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Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:24751923

Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. This improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, with an average initial weight of 6.33 (SE 0.03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9.8 (control), 12.7, 16.1, 18.5, 21.9 and 24.5 g arginine/kg diet for 9 weeks. An real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine the relative expression of TOR and 4E-BP in fish muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine. Dietary arginine increased (P < 0.05): (1) glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in muscle and hepatopancreas; (2) intestine and hepatopancreas protein content, folds height, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na?/K?-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase activities in intestine; (3) Lactobacillus counts; (4) relative expression of TOR in the muscle, hepatopancreas and distal intestine (DI); (5) relative expression of 4E-BP in proximal intestine (PI) and mid-intestine (MI), as compared with the control group. In contrast, dietary arginine reduced (P < 0.05): (1) plasma ammonia content; (2) Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli counts; (3) relative expression of TOR in PI and MI; (4) relative expression of 4E-BP in the muscle, hepatopancreas and DI. The arginine requirement estimated by specific growth rate using quadratic regression analysis was found to be 18.0 g/kg diet. These results indicate that arginine improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability and regulated the expression of TOR and 4E-BP genes. PMID:22013925

Chen, Gangfu; Feng, Lin; Kuang, Shengyao; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Weidan; Li, Shuhong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoqiu



Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and  

E-print Network

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

Gray, Matthew


Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong  

E-print Network

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

Boyer, Edmond


Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours  

E-print Network

Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

Boyer, Edmond


The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter



Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

E-print Network

Size- and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Emili, Cyprinus carpio, diet, Lake Banyoles, Spain. ABSTRACT The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyo- les (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant

García-Berthou, Emili


Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.



Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet  

E-print Network

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids and energy metabolism during the early life history of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, we followed changes, Academy of Agriculture and Techno%gy Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland. Summary. Juvenile carp (Cyrpinus carpio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

E-print Network

after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


"Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems"  

E-print Network

Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)in American freshwater systems Luis Zambrano, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Naercio Menezes, and A. Townsend Peterson Abstract: Nonnative fish introductions... disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South...

Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend



Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  


Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou



Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich



Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics



Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2  

E-print Network

and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

Leung, Brian


Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg\\/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the

Lílian L. Amado; Márcia L. Garcia; Talita C. B. Pereira; João S. Yunes; Maurício R. Bogo; José M. Monserrat



An in vivo study of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) liver during prolonged hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia induced apoptosis has been studied extensively in many mammalian cell lines but there are only a few studies using whole animal models. We investigated the response of the intact liver to hypoxia in a hypoxia tolerant fish, the carp (Cyprinus carpio, L). We exposed carp to hypoxia for up to 42 days, using oxygen level (0.5 mgO2\\/L) that were slightly higher

W. L. Poon; C. Y. Hung; K. Nakano; D. J. Randall



Identification of differentially expressed genes in Con A-activated Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library was constructed from the message RNA (mRNA) obtained from Con A-induced head kidney (HK) leucocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Differential screening of the cDNA was carried out by hybridization against the total cDNA probes from normal, Con A-uninduced HK leucocytes or Con A-induced HK leucocytes of carp. The differential expression patterns of certain cDNA clones were

Z. Yin; J. Y. He; Z. Gong; T. J. Lam; Y. M. Sin



Freshwater fungi isolated from eggs of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal infection in the eggs of freshwater fish is well known as a problematic disease. We had a chance to examine fungal infection in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) eggs at fish farms in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand, in February 2002, attempting to isolate fungi from eggs with fungal infection at three fish farms (A, B, and C). Nineteen

Kanit Chukanhom; Kishio Hatai



Gonadosomatic Index and Testis Morphology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Rivers Contaminated with Estrogenic Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = (testis weight\\/body weight) × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17?-estradiol in the Ishizu




Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet



Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids



Stress Responses and Changes in Protein Metabolism in Carp Cyprinus carpio during Cadmium Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress responses and changes in protein metabolism were studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to 0, 0.8, 4, and 20 ?M cadmium (Cd) over a 29-day period. Blood and other tissue samples were taken after 4 and 29 days of exposure. The highest Cd concentration proved to be lethal to the fish, resulting in 100% mortality after 21 days

Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust



Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic protozoan fauna resident on farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from two localities in the Sinop region of Turkey were investigated during the period June 1994–May 1995. Following the investigation of 125 common carp, Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961, Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, Trichodinella subtilis Lom, 1959, Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard,

A. Özer; O. Erdem



Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer



Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara



Food Provisioning in Red-Necked Grebes ( Podiceps Grisegena ) at Common Carp ( Cyprinus Carpio ) Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental feeding patterns were studied in red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) broods throughout the entire period of parental care in a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish-pond area in SE Poland in 1993–2002. Fish formed a substantial part of prey provided to the flightless young from their second week of life. Although the numbers of large invertebrates and tadpoles, the alternative prey

Janusz Kloskowski



Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 > embryos (240 > adults (540 Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 > adult (120 > embryo (230 The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.



Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu



Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.



Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot



Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  


Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen



Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn



Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol




Bioaccumulation of micropollutants and biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


At four different aquatic sites in Flanders (Belgium) with different types and degrees of contamination, juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed in cages for 4 weeks. After exposure, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in the tissues of the carp. Besides pollutant accumulation, several effects were measured as well. Condition measures such as changes in weight, condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were assessed. In addition, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and a set of blood biochemical parameters were measured. At all sites, accumulation of metals in the fish tissues was observed. Levels of cadmium and lead at some of the exposure sites were higher than the levels at the start and comparable to levels in fish from moderately metal-contaminated sites. For most organic pollutants, however, levels were not significantly higher than at the start. Only for two PCB congeners, levels had slightly increased but were still lower than levels in carp captured at noncontaminated sites. Although food limitation probably caused some of the observed effects, significant relationships were found between metal load in tissues and CF, AChE, plasma osmolality and HSI. This study shows that caged carp might be useful for the assessment of bioaccumulation and some effects of micropollutants in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19038452

Bervoets, Lieven; Van Campenhout, Karen; Reynders, Hans; Knapen, Dries; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny



Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel



The effect of seed morphology on the dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and subsequent egestion and germination of seeds of Sparganium emersum and Sagittaria sagittifolia, two aquatic

B. J. A. Pollux; Jong de M; A. Steegh; N. J. Ouborg; Groenendael van J. M; M. R. J. Klaassen



Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type.  


The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 degrees C to 15 degrees C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. PMID:16764974

Van Campenhout, K; Bervoets, L; Blust, R



Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka



Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka



Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280



Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen



Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 ?g L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go



Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi



Antioxidant effects of propolis on carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to arsenic: biochemical and histopathologic findings.  


Propolis, a resinous material produced by worker bees from the leaf buds and exudates of plants, is reported to possess various therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of propolis on biochemical parameters and histopathologic findings in carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to arsenic. A sublethal concentration of arsenic (0.01 mg l-1) and/or 10 mg l-1 propolis were administered to fish for 1 wk. Catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in liver, gill and muscle tissues in control, arsenic only, propolis only and arsenic+propolis treatment groups. Results showed that CAT activity decreased in the arsenic group compared to the control and propolis groups. CAT activity in the arsenic+propolis group was significantly higher compared to the arsenic group. MDA levels in fish exposed to 0.01 mg l-1 arsenic significantly increased compared to the control group. However, MDA levels in the arsenic+propolis group were significantly lower compared to the arsenic group. Histopathological changes in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of carp were examined by light microscopy: various changes were observed in all tissues of fish in the arsenic group. Propolis showed important antioxidant effects against arsenic toxicity in all fish tissues. PMID:24695237

Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Gulhan, Mehmet Fuat; Erdogan, Kenan; Orun, Ibrahim



Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T



Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis. PMID:24326265

Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter



Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin. PMID:24271879

Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong



Determination of the effect of microbial transglutaminase on technological properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microbial transglutaminase (TG) on processed meat of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.). Three levels of microbial transglutaminase (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) combined with three levels of NaCl (0, 1 and 2%), added to support the binding reaction, were examined. For the evaluation of quality changes in restructured fish

F. Vácha; I. Novik; J. Špi?ka; M. Podola



Fatty Acid Composition in Intramuscular Lipids of Experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3YearOld Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buchtová H., Z. Svobodová, M. K?ížek, F. Vácha, M. Kocour, J. Velíšek: Fatty Acid Composition in Intramuscular lipids of experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3-Year-Old Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio l.). Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: S73-S81. The aim of the study was to determine the differences in the composition of fatty acids (in % of total fatty acids investigated), their

H. Buchtová; Z. Svobodová; M. K?ížek; F. Vácha; M. Kocour; J. Velíšek



Impact of long term storage on the instrumental textural properties of frozen common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) flesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to measure and confirm changes in the qualitative properties of frozen carp flesh (Cyprinus carpio L.), during 84 days storage at -20 °C, using instrumental texture profile analysis, focused on hardness, cohesiveness and springiness. Hardness in fresh fish was 2.908 N in fish stored 28 days 1.238 N, after 56 days 0.505 N and

Frantisek Vacha; Milos Cepak; Martin Urbanek; Pavel Vejsada; Petr Hartvich; Michael Rost



Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló



Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

Ferdinand A. Sibbing



Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296



The effect of ?-glucan on formation and functionality of neutrophil extracellular traps in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been characterised as a novel antimicrobial host defence strategy of neutrophils besides phagocytosis and degranulation, which may lead to entrapment and subsequent immobilisation and/or killing of bacterial pathogens. Here we studied the effect of the feed additive ?-glucan, namely MacroGard(®), on the formation and functionality of NETs in carp. Therefore, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) head kidney and kidney cells were isolated and treated with or without ?-glucan over time. The formation of NETs was analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy and revealed a distinct increase of NET-formation with ?-glucan. Furthermore the subsequent entrapment of Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish pathogen, was increased after stimulating the cells with ?-glucan. However, ?-glucan did not lead to a stimulation of antimicrobial activity of neutrophils against A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the data underline the fact that the feed additive ?-glucan is able to modulate carp neutrophil functions. PMID:24434196

Brogden, Graham; Krimmling, Tanja; Adamek, Miko?aj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren



Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon



Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua



In vivo effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on innate immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using three different concentrations of DON (352?gkg(-1), 619?gkg(-1), and 953?gkg(-1) final feed, respectively) which are comparable to levels found in commercial fish feeds. Effects on growth and mass of fish were not observed during this 6weeks lasting experiment. Only marginal DON concentrations were found in muscle and plasma samples. Blood parameters were not influenced although smaller erythrocytes occurred in fish treated with 352?gkg(-1) DON. Analysis of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes showed increased superoxid dismutase and catalase activities in fish fed the low-dose feed. Immunosuppressive effects of DON were confirmed whereby cytotoxic effects on immune cells only partly explained the impairment of innate immune responses. Exact polarization of the immune system into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses due to DON exposure should be clarified in further experiments, especially since the current results raise concern about impaired immune function in fish raised in aquaculture. PMID:24650758

Pietsch, Constanze; Michel, Christian; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia



Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.



Changes in the respiratory properties of the blood in the carp, Cyprinus carpio , induced by diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Effects of diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension on acid-base balance and blood respiratory properties were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp were subjected to two cycles in ambient\\u000a$$P_{O_2 }$$\\u000a between about 130 mm Hg and about 12 mm Hg at 17°C (cf. Figs. 1 and 2). The first period of hypoxia was characterized by a non-compensated respiratory

Gunnar Lykkeboe; Roy E. Weber



Differential effects of age-structured common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) stocks on pond invertebrate communities: implications for recreational and wildlife use of farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of common carp Cyprinus carpio pond fisheries in Europe postulates their multifunctional use, integrating exploitation of aquaculture resources with recreational\\u000a services and maintenance of high levels of local biodiversity. Age classes of farmed carp are grown separately and pond ecosystems\\u000a may be differently affected by different ontogenetic stages of fish. To examine these relationships, a study was conducted

Janusz Kloskowski


Influence of a Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Strain on Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium-producing microcystin (MC), Microcystis aeruginosa (strain RST9501), on detoxification capacity and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in liver, brain, gill, and muscle—as well as\\u000a apoptotic protease (calpain) activity in liver and brain—in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Experimental groups were defined as follows: (1) control (CTR); (2) carp treated with an

Lílian Lund Amado; Márcia Longaray Garcia; Patrícia Baptista Ramos; João Sarkis Yunes; José Maria Monserrat



Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels  

SciTech Connect

The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.



Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection. PMID:25266898

Adamek, Miko?aj; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Chyb, Jaros?aw; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter



Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow manure, urea and triple super phosphate. Rohu was stocked in all ponds at a

M. M. Rahman; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. A. Wahab; A. Milstein; J. A. J. Verreth



Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.  


Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan



Effects of long-term exposure to simazine in real concentrations on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The effects of a 90 day simazine exposure at concentrations of 0.06 (reported concentration in Czech rivers), 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ were assessed in one-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Its influence on biometric parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry, liver biomarkers, and histology was investigated. Biometric parameters of common carp exposed to simazine at 0.06 ?g L?¹ showed no differences from untreated fish. Simazine concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ caused significant (p<0.01) increase of hepatosomatic indices relative to controls. Hematological profiles showed significant (p<0.01) decrease in leukocyte count relative to controls at all concentrations. Biochemical profiles of common carp exposed to simazine at all concentrations showed significant (p<0.01) increase in activity of alkaline phosphatase. In addition, at concentrations of 1 and 2 ?g L?¹, there was a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05), and, at 4 ?g L?¹, a significant increase in total protein (p<0.05), albumins (p<0.05), and alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05) compared with controls. Renal histology revealed severe hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of caudal kidney tubules in fish at all exposure levels compared to controls. Chronic exposure of common carp to simazine caused significant shifts in hematological, biochemical, and biometric profiles, and histopathological changes. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of simazine has altered multiple physiological indices in fish hematology and biochemistry, which potentially may be a biomarker of simazine toxicity; however, before these parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual simazine in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future. PMID:22036208

Velisek, J; Stara, A; Machova, J; Svobodova, Z



Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z



Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.



Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten



Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson



Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon



Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. (Visva-Bharati Univ., Santiniketan (India))



Effect of chronic exposure to simazine on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


We investigated the chronic effect of simazine, an s-triazine herbicide commonly present in aquatic environments, on the antioxidant system and oxidative stress indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.06 ?g l(-1) (environmental concentration in Czech rivers), 2 mg l(-1), and 4 mg l(-1) for 14, 28 and 60 days. Indices of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH)] in fish brain, gill, muscle, liver, and intestine were measured. Chronic exposure to simazine showed the impact of the increased production of ROS leading to oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in groups with high concentrations (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) increased at 14 and 28 days, but decreased after 60 days exposure (p<0.01) as compared with the control group. Changes in enzyme activity were mainly in the liver, but also in gills and brain. Prolonged exposure to simazine resulted in excess ROS formation finally resulting in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins and also inhibited antioxidant capacities in common carp tissue. PMID:22301164

Stara, Alzbeta; Machova, Jana; Velisek, Josef



Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka



Immunostimulatory activities of specific bacterial secondary metabolite of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain SX-4 on carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


Aims:? To determine the capacity of secondary metabolite of strain SX-4, to enhance the nonspecific immunity and survival of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and to identify the constituents that are responsible. Methods and Results:? A thermophilic strain SX-4 that is able to produce immunostimulatory metabolite was isolated from sludge sample of hot spring and identified by comparison with 16S rRNA sequences (99% of homology) as Anoxybacillus flavithermus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from its cell-free culture, one bacterial peptide with the capacity of improving the nonspecific immune responses and disease resistance (relative per cent survival?=?66·67%) was obtained and the compound was characterized as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) by IR, ESI-MS, (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectroscopic analyses. After intraperitoneal administration of this peptide, selected innate immune parameters including phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme activity and serum SOD activity, along with immune-related genes expression (i.e. interleukin-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase), in the blood were found to be significantly increased. Conclusions:? The bacterial peptide cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) significantly enhances nonspecific immunity and survival of carp. Significance and Impact of the Study:? There is a possibility of using cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) as a better natural immunostimulant, which could have a promising role in aquaculture to prevent diseases and disease outbreaks. PMID:21294820

Liu, J; Lei, Y; Wang, F; Yi, Y; Liu, Y; Wang, G



Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16?m in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus


Water household of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio , when submitted to an osmotic challenge, as determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine the effects of an osmotic challenge (1% NaCl) to\\u000a a freshwater fish, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The imaged region covered organs such as the swimbladder, the liver, the kidney, the intestine, the spinal cord, and muscle\\u000a tissue. A striking difference between salt-treated and control fish was found in

G. De Boeck; M. Vanaudenhove; M. Verhoye; J. Van Audekerke; B. De Wachter; R. Blust; A. Van der Linden



Food web overlap among native axolotl ( Ambystoma mexicanum ) and two exotic fishes: carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in Xochimilco, Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two exotic fishes, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), were introduced more than 20 years ago into Xochimilco for aquaculture, and now dominate the system in terms of biomass\\u000a and numbers. Over this same period, wild populations of the microendemic axolotl salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) have been dramatically reduced, and it currently persists in isolated areas of this aquatic system,

Luis Zambrano; Elsa Valiente; M. Jake Vander Zanden



Analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) obtained from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., head kidney cells after stimulation by two mitogens, lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative cDNA library from mRNA obtained from lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-induced head kidney cells of carp, Cyprinus carpio, was constructed. Two hundred single pass and partially sequenced clones (AU183343 to AU183542) were generated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and these were searched for homology in the DDBJ\\/GENBANK with blastN and blastX programs. Clones matching known genes were classified according to

Ram Savan; Masahiro Sakai



Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical

Thomas J. Leiker; Sonja R. Abney; Steven L. Goodbred; Michael R. Rosen



Isolation of cDNA encoding the constant region of the immuoglobulin heavy-chain from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA fragments encoding the constant region (CH) of immunoglobulin heavy chain were isolated from spleen of carp (Cyprinus carpioL.) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerated primers corresponding to the conserved amino acid sequences in theJ-segment of the variable region, and in CH4. Sequences encoding CH4 and transmembrane domains were also obtained by a rapid amplification of cDNA




Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  


In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei



The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo



[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  


In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz



Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.



Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Pati?o, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.



Ovarian differentiation in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in relation to growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate is influenced by density-dependent factors and in turn may affect the ontogeny of some systems. Population density gradients were established in common carp nursery ponds to develop differential growth rates. Ovarian development at the anatomical and cytological stages of differentiation were examined in relation to growth. Size at the end of 66 ± 2 and 155 ± 5-day

William L. Shelton; Venkatesh Wanniasingham; Ana E. Hiott



Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas



Identification of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) microRNAs and microRNA-related SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. Results Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3’ untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. Conclusions The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification. PMID:22908890



[Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].  


In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan



Assessment of seasonal and sex-related variability of biomarkers in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey.  


This study examines seasonal changes in the activities of selected biomarkers in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from Karakaya Dam Lake and evaluates the influence of gender and environmental factors on those activities. Physicochemical characteristics of water were evaluated in the lakewater. Fish were sampled on seasonal basis, and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, plasma lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were assayed. Plasma vitellogenin level and hepatosomatic index and condition factors were also determined. Strong seasonal variations were observed but there were no gender differences among selected markers. The highest vitellogenin level of male fish was detected as 606ng/mL which represents the estrogenicity of water in the lake in September 2005. In addition, the seasonal changes of some biomarkers such as EROD and AChE showed that the lake may be at risk of pollution by some xenobiotics arising from agricultural and/or industrial activities. PMID:21787704

Güngördü, Abbas; Ozmen, Murat



The effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on macrophage respiratory burst and biotransformation activities in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The sensitivity of phagocytic cell function as a bioindicator of pollution stress by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). The time course response of the head-kidney macrophage respiratory burst was measured 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after intraperitoneal injection of a prototypical Cyp 1A inducer (3-methylcholanthrene). This immune activity was compared to the rate of induction of total cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) in the liver and head-kidney. 3-methylcholanthrene (40 mg kg(-1)) caused a rapid increase in the macrophage respiratory burst. This response was maximal at day 3 post exposure and coincided with maximum induction of cytochrome P450 and EROD activity in liver and head-kidney. Moreover, alpha-naphtoflavone, which functions as both an Ah receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A activity, reversed the 3-methylcholanthrene induction of immune and enzymatic parameters measured, suggesting metabolic processes. Taken together these results suggest that the induction of macrophage oxidative function may be an equally sensitive marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as the induction of biotransformation activities and confirm that responses mediated by the Ah receptor are similar, if not identical, to those of mammals. PMID:11866128

Reynaud, S; Marionnet, D; Taysse, L; Duchiron, C; Deschaux, P



Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.  


The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3 %) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (sem 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3 % FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar



Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin



Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and




Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki



Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.  


The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M



Ultrastructure of blood vessels in the head kidney of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural features of blood vessels were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in the perfused and nonperfused head kidney of the carp. They consisted mainly of the sinusoidal capillaries, arterioles, veins and portal veins. The sinusoidal capillaries were composed of endothelial cells that frequently exhibited large pores and an indistinct basal lamina. Some endothelial cells were trabecular in shape and protruded into the lumen. The reticular cells frequently attached to the outside of the endothelial cells, and macrophages were located on the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelial cells. The arterioles possessed continuous endothelial cells with a thick basal lamina, continuous smooth muscle layers and a thick adventitia with collagen fibres and reticular cells. The veins were characterised by fenestrated endothelial cells and thin connective tissue. The portal veins were composed of continuous electron-lucent endothelial cells and thick layers of reticular cells and collagen fibres. The differences between the endothelial cells in each blood vessel probably reflect the various functions of the carp head kidney. The ultrastructural features of the sinusoids and the portal veins resemble those of lymphatic vessels of mammals and appear to relate to macrophage and lymphoid cell migration and proliferation in the carp head kidney. Images Fig. 2 Figs 3,4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7649788

Imagawa, T; Kitagawa, H; Uehara, M



CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp CXC chemokine. Phylogenetic analyses clearly show that neither CXC chemokine resembles any of the mammalian CXC chemokines in particular. However, basal expression is most prominent in immune organs like anterior kidney and spleen, suggesting involvement in the immune response. Furthermore we show that anterior kidney phagocyte-enriched leukocyte suspensions express both chemokines and that this expression is upregulated by brief (4 h) stimulation with PMA, but not lipopolysaccharide. Neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched leukocytes display chemotaxis to human recombinant CXCL8 (hrCXCL8; interleukin-8), confirming CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes in teleost fish. Factors secreted from carp phagocytes are also capable of inducing chemotaxis and secretion of these factors into culture supernatants is upregulated by PMA. Finally we demonstrate involvement of both CXC chemokines as well as CXCR1 and CXCR2 in acute Argulus japonicus infection. Collectively the data presented implicate the involvement of CXC chemokines in chemotaxis of fish neutrophils in a fashion that shares characteristics with the mammalian situation. However, the CXC chemokines involved differ enough from those involved in neutrophil chemotaxis in mammals to warrant their own nomenclature. PMID:12880637

Huising, Mark O; Stolte, Ellen; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy



Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N



The Effect of Stocking Density on Growth, Survival Rate, and Number of Marketable Fish Produced of Koi Carps, Cyprinus carpio vr. koi in Concrete Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effect of different stocking densities on their growth, survival rate, and number of marketable fish, advanced larvae (0.14±0.035 g) of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio vr. koiwere cultured for 90 days in 150-L concrete tanks at different densities: 0.1 fish\\/L (D1); 0.2 fish\\/L (D2); 0.3 fish\\/L (D3); 0.4 fish\\/L (D4); and 0.5 fish\\/L (D5). There were three replicates

Prithwiraj Jha; Sudip Barat



Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M  

PubMed Central

TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru



The use of computed tomography for assessment of the swim bladder in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Seven normal koi (Cyprinus carpio) and seven koi with negative buoyancy were examined using computed tomography (CT) to assess the swim bladder. The volume of the swim bladder was calculated in all animals. In the healthy koi there was a statistical correlation (r = 0.996) between body mass and swim bladder volume with volume (ml) being related to body mass according to the formula 4.9 +/- 0.054 x BM (g). In all koi with buoyancy problems, the gas volume of the swim bladder was reduced. Additionally, fluid was found within the swim bladder in three of the abnormal koi. CT proved to be a quick noninvasive technique for the examination of the swim bladder in koi. PMID:20469551

Pees, Michael; Pees, Kathrin; Kiefer, Ingmar



Genotoxicological Response of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Exposed to Spring Water in Tlaxcala, México.  


This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment. PMID:24950945

García-Nieto, Edelmira; Juárez-Santacruz, Libertad; García-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Tlalmis-Zempoalteca, Joselin; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; Torres-Dosal, Arturo



Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.



Modulative influence of lysozyme dimer on defence mechanisms in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European sheatfish (Silurus glanis) after suppression induced by herbicide Roundup.  


Immunomodulation is a commonly used method of prophylaxis in humans and animals. Lysozyme dimer (KLP-602) was used at a dose of 50 ug/kg b.w. in order to correct the immunosuppression caused by the action of herbicide glyphosate (Roundup- Monsanto), which was used in a single bath for 10 minutes in a concentration of 100 mg/l of water. The investigations were carried out on 2 species of fish: the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and european catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Herbicide glyphosate caused a decrease in metabolic and phagocytic activity (RBA and PKA) and in proliferative response stimulated by Con A and LPS in carp and european catfish. The immunosuppression sustained for about 2 weeks. The results obtained indicate the possibility of correction of immunosuppression applying lysozyme dimmer (KLP-602) after use of which, the level of the studied indexes increased. PMID:15230544

Terech-Majewska, E; Siwicki, A K; Szweda, W



Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K



Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of lycopene.  


The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

Yonar, Serpil Mi?e



Hypotonic treatment prior to freezing improves cryoresistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.  


Post-thaw motility rate, curvilinear velocity (VCL), and fertilizing ability of carp spermatozoa can be improved by short-term treatment with moderately hypotonic media prior to freezing. Before cryopreservation, carp sperm samples were treated with NaCl solutions of differing osmolalities, ranging from 100 to 300mOsmkg(-1) for 10s, after which final osmolality was adjusted to 300mOsmkg(-1). The resulting sperm suspension was diluted 1:1 with cryoprotective medium and frozen using conventional techniques. Control samples were treated in the same way, without the pre-dilution step. Post-thaw motility rate in samples pretreated with 200mOsmkg(1) NaCl was significantly higher (44±10%) than in controls (21±15%) and samples pretreated with 100mOsmkg(-1) (25±15%) and 300mOsmkg(-1) (25±12%) NaCl. Significantly higher mean VCL were observed in samples pretreated with 100, 150, and 200mOsmkg(-1) (119±24, 118±22, and 115±32?ms(-1), respectively) compared to controls (92±27?ms(-1)). Fertilization rate of frozen-thawed sperm treated with 200mOsmkg(-1) solution of 2M NaCl was significantly higher (25±18%) than that of sperm treated with 300mOsmkg(-1) NaCl solutions (12±7%) and the control (9±6%). PMID:23270681

Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Yamaner, Gunes; Bondarenko, Olga; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bondarenko, Volodymir; Shaliutina, Anna; Linhart, Otomar



C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response. PMID:24991845

Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Miko?aj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave



Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Ellersieck, M. R.; Tillitt, D. E.



The combined effect of hypoxia and nutritional status on metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


In the present study, the combined effects of hypoxia and nutritional status were examined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a relatively hypoxia tolerant cyprinid. Fish were either fed or fasted and were exposed to hypoxia (1.5-1.8mg O2L(-1)) at or slightly above their critical oxygen concentration during 1, 3 or 7days followed by a 7day recovery period. Ventilation initially increased during hypoxia, but fasted fish had lower ventilation frequencies than fed fish. In fed fish, ventilation returned to control levels during hypoxia, while in fasted fish recovery only occurred after reoxygenation. Due to this, C. carpio managed, at least in part, to maintain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia: muscle and plasma lactate levels remained relatively stable although they tended to be higher in fed fish (despite higher ventilation rates). However, during recovery, compensatory responses differed greatly between both feeding regimes: plasma lactate in fed fish increased with a simultaneous breakdown of liver glycogen indicating increased energy use, while fasted fish seemed to economize energy and recycle decreasing plasma lactate levels into increasing liver glycogen levels. Protein was used under both feeding regimes during hypoxia and subsequent recovery: protein levels reduced mainly in liver for fed fish and in muscle for fasted fish. Overall, nutritional status had a greater impact on energy reserves than the lack of oxygen with a lower hepatosomatic index and lower glycogen stores in fasted fish. Fasted fish transiently increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity under hypoxia, but in general ionoregulatory balance proved to be only slightly disturbed, showing that sufficient energy was left for ion regulation. PMID:25263807

Moyson, Sofie; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun



The effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish. We also measured the biochemical indices of both trained and non-trained fish immediately after Ucrit, after exhaustive exercise and 1h after exhaustive exercise. The aerobic swimming performance, as indicated by Ucrit, increased significantly after exercise training, most likely because of the higher tissue metabolic capacity, as suggested by the higher CS activity in the red muscle tissue, and the higher energy store and more efficient substrate utilization, as suggested by higher liver and muscle glycogen contents at rest but lower tissue glycogen contents after Ucrit. The lower lactate content after Ucrit is most likely because of higher aerobic metabolic capacity, and (or) the clearance rate of lactate in trained fish may also contribute to improved aerobic swimming performance. Compared to Ucrit, exhaustive exercise elicited higher plasma and muscle lactate contents. The anaerobic metabolic performance is not affected by the exercise training, as suggested by the EPOC. However, trained fish did show higher lactate clearance rates, as suggested by lower muscle lactate content after a 1h recovery period following exhaustive exercise compared to non-trained fish. Furthermore, trained fish decreased their liver and muscle glycogen contents more profoundly after exhaustive exercise, suggesting that training can improve the substrate utilization during anaerobic exercise. PMID:23838144

He, Wei; Xia, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian



Protection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa motility under oxidative stress by antioxidants and seminal plasma.  


The protective influence of seminal plasma and the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GTH) on quality parameters, oxidative stress indices, and antioxidant activity was studied in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa exposed to the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system. Fish spermatozoa were incubated for 5 and 20 min at 4 °C with X-XO concentrations of 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL, 0.6 mM X-0.05 U/mL, 0.3 mM X-0.025 U/mL, and 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL to 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL XO. Increase in spermatozoa motility parameters was recorded following treatment with antioxidants and seminal plasma. The level of the oxidative stress indices lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (CP) was significantly reduced after addition of CAT, SOD, or GTH along with seminal plasma. Significant differences in SOD, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were seen in spermatozoa incubated with, compared to that without, seminal plasma at all studied X-XO concentrations. The data demonstrated that CAT, SOD, or GTH in combination with SP can reduce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa and improve spermatozoa quality. PMID:25079247

Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Gazo, I; Cosson, J; Linhart, O



Stress adaptation, cortisol and pubertal development in the male common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


This paper reviews a series of recent studies on the effect of adaptation to chronic stress on pubertal development in the common carp. In pre-pubertal male common carp adaptation to temperature stress caused a retardation of testicular development. Stress-induced delay of the first wave of spermatogenesis could be prevented by treatment with a cortisol antagonist, indicating that the stress effect is mediated by cortisol. Chronically elevated cortisol levels affected all parts of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG)-axis. In the hypothalamus lower levels of sGnRH were observed, in the pituitary the steady state levels of FSHbeta-m RNA were decreased, while the testicular production of especially the 11-oxygenated androgens 11-ketoandrostenedione (OA) and 11keto-testosterone (11KT) was strongly diminished. OA and 11KT have been shown to promote testicular development in fish. The LH-induced androgen synthesis in vitro was strongly inhibited by cortisol and its agonist dexamethasone. Although cortisol was shown also to interfere with the synthesis of the 11-oxygenated androgens in vivo, the lower androgen levels induced by cortisol were mainly due to the reduced testicular mass. Restoration of the plasma concentrations of these androgens by implantation could not prevent the cortisol-induced retardation of testicular growth and the first wave of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is suggested that cortisol acts directly on Sertoli cells and/or on germ cells, which is supported by the demonstration of GRs on germ cells. We have little indication that the cortisol-induced retardation of testicular development is mediated by a decreased secretion of LH, but a crucial role for FSH can not be excluded. PMID:12431803

Goos, H J Th; Consten, D



Cadmium-induced changes in the histology of kidneys in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (cyprinidae)  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals pose a wide variety of challenges to aquatic organisms, especially to fish. These pollutants are uncommon, but are a major problem because of their toxicity, persistence and tendency for bio-accumulation in food chains. Cadmium is important because of its use in various industrial processes, and as a by product of zinc mining, fossil fuel, base metal smelting, combustion and atmospheric transport. Since this biologically non-essential element is highly toxic to aquatic organisms and is a known renal toxicant, there is a need to understand its effects on the kidneys of an edible fish Cyprinus carpio communis. This fish offers some unique experimental advantages for the study of cadmium renal toxicity due to its tolerance to temperature variations, toughness and biennial breeding. The natural level of cadmium - a stable non-volatile element, varies from 0.1 to 10 {mu}g/l in freshwater. However, anthropogenic processes discharge can increase this level from 50 {mu}g/1 to 10,00,000 {mu}g/1. 11 refs., 8 figs.

