rich domain at the C-terminus. This family of genes is involved in the regulation of a variety of transcriptional responses through interactions with the CBP/p300 integrators and various transcription factors. In fish, very little is known about the expression and functions of CITEDs. Results We have characterized two closely related but distinct CITED3 genes, gcCited3a and gcCited3b, from the hypoxia-tolerant grass carp. The deduced gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins share 72% amino acid identity, and are highly similar to the CITED3 proteins of both chicken and Xenopus. Northern blot analysis indicates that the mRNA expression of gcCited3a and gcCited3b is strongly induced by hypoxia in the kidney and liver, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gene promoters are activated by gcHIF-1. Further, ChIP assays comparing normal and hypoxic conditions reveal differential in vivo binding of gcHIF-1 to both gene promoters in kidney and liver tissues. HRE-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that both gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b proteins inhibit gcHIF-1 transcriptional activity, and GST pull-down assays confirmed that both proteins bind specifically to the CH1 domain of the grass carp p300 protein. Conclusion The grass carp gcCITED3a and gcCITED3b genes are differentially expressed and regulated in different fish organs in response to hypoxic stress. This is the first report demonstrating in vivo regulation of two closely-related CITED3 isogenes by HIF-1, as well as CITED3 regulation of HIF-1 transcriptional activity in fish. Overall, our findings suggest that unique molecular mechanisms operate through these two gcCITED3 isoforms that likely play an important regulatory role in the hypoxic response in the grass carp. PMID:19883516

  13. In vitro effects of selenium on copper-induced changes in lipid metabolism of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-Ling; Luo, Zhi; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Chen, Qi-Liang; Hu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the in vitro effects of selenium (Se) supplementation to prevent copper (Cu)-induced changes in lipid metabolism of hepatocytes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Four groups (control and 100 ?M Cu in combination with 0, 5, and 10 ?M Se, respectively) were chosen. Compared with the control, activities of glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) of all three Cu-exposed groups at 24 and 48 h were significantly greater. However, among three Cu-exposed groups, increasing Se concentration tended to increase activities of G6PD and ME at 24 h and 6PGD activity at 24 and 48 h but decreased CPT I activity at 24 h. Compared with the control, Cu exposure alone, or in combination with Se, downregulated mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), CPT I, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) at 24 h as well as SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC mRNA levels at 48 h. However, upregulated mRNA levels of PPAR?, CPT I, and HSL, as well as decreased triglyceride content, were recorded at 48 h. Thus, although toxic at greater levels, lower levels of Se provided significant protection against Cu-induced changes in lipid metabolism. For the first time, our study indicates the dose- and time-dependent effects of Se addition on changes in lipid metabolism induced by Cu in fish hepatocytes and provides new insights into Se-Cu interaction at both enzymatic and molecular levels. PMID:24854705

  14. Calcium action potential and its use for measurement of reversal potentials of horizontal cell responses in carp retina.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, M; Takahashi, K

    1987-01-01

    1. In the carp retina perfused with a solution containing high-Ca2+, Ba2+ and some K+-channel blockers, the horizontal cell produced a regenerative Ca2+ action potential when the cell was depolarized by bath application of L-glutamate (Glu) or L-aspartate (Asp). The action potential was triggered also by a transretinal electrical stimulation which evoked an e.p.s.p. in the horizontal cell. In this solution, some cells produced the action potential spontaneously. 2. The action potential had an overshoot of about 20 mV which lasted for several seconds or even minutes. It had a threshold and showed refractoriness. In addition, it was insensitive to tetrodotoxin, but was blocked by Co2+. These observations revealed, in horizontal cells in situ, the presence of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel similar to that found in dissociated cells. It is supposed that, in a physiological environment, the Ca2+ channel is prevented from becoming regenerative probably because it is counteracted by K+ channel activities. 3. Simultaneous recordings from two separate horizontal cells showed full synchronization of the Ca2+ action potentials whose amplitudes were identical. The potential uniformity thus formed in the S-space (Naka & Rushton, 1967) enabled us to measure reversal potentials of horizontal cell responses irrespective of the electrical coupling between the cells. 4. During an overshoot of the Ca2+ action potential, an electrically evoked e.p.s.p. as well as a light response appeared with polarities reversed to those elicited at the resting state. Their reversal potentials could be estimated within a very narrow range between -5 and -10 mV. At this range, both Glu- and Asp-induced potentials reversed the polarity, too. 5. These observations suggest that the ionic mechanisms are identical in the three kinds of horizontal cell response: light response, e.p.s.p. and amino acid-induced potentials. PMID:2445962

  15. Calcium action potential and its use for measurement of reversal potentials of horizontal cell responses in carp retina.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Takahashi, K

    1987-05-01

    1. In the carp retina perfused with a solution containing high-Ca2+, Ba2+ and some K+-channel blockers, the horizontal cell produced a regenerative Ca2+ action potential when the cell was depolarized by bath application of L-glutamate (Glu) or L-aspartate (Asp). The action potential was triggered also by a transretinal electrical stimulation which evoked an e.p.s.p. in the horizontal cell. In this solution, some cells produced the action potential spontaneously. 2. The action potential had an overshoot of about 20 mV which lasted for several seconds or even minutes. It had a threshold and showed refractoriness. In addition, it was insensitive to tetrodotoxin, but was blocked by Co2+. These observations revealed, in horizontal cells in situ, the presence of a voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel similar to that found in dissociated cells. It is supposed that, in a physiological environment, the Ca2+ channel is prevented from becoming regenerative probably because it is counteracted by K+ channel activities. 3. Simultaneous recordings from two separate horizontal cells showed full synchronization of the Ca2+ action potentials whose amplitudes were identical. The potential uniformity thus formed in the S-space (Naka & Rushton, 1967) enabled us to measure reversal potentials of horizontal cell responses irrespective of the electrical coupling between the cells. 4. During an overshoot of the Ca2+ action potential, an electrically evoked e.p.s.p. as well as a light response appeared with polarities reversed to those elicited at the resting state. Their reversal potentials could be estimated within a very narrow range between -5 and -10 mV. At this range, both Glu- and Asp-induced potentials reversed the polarity, too. 5. These observations suggest that the ionic mechanisms are identical in the three kinds of horizontal cell response: light response, e.p.s.p. and amino acid-induced potentials. PMID:2445962

  16. Phosphorylation-independent suppression of light-activated visual pigment by arrestin in carp rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Tomizuka, Junko; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-04-10

    Visual pigment in photoreceptors is activated by light. Activated visual pigment (R*) is believed to be inactivated by phosphorylation of R* with subsequent binding of arrestin. There are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones, in the vertebrate retina, and they express different subtypes of arrestin, rod and cone type. To understand the difference in the function between rod- and cone-type arrestin, we first identified the subtype of arrestins expressed in rods and cones in carp retina. We found that two rod-type arrestins, rArr1 and rArr2, are co-expressed in a rod and that a cone-type arrestin, cArr1, is expressed in blue- and UV-sensitive cones; the other cone-type arrestin, cArr2, is expressed in red- and green-sensitive cones. We quantified each arrestin subtype and estimated its concentration in the outer segment of a rod or a cone in the dark; they were ?0.25 mm (rArr1 plus rArr2) in a rod and 0.6-0.8 mm (cArr1 or cArr2) in a cone. The effect of each arrestin was examined. In contrast to previous studies, both rod and cone arrestins suppressed the activation of transducin in the absence of visual pigment phosphorylation, and all of the arrestins examined (rArr1, rArr2, and cArr2) bound transiently to most probably nonphosphorylated R*. One rod arrestin, rArr2, bound firmly to phosphorylated pigment, and the other two, rArr1 and cArr2, once bound to phosphorylated R* but dissociated from it during incubation. Our results suggested a novel mechanism of arrestin effect on the suppression of the R* activity in both rods and cones. PMID:25713141

  17. Evaluation of Mixed-Feeding Schedules with Varying Dietary Protein Content on the Growth Performance and Reduction of Cost of Production for Sutchi Catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage) with Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthysmolitrix (Valenciennes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Hossain; M. Z. Ali; M. M. Rahman; M. A. Kader

    2006-01-01

    An on-station pond trial was conducted for 6 months to investigate the suitability of mixed-feeding schedules with varying protein levels on the growth of sutchi catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmuswith silver carp, Hypophthalmicthys molitrixwith a view to minimizing the cost of production. Five different feeding regimes employed were: high protein diet (30% protein, H), low protein (15% protein, L), one day low