Singhal, R.N.; Jain, M. [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)] [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)



Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread


Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for any application in aquaculture and ecological research and management where the tracking of high numbers of offspring is needed.

Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas



DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E. J.; Kurath, G.



A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata



Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

Leiker, T. J.; Abney, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Rosen, M. R.



Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

Waller, D. L.; Mitchell, L. G.



571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp  

E-print Network

, and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

Waikato, University of


Molecular cloning of the complement (C1r/C1s/MASP2-like serine proteases from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The classical pathway of complement composed of C1, C4, and C2 is an antibody-dependent activation cascade that is present in jawed vertebrates. C1 is a Ca2+-dependent complex of C1q, C1r, and C1s, and analogous to an initiation complex of the lectin pathway of complement, which consists of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) homologous to C1q and the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) homologous to C1r and C1s. Thus divergence of Clq and MBL and that of C1r, C1s and the MASPs are considered to be crucial events in the establishment and evolution of the classical complement pathway. However, molecular information on the C1 subcomponents is very limited in lower vertebrates. Here we describe two distinct C1r/C1s/MASP2-like cDNA clones (C1r/s-A, C1r/s-B) isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). They share 83% identity at the amino acid level and have a domain structure similar to that of C1r/C1s/MASPs from other species. The serine protease domain of the carp homologues lacks the histidine loop and is encoded by a single exon containing an AGY codon for the active serine residue, as in mammalian C1r, C1s, and MASP2. Southern blot and PCR analyses indicated that the carp has at least three copies of the C1r/s-A gene and a single C1r/s-B gene. Although phylogenetic tree analysis does not definitively assign carp C1r/s-A and C1r/s-B, they might represent ancestral molecules which later diverged into C1r, C1s, and MASP2 of higher vertebrates. PMID:11220628

Nakao, M; Osaka, K; Kato, Y; Fujiki, K; Yano, T



Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with cancers, although the molecular mechanisms behind this association are largely undetermined. Abnormal DNA methylation plays a key role in the process of some disease. However, little was known about the effect of pesticides on DNA methylation in the common carp. In this study, we investigated the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-CpG-binding protein DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as well as the DNA methylation levels in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 40-d exposure to atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone or in combination, and a 40-d recovery period. Juvenile common carp were exposed to various concentrations of ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428?g/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116?g/L), and an ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113?g/L). The results revealed that the levels of genomic DNA methylation decreased in all tissues after 40d of exposure to ATR and CPF either individually or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA expression of DNMTs was down-regulated in all treatment groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression of MBD2 was up-regulated. These results demonstrated that long-term exposure to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF mixtures could disrupt genomic DNA. It might imply that DNA methylation is involved in the toxicity caused by ATR and CPF in the common carp. PMID:25062446

Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Fuqing; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen



Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun



Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))



Reproductive responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed in cages to influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late winter to early spring.  


The Las Vegas Wash (LW) delivers tertiary-treated municipal wastewater effluent, nonpotable shallow groundwater seepage, and runoff from the urbanized Las Vegas Valley to Las Vegas Bay (LX) of Lake Mead. To investigate the potential for contaminants in LW influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites in Lake Mead: LW, LX, and two reference locations in the lake. End points examined included gonadosomatic index; gonad histology; concentrations of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and plasma sex steroids (17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)); plasma estrogen:androgen ratios (E2:T, E2:11-KT), in vitro production of T by gonad tissue, and hepatopancreas ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. Few differences among fish caged at different sites were potentially attributable to exposure to contaminants PMID:15597896

Snyder, Erin M; Snyder, Shane A; Kelly, Kevin L; Gross, Timothy S; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Villalobos, Sergio A; Giesy, John P



Evaluation of the acute toxicity of profenofos and its effects on the behavioral pattern of fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).  


Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide is acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has the potential to contaminate the ground water. The 96 h LC(50) value of profenofos was determined in 3-month-old fingerling common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a body weight 1.04 +/- 0.25 g and a body length 4.25 +/- 0.75 cm at 26 +/- 1 degrees C temperature. Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) software was used for the statistical analysis, which calculated the LC(50) value as 62.4 microg/L for three replicates of the assay. The behavioral responses of fish exposed to profenofos included loss of balance, moving in spiral fashion with sudden jerky movements, lying on their sides and rapid flapping of the operculum with the mouth open. PMID:19242633

Ismail, Muhammad; Ali, Rahat; Ali, Tayyaba; Waheed, Usman; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood



The Application of Exogenous-Glucanase in Barley Based Diet and its Effects on Some Hematological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

E-print Network

Abstract: Carbohydrates are the cheap energy sources in animal nutrition that will be used in vast ranges.-glucan is the main nonstarch polysaccharides in barley and some other cereals. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of purified-glucanase on blood parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). 90 fish in three treatments (30 fish/treatment) and each treatment in three replicates (each replicate contains 10 fish/aquarium) fed by enzyme treated diets in 3 treatments of 0 % as control, 0.1 % and 0.5%. Enzyme addition affected some hematological blood parameters such as WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and MCH and some biochemical blood parameters such as glucose, creatine, uric acid, cholesterol, total protein and albomin significantly (p<0.05). Key words: Non-starch polysaccharides Glucose Cholesterol Triglycerides Hematocrit

Meysam Mohammadbeygi; Mohammad Reza Imanpour; Vahid Taghizadeh; Ali Shabani


A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow



Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study was summarize the factors activating and\\/or inhibiting the motility of intact and\\/or demembranated spermatozoa of common carp and paddlefish as teleostean and chondrostean models using methods of sperm demembranation. The movement of spermatozoa of cyprinids species, common carp, is influenced by osmotic pressure or high concentration of ions. The movements of spermatozoa of chrondrostean species, paddlefish,

O. Linhart; J. Cosson; S. D. Mims; M. Rodina; D. Gela; W. L. Shelton



Antioxidant response modulated by copper in healthy or parasitized carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by Ptychobothrium sp. (Cestoda).  


An increased antioxidant response (catalase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRd) activities in liver and GST activity in head kidney) was observed in carp parasitized by Ptychobothrium sp. compared to healthy fish. In case of a copper contamination of these fish, the decrease in enzymatic activities observed was less pronounced in parasitized than in healthy carp. PMID:12383935

Dautremepuits, C; Betoulle, S; Vernet, G




Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted on common carp and grass carp embryos and larvae developed under laboratory conditions, at various temperatures and in the presence of heavy metals (Cu 0.20-0.27 mg dm -3 , Pb 2.0-4.0 mg dm -3 , Cd 0.2 mg dm -3 ). Heart rate was measured at various developmental stages and was observed to increase along with

Barbara Jezierska


Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)  

PubMed Central

Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 ?g DON kg?1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia



Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes. PMID:23060516

Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R



Non-structural protein pORF 12 of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is recognized by the immune system of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is an important pathogen and the causative agent of koi herpesvirus disease, which has been associated with mass mortalities in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Currently, the only available commercial vaccine is an attenuated version of the virus. This has led to concerns about its risk to reversion to virulence. Furthermore, the vaccine is currently only available in Israel and the United States. In order to investigate the antigenic profile of the virus, western blot was performed using infected cell culture supernatant and sera from carp that had survived exposure to the virus. Only one antigen could be detected, and mass spectrometry analysis identified the corresponding protein as ORF 12, a putative secreted tumour necrosis factor receptor homologue. In other herpesviruses, such proteins have been associated with the viral infectious process in a number of ways, including the entry into the host cell and the inhibition of apoptosis in infected cells. The reason why only one antigen could be detected during this study is unknown. PMID:25320039

Kattlun, Julia; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour



Effects of dietary ?-(1,3)(1,6)-D-glucan supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological profile of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


In recent years, aquaculture research has focused on probiotics, prebiotics, and ?-glucans, in order to improve health status and growth performance. Information regarding the effects of ?-glucan on growth performance and intestinal immunity of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is scarce. An experiment was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of a yeast ?-glucan preparation (MacroGard(®) ) on growth performance, intestinal morphology and haemato-immunological indices of mirror carp. Carp (initial weight 11.1 ± 0.0 g) were fed highly purified diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1% or 2% MacroGard(®) for 8 weeks. Fish fed diets containing 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) showed significant improvements in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio compared to fish fed both the control and the 0.1% MacroGard(®) containing diet. Histological appraisal of the intestine showed a significantly higher infiltration of leucocytes into the epithelial layer of fish fed diets supplemented with 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) in the anterior intestine compared to fish fed the control and 0.1% MacroGard(®) diet. This effect was not observed in the posterior intestine. There were no significant differences in the intestinal absorptive surface area and number of goblet cells in either intestinal region. At the end of the experiment, the haematological status of the fish was examined. Compared to control fed fish, the haematocrit value was significantly elevated in fish fed the 2% MacroGard(®) diet. Furthermore, the blood monocyte fraction was significantly higher in fish fed the 1% and 2% MacroGard(®) diets. No significant changes were observed in the other blood parameters assessed. The present study shows that high dietary ?-glucan inclusion increases growth performance without detrimental effects on the health indicators assessed. Increased intraepithelial leucocytes in the anterior intestine may indicate a localized immune response; no detrimental effects on intestinal morphology were observed. PMID:23676107

Kühlwein, H; Merrifield, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A D; Davies, S J



Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with ?-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.  


The effect of ?-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with ?-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily ?-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of ?-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the ?-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed ?-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of ?-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial ?-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave



Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler




E-print Network

. During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

Cooke, Steven J.


Study of bioaccumulation of copper in liver and muscle of common carp Cyprinus carpio after copper sulfate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp were exposed to two routine therapeutic concentrations of copper sulfate (10?mg\\/l in 1?h and 1?mg\\/l in 24?h).\\u000a At different times after the copper sulfate bath (1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days), the copper concentrations in liver and muscle\\u000a of carp was determined by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the concentration of

R. Peyghan; M. Razijalaly; M. Baiat; A. Rasekh



Absorption of bioactive human growth hormone after oral administration in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and its enhancement by deoxycholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human growth hormone was administered orally to carp and serum levels of absorbed bioactive hormone were investigated using a highly sensitive Nb2 rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmumoassay. Serum levels of bioactive hGH reached maximum values 30 min after oral intubation and then gradually decreased. Co-administration of the hormone with deoxycholate to fasted carp resulted in up to a

Yitzhak Hertz; Amir Tchelet; Zecharia Madar; Arieh Gertler



Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE 99 and BDE 183 in the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener patterns in biota are often enriched in tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers, which is believed to result from the use of the commercial "pentaBDE" formulation. However, our evidence suggests that debromination of PBDEs occurs within fish tissues leading to appreciable accumulation of less brominated congeners. This suggests that PBDE body burdens can reflect both direct uptake from exposure and debromination of more highly brominated congeners. We conducted two independent dietary exposure studies using the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to trace the fate of 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 99) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 183) in fish tissues. Carp were fed food spiked with individual BDE congeners for 62 d, and depuration was monitored during the following 37 d. Significant debromination was observed, converting BDE 99 to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) and BDE 183 to 2,2',4,4',5,6-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 154) and another as yet unidentified hexa-BDE congener. The BDE 99 concentration rapidly declined from 400 +/- 40 ng/g ww in the food to 53 +/- 12 ng/g ww in the gut content material sampled 2.5 +/- 1 h following feeding. At least 9.5 +/- 0.8% of the BDE 99 mass in the gut was debrominated to BDE 47 and assimilated in carp tissues. In the BDE 183 exposure, approximately 17% of the BDE 183 mass was debrominated and accumulated in carp tissues in the form of two hexa-BDE congeners. In both exposure studies, the concentration of the exposure compound decreased significantly in the gut within 2.5 +/- 1 h following ingestion. This rapid decrease in the concentration of the BDE congeners could not be explained entirely by debromination to quantified products or fecal egestion. Reactions occurring within the gut transform BDE congeners to other products that may accumulate or be excreted. Further studies are needed to identify and determine the effects of these BDE metabolites. PMID:14998018

Stapleton, Heather M; Letcher, Robert J; Baker, Joel E



Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical  

E-print Network

, often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors


First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native


Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.  


The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M



Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  


Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A



Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “L?rinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature. PMID:22195010

Pankovics, Peter; Simmonds, Peter



Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of teleost fish. PMID:21695218

Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei



Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNF?,

Maria Forlenza; Peter D. Walker; Beitske J. de Vries; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Geert F. Wiegertjes



Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot



Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele



Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in Poho?elice, Czech Republic. Two-year-old stocked common carp Cyprinus carpio harvested in late March were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. Additionally, three body condition indices were measured. Endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. Wounded fish were more susceptible to the ectoparasites Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. (Monogenea), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). The intensity of infection of other ectoparasites Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea), Argulus spp. (Branchiura) and trichodinids (Ciliophora) did not significantly differ between wounded and control groups of fish. Lysozyme concentration in fish mucus was significantly higher in wounded fish and was positively associated with both the extent of damaged epithelium and Gyrodactylus spp. abundance. There were no differences in Fulton's condition factor and lipid content in muscle and liver tissues between wounded and non-wounded fish. Higher values of spleen-somatic index in wounded fish corresponded to increased intensity of parasite infection, most likely reflecting changes in immune system of infected fish. Although our results did not show any significant effect of cormorant attacks on fish condition, the wounded fish had significantly higher parasite numbers which could impact the growth or survival of the fish throughout the production season. PMID:21979786

Ondra?ková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, Ji?í; Vojtek, Libor; Adámek, Zden?k



Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M



Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.



Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam



Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.



Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 11891197 (1998). 1998 NRC Canada Predictions on the effect of common carp  

E-print Network

of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes a study to examine the relationship between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality étudié la relation entre l'exclusion des carpes (Cyprinus carpio), la qualité de l'eau, le zooplancton et

McMaster University


Influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Ictalurus melas): in vitro study.  


Rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. Several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. These viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. Significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but this approach has not yet been successful in preventing viral diseases in fish culture. However, for an effective therapeutic approach, specific drugs should be developed to selectively inhibit virus replication and/or stimulate antiviral protection. In this investigation we examined the in vitro influence of methisoprinol on the SVCV and virus isolated from catfish (Ictalurus melas) replication by measuring their RNA synthesis. The viruses were propagated in EPC cells and cell cultures containing methisoprinol were followed by infection with SVCV or catfish rhabdovirus suspension containing 10(7) TCID50/ml. Methisoprinol (Polfa, Poland) at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microg/ml of medium (Glasgow MEM) was used in this study. The results of this study show the strong inhibition of incorporation (cpm) of [3H]-uridine into SVCV and catfish rhabdovirus RNA in cell culture exposed to methisoprinol at various concentrations. The highest percent of inhibition of viral RNA at 72 h after infection with two rhabdoviruses were observed in doses of 400 and 500 microg/ml of methisoprinol in medium. The results of this in vitro study showed that methisoprinol inhibits the rhabdoviruses isolated from carp and catfish. PMID:12675468

Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Kazu?, B; Trapkowska, S; Ma?aczewska, J



Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on activity and transcription of glutathione S-transferase in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes (GSTs) play a critical role in detoxification pathways. Here we report the tissue distribution of four antioxidant GSTs gene in common carp, and their expression profiles. We also investigated the GSTs activity in different tissues after exposure to the agricultural chemicals atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and their mixture. Relative changes in the mRNA abundance of the GST isoforms were examined by real time PCR in liver, brain, kidney and gill of common carp. After exposure and recovery, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the GSTs activity in animals exposed to high concentrations of ATR (428 ?g/L), CPF (116 ?g/L), and their mixture (113 ?g/L). At basal levels of tissue expression, four GSTs transcript were detected in liver, brain, kidney, and gill. High expression levels were found in all examined tissues. Transcription of some GST isoforms, GST kappa (GSTK), GST theta (GSTT) and GST rho (GSTR), decreased after exposure to CPF and ATR for the entire experimental period in both the kidney and gill. However, increased transcription of GST mu (GSTM) was observed in the kidney or gill 20 d after exposure to ATR or CPF, respectively. Transcription of both GSTT and GSTR was inhibited for the entire experimental period in the brain, kidney and gill of animals exposed to the ATR/CPF mixture, but transcription of GSTM was induced in the liver after 40 d of exposure. In summary, changes in the GSTs activity and their transcription varied within each organ and among organs of common carp after exposure to ATR, CPF, and their mixture. PMID:22236720

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Xu; Sun, Gang; Gao, Xuejiao; Xu, Shiwen; Wang, Xiaolong



Assessment of pollution in Ataturk Dam Lake (Adiyaman, Turkey) using several biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


Ataturk Dam Lake, the largest impounded lake in Turkey, has been contaminated by domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents coming from Adiyaman city. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of pollutants on several biochemical parameters in the cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio, by comparing the parameters in fish collected from a polluted area (Sitilce) to a relatively clean area (Samsat) in August 2011. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and levels of cortisol, glucose, and K increased while total protein, cholesterol, Ca, Na and Cl levels decreased in fish from the Sitilce site when compared to the Samsat site. The observed alterations in these biochemical parameters indicate that the Ataturk Dam Lake is affected by untreated wastewater discharges. PMID:22782360

F?rat, Özgür; Al?c?, Müslüm Faruk



Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, cyprinus carpio L. Inhabiting a polluted reservoir, umiam in meghalaya, India.  