  18. Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint (Mentha longifolia) essential oil on the quality of bighead carp fillets during storage at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Ramin; Bavandi, Shahmir; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-05-01

    Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint essential oil (HEO) on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) was studied. Bighead carp fillets were coated with neat sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate containing 0.5 and 1% v/v of HEO and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and microbial counts were investigated. SA coating enriched with the essential oil could reduce the spoilage of the fillets and extend their shelf-life. Samples treated with SA-containing HEO showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower TVB-N content and lipid oxidation, as reflected by lower PV, FFA and TBA values during the storage period compared with the SA and control. The treatment also reduced the degree of microbial deterioration of the fillets (about 1.5 log10 CFU/g) more efficiently than the SA. PMID:25987993

  19. Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint (Mentha longifolia) essential oil on the quality of bighead carp fillets during storage at 4°C

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Ramin; Bavandi, Shahmir; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint essential oil (HEO) on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) was studied. Bighead carp fillets were coated with neat sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate containing 0.5 and 1% v/v of HEO and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and microbial counts were investigated. SA coating enriched with the essential oil could reduce the spoilage of the fillets and extend their shelf-life. Samples treated with SA-containing HEO showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower TVB-N content and lipid oxidation, as reflected by lower PV, FFA and TBA values during the storage period compared with the SA and control. The treatment also reduced the degree of microbial deterioration of the fillets (about 1.5 log10 CFU/g) more efficiently than the SA. PMID:25987993

  20. Identification, characterization and immunological response analysis of stimulator of interferon gene (STING) from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoli; Yang, Chunrong; Zhang, Yixuan; Peng, Limin; Chen, Xiaohui; Rao, Youliang; Gu, Tianle; Su, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (STING), an important adapter responsible for RLR pathway, plays a pivotal role in both viral RNA- and DNA-triggered induction of IFNs in mammals. To understand the roles of STING in piscine immune system, STING gene (CiSTING) was identified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The genomic sequence of CiSTING was of 8548 base pairs (bp), including 899 bp 5' flank region, 7 exons and 6 introns. Promoter region was predicted and promoter activity was verified. The CiSTING cDNA was of 1358 bp with an open reading frame of 1185 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 394 amino acids with a signal peptide and three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region. mRNA expression of CiSTING was widespread in fifteen tissues investigated, and was up-regulated by GCRV in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, the transcription of CiSTING was inhibited at early stage, and then up-regulated at late phase upon poly(I:C) or PGN stimulation in vitro. Interestingly, CiSTING had little impact on LPS in vitro. In CiSTING over-expression cells, CiTBK1, CiIRF3 and CiIRF7 were significantly up-regulated post GCRV or viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. In addition, post GCRV or PGN stimulation, the transcription of CiIFN-I was remarkably inhibited while CiMx1 was up-regulated; as for poly(I:C) stimulation, mRNA expressions of CiIFN-I and CiMx1 were inhibited at early stage while enhanced at late phrase; after LPS stimulation, both CiIFN-I and CiMx1 were inhibited. Furthermore, antiviral activity of CiSTING was manifested by the inhibition of GCRV yield. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CiSTING may be involved in board innate immune responses via the TBK1-IRF3/IRF7 cascade, responding to not only dsRNA analogue in an IFN-dependent pathway, but also virus and bacterial PAMPs in an IFN-independent pathway. This study provided novel insights into the essential role of STING in innate immunity. PMID:24631580

  1. Unusual physiology of scale-less carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii, in Lake Qinghai: a high altitude alkaline saline lake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxiang S; Gonzalez, Richard J; Patrick, Marjorie L; Grosell, Martin; Zhang, Chuanguang; Feng, Qiang; Du, JiZeng; Walsh, Patrick J; Wood, Chris M

    2003-02-01

    The scale-less carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) inhabits Lake Qinghai located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (elevation, 3200 m) in western China. The lake waters are alkaline (pH 9.4, titratable alkalinity=30 mmol l(-1)), Mg(2+)-rich (18.7 mmol l(-1)), Ca(2+)-poor (0.30 mmol l(-1)) and saline (9 per thousand ). These fish make annual spawning migrations into freshwater rivers. We investigated the physiology of nitrogen excretion and ionoregulation of fish from the lake and river. Fish from both waters were ammonotelic, although ammonia-N excretion rates were lower in lake fish (175 vs. 344 micromol kg(-1) h(-1), P<0.05) resulting in unusually high levels of ammonia in blood plasma (2.23 vs. 0.32 mmol l(-1)), bile, liver, muscle and brain. Exposure to 0.4 mmol l(-1) total ammonia in lake water ([NH(3)]=0.16 mmol l(-1)) killed fish within 8 h. River fish survived exposure to 1.0 mmol l(-1) total ammonia in river water at pH 8.0 ([NH(3)]=0.023 mmol l(-1)) for 24 h suggesting high ammonia tolerance in lake fish. High glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase activities in tissues probably allow the fish to alleviate ammonia toxicity by amino acid accumulation. Neither lake nor river fish relied on urea excretion to remove excess N. Urea-N excretion rates were below 20 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) for both groups, and levels of urea in plasma and tissues were moderate. When exposed to elevated ammonia, urea-N excretion increased slightly (approximately 50 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) and liver and muscle urea levels increased in the river fish. Plasma ion levels were within the range typical of cyprinids, but river fish had significantly higher plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] and lower [K(+)] than fish from the lake. During 48-h lake-to-river water transfer, plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels rose significantly. Significantly higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the gills of river fish may be related to the higher plasma ion levels. Plasma [Mg(2+)] and [Ca(2+)] were tightly regulated despite the great differences in the lake and river water levels. PMID:12547271

  2. Two HMGB1 genes from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella mediate immune responses to viral/bacterial PAMPs and GCRV challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Su, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal and a master regulator of innate immunity, at the crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity. To clarify the immune characterizations of HMGB1 in fishes, two co-orthologs of HMGB1 (CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b) were identified in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by local EST database searching and RACE techniques. mRNA expressions of the two HMGB1 genes are widespread in fifteen tissues investigated. The transcripts of CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b were significantly up-regulated and reached peak at 24h post GCRV challenge in spleen and head kidney tissues (P<0.05). The modulations are slow post-bacterial PAMP stimulations by contrast with those after viral PAMP or GCRV challenge. They are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs, but are enhanced by viral PAMP or virus. mRNA expression of CiHMGB1a is high and strongly modulated by nucleic acids and transcription of CiHMGB1b is low and mildly regulated by nucleic acids and capsids of GCRV. The over-expression vectors were constructed and transfected into C. idella kidney cell line to obtain stably expressing recombinant proteins. In HMGB1 over-expressed cells, mRNA expressions of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were down-regulated, whereas TRIF was found to be up-regulated and IFN-I showed no change in its expression. After GCRV challenge, the transcripts of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were up-regulated, while IFN-I showed down-regulation, and TRIF showed up-regulation after an initial phase of decline. The titer assay demonstrated no antiviral activity of HMGB1s. The results indicated mRNA expressions of HMGB1a and HMGB1b are enhanced by GCRV or viral PAMP, and are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs; HMGB1a and HMGB1b collaborate with each other and play important roles in modulating the innate immune responses, although without direct antiviral effect; the immune network triggered by HMGB1 work together in concert to maintain homeostasis. PMID:23228458

  3. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-?B, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) percent weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency; (2) lysozyme activity, complement 3 content, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and hepcidin, interleukin 10, transforming growth factor ?1 and inhibitor of ?B? mRNA levels in some intestinal segments; (3) activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase, and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA level in the whole intestine; (4) Claudin b, Claudin 3, Claudin c, Occludin and ZO-1 mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. Conversely, optimal PA supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interferon ?2, interleukin 8, nuclear factor ?B P65 (NF-?B P65), I?B kinase ?, I?B kinase ?, I?B kinase ? and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-?B P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG and intestinal lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 37.73 mg/kg and 41.38 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:25957886

  4. CURRICULUM VITAE Dr. Jianli Zhao

    E-print Network

    Liu, Gang-yu

    Heidelberg Universität, Germany Sep. 2002-Dec. 2008 H2O2 synthesis and olefin oxidation on titanium PUBLICATIONS 1. Safe direct synthesis of high purity H2O2 through a H2/O2 plasma reaction Y. Yi, J. Zhou, H-up synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from H2/O2 with multiple parallel DBD tubes J. Zhao, J. Zhou, J. Su, H. Guo

  5. Trans- and cis-urocanic acid, biogenic amine and amino acid contents in ikan pekasam (fermented fish) produced from Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, M A; Zare, D; Karim, R; Ghazali, H M

    2015-04-01

    Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent. PMID:25442635

  6. Identification and functional characterization of grass carp IL-17A/F1: An evaluation of the immunoregulatory role of teleost IL-17A/F1.