The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi



Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel



Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver, spleen, and head kidney following experimental Listeria monocytogenes infection.  


Infection of carp with Listeria monocytogenes 4b resulted in decreased liver, spleen, and head kidney enzyme activities, involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. After infection, cytochrome P-450 levels and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were decreased while conjugation enzymes remained unaffected. The maximum decrease for phase I enzymes occurred on d 3. This loss of monooxygenase levels and activity could not be directly correlated with an increase in the number of organisms, as consistently high bacterial counts were observed in all three organs during infection. The effect of L. monocytogenes infection was also measured in carp exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Cytochrome P-450 levels and EROD activity were significantly reduced, especially on d 3. A significant decreased activity of conjugation enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) was also observed for all days studied. Listeria infection inhibited MCA-induced increases in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities. These results indicate that infection may have deleterious effects on basal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase levels. Furthermore, MCA treatment aggravates the insult to xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes by L. monocytogenes infection, by impairing a number of detoxification enzymes. These findings could result in significant changes in the susceptibility of fish to pollutants. PMID:9973004

Chambras, C; Marionnet, D; Taysse, L; Deschaux, P; Moreau, J; Bosgiraud, C



Complementary DNA cloning and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 3A138 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The full-length sequence of a cytochrome P450 3A 138 (CYP3A138) cDNA in common carp was cloned and sequenced. The transcriptional and microsome enzyme activities of CYP3A138 in the fish liver after rifampicin exposure were also determined in this study. The results showed that the full-length CYP3A138 cDNA is 1912 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame of 1551 bp encoding a protein of 517 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that CYP3A138 is highly conserved in fish. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP3A138 in common carp is constitutively expressed in all tissues, but mainly in the liver and intestine. Additionally, rifampicin exposure promoted both the expression of CYP3A138 at the transcriptional level and the activity of the protein, suggesting that CYP3A138 is a member of the CYP3A subfamily. PMID:24623513

Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu



MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)



Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)  

PubMed Central

Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich



Supplementary studies on Myxobolus tsangwuensis Chen, 1954 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.): molecular and histological data.  


Myxobolus tsangwuensis Chen, 1954 is a common parasite infecting the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). It was described simply in the original description and its molecular data was absent, which makes the accurate diagnosis challenging. Here we supplemented its description based on the morphological, histological and molecular data. It was characterized by the presence of small round or ellipsoidal plasmodia in the gills of host and histology showed the plasmodia developed in the capillary network of the gill lamella. Mature spores of M. tsangwuensis were ellipsodal in frontal view and lemon shaped in lateral view, averaging 11.2 ± 0.7 (10.2-12.5) ?m × 9.3 ± 0.3 (8.5-10.0) ?m × 6.2 ± 0.4 (5.5-7.0) ?m. Spores valves were symmetrical and smooth. Occasionally, a small intercapsular appendix was observed. Two polar capsules were pyriform with different sizes, measuring 5.0 ± 0.2 (4.4-5.3) ?m × 3.1 ± 0.1 (2.9-3.5) ?m and 3.9 ± 0.2 (3.4-4.3) ?m × 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.0-2.8) ?m, respectively. Polar filaments coiled five to seven turns in large polar capsule and three to four turns in the small polar capsule. Some spores were surrounded by the mucous envelope that was not recorded in the original description. Molecular analysis revealed that the present SSU rDNA sequences did not match any available sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis showed M. tsangwuensis was sister to M. basilamellaris and M. musseliusae. PMID:25236276

Huang, Mingjun; Liu, Yang; Jia, Luo; Zhai, Yanhua; Deng, Qiong; Gu, Zemao



Immunomodulatory activity of the dimerized lysozyme KLP-602 after earlier suppression by atrazine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of modulation of the cellular immune response with the dimer of lysozyme KLP-602 in fish after suppression induced by atrazine. In the in vivo studies fish were intoxicated with atrazine at a dose of 1/4 LD50, then after 48 hours the dimer of lysozyme KLP-602 was administerd at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg of body weight. After 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after intoxication cells from the blood and pronephros of carp were isolated. In the study we determined the metabolic activity of phagocyte cells and the proliferative ability of T and B lymphocytes. This study showed that administration of the dimer of lysozyme KLP-602 stimulated and corrected the handicapped immunity. PMID:14509361

Rymuszka, A; Siwicki, A K



Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

Watson, Craig A.


[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura).  


In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNFalpha, are good indicators of parasite-induced skin damage at 2 days post-parasite exposure. Up-regulation of gene transcription corresponded well with an increase in leucocytes, probably neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in skin samples collected at the sites of infection. We show that time-point controls are essential when studying gene expression, especially in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). In addition, we demonstrate that non-infected control samples isolated from the skin of infected fish are suitable autologous controls, at least until after larval A. japonicus have undergone their first moult and begun to demonstrate increased mobility over their host's integument. The observed results are indicative of A. japonicus affecting the skin as a whole organ, particularly after the parasites' first moult, a phenomenon which has a great impact on correct skin sampling for RNA isolation. PMID:18502149

Forlenza, Maria; Walker, Peter D; de Vries, Beitske J; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd E; Wiegertjes, Geert F



Different enzymatic activities in carp (cyprinus carpio L.) as potential biomarkers of exposure to the pesticide methomyl.  


Abstract This study investigated the influence of the pesticide methomyl on different enzymatic activities in carp. The fish were exposed to a sub-lethal concentration (0.34 mg L-1) of methomyl for 15 days. On days 4 and 15, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the liver and gills. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle was also determined. Liver catalase activity slightly increased in exposed fish when compared to controls, but it was statistically significant only at the beginning of the experiment. No changes in CAT activity in the gills of exposed and control animals were observed (mean values were in the range 10.7-11.7 nmol min-1 per mg of protein). Liver GST activity was slightly inhibited in the exposed animals at the beginning of the study; however, it was significantly inhibited in the gills. Brain AChE activity was diminished throughout the experiment and significantly decreased after 96 h of exposure compared to controls (0.041 vs. 0.075 nmol min1 per mg of protein; p<0.001). Our findings suggest that CAT, GST, and AChE are reliable biomarkers of effect after exposure to methomyl. PMID:25274935

Hernández-Moreno, David; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Maria Flores, José; González-Gómez, Manuel José; María Neila, Carlos; Soler, Francisco; Pérez-López, Marcos



The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0?±?1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish. PMID:23435858

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun



Uptake, Tissue Distribution, and Depuration of Total Silver in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after Aqueous Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles.  


The increased use and disposal of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their release from wastewater treatment plants into surface waters and concern over potential for negative effects in aquatic organisms. Investigations of the toxicity of AgNPs in fish have considered various species, exposure routes, and test end points; however, the toxicokinetics of total silver has not been studied in fish exposed to aqueous AgNPs. In this study, we investigated the toxicokinetics of total silver in common carp (Cayprinus carpio) exposed to AgNPs [0.62 ± 0.12 (mean ± standard deviation) mg L(-1)] for 7 days followed by a 2 week depuration period. During exposure and depuration, fish were sampled, tissues were excised (gills, brain, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and blood) and digested in acid, and total silver concentrations were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Total silver in tissues increased during the 7 day exposure, and mean concentrations were 5.61 mg/kg of liver, 3.32 mg/kg of gills, 2.93 mg/kg of gastrointestinal tract, 0.48 mg/kg of skeletal muscle, 0.14 mg/kg of brain, and 0.02 mg/kg of blood. Transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silver in the tissues. After depuration for 14 days, total silver returned to control levels in all tissues except liver (4.22 mg/kg), gastrointestinal tract (1.26 mg/kg), and gills (0.77 mg/kg). PMID:25171685

Jang, Min-Hee; Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Henry, Theodore B; Park, June-Woo



Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in arachis oil (0.5ml/kg body weight). At 72h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl4 at 8mM. The results showed that CCl4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-?B/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-?/NF-?B and TRL4/NF-?B signaling pathways play important roles in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. PMID:24721155

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jeney, Galina; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun



Effects of water pH on copper toxicity to early life stages of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

SciTech Connect

Carp eggs were exposed immediately after fertilization to Cu concentrations of 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L at water pH 7.6 or pH 6.3. Mortality, the incidence of spinal cord deformation, heart rate, tail movements, hatching success, and whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and Cu were determined over time. Light microscopical preparations of eggs (48 h after fertilization) and larvae (168 h after fertilization) were studied. At pH 7.6, Cu did not affect egg mortality, heart rate, tail movements, and whole-body K and Mg content. Hatching success increased only in the 0.3 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu increased egg mortality and decreased heart rate and tail movements. Furthermore, premature hatching, a concentration-dependent increase of larval mortality, and larval deformation was observed. Exposure to 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu decreased the whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, and Ca. Uptake of Cu after hatching increased two-fold at pH 6.3 compared to the pH 7.6 groups. At pH 6.3, all Cu-exposed larvae were unable to fill their swim bladder. Also, after 168 h the yolk sac remained largely unabsorbed in the 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu resulted in coagulation of proteins in eggs and yolk sacs. No significant changes in any of the assessed parameters were observed in control groups of pH 6.3 and pH 7.6.

Stouthart, X.J.H.X.; Haans, J.L.M.; Lock, R.A.C.; Bonga, S.E.W. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Physiology



Prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings at Santaher, Bogra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobolus koi, Dactylogyroides tripathi, Dactylogyrus extensus and Dactylogyrus catlarius were recovered from 640 fingerlings of Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix), Bighead carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Thai punti (Puntius gonionotus), Catla (Catla

M. D. Hossain; M. Kabil Hossain; M. Habibur Rahman; A. Akter; D. A. Khanom



Recognition of surface antigens on spermatozoa of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Teleostei) using monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy.  


The distribution of antigenic determinants, recognized by seven anti-carp spermatozoa monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and two anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs were studied using fresh, unfixed carp spermatozoa. The location of the antigenic determinants was analysed in light- and in scanning electron microscopy, in the latter with the backscattered imaging mode. With all seven anti-carp spermatozoa MAbs a similar regular distribution of the immuno-gold labeling was present on heads, midpieces and tails of carp spermatozoa, whereas with the anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs only low or no labeling was observed. The regular distribution of antigenic determinants, as observed with the anti-spermatozoa MAbs in carp, is in agreement with data on agglutination of spermatozoa by autoantibodies in Salmo gairdneri and data on distribution of antigenic sites on spermatozoa in Xenopus laevis. It differs from data in mammals in which the presence of specialized domains on spermatozoa was shown. These results are discussed. PMID:7536015

van Winkoop, A; Dulos, G J; Timmermans, L P



Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and ?9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our study revealed seasonally-dependent H2A.Z enrichment for active ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters during the carp environmental adaptation. Moreover, seasonal H2A.Zub enrichment appears as a specific mechanism contributing to the regulation of chromatin architecture under natural conditions. The existence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp suggests that the epigenetic regulation in this species constitutes a complex and finely tuned mechanism developed to cope with seasonal environmental changes that occur in its habitat. PMID:23866978



The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia


Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-?) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1? in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO. PMID:24774835

Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang



Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g\\/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after\\u000a (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4. CCl4

Guojun YinLiping; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao; Chengping Lu



Interaction of diet and the masou salmon ?5-desaturase transgene on ?6-desaturase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression and N-3 fatty acid level in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The masou salmon ?5-desaturase-like gene (D5D) driven by the common carp ?-actin promoter was transferred into common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that were fed two diets. For P1 transgenic fish fed a commercial diet, ?6-desaturase-like gene (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) mRNA levels in muscle were up-regulated (P < 0.05) 12.7- and 17.9-fold, respectively, and the D6D mRNA level in the gonad of transgenic fish was up-regulated 6.9-fold (P < 0.05) compared to that of non-transgenic fish. In contrast, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in transgenic fish were dramatically down-regulated (P < 0.05), 50.2- and 16.7-fold in brain, and 5.4- and 2.4-fold in liver, respectively, in comparison with those of non-transgenic fish. When fed a specially formulated diet, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in muscle of transgenic fish were up-regulated (P < 0.05) 41.5- and 8.9-fold, respectively, and in liver 6.0- and 3.3-fold, respectively, compared to those of non-transgenic fish. In contrast, D6D and SCD mRNA levels in the gonad of transgenic fish were down-regulated (P < 0.05) 5.5- and 12.4-fold, respectively, and D6D and SCD mRNA levels in the brain were down-regulated 14.9- and 1.4-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to those of non-transgenic fish. The transgenic common carp fed the commercial diet had 1.07-fold EPA, 1.12-fold DPA, 1.07-fold DHA, and 1.07-fold higher observed total omega-3 fatty acid levels than non-transgenic common carp. Although these differences were not statistically different (P > 0.05), there were significantly (P < 0.10) higher omega-3 fatty acid levels when considering the differences for all of the individual omega-3 fatty acids. The genotype × diet interactions observed indicated that the potential of desaturase transgenesis cannot be realized without using a well-designed diet with the needed amount of substrates. PMID:25011564

Cheng, Qi; Su, Baofeng; Qin, Zhenkui; Weng, Chia-Chen; Yin, Fang; Zhou, Yangen; Fobes, Michael; Perera, Dayan A; Shang, Mei; Soller, Fabio; Shi, Zhiyi; Davis, Allen; Dunham, Rex A



The effect of oyster mushroom ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% ?-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% ?-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% ?-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% ?-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0.05) as well as the catalytic activity of ALP (P < 0.05) were altered in common carp. A significant change in induced (opsonizedzymosan particles, OZP) chemiluminescence (P < 0.05) in sampling 3 and no shifts in serum immunoglobulins concentration were found in the immunological analysis. Histopathological examination of skin, gills, liver, spleen, and cranial and caudal kidneys revealed no obvious specific changes in any tissue analysed. The use of ?-glucans in clinically healthy aquaculture remains an issue. Nevertheless, their use in breeding endangered by stress stimuli, infectious disease, or adverse environmental factors is defensible. PMID:24041844

Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Skori?, Mišo; Jarkovský, Ji?í; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof



Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish.  


Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

Jagoda, S S S De S; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi



Gynogenesis in carp, Cyprinus Carpio L. and tench, Tinca Tinca L. induced by 60Co radiation in highly homogeneous radiating field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a method of fertility inactivation of fish spermatozoa by gamma radiation. Spermatozoa motility remained unchanged after irradiation. Irradiated sperm has been utilized to induced gynogenesis by means of retention of the second polar body and of mitotic gynogenesis, realized in carp for the first time. Homogeneity of gamma-rays field was + - 1 %.

Pipota, J.; Linhart, O.


Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....


Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

Jagoda, S. S. S. De S.; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo



Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.  


Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076mgIgYgBW(-1)d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14mggBW(-1)) and in carp (0.57mggBW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine. PMID:25224559

Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven



PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic  

E-print Network

in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history � Cyprinus carpio common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic


Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment  

E-print Network

on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis


Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates  

E-print Network

vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were Acta 1413 (1999) 50^54 #12;ESTs from the carp Cyprinus carpio (accession. carpio `peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio `day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library

Stuart, Jeffrey A.


Molecular cloning and expression analysis of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) interleukin-1?, high affinity immunoglobulin E Fc receptor ? subunit and serum amyloid A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) is a powerful means to identify genes of cytokines and other genes that express small amount of mRNA. In this study, cDNA of normal fish (carp) head kidney cells (HKC) was subtracted from pooled cDNA of HKC and peritoneal cell (PC) obtained from fish which had been injected with sodium alginate (SA) and scleroglucan (SG) 3–48h

Kazuhiro Fujiki; Dong-Ho Shin; Miki Nakao; Tomoki Yano



Genetic variability and structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) populations throughout the distribution range inferred from allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild\\/feral populations of common carp from Europe, Central Asia and East\\/South-East Asia were examined for allozyme (23 populations), microsatellite (11 populations) and mitochondrial DNA (21 populations) variation. Allozyme variability (1.06–1.81 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.006–0.136 at 16 loci) was much lower than microsatellite variability (2.5–14.0 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.426–0.887 at four loci). Differences in variability between domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild-caught ones were

Klaus Kohlmann; Riho Gross; Asiya Murakaeva; Petra Kersten



Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide  

PubMed Central

The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30?mg·L?1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96?h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30?mg·L?1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15?mg·L?1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15?mg·L?1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka



Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS  

E-print Network

been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987


Development of Trypanoplasma borreli (Mastigophora: Kinetoplastida) in the leech vector Piscicola geometra and its infectivity for the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


The development of Trypanoplasma borreli in the crop of the leech vector Piscicola geometra was characterized by significant changes in morphology. Immediately after ingestion by the leech, stumpy-shaped T. borreli predominated and numerous dividing specimens were found. This led to long and slender trypanoplasms near the end of the infection. The infection was terminated with complete digestion of the blood stored in the crop of the leech. The longest period of infection observed was 11 days. Trypanoplasma borreli was found only in the crop of the leech. At any time during the infection, T. borreli isolated from P. geometra cause a parasitemia when inoculated into parasite-free carp. There was no difference in morphology or infectivity among T. borreli isolated from various crop regions of P. geometra. PMID:2760765

Kruse, P; Steinhagen, D; Körting, W



Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.  


The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music. PMID:19408132

Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios



Evaluation of DNA damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by comet assay for determination of possible pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara).  


Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (micrometer), tail intensity (%), and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0013, respectively). These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible. PMID:21805014

Cok, Ismet; Uluta?, Onur Kenan; Oku?luk, Oncü; Durmaz, Emre; Demir, Nilsun



Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2 6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin



Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2-6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

Jingjie, Hu; Xiaolong, Wang; Xiaoli, Hu; Zhenmin, Bao



Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time  

SciTech Connect

Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.



Calcium Channels from Cyprinus Carpio Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete amino acid sequence of the L-type calcium channel alpha_1 subunit from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) white skeletal muscle was deduced by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. The open reading frame encodes 1852 amino acids (M_r 210,060). A 155-amino acid COOH-terminal sequence (after the fourth internal repeat) is evolutionarily preserved (90% homology) and may represent an important functional domain

Manfred Grabner; Klaus Friedrich; Hans-Gunther Knaus; Jorg Striessnig; Fritz Scheffauer; Robert Staudinger; Walter J. Koch; Arnold Schwartz; Hartmut Glossman



Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a virus, which causes a mortal disease in cultured ornamental Koi and Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) in many countries worldwide. This unclassified virus, which causes nephritis and gill necrosis, and so has been given the name carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), has a morphology resembling the herpes virus, but bears a genomic DNA of ca

Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Julia Abramowitz; Marina Hutoran; Simon Tinman; Izhak Bejerano; Michael Steinitz; Moshe Kotler



Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100 {mu}M, none of the diphenylalkanes directly inhibited aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R cells. Environmental exposure of fish to BPA and related diphenylalkanes, depending on the structure, may pose anti-estrogenic, and to a lesser extent estrogenic, risks to development and reproduction.

Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada) and Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Sanderson, J. Thomas [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bokkers, Abraham [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)



Expression pattern of potential biomarker genes related to growth, ion regulation and stress in response to ammonia exposure, food deprivation and exercise in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Waterborne ammonia has become a persistent pollutant of aquatic habitats. During certain periods (e.g. winter), food deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural water. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by their genes. In this present study, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression patterns of potential biomarker genes controlling growth, ion regulation and stress responses in common carp subjected to elevated ammonia (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and fasting (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Both feeding groups of fish were exposed to high environment ammonia (HEA) for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days, and were sampled after performing swimming at different speeds (routine versus exhaustive). Results show that the activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an important branchial ion regulatory enzyme, was increased after 4-10 days of exposure. Effect of HEA was also evident on expression patterns of other ion-regulatory hormone and receptor genes; prolactin and cortisol receptor mRNA level(s) were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively after 4, 10 and 21 days. Starvation and exhaustive swimming, the additional challenges in present study significantly further enhanced the HEA effect on the expression of these two genes. mRNA transcript of growth regulating hormone and receptor genes such as Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone receptor were reduced in response to HEA and the effect of ammonia was exacerbated in starved fish, with levels that were remarkably reduced compared to fed exposed fish. However, the expression of the growth hormone gene itself was up-regulated under the same conditions. Expression of somatolactin remained unaltered. Stress representative genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 showed an up-regulation in response to HEA and starvation while the mRNA level of heat shock protein 70 was increased in response to all the three stressors. The expression kinetics of the studied genes could permit to develop a "molecular biomarker system" to identify the underlying physiological processes and impact of these stressors before effects at population level occur. PMID:22750116

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Diricx, Marjan; Chan, Lai Pong; Liew, Hon Jung; Kumar, Vikas; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun



Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.


First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte



Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and




Molecular cloning of the obese gene from Cyprinus carpio and its expression in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to analyze the characteristics of the Cyprinus carpio obese gene structure and the biological activity of its expression product, we amplified the carp obese gene using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from carp mesentery adipose tissue RNA. Sequence analysis revealed\\u000a that it has a length of 438 nt, which encodes a 146-amino acid peptide. When nucleotide sequence and deduced amino

Hanchuan Dai; Liangqi Long; Guang Ding



Viability of Male Gametes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.



The homologue of mannose-binding lectin in the carp family Cyprinidae is expressed at high level in spleen, and the deduced primary structure predicts affinity for galactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participates in the innate immune system as an activator of the complement system and as an opsonin after binding to certain carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. We isolated and characterized cDNA transcripts encoding an MBL homologue from three members of the carp family Cyprinidae, the zebrafish Danio rerio, the goldfish Carassius auratus, and the carp Cyprinus carpio. The

Lars Vitved; Uffe Holmskov; Claus Koch; Børge Teisner; Søren Hansen; Karsten Skjødt



Temperature-Induced Changes in Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Sensitivity in Carp Melanotropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and N-acetyl ?-endorphin (NAc ?-END), or the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3) are involved in the physiological response to temperature changes in the poikilotherm common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were either subjected to a rapid cold exposure or acclimated over time to three different temperatures. Acute cold exposure

Erwin H. van den Burg; Juriaan R. Metz; H. Alec Ross; Veerle M. Darras; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Gert Flik



Sample digestion for determining chloramphenicol residues in carp serum and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated after intramuscular injection of a single-dose of 80 mg\\/kgbw. CAP concentrations in carp serum and muscle\\u000a with and without addition of ?-glucuronidase were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection.\\u000a The results showed that CAP-glucuronide (CAP-G), an important conjugate of CAP in the metabolic process and potentially toxic\\u000a to

Zhi-Yong Huang; Qing-Pi Yan; Qiang Zhang; Ai-Hong Peng



Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745



Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.



Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea  

SciTech Connect

There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

Not Available




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Substrate preferences of isolated mitochondria and maximal enzyme activities were used to assess the oxidative capacities of red muscle (RM) and white muscle (WM) of carp (Cyprinus carpio). A 14-fold higher activity of citrate synthase (CS) in RM reflects the higher mitochondrial density in this tissue. RM mitochondria oxidize pyruvate and fatty acyl carnitines (8:O, 12:0, 16:0) at similarly





EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...



EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...


Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.



Monitoring trace metals in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio from the Indus River in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This replicated 4×2 factorial study investigated the bioaccumulation of selected metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr) in four tissues\\u000a (gills, liver, muscle and skin) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) domiciled in two sites (upstream and downstream) of Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. The data were statistically\\u000a compared for the main effects of the site and fish organs

Farhat Jabeen; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry



Effects of Cyprinus carpio on Potamogeton pectinatus in experimental culture: the incidence of the periphyton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of one-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on plants and seedlings of Potamogeton pectinatus L., and on periphyton development was studied in 100 l glass aquaria. Two 30-day experiments were conducted using a muddy sediment or a pebbly bottom. In both cases, three treatments based on different fish size (two fish\\/aquarium) were assayed. The control had no fish.

N. S. Sidorkewicj; A. C. López Cazorla; O. A. Fernández; G. C. Möckel; M. A. Burgos



Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate for the Control of Experimentally Induced Infestations of Argulus sp. in Goldfish and Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet\\/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24–25°C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number

Shari K. Hanson; Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson; Roy P. E. Yanong; Richard Endris



The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  


It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona



Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun




Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of light-induced response (L-, RG-, and YRB-type S-potentials) recorded from isolated retinas of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were identified by their spectral response and later by morphological localization of the recording sites marked with an intracellular Lucifer Yellow (LY). Horizontal cells in a given layer, generating one of the above response types, are electrically coupled via gap junctions,



Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

Janusz Kloskowski



Evidence of immunological Responses by a Host Fish (Ambloplites rupestris) and Two Non-Host Fishes (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) to Glochidia of a Freshwater Mussel (Villosa iris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunological responses of fishes to glochidia were evaluated using glochidia of the rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) to infest a host species, rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and two nonhost species, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ouchterlony double-diffusion tests showed that host and nonhost species expressed a humoral defense factor specific to glochidial antigens after induced infestation with glochidia.

Martin T. OConnell; Richard J. Neves



Description of an as Yet Unclassified DNA Virus from Diseased Cyprinus carpio Species  

PubMed Central

Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may represent an as yet unclassified virus species that is endemic in C. carpio (carp). PMID:15681400

Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe



Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  


Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim



The pathology of selenium deficiency in Cyprinus carpio L.  


Selenium is essential for the normal life processes, and all animals, including fish, need this inorganic element. In order to research the pathology of selenium deficiency in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., 360 juvenile carp were allocated to three treatments. Each treatment containing 120 fish was randomly divided into four groups, fed with purified diets containing selenium at 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 mg kg(-1). The results indicated that the morbidity and mortality rates of the test groups were negatively correlated with the level of selenium in the diets. The morbidity and mortality rates were, respectively, 46.7%, 33.3%, 13.3%, 0 and 26.7% 16.7%, 6.7%, 0. The affected fish exhibited pathological changes, such as 'thin back disease' and lordosis. Histologically, there was no abnormality observed in muscles, liver and pancreas. Ultrastructurally, there was swelling of the mitochondria of the cardiac muscle cells, the liver cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, with disintegration and lysis of the cristae of the mitochondria which vesiculated. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels were increased and the activity of the serum glutathione peroxidase and the serum superoxide dismutase was decreased; in contrast, the serum malonaldehyde concentration was increased. PMID:23320605

Wang, K Y; Peng, C Z; Huang, J L; Huang, Y D; Jin, M C; Geng, Y



Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin



Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  


In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G



Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.



Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.



Isolation, partial characterization and localization of integumental peroxidase, a stress-related enzyme in the skin of a teleostean fish (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical and immunological characteristics of peroxidase activity of the skin epithelium of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated and compared with peroxidase activity of blood cells. Skin as well as blood-borne peroxidases eluted from the Superdex column as a 135 kDa protein and both probably are tetrameric molecules. Skin peroxidase activity was characterized by a Vmax of 51.5 ± 1.3

L. J. S. Brokken; P. M. Verbost; W. Atsma; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga



Combined Effects of Different Food Rations and Sublethal Copper Exposure on Growth and Energy Metabolism in Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration; LR) and 5% body weight (high ration; HR), throughout acclimation,\\u000a sublethal (64 ?g\\/L) Cu exposure for 28 days, and a subsequent 2-week recovery period. Growth, liver water content, and liver\\u000a energy stores were assessed during this period. Growth rates were elevated in HR fish compared to

Shodja Hashemi; Ronny Blust; Gudrun De Boeck



Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723



Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient.  


Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca(2+), alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 microg/l, Zn: 967 microg/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine>kidney>gills>liver>carcass>muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations (approximately 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca(2+)or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution. PMID:18061244

Reynders, H; Bervoets, L; Gelders, M; De Coen, W M; Blust, R



Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.  


This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos



Gonadotropin content of the pituitary gland of gonadal tumor-bearing common carp x goldfish hybrids from the Great Lakes, as assessed by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.  


The hybrids of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) collected from the lower Great Lakes between 1978 and 1981 exhibited epizootics of gonadal neoplasm which were rare in the parental species. The pituitary glands of hybrids were, on average, 2.5 times larger than that of carp of similar body size. Histologically, the hypertrophy was due to hyperplasia of proximal pars distalis basophils (the presumptive gonadotropes). Using a carp gonadotropin (GtH) radioimmunoassay it was found that hybrid pituitaries contained more GtH than sympatric carp and that pituitary GtH concentration in hybrids was positively correlated with pituitary weight. Both this and histological evidence suggested that gonadotrope hyperplasia was a progressive event. Two heterologous gonad bioassays indicated that hybrid GtH had biological activity. Whether pituitary hyperplasia in hybrids is a primary problem or secondary to gonadal sterility has not been determined. PMID:3366360

Down, N E; Peter, R E; Leatherland, J F



Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.



Responses of the swimbladder of the carp to sound stimulation.  


The oscillations of the swimbladder anterior chamber of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) following stimulation with tones of 300-1500 Hz were studied by the method of holographic interferometry. The oscillation amplitude appeared to be maximal at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of an air bladder of equivalent volume as well as at frequencies corresponding approximately to the second and third harmonics of the resonance frequency. A change in the frequency of the sound signal or in the instantaneous pressure amplitude could result in spatial displacement of the oscillation centers on the swimbladder wall. The interference picture which resulted from recording the swimbladder oscillations over the tested frequency range was not observed on the holograms recorded within 20-24 h after the fish had been killed. PMID:6746428

Altman, J A; Butusov, M M; Vaitulevich, S F; Sokolov, A V



A comparison of growth, survival rate and number of marketable koi carp produced under different management regimes in earthen ponds and concrete tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the growth performance of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi, produced in concrete tanks (2.13 ×  0.91 × 1.22 m; capacity: 2,000 l each) and earthen ponds (9.1 × 6.10 × 1.07 m; capacity: 59650 l each), fish larvae (stocking size: 0.12 ± 0.008 g) were cultured for 11 weeks and individual weight gain, survival rate and number of marketable fish produced were compared among four management regimes for each culture

Prithwiraj Jha; S. Barat; C. R. Nayak



Untersuchung der Empfänglichkeit von Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio), Koi-Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio koi), Zebrabärblingen (Danio rerio), Regenbogenforellen (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gegenüber Myxobolus cerebralis, dem Erreger der Drehkrankheit.  

E-print Network

??Ziel der vorliegenden Dissertationsarbeit war es, die mögliche Empfänglichkeit von Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio), Koi-Karpfen (Cyprinus carpio koi) und Zebrabärblingen (Danio rerio) gegenüber der Drehkrankheit mittels… (more)

Oumouna, Mhamed



Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  


Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu



Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp  

PubMed Central

Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka



Triploid Grass Carp The grass carp, or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon  

E-print Network

developed a method to cre- ate sterile, non-reproducing grass carp by exposing the fertilized eggs to heat carp cannot be identified by their external appearance. Determination of the fertility or sterility lily (Nymphaea), or spe- cies of filamentous algae. They will eat algae in the absence of preferred

Boyer, Elizabeth W.


Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.  


Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:24859683

Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang



A comparative study of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities in crucian carp and three other vertebrates: apparent adaptations to ethanol production.  


In the final step of the pathway producing ethanol in anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.), acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase. The presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase in the tissues responsible for ethanol production could cause an undesired oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate coupled with a reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Moreover, acetaldehyde could competitively inhibit the oxidation of reactive biogenic aldehydes. In the present study, the distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase (measured with a biogenic aldehyde) and alcohol dehydrogenase (measured with acetaldehyde) were studied in organs of crucian carp, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), and Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout). The results showed that alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were almost completely spatially separated in the crucian carp. These enzymes occurred together in the other three vertebrates. In the crucian carp, alcohol dehydrogenase was only found in red and white skeletal muscle, while these tissues contained exceptionally low aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Moreover, the low aldehyde dehydrogenase activity found in crucian carp red muscle was about 1000 times less sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde than that found in other tissues and other species. The results are interpreted as demonstrating adaptations to avoid a depletion of ethanol production, and possibly inhibition of biogenic aldehyde metabolism. PMID:3220990

Nilsson, G E



The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake  

PubMed Central

Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.



Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.  


Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11? and 11?-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11? activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 ?M for CYP17 and CYP11?, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 ?M). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta



Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing



Respiratory distress and behavioral changes induced by sodium cyanide in the fresh water TELEOST, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus).  