    PubMed

    Du, Linyong; Feng, Shiyu; Yin, Licheng; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, IL-17A and IL-17F are hallmark cytokines of Th17 cells which act significant roles in eradicating extracellular pathogens. IL-17A and IL-17F homologs nominated as IL-17A/F1-3 have been revealed in fish and their functions remain largely undefined. Here we identified and characterized grass carp IL-17A/F1 (gcIL-17A/F1) in fish immune system. In this regard, both tissue distribution and inductive expression of gcIL-17A/F1 indicated its possible involvement in immune response. Moreover, recombinant gcIL-17A/F1 (rgcIL-17A/F1) was prepared and displayed an ability to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6) mRNA expression in head kidney leukocytes. It is suggestive of that gcIL-17A/F1 may act as a proinflammatory cytokine in fish immunity. Besides, rgcIL-17A/F1 induced gene expression and protein release of grass carp chemokine CXCL-8 (gcCXCL-8) in head kidney cells (HKCs), probably via NF-?B, p38 and Erk1/2 pathways. In particular, culture medium from the HKCs treated by rgcIL-17A/F1 could stimulate peripheral blood leukocytes migration and immunoneutralization of endogenous gcCXCL-8 could partially attenuate this stimulation, suggesting that rgcIL-17A/F1 could recruit immune cells through producing gcCXCL-8 as mammalian IL-17 A and F. Taken together, we not only identified the pro-inflammatory role of gcIL-17A/F1 in host defense, but also provided the basis for clarifying Th17 cells in teleost. PMID:25847875

  7. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

    PubMed

    Patińo, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

    2015-08-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those reported by studies where exposure concentrations were relatively high. Lastly, this study highlighted advantages of multivariate/multiple regression approaches for exploring associations between complex contaminant mixtures and gradients and reproductive condition in wild fishes. PMID:25583583

  8. Subtype of excitatory amino acid receptor in cone horizontal cells of the carp retina as specified by reversal potential measurement technique.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Murakami, M

    1988-06-01

    Effects of agonists of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters were examined in carp cone horizontal cells where glutamate (Glu) or aspartate (Asp) is believed to act as the transmitter released from the photoreceptors. Bath application of kainic (KA), quisqualic (QA) and N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acids produced little effect on cone cells, indicating that their effects act directly on the horizontal cells. KA and QA (100 microM for both) produced depolarizations in the horizontal cells. Their reversal potentials were measured by our novel technique which was developed to overcome a serious experimental disadvantage due to electrical coupling between horizontal cells. The retina was perfused with a modified Ringer solution which contained high-Ca2+,Ba2+, and some K+-channel blockers. A Ca2+ action potential having an overshoot was evoked in the horizontal cells when they were depolarized by application of the EAA. During the action potential, perfect potential uniformity was achieved throughout electrically coupled cells. Responses induced by KA and QA during the overshoot appeared in reversed polarities to those elicited at the resting state. Their reversal potentials were then estimated to be similar at around -6mV, and this value coincided with that of the Glu- or Asp-induced responses. On the other hand, effects of NMDA were diverse even though applied in the order of mM; some cells were hyperpolarized, but the others were little affected. These observations indicate that the EAA receptor of carp horizontal cells is KA/QA (non-NMDA) type. PMID:2840614

  9. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Development of Genetic Markers for the Detection of DNA of Invasive Bighead and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in Environmental Water Samples from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, Heather L.; Edwards, Christine E.; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R.; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species. PMID:25706532

  10. Effect of several feeding stimulants on diet preference by juvenile gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio), fed diets with or without partial replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Xue; Yibo Cui