An acute toxicity (LC50) test using a static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the toxicity of sodium cyanide in freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of sodium cyanide. The acute toxicity value was found to be 1 mg/L; one third of the LC50 (0.33 mg/L) was selected as the sublethal concentration for subacute studies. Behavioral patterns were observed in lethal (1, 2, 3, and 4 d) and sublethal concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 d). Cyprinus carpio in toxic media exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and sinking to the bottom, which might be due to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system and myocardium, the most sensitive critical sites for anoxia, resulting in respiratory arrest and death. A decrease in oxygen consumption (-28.36 to -78.28%; -14.22 to -47.25%) was observed at both lethal and sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide respectively. Fish at the sublethal concentration were found under stress, but that was not fatal. PMID:19601395

David, M; Ramesh, H; Deshpande, S P; Chebbi, S G; Krishnamurthy, G



Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.  


Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1?µg?ml(-1) for up to 48?h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24477983

Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna



Profiles of plasma gonadotropin and 17?-estradiol in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.,  

E-print Network

are high (Billard et at., 1978 ; The Fish reproductive Physiology Research Group et al., 1978) and estrogen is to give two injections, the first containing 10 p. 100 of the total dose and the second 90 p. 100 (Antalfi, vitellogenic estrogens could have a negative effect on gonadotropic secretion and even a direct negative effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen



Gustatory and olfactory feeding responces in Japanese koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MPhil (Animal Sciences. Aquaculture)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2006. Chemo-attraction and –stimulation facilitate the initial location (olfactory response) and final consumption (gustatory response) of food… (more)

Barnard, Philip



Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.



Microcystin-LR Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cytoskeletal Disruption and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) contains Leucine (L) and Arginine (R) in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH) was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12 - 48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity. PMID:24376844

Jiang, Jinlin; Shan, Zhengjun; Xu, Weili; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Junying; Kong, Deyang; Xu, Jing



On circular flows of graphs Hong-Jian Lai1  

E-print Network

On circular flows of graphs Hong-Jian Lai1 , Rui Xu2 and Cun-Quan Zhang1 1 Department of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA 30118 Emails:,, Abstract A sufficient condition for graphs with circular flow index less than 4 is found in this paper

Lai, Hong-jian


Mining Frequent Itemsets with Convertible Constraints Jian Pei Jiawei Han  

E-print Network

, and the Networks of Centres of Excellence of Canada (NCE/IRIS-3). and succinct--in frequent itemset miningMining Frequent Itemsets with Convertible Constraints Jian Pei Jiawei Han Simon Fraser University Burnaby, B.C., Canada V5A 1S6¡ peijian, han¢ Laks V.S. Lakshmanan Concordia University & IIT

Pei, Jian


Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of propolis against the toxic effects of chromium (VI) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. Propolis was simultaneously administered to chromium-exposed fish. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, spleen, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. The levels of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in chromium groups compared to controls. Simultaneous administration of propolis ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of propolis might alleviate chromium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22052654

Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Çoban, M Zülfü; Ero?lu, Mücahit



Protective effect of lycopene on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during cypermethrin exposure.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of lycopene against the toxic effects of cypermethrin (CYP) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were divided into seven groups of 10 fish each and received the following treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, orally administered corn oil; group 3, oral lycopene (10 mg/kg body weight); group 4, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP; group 5, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene; group 6, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP; and group 7, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. MDA level, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in CYP groups compared with controls. Administration of lycopene ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of lycopene might alleviate CYP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24150867

Yonar, M Enis



Immune response and disease resistance of carotenoids supplementation diet in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila.  


The effect of carotenoid-supplementation diet on immune response and disease resistance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila at weeks 1, 2, and 4 is reported. The cumulative mortality was 10% when fish were fed with 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) supplementation diets while the un-supplementation diet treated group suffered 90% mortality against the pathogen. The phagocytic activity and complement activity significantly increased with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet groups from weeks 2 and 4 but not in other groups. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly enhanced with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets from weeks 1 to 4 while the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. The lysozyme activity significantly increased when fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets on weeks 2 and all supplementation diets on week 4. These results suggest that diet enriched with carotenoid pigment positively enhance the immune status and protects C. carpio from A. hydrophila infection. PMID:24954837

Anbazahan, Sannasi Muthu; Mari, Lourthu Samy Shanthi; Yogeshwari, Govintharaj; Jagruthi, Chandrasekar; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Velanganni, A Antony Joseph; Krishnamoorthy, Palaniyandi; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy



Herbicide clomazone effects on ?-aminolevulinic acid activity and metabolic parameters in Cyprinus carpio.  


The objective of this study was to investigate ?-aminolevulinic acid (?-ALA-D) activity and metabolic parameters of Cyprinus carpio exposed to clomazone herbicide. Fish were exposed 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 192 h. Results indicated that ?-ALA-D activity was decreased in the gills at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg L(-1). Liver glycogen increased, while muscle and gill glycogen levels decreased at 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1). Glucose was increased in the gills and plasma. Lactate decreased in the gills and liver and increased in the muscle. Protein and amino acids levels increased in the liver and gills and decreased in the muscle. At a clomazone concentration of 20 mg L(-1), ammonia increased in the gills and muscle and decreased in the liver. The results indicated that the metabolic parameters of glycogen, lactate, protein and amino acids in liver, muscle and gills, blood glucose levels, and the enzyme ?-ALA-D in gills may be useful indicators of clomazone toxicity in carp. PMID:24562457

Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Toni, Cândida; Araújo, Maria do Carmo Santos; Farias, Iria Luiza; Perazzo, Giselle Xavier; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia



First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.  


Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas



Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.  


Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando



Evaluation of a vector-control strategy of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis in carp, caused by Thelohanellus hovorkai (Myxozoa).  


The life cycle of Thelohanellus hovorkai (Myxozoa), the causative agent of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis of carp Cyprinus carpio, involves the alternate oligochaete host Branchiura sowerbyi, which plays the role of vector in the parasite's transmission. Field investigations in carp farms suggested that oligochaete fauna were closely associated with the substrate type of the pond. The pond bottom in the enzootic farm consisted of clay soil and soft sediments comprised of organic mud, in which B. sowerbyi dominated in high densities, with a maximum of 5.6 ind. kg(-1) soil. In another case, in a carp farm with no previous history of the disease, the pond bottom was sandy soil, in which small-sized oligochaetes, composed mainly of Limnodrilus socialis, dominated. Laboratory studies on the substrate preference of oligochaetes proved that B. sowerbyi prefers mud to sand, whereas L. socialis has no tendency to substrate tropism. The delicate body surface of B. sowerbyi was subject to damage by rugged-edged sand particles, which inflicted severe injuries to the worms. Transmission experiments showed that L. socialis, which are non-susceptible to T. hovorkai, suppressed the production of T. hovorkai actinospores in B. sowerbyi in a mixed assemblage of oligochaetes. Field and experimental evidence in this study imply that substrate replacement in culture ponds might regulate the benthic oligochaete communities, resulting in minimization of the impact of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis. We propose that ecological control of oligochaete fauna by environmental management is a promising strategy against myxozoan diseases. PMID:12887252

Liyanage, Yasoja S; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Hisatsugu



Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in immune organs of the common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos.  


Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-?, IL-10 and TGF-?1 (TGF-?) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-? mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation. PMID:25175644

Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Cao, Ye; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen



Fisheries Research 125126 (2012) 5768 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

consequences of capture and retention in carp sacks on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), with implications carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) captured by specialised carp anglers are often retained in so-called "carp

Cooke, Steven J.


Structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.  

PubMed Central

A previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. The protein binds to a Sepharose 4B matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 M N -acetylglucosamine. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 Da. On the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. The sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of its single N-linked carbohydrate chain were determined. The lectin shows a very low agglutinating activity for human A-type erythrocytes and interacts with both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These latter interactions are inhibited by N -acetylglucosamine. A database search shows that its amino acid sequence is similar to that of the members of an invertebrate lectin family that includes tachylectin-1. Tachylectin-1 is present in the amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, and plays a role in the innate defence system of this species. Homologous genes are also present in other fish, having 85% identity with a gene expressed in the oocytes of the crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and 78% identity with a gene in the cDNA library of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). PMID:12956625

Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo; Campagnoli, Monica; Sala, Alberto; Visai, Livia; Amoresano, Angela; Pucci, Piero; Casbarra, Annarita; Cauci, Marco; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L



[Production of a carp-based hamburger-like product by reducing the water activity].  


The experimental conditions were determined in order to conserve lean fish by means of combined factors based on Aw and pH reduction as well as the addition of an antifungal. Theoretical Aw was determined in formulas containing fish, sodium chloride, glycerol and sorbitol applying a mathematic model. From the results of the prediction, 4 formulas were prepared experimentally with (Cyprinus carpio). Phosphoric acid was added to the products in order to obtain a 5.5-6.0 pH. The final formulas were packed in plastic bags and stored with a control product (100% carp pulp) at 25 +/- 2 degrees C and 38 +/- 3% R.H. during one month. Aw, water content and pH determinations were carried at weekly intervals. Results indicated a slight but significative (P < 0.025) lowering of Aw, water content and pH. Microbiological analysis showed an increase in MAB count with no growth of pathogens. A control product (100% carp pulp) was deteriorated in a five day period. Sensory evaluation of the products indicated a slight acceptance among an inexperienced panel. PMID:1341858

Santillán, M; Morales, L J



The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka



Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.  


The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.



Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.



Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.



Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))



Impacts of grass carp and hybrid carp on aquatic macrophytes and endemic fish populations  

E-print Network

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been... Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been...

Luedke, Mark W



The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Chromosome set manipulations in the black carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mollusc-eating black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has economic and health-care potential for biological control of nuisance aquatic molluscs. The present study investigates\\u000a the production of gynogenetic-monosex and triploid-sterile populations of black carp. The goal was to provide a method which\\u000a would eliminate unwanted biological and environmental impacts of introducing this exotic species into areas with nuisance\\u000a mollusc infestation. Meiotic gynogenesis

Shmuel Rothbard; William L. Shelton; Zeev Kulikovsky; Israel Rubinshtein; Yair Hagani; Boaz Moav



Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?  

EPA Science Inventory

There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...


Modulation of antioxidant and detoxifying capacity in fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) after treatment with nanocapsules containing lipoic acid.  


Lipoic acid (LA) is a water- and lipid-soluble molecule with capacity to pass through cell membranes and with several antioxidant properties. Previous studies have shown that polymeric nanocapsules with LA favor the protection of this antioxidant, increasing their physical and chemical stability compared to formulations containing free LA. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of free LA and LA-nanocapsules on antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and a by-product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), as well as the expression of gene coding for different forms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in model fish. For this, carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed (i.p.) to different forms of LA (free and in nanocapsules) for different times (48h, 96h and 1week) and the brain, liver and muscle were analyzed. Results indicated that the organs respond differently depending on the time and form in which LA was delivered. After 96h and 1week, a better antioxidant response was found generally in the formulation with nanocapsules. The nanocapsule composition showed to be a factor to be considered in future studies, because in some organs and exposure times empty nanocapsules promoted an antioxidant effect and in others a pro-oxidant effect. PMID:23402748

Longaray-Garcia, Márcia; Flores, Juliana Artigas; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José Maria



Effect of steel plant effluent on acid and alkaline phosphatases of gills, liver and gonads of Cyprinus carpio Linn. (1758)  

E-print Network

Fishes are aquatic and poikilothermic animals. Hence, their existence and performance is dominated by the quality of their environment. Pollution of water bodies forces them to acclimatize to various factors thus imposing a considerable amount of stress on their lives. This ability to detect sudden changes in environment and monitoring short or long term changes in water quality makes the fish efficient biomarkers. The Bhilai Steel Plant is situated 30 kilometers (west) of Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh. Besides good quality steel, it also produces important by products, such as, Coal tar, Naphthalene and Benzol. Effluents generated are dumped into the two local rivers, the Kharoon and the Sheonath through various channels. Analysis of the physicochemical constituents of the different effluents reveals the coke oven effluent to contain a high amount of phenol, besides the presence of other toxic substances and hence is not expected to be congenial for the existence of fish. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn, 1758) were exposed to different concentrations (10,20,30%)of this effluent for a short term duration and changes in acid and alkaline phosphatases recorded in the three organs,viz.,gills,liver and gonads at different time points (48,96 and 160 hours).The various concentrations of the effluent were found to alter the acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity in the three organs. Hence, the results from present investigations may be useful in the assessment of environmental stress in the aquatic ecosystem.

Chetna Bakde; Aditi Niyogi Poddar


Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.



A Scalable Monitoring Approach for Service Level Agreements Validation Mun Choon Chan YowJian Lin  

E-print Network

A Scalable Monitoring Approach for Service Level Agreements Validation Mun Choon Chan Yow­Jian Lin,yjling@research.bell­ Xin Wang Electrical Engineering Department Columbia University Abstract

Chan, Mun Choon


Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.



terminal segment of the intestine of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. Considering the importance of the myenteric plexus in fishes and the scarcity of data about it, research was undertaken with the purpose of contributing to the characterization of the myenteric plexus in fishes. The terminal segments of intestines of ten adult Cyprinus carpio underwent routine techniques of transverse histological sections of 6 and 10µm in thickness, stained with Weigert-Van Gieson, as well as whole-mount preparations stained with the Giemsa method. The myenteric plexus composed of isolated neurons and ganglia containing groups of two or more neurons was analyzed. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 48.8%, 47.6 % and 3.6 % respectively. Neuronal density in 6.64mm 2 of intestinal segment was 5,099 ± 384.35. Key words: Cyprinus carpio, fish, intestine, myenteric plexus, neurons. RESUMO. Características morfoquantitativas dos neurônios mientéricos do segmento terminal do intestino de Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae). Considerando a importância do plexo mientérico e a escassez de dados sobre o mesmo em peixes, realizamos o presente trabalho, com a finalidade de contribuir com a caracterização do plexo mientérico nesses animais. Para tanto, o segmento terminal do

Ra Regina Stabille; Marcelo Aparecido De Lima; Ricardo De Melo Germano


Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)



Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.



Experience fusion: the next challenge for CARPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CARPE research community has been addressing the very interesting question of how to effectively capture, archive, and retrieve personal experiences. The vision has been to provide people with a super-diary or Memex device that captures all one's experiences in multimedia form and provides easy ways to index, search, navigate, and even virtually relive relevant portions of experiences. The primary

Gopal Pingali



Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour



The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high accumulation of substances (water exchange rate 30 L\\/kg feed\\/day) and one RAS with a low accumulation

Catarina I. M. Martins; Marco G. Pistrin; Stephan S. W. Ende; Ep H. Eding; Johan A. J. Verreth



Feminisation of young males of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during sexual differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a hierarchy of techniques has become available for detecting chemicals which may cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. The molecular structure of a chemical provides a first indication about estrogenic activity, i.e. their likelihood of interfering with the female hormone receptor. In vitro competitive binding assays for this receptor and specific cell cultures are also used

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Anton G. M. Gerritsen; Tim Bowmer



Responses of antioxidant systems in the hepatocytes of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) to the toxicity of microcystin-LR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater, bloom-forming cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa produces a peptide hepatotoxin, which causes the damage of animal liver. Recently, toxic Microcystis blooms frequently occur in the eutrophic Dianchi Lake (300 km2 and located in the South-Western of China). Microcystin-LR from Microcystis in Dianchi was isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its toxicity to mouse and

Xiaoyu Li; Yongding Liu; Lirong Song; Jiantong Liu




E-print Network

Several potential approaches for infertility have been investigated over a long period, including chemical, hormonal and immunological approaches. Infertility is the diminished ability or the inability to conceive and have offspring. It can also be defined as the failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception. Numerous plants synthesize substances that are useful in the maintenance of health in humans and animals. Medicinal plants products have a long history of indigenous use in India as well as other countries. Phytotherapy has a very long tradition, although proper scientific explanation is relatively new. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals such as Vitamins (A, C, E, and K), Carotenoids, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Enzymes, and Minerals etc. Herbal therapies have been used since ancient times to treat infertility. Fertility Herbal Combinations for Women, such as Fertilaid for Women, work by the mixture of many potent important fertility herbs. In this present study the fresh leaves, roots and flowers were collected and separated out from the Withania somnifera, Couroupita guianensis, Ficus religiosa, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia and Lonidium suffruticosum. The collected samples were extracted using Aqueous which is used to prepare the Anti-infertility syrup for women’s by standard method. The syrup was named as Betalupe and

M. Tamilselvi; A. R. Mahesh Kumar; G. Shakila; C. Devich


Prediction of the bioconcentration factor in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using data from the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test.  


An approach to predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCFpre ) from the predicted uptake rate constant (k1?pre ) and the depuration rate constant measured in the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test (k2?dietary ) [BCFpre ?=?k1?pre /k2?dietary ] is proposed in test guideline 305 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Data were collected on the BCFs of 197 test chemicals from Japan's Chemical Substances Control Law database. To demonstrate how the BCFpre compares with experimentally derived BCF under optimum conditions, 48 of 197 test chemicals, including a number of studies that could be considered problematic, were excluded from the analysis. The k1?pre was calculated by using 22 published prediction methods: the correlations between experimental uptake rate constants (k1?aqueous ) and k1?pre for all prediction methods were very low and were statistically nonsignificant (p?>?0.05). Three prediction methods were also selected that gave relatively good values for the geometric mean of k1?pre /k1?aqueous and calculated values of BCFpre for 12 test chemicals. Linear relationships (p?

Hashizume, Naoki; Tanabe, Aiko; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Sawada, Takashi; Murakami, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Sumi, Shinichiro; Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Ajimi, Shozo; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kotaro



Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hakan; Brodersen, Jakob; Bronmark, Christer



Molecular Identification and Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Rapid Detection of Thelohanellus kitauei, a Myxozoan Parasite Causing Intestinal Giant Cystic Disease in the Israel Carp  

PubMed Central

Intestinal giant-cystic disease (IGCD) of the Israel carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been recognized as one of the most serious diseases afflicting inland farmed fish in the Republic of Korea, and Thelohanellus kitauei has been identified as the causative agent of the disease. Until now, studies concerning IGCD caused by T. kitauei in the Israel carp have been limited to morphological and histopathological examinations. However, these types of diagnostic examinations are relatively time-consuming, and the infection frequently cannot be detected in its early stages. In this study, we cloned the full-length 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei isolated from diseased Israel carps, and carried out molecular identification by comparing the sequence with those of other myxosporeans. Moreover, conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using oligonucleotide primers for the amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragment were established for further use as methods for rapid diagnosis of IGCD. Our results demonstrated that both the conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR systems applied herein are effective for rapid detection of T. kitauei spores in fish tissues and environmental water. PMID:22711920

Seo, Jung Soo; Jeon, Eun Ji; Kim, Moo Sang; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Jin Do; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Myoung Ae; Jee, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Yi-Cheong



[Textual research on 5 words of disease in chu jian (bamboo slips of Chu State) of the Warring States Period].  


There are not a few words of disease in the unearthed chu jian (bamboo slips of Chu State) of the Warring States Period. The morphology, pronunciation and meaning among these characters are completed. By collecting the diseases in the equivocally deciphered words, this article comprehensively discusses the words among them. It is claimed that in Geling jian (Geling slips), "Xie" is pronounced as xie, and "Xie disease" refers to the pain below the oxter and above the waist; "Bei", pronounced as jian, and "Bei Pi disease" refers to the pain of the shoulder and back;"Jie" reads as jie and refers to scabies; "Du" pronounced as fu, and "Du disease" refers to distending pain of the skin. In Wangshan jian (Wangshan slips), "Du" is equal to "Du", and is the same as "Du" in baoshan jian (baoshan bamboo slips), pronounced as du, refers to exacerbation of disease. PMID:24135471

Luo, Bao-Zhen



Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.  


The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species. PMID:22136242

Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zi?ba, G; Wesley, K J



Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein (CRF-BP) inhibits CRF- and urotensin-I-mediated activation of CRF receptor-1 and -2 in common carp.  


Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein (CRF-BP) is considered a key determinant for CRF receptor (CRF-R) activation by CRF and several related peptides. Earlier studies have shown that the CRF system is highly conserved in gene structures throughout evolution, yet little is known about the evolutionary conservation of its biological functions. Therefore, we address the functional properties of CRF-BP and CRF-Rs in a teleost fish (common carp; Cyprinus carpio L.). We report the finding of two similar, yet distinct, genes for both CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 in this species. The four receptors are differentially responsive to CRF, urotensin-I (UI), sauvagine, and urocortin-2 (Ucn-2) and -3 (Ucn-3) as shown by luciferase assays. In vitro, carp CRF-BP inhibits CRF- and UI-mediated activation of the newfound CRF-Rs, but its potency to do so varies between receptor and peptide ligand. This is the first paper to establish the functionality and physiological interplay between CRF-BP, CRF-Rs and CRF-family peptides in a teleostean species. PMID:24769042

Manuel, Remy; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Vale, Wylie W; Huising, Mark O



Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.  


Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process. PMID:24433788

Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian



Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.



[Gibbous hand deformity--carpe bossu].  


Fiolle (10) was the first to describe a bony protuberance of a carpometacarpal joint and named it carpe bossu. This anomalous anatomical condition occasionally becomes a--widely unknown--common clinical entity. The reasons are discussed. The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by a lateral tangential radiograph. Discomfort and pain are rare and can be treated usually by conservative means, surgery is seldom indicated. PMID:1826387

Hermann, B; von Torklus, D



Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.  


The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1). PMID:21699134

Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard



Genomic evidence of homologous recombination in spring viremia of carp virus: a negatively single stranded RNA virus.  


A new strain of spring viraemia of carp virus, denominated SVCV-265, was isolated from an ornamental common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Shanghai, China, 2013. The isolate could produce obvious cytopathic effects on EPC cells, while was shown to be of low virulence for juvenile koi. Complete genome sequencing revealed the genome of the SVCV-265 strain is 11,029 nucleotides in length and phylogenetic analysis showed the isolate was clustered within Asia clade but was divergent from Chinese A1, A2 and BJ0505-2 strains. Previous report indicated that the G and P gene of SVCV shared similar topologies of evolutionary trees. In this study, phylogenetic analysis based on the P gene sequences showed the SVCV-265 was clustered into Iai subgroup and divergent from Chinese isolates A1, A2 and BJ0505-2, which were clustered into Iaii group. However, sequence alignment of the G gene showed the SVCV-265 has a close relationship with A1, A2 and BJ0505-2 isolates. Recombination analysis of all the whole sequences of SVCV available revealed isolates A2 and BJ0505-2 were likely the homologous recombination descendants of the A1 and SVCV-265. The crossover regions were located between 3845-6387nt for A2 and 3573-6444 nt for BJ0505-2, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the crossover region further confirmed these findings. This current study describes the molecular characterization of the new isolate SVCV-265 from China and is the first report of homologous recombination in SVCV. PMID:24954789

Xiao, Yu; Shao, Ling; Zhang, Chongwen; An, Wei




EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...


An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments  

E-print Network

date, number of triploid grass carp stocked, mean triploid grass carp total length (mm), mean weight (g) and density per surface hectare and vegetated hectare. 14 July 1991, 1992, and 1993 physicochemical data for Lake Jackson, Sandstone, Lower... and Wike 1986). Vegetation consumption rates for triploid grass carp and diploid grass carp were found to be comparable (Wattendorf and Anderson 1987; Wiley and Wike 1986). Triploid grass carp are presumed to be functionally sterile, therefore making...

Blackwell, Brian Gene



Two-pass Deterministic Dependency Parsing for Long Chinese Sentences Ping Jian, Chengqing Zong  

E-print Network

Two-pass Deterministic Dependency Parsing for Long Chinese Sentences Ping Jian, Chengqing Zong, China E-mail: {pjian,} Abstract--This paper proposes a two-pass parsing approach, the sentence is divided by every comma, semicolon and colon to be parsed separately, and in the second pass

Zong, Chengqing


Acrolein induces oxidative stress in brain mitochondria Jian Luo, Riyi Shi*  

E-print Network

Acrolein induces oxidative stress in brain mitochondria Jian Luo, Riyi Shi* Department of Basic of purified brain mitochondria to acrolein resulted in a dose- dependent increase of ROS and decreases-induced ROS increase in mitochondria. # 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: 2-Propenal; Lipid

Shi, Riyi


High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1  

E-print Network

High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1 Peter Gerstoft,1 and Peter M] Earth's background vibrations at frequencies below about 0.5 Hz have been attributed to ocean-wave with the offshore wind speed, demonstrating that these high-frequency P- waves are excited by distant ocean winds

Shearer, Peter


On Nonsingularity of Block Two-by-Two Matrices Zheng-Jian Bai  

E-print Network

On Nonsingularity of Block Two-by-Two Matrices Zheng-Jian Bai School of Mathematical Sciences Key Laboratory of Scientific/Engineering Computing Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science Chinese Academy of Sciences, P

Bai, Zheng-Jian


Superoxide anion generation by the cytochrome bc1 complex Jian Sun and Bernard L. Trumpower*  

E-print Network

of cytochrome c reduction. Stigmatellin, an inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site in the bc1Superoxide anion generation by the cytochrome bc1 complex Jian Sun and Bernard L. Trumpower by cytochrome bc1 complexes isolated from bovine heart and yeast mitochondria and by cytochrome bc1 complexes

Trumpower, Bernard L.


Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer Jian Zhu, Shengqiang Cai, Zhigang Suo  

E-print Network

Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer Jian Zhu, Shengqiang Cai, Zhigang Suo Available online 13 August 2010 Keywords: Dielectric elastomer actuator Large deformation Nonlinear dynamics Membrane a b s t r a c t This paper analyzes a membrane of a dielectric elastomer, prestretched and mounted

Suo, Zhigang


How to Get Rich When You Retire Jian Wang and Peter Forsyth  

E-print Network

How to Get Rich When You Retire Jian Wang and Peter Forsyth David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science University of Waterloo What is Rich? · Many studies have shown that people are happy at retirement if their wealth (W) is large compared to their annual salary (Y ) the year before they retire. · Assume

Forsyth, Peter A.


MARP: Multi-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS  

E-print Network

-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS Algorithms Experiments Conclusions Application domains (a) Airport taxi of traffic information in the route choice A. W. ter Mors, C. Witteveen, J. Zutt, F. A. Kuipers Context

Kuzmanov, Georgi


PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.



Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  


Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12 h, and reached maximum activities at 24 h or 48 h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24 h to 96 h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48 h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24 h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun



Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.



Defect Scattering in Graphene Jian-Hao Chen,1,2  

E-print Network

, is predicted to produce midgap states in graphene [6], and a conductivity which is also roughly linear in n [5Defect Scattering in Graphene Jian-Hao Chen,1,2 W. G. Cullen,2 C. Jang,2 M. S. Fuhrer,1,2 and E. D June 2009) Irradiation of graphene on SiO2 by 500 eV Ne and He ions creates defects that cause

Fuhrer, Michael S


The effects of dietary thiamin on oxidative damage and antioxidant defence of juvenile fish.  


The present study explored the effects of thiamin on antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In a 60-day feeding trial, a total of 1,050 juvenile Jian carp (8.20 ± 0.02 g) were fed graded levels of thiamin at 0.25, 0.48, 0.79, 1.06, 1.37, 1.63 and 2.65 mg thiamin kg(-1) diets. The results showed that malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were significantly decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, the anti-superoxide anion capacity and anti-hydroxyl radical capacity in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were the lowest in fish fed the thiamin-unsupplemented diet. Meanwhile, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the contents of glutathione in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were enhanced with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum, hepatopancreas and intestine followed a similar trend as CAT (P < 0.05). However, SOD activity in muscle was not affected by dietary thiamin level (P > 0.05). The results indicated that thiamin could improve antioxidant defence and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:24178923

Li, Xue-Yin; Huang, Hui-Hua; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Short communication The application of image cytometry to viability assessment  

E-print Network

on four fish species (Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; tench, Tinca fluorescent staining; Fish spermatozoa; Acipenser baerii; Cyprinus carpio; Tinca tinca; Silurus glanis; Phase

Villefranche sur mer


Effects of predator species, vegetation and prey assemblage on prey preferences of predators with  

E-print Network

and community dynamics. For example, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., is an invasive species that can become, Cyprinus carpio, fathead minnow, foraging, prey selection, yellow perch. Introduction Predation


Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu



Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh  

E-print Network

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh Vanessa L percent, respectively, following carp exclusion. However, responses by plants and other trophic levels dominated state. INDEX WORDS: Carp exclusion, coastal wetlands, restoration, food web. J. Great Lakes Res

McMaster University


Terminal components of carp complement constituting a membrane attack complex.  


The membrane attack complex (MAC) of carp complement was extracted with deoxycholate from rabbit erythrocytes lysed by carp serum and purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure. On two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of carp MAC, eight bands were detected. The band of M(r) 91,000 was identified as carp C9 by western blotting using anti-carp C9, and two bands of M(r) 62,000 and one band of M(r) 22,000 were confirmed as those of carp C8 alpha, C8 beta and C8 gamma, respectively, by their N-terminal amino acid sequences. The bands of M(r) 102,000 and 73,000, which generated from a 180,000 band under reducing conditions, were those corresponding to human C5b alpha and C5b beta, respectively. The remaining bands of M(r) 115,000 and 106,000 were identified as those corresponding to human C6 and C7, as determined by their molecular size, single-chain structures and similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequences to their mammalian counterparts. Densitometric scan of the gels showed the molar ratio of C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 in carp MAC to be 1:1:1:1:4. Based on these results, it appears that, as with mammals, the cytolytic pathway of bony fish complement is composed of five terminal components from C5 to C9. PMID:8960117

Nakao, M; Uemura, T; Yano, T



CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan



Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M



Development of Standard Weight (Ws) Equations and Standard Length Categories  

E-print Network

: longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus, spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, river carpsucker Carplodes carpIO, shorthead redhorse Moxostoma oculatus, common carp Cypnnus carpIO, blgmouth buffalo Ictlobus cypnnellus, nver carpsucker Carpt


9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...



9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...



9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...



Efficacy and safety of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) for prevention of koi herpesvirus disease.  


Objective-To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd). Animals-420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi). Procedures-Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation. Results-The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ? 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g. PMID:25255179

Weber, E P Scott; Malm, Kirsten V; Yun, Susan C; Campbell, Lori A; Kass, Philip H; Marty, Gary D; Salonius, Kira; Dishon, Arnon



Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng



Immune gene discovery in the crucian carp Carassius auratus.  


The crucian carp Carassius auratus (Cyprinidae) is one of the important fish species in aquaculture. Although the crucian carp has several economic benefits, their immune system and gene information have not been investigated in depth as yet. Here, we performed the transcriptome analysis of C. auratus using the pyrosequencing method and selected several immune-related genes. Of unigenes obtained in this species, we identified a number of immune system-related genes (e.g. adhesive protein, antimicrobial protein, apoptosis- and cell cycle-related protein, cellular defense effector, immune regulator, pattern recognition protein, protease, protease inhibitor, reduction/oxidation-related protein, signal transduction-related protein and stress protein) that are potentially useful for studies on fish immunity. To be of public and practical use, we designed primer pairs of each gene from the crucian carp for real-time RT-PCR application and tested the amplicon identity of entire gene sets with the total RNA sample. For comparative analysis, we measured tissue-preferential transcript profiles of selected genes. This study will be helpful to extend our knowledge on the immune system of the crucian carp in comparative aspects and to develop the crucian carp as a potential model organism for aquatic quality monitoring in fish farming. PMID:24287371

Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Chulwoo; Lee, Jae-Seong



Uptake, metaolism, and elimination of /sup 14/C-labelled 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in rainbow trout and carp  

SciTech Connect

Fingerling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) for 8 h in a static exposure (0.018 mg/l) or for 35 d in a continuous-flow exposure (0.020 mg/l) followed by a subsequent elimination period. For the 2 d after the 8-h exposure, the half-time (t/sub 1/2) of elimination of /sup 14/C from muscle and liver was 0.4 d, while after the 35-d exposure an early rapid elimination of /sup 14/C from these tissues (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.4 d) was followed by a slower elimination (t/sub 1/2/ = 50 d) during d 4 to 36. The maximum bioconcentration factors for /sup 14/C in muscle and liver were 51 and 102 after the 8-h exposure and 89 and 389 during the 35-d exposure. The values for bile were much greater, reaching 240 after the 8-h exposure and 1400 during the 35-d exposure. When larger trout and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to (/sup 14/C)TCB (0.2 to 0.4 mg/l) the bioconcentration factor for bile /sup 14/C to water /sup 14/C was less than 100. Pretreatment of trout with BETA-naphthoflavone, an inducer of hepatic mixed-function oxidase, increased this bioconcentration factor for bile to several hundred. Solvent partitioning and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) indicated that about 60% of the /sup 14/C in bile of control trout or carp was present as highly polar biotransformation products, while for induced trout the value was more than 90%. TLC in two solvent systems suggested that at least two such products were present in bile from control fish and at least three in bile from induced fish. About half of the /sup 14/C in bile from induced trout was more polar than the /sup 14/C in bile from normal trout.

Melancon, M.J.; Lech, J.J.



Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.


Isolation and characterization of glycophorin from carp red blood cell membranes.  


We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko



Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko



Potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp.  