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the effects of several feeding stimulants on gibel carp fed diets with or without replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal (MBM). The feeding stimulants tested were betaine, glycine, l-lysine, l-methionine, l-phenylalanine, and a commercial squid extract. Three inclusion levels were tested for each stimulant (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% for

  11. Anionexchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-isotope dilution-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for speciation analysis of metal complexes with metallothionein isoforms in gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio) exposed to environmental metal pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi Goenaga Infante; Karen Van Campenhout; Ronny Blust; Freddy C. Adams

    2006-01-01

    The capability of post-column isotope dilution (ID) combined with anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS was for the first time investigated for environmental quality assessment through metal speciation analysis of metallothionein (MT) isoforms in cytosols of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), used as biomarkers for environmental metal exposure. A full spectral scanning of the biological sample (with 50?l injection volume) using ICP-TOF-MS in

  12. Neurosecretory neurons of the nucleus preopticus (NPO) express salmon GnRH mRNA and show reproduction phase-related variation in the female Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amul J. Sakharkar; Minakshi Mazumdar; Praful S. Singru; Nishikant Subhedar

    2008-01-01

    We studied the expression of sGnRH mRNA in the neurons of the nucleus preopticus (NPO) of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, and their correlation with the reproductive status of the fish. Non-radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry protocol employing biotinylated-oligonucleotide probes complementary to salmon GnRH, cichlid GnRH I, catfish GnRH, chicken GnRH II (from cichlid and catfish), and mammalian GnRH,

  13. Novel pituitary actions of TAC3 gene products in fish model: receptor specificity and signal transduction for prolactin and somatolactin ? regulation by neurokinin B (NKB) and NKB-related peptide in carp pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; He, Mulan; Ko, Wendy K W; Lin, Chengyuan; Wong, Anderson O L

    2014-09-01

    TAC3 is a member of tachykinins, and its gene product neurokinin B (NKB) has recently emerged as a key regulator for LH through modulation of kisspeptin/GnRH system within the hypothalamus. In fish models, TAC3 not only encodes NKB but also a novel tachykinin-like peptide called NKB-related peptide (NKBRP), and the pituitary actions of these TAC3 gene products are still unknown. Using grass carp as a model, the direct effects and postreceptor signaling for the 2 TAC3 products were examined at the pituitary level. Grass carp TAC3 was cloned and confirmed to encode NKB and NKBRP similar to that of other fish species. In carp pituitary cells, NKB and NKBRP treatment did not affect LH release and gene expression but up-regulated prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL)? secretion, protein production, and transcript expression. The stimulation by these 2 TAC3 gene products on PRL and SL? release and mRNA levels were mediated by pituitary NK2 and NK3 receptors, respectively. Apparently, NKB- and NKBRP-induced SL? secretion and transcript expression were caused by adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A, phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate/protein kinase C and Ca(2+)/calmodulin/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activation. The signal transduction for the corresponding responses on PRL release and mRNA expression were also similar, except that the protein kinase C component was not involved. These findings suggest that the 2 TAC3 gene products do not play a role in LH regulation at the pituitary level in carp species but may serve as novel stimulators for PRL and SL? synthesis and secretion via overlapping postreceptor signaling mechanisms coupled to NK2 and NK3 receptors, respectively. PMID:24971612

  14. Effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine on leptin and leptin receptor expression and the effects of leptin on activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Liang, Xu-Fang; Fang, Liu; Bai, Xiao-Li; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite and energy expenditure in mammals, but its role in fish metabolism control is poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that leptin has an effect on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure as well as lipid metabolism (stimulation of lipolysis and inhibition of adipogenesis) in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To further investigate the role of leptin in fish, the effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine (T3) on the expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor (Lepr) and the effects of leptin on the activities of critical glucose metabolism enzymes in grass carp hepatocytes were evaluated in the present study. Our data indicated that leptin gene expression was induced by glucose in a dose-dependent manner, while Lepr gene expression exhibited a biphasic change. A high dose of insulin (100 ng/mL) significantly up-regulated the expression of leptin and Lepr. Leptin expression was markedly up-regulated by a low concentration of T3 but inhibited by a high concentration of T3. T3 up-regulated Lepr expression in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that leptin had a close relationship with three factors (glucose, insulin and T3) and might participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism in grass carp. In addition, we also found that leptin affected the activities of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, which might be mediated by insulin receptor substrate-phosphoinositol 3-kinase signaling. PMID:25952973