This study reports the effect of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diet on Cyprinus carpio (52 +/- 2 g, n = 250) inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with Aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 106 CFU ml(-1)). On Day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the basal diet (IU) or with diets supplemented with triherbal extract (H), Sporolac (S) or Lactobacillus (L). A fifth group of non-infected fish fed with the basal diet was used as a control. Haematology and immunology parameters were measured in Weeks 1, 2 and 4. In the H, S, and L groups, white blood cell levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. In the H and S groups, red blood cell and haemoglobin levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in Weeks 1, 2 and 4. In all the diet groups, the haematocrit and mean corpuscular volume did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in Week 1, and these values remained near those of the control in Week 2. The S and L groups did not exhibit significant changes (p > 0.05) in glucose, and cholesterol levels in Weeks 2 and 4 compared to controls, and the L group also showed no change in total protein. Respiratory burst activity was significantly increased in Weeks 1 to 4 in the H, S and L groups. Serum-mediated killing of Escherichia coli was significantly increased in the L group in Weeks 1 to 4. Mortalities after A. hydrophila challenge were higher in the IU (85%) and H (50%) groups than in the S (45%) and L (35%) groups. Our results show that formulated probiotic-enriched diets can speed up the recovery of ulcerative dermatitis induced by A. hydrophila in carp. PMID:21166313

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo



Effects of sublethal copper exposure on muscle energy metabolism of common carp, measured by {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of shock and subchronic exposure of copper on the energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied by means of in vivo {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-NMRS). During the experiments, fish were submitted to an additional hypoxic challenge and recovery from this challenge was followed for 6 hs. During all experiments adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels remained stable. Under control conditions, levels of phosphocreatine (P{sub Cr}) and inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) recovered rapidly after the hypoxic challenge; however, full recovery was not observed after shock copper exposure. Also, intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) did not recover from the hypoxic challenge after shock exposure. After 1 week of exposure the fish had clearly developed an increased tolerance to copper. At both copper concentrations, P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} levels returned to resting levels after the hypoxic challenge, but at the highest copper concentration P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios were significantly lower than P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios in the control group and levels of P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} were very unstable. At the high copper concentration, pH{sub i} was clearly decreased compared to the control group even before the hypoxic challenge.

Boeck, G. De; Borger, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Blust, R. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)



Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.



N(trth American Jnurnal nf h'tshehcx Management 15:137-141. 1995 American Fisheries Society  

E-print Network

57007. USA Abstract.--An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo /ctiobus populations. Controlling the dispersal and abundance of com- mon carp Cyprinus carpio has challenged fisheries


Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 9: 2134, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

Abstract Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) were excluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh) reduction in sediment resuspension by removal of benthivorous fish such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio

McMaster University


The effects of reserpine and LHRH or salmon GnRH analogues on gonadotropin release, ovulation  

E-print Network

and spermiation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) M. SOKO&jadnr;OWSKA, T. MIKOLAJCZYK, P. EPLER, R. E. PETER W carried out on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in 1985 and 1986. Groups and experimental treatments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Is invasion history a useful tool for predicting the impacts of the world's worst aquatic1 invasive species?2  

E-print Network

that relate the severity of the impacts of a well-documented invader,37 common carp (Cyprinus carpio), to two Keywords: impact, invasive species, meta-analysis, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, predictive47 model, risk

Leung, Brian


Decreases in Condition and Fecundity of Freshwater Fishes in a Highly Polluted Reservoir  

E-print Network

. The responses to the pollutants were species-specific, and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was the species to pollution. Keywords Heavy metals . Organochlorides . Common carp . Cyprinus carpio . Flix reservoir 1

García-Berthou, Emili


The Effect of Denil Fishway Length on Passage of Some Nonsalmonid Fishes  

E-print Network

/osa sapidissima; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; chiselmouth, Acrochei/us a/utaceus; northern squawfish, Ptychochei; common carp, Cyprinus car- pio; chiselmouth, Acrocheilus aJutaceus; northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus


Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?  


The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms. PMID:23121232

Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D



E cient Computation of Iceberg Cubes with Complex Measures Jiawei Hany Jian Peiy Guozhu Dongz Ke Wangy  

E-print Network

E cient Computation of Iceberg Cubes with Complex Measures Jiawei Hany Jian Peiy Guozhu Dongz Ke. Computing an iceberg cube, which contains only aggregates above certain thresholds, is an e ective way cient methods for comput- ing iceberg cubes with some popularly used complex mea- sures, such as average

Wang, Ke


Directed assembly of nano-scale phase variants in highly strained BiFeO3 Jian Zhou,1,a)  

E-print Network

Directed assembly of nano-scale phase variants in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films Jian Zhou,1,a of complex nano-scale phase domains. Our approach enables deterministic control of phase variants with well material, driving the film into a mixture of self- assembled rhombohedral-like (R') phase nano-lamellae em

Wu, Junqiao


Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia,  

E-print Network

Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia, China Tao Xie, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Abstract: Software analytics is to utilize data-driven approaches to enable software practitioners to perform data exploration

Xie, Tao


Semantic-Based Cross-Media Image Retrieval Ahmed Id Oumohmed, Max Mignotte, and Jian-Yun Nie  

E-print Network

Semantic-Based Cross-Media Image Retrieval Ahmed Id Oumohmed, Max Mignotte, and Jian-Yun Nie DIRO. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 #12;Semantic-Based Cross-Media Image Retrieval 415 1 a novel method for cross-media semantic-based information retrieval, which combines classical text- based

Mignotte, Max


Premixed edge-flames in spatially-varying straining flows Jian-Bang Liu and Paul D. Ronney  

E-print Network

of flame fronts with turbulent flow fields (Williams, 1985; Peters, 1986; Bradley, 1992). The "laminarPremixed edge-flames in spatially-varying straining flows Jian-Bang Liu and Paul D. Ronney-1453 Abstract Premixed-gas flames subject to steady spatially-varying straining flows were studied to examine


Experimental Quantum Teleportation Dik Bouwmeester, JianWei Pan, Klaus Mattle, Manfred Eibl, Harald Weinfurter, and Anton Zeilinger  

E-print Network

Experimental Quantum Teleportation Dik Bouwmeester, Jian­Wei Pan, Klaus Mattle, Manfred Eibl, Technikerstr. 25, A­6020 Innsbruck, Austria (December 10, 1997) ABSTRACT Quantum teleportation­the transmission. During teleportation, an initial photon which carries the polarization that is to be transferred and one

Crépeau, Claude


PVDF microbelts for harvesting energy from respiration Chengliang Sun, Jian Shi, Dylan J. Bayerl and Xudong Wang*  

E-print Network

PVDF microbelts for harvesting energy from respiration Chengliang Sun, Jian Shi, Dylan J. Bayerl the energy from low-speed air flow to electricity via their resonant oscillation. The micrometre thick PVDF microbelts were able to generate sufficient electrical energy from low speed air flow for the sustained

Wang, Xudong


[The analysis of genetic variability of mtDNA 12S rRNA genes in the allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their parents].  


The complete 12S rRNA genes from the five F11 allotetraploids, two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, and one Japanese crucian carp were successfully cloned and sequenced. Sequence compositions and variations were analyzed with MEGA 1.0 software. Five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes, and two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, one Japanese crucian carp shared one haplotype, respectively. The similarities among red crucian carp, xiangjiang common carp, allotetraploid, diploid gynogen, Japanese crucian carp, and triploid crucian carp varied from 95% to 99%. The similarities between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their female parents (red crucian carp and Japanese crucian carp, respectively) were higher than those between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their male parents (xiangjiang common carp and allotetraploid, respectively). Such result indicated that mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp were inherited maternally. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the neighbor joining method of the MEGA package. It was noticeable that after nine generations from F3 to F11 hybrids, the five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes (AT-1 and AT-2), indicating the allotetraploid stock had the genetic diversity. The results provided some valuable information for the breeding, genetic conservation, and population rejuvenation of the tetraploid stock. PMID:15640120

Guo, Xin-Hong; Liu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Jin-Peng; Liu, Yun



PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [South Dakota State University  

E-print Network

:// Comparison of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) age estimates derived from dorsal fin spines this Article Weber, Michael J. and Brown, Michael L.(2011) 'Comparison of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) age from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a widespread invasive species that imposes deleterious ecosystem


Winter residency and activity patterns of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and  

E-print Network

), and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in a thermal discharge canal S . J . C O O K E & R . S . M c K I N L E Y underwater antennas continuously monitored the movements of 10 common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and 10 to continuously monitor movements of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

Cooke, Steven J.


Factors that regulate the zooplankton community structure of a turbid,  

E-print Network

. If the forthcoming carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion from Cootes Paradise Marsh results in increased macrophyte growth degré de dégradation du site. Si l'élimination prochaine de la carpe (Cyprinus carpio) du marais Cootes, fluctuating water levels, as well as the activities of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (Whillans 1996

McMaster University


Etude de l'utilisation digestive d'une cellulose purifie chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri)  

E-print Network

gairdneri) et la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio) Françoise BERGOT Jeannine BREQUE Laboratoire de Nutrition cellulose by the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). A semi-purified diet-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri) espèce carnivore et la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio), espèce omnivore à tube digestif

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge



Temporal induction of cytochrome P450 1A in the mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) after administration of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

High inductions of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities, cytochrome P450 1A protein levels (P4501A), and total cytochrome P450 content (P450) were observed 1, 2, 5, and 14 d after a single i.p. injection of 99.5 [mu]mol/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and chrysene (Chrys). The highest inductions in EROD activities and P450 1A protein levels were seen 2 d after treatment, approximately 35- and 11-fold relative to the controls. Less pronounced increase of EROD activities and P4501A protein levels, approximately 3- to 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, were observed after treatments with equimolar concentrations of fluoranthenes (Fluor) and pyrene (Pyr). Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) and the carrier dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) did not affect these parameters. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the liver, equivalent to 2 to 25% of the dose, were found 1 or 2 d after treatment. The highest percentage of the dose in the liver was observed for Chrys, followed by BghiP, BaP, Fluor, and Pyr. Poor correlations were found between hepatic concentrations of PAHs and P450 1A increases, which might be attributed to the rapid metabolism of these compounds.

Weiden, M.E.J. Van Der; Hanegraaf, F.H.M.; Seinen, W.; Berg, M. Van Den (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology); Eggens, M.L. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Haren (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecotoxicology); Celander, M. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology)




EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for  

E-print Network

(Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

Watson, Craig A.


Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061



Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann



Molecular cloning of a carp Jak3 from activated leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Janus kinases (Jaks) are involved in a signalling pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation, which is the key step in transducing cytokine signals from the external environment to the nucleus. We report here the molecular cloning of carp Jak3. A partial cDNA of the Jak homologue was initially identified from a cDNA pool obtained by subtracting the cDNAs from Con A-induced

Zhan Yin; Jimmy Kwang



The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just



Perturbation of cytochrome P450, generation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to potable surface water.  


Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various cancers. Chlorination of water rich in organic chemicals produces carcinogenic organochlorine by-products (OBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Since the discovery of the first OBP in the 1970s, there have been several investigations designed to determine the biological effects of single chemicals or small artificial OBP combinations. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the general biological response to these compounds, and further studies are still needed to evaluate their potential genotoxic effects. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of three drinking water disinfectants on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked metabolizing enzymes and on the generation of oxidative stress in the livers of male and female Cyprinus carpio fish (carp). The fish were exposed in situ for up 20 days to surface water obtained from the Trasmene lake in Italy. The water was treated with 1-2 mg/L of either sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as traditional disinfectants or with a relatively new disinfectant product, peracetic acid (PAA). Micronucleus (MN) frequencies in circulating erythrocytes from the fish were also analysed as a biomarker of genotoxic effect. In the CYP-linked enzyme assays, a significant induction (up to a 57-fold increase in the deethylation of ethoxyresorufin with PAA treatment) and a notable inactivation (up to almost a 90% loss in hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol with all disinfectants, and of testosterone 2beta-hydroxylation with NaClO) was observed in subcellular liver preparations from exposed fish. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy radical-probe technique, we also observed that CYP-modulation was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, we found a significant increase in MN frequency in circulating erythrocytes after 10 days of exposure of fish to water treated with ClO2, while a non-significant six-fold increase in MN frequency was observed with NaClO, but not with PAA. Our data suggest that the use of ClO2 and NaClO to disinfect drinking water could generate harmful OBP mixtures that are able to perturb CYP-mediated reactions, generate oxidative stress and induce genetic damage. These data may provide a mechanistic explanation for epidemiological studies linking consumption of chlorinated drinking water to increased risk of urinary, gastrointestinal and bladder cancers. PMID:17141554

Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Canistro, Donatella; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Affatato, Alessandra; Valgimigli, Luca; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Paolini, Moreno



Growth, Fecundity, and Diets of Newly Established Silver Carp in the Middle Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has spread throughout the Mississippi River drainage. During 2003, we determined its population status and potential impact in the middle Mississippi River (MMR), the conduit between the lower Mississippi River and the upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois rivers. We quantified growth, age structure, fecundity, and diets of silver carp sampled with trammel nets and AC

Christopher J. Williamson; James E. Garvey



Effects of Static versus Flowing Water on Aquatic Plant Preferences of Triploid Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were presented with three aquatic plant species (sago pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, and American pondweed P. nodosus) in outdoor canals with static and flowing water in winter, spring, and summer. Plant consumption by triploid grass carp in winter was low but increased dramatically in spring and summer. Based on plant shoot lengths,

Robert T. Pine; Lars W. J. Anderson; Silas S. O. Hung



Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp  

E-print Network

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.



Effects of metal ions on cyprinid fish immune response: In vitro effects of Zn2/sup +/ and Mn/sup 2+/ on the mitogenic response of carp pronephros lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Lymphocytes from the pronephros of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) have been subjected to transformation by mitogens, concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with Zn or Mn at varying concentrations. Addition of Zn/sup 2+/ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated T and B cells enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. Addition of 10(-5) M Zn/sup 2+/ inhibited the response to Con A, PHA, and LPS. At this concentration, Zn was toxic. Addition of Mn2+ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. This effect was observed with Con A- and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, but not with LPS-stimulated lymphocytes. In contrast, addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to lymphocyte cultures exerted an inhibitor on the response to Con A or to PHA, while the response to LPS was unaffected. Addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to Con A- or PHA-stimulated cultures at different times after initiation of stimulation indicated that Mn/sup 2+/ was inhibitory only when it was added before the first 16 hr of cultures. The inhibition induced by 10(-1) M Mn2+ could be reversed by adding 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/ to the culture.

Ghanmi, Z.; Rouabhia, M.; Othmane, O.; Deschaux, P.A.



Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The

Antonia Concetta Elia; Alessia Fanetti; Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr; Maria I. Taticchi



Comparative toxicological studies of distillery effluent treatments such as UASB reactor followed by an oxidizer unit using Cyprinus carpio fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of anaerobically treated distillery effluent and oxidized effluent on freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. The untreated distillery effluent (Sample A) was treated with up?flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (Sample B) and followed by an oxidizer system (Sample C and D) under optimized conditions. The comparative acute toxicity of

Vandana Patil; Vikram Ghole



Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.



Serum proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic profiles in myasthenia gravis patients during treatment with Qiangji Jianli Fang  

PubMed Central

Background Qiangji Jianli Fang (QJF) has been used for treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) in China. However, our understanding of the effects of QJF against MG at the molecular level is limited. This study aims to investigate the effects of QJF treatment of MG patients on the protein, peptide and metabolite levels in serum. Methods High-throughput proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic techniques were applied to investigate serum samples from 21 healthy individuals and 47 MG patients before and after QJF treatment via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry, respectively. Results After QJF treatment, the expression levels of peptides m/z 1865.019, 2021.128 and 1211.668 of complement C3f increased (P?=?0.004, P?=?0.001 and P?=?0.043, respectively), while that of peptide m/z 1739.931 of component C4b decreased (P?=?0.043), in the serum of MG patients. The levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (P?=?0.000) and coenzyme Q4 (P?=?0.000) resumed their normal states. Conclusion QJF could inhibit the activity of the complement system and restore the normal levels of metabolites. PMID:22838635



Asian carp farming systems: towards a typology and increased resource use efficiency  

E-print Network

of the fundamental choice of system. Keywords: carp, freshwater aquaculture, integra- ted systems, resource use Research, 2002, 33, 403±413 � 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd 403 #12;services (waste assimilation) (Beveridge

Lorenzen, Kai


76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 16 [Docket No. FWS-R3-FHC-2010-0094...Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final...



Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S



Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo



Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin residue reduction through cooking\\/processing of restructured carp fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructured carp fillets were used to study the potential of reducing dioxin levels during cooking. Carp from Saginaw Bay were mechanically