  15. Carpe Diem: Andy's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Richard Paul

    2002-01-01

    Presents the story of an adolescent dying from Ducheenne muscular dystrophy. A transformation in the helping relationship occurs just as the caregiver becomes overwhelmed with the youth's anger and despair. The caregiver uses his insights from battling substance abuse and pain to help transform the youth's attitude of despair to one of living each…

  16. High levels of corticosterone, and gene expression of star, cyp17a2, hsd3b, cyp21, hsd11b2 during acute stress in common carp with interrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, M A; van Pelt-Heerschap, H; Atsma, W; Komen, J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the acute stress response in a common carp strain (E5) with interrenal hyperplasia due to 17?-hydroxylase deficiency, and in an isogenic standard (STD) carp strain. Cortisol, corticosterone and the head kidney-somatic index were measured during and after a 3 h net confinement stress. Star, cyp17a2, hsd3b, cyp21, hsd11b2 mRNA levels were measured in head kidneys using real-time qPCR. The results show very high corticosterone levels and enlargement of the head kidney in E5 fish. This is the first report in a teleost fish showing a significant increase of corticosterone levels in response to stress due to interrenal hyperplasia. The high levels of corticosterone in E5 suggest that corticosterone is not converted to aldosterone in common carp. star and hsd3b mRNA levels were significantly higher in E5 compared to STD fish, while cyp17a2 levels were significantly lower in E5. In contrast to E5, star levels did not change during stress and recovery in STD, suggesting that the enzyme is regulated in a different manner in E5 and STD fish. In E5, the levels of cyp17a2 dropped below control values after 20 min stress. These findings strongly suggest that cyp17a2 is impaired at (post)-transcriptional level. As a consequence the accumulated precursor (pregnenolone) is not converted to cortisol, but to corticosterone. In contrast to STD, significant levels of cortisol could not be detected in E5. Finally, hsd11b2 mRNA levels were significantly lower in E5 compared to STD, and did not change during stress and recovery. These results support the idea that hsd11b2 is involved in the conversion of physiologically active cortisol to inactive cortisone, as reported earlier for STD carp. In conclusion our results show high levels of corticosterone in E5 and differences in star and mRNA levels of steroidogenic genes between E5 and STD carp during net confinement stress. PMID:22333211

  17. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in various environments and organisms in Göksu Delta, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zafer Ayas; Dürdane Kolankaya

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine organochlorine (OC) pesticide residue in various environments such as waters, sediments and soils and in organisms such as blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus);, fish [grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)]; and waterbirds [coot (Fulica atra), mallard (Anas platyrynchos) and little egret (Egretta garzetta)] during the period of October 1991–October 1993 at Göksu Delta-Tasucu,

  18. Effect of Stream Impoundment in Tennessee on the Fish Populations of Tributary Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Ruhr

    1957-01-01

    Data from a statewide survey of warm water streams in Tennessee were used to determine the extent to which gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), carp (Cyprinus carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), and drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) inhabit smallmouth bass-rock bass streams. Reproduction of those species in tributary streams was minor or absent. By comparing samples from streams that were accessible from an

  19. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of a Mexico City Wetland Restoration Effort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Zambrano; Alejandro von Bertrab

    2010-01-01

    : The Xochimilco wetland in Mexico City is threatened by reductions to the aquatic system area, overexploitation of water resources, and widespread pollution. The introduced carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) compete with endemic species such as the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). The Restoration Ecology Laboratory of the Institute of Biology, Universidad Nacional AutĂłnoma de Mexico together with local

  20. Morphological development of glochidia in artificial media through early juvenile of freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis (Hyriopsis) bialatus Simpson, 1900

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pramote Chumnanpuen; Uthaiwan Kovitvadhi; Kannika Chatchavalvanich; Amara Thongpan; Satit Kovitvadhi

    2011-01-01

    The morphological development and the sequence of organogenesis from glochidium to the early juvenile stage of the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis bialatus, were observed. Larvae of H. bialatus were cultured in standard tissue culture medium (M199) supplemented with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) plasma and they showed transformation within 10 days. Larval samples were collected every 2 days during glochidia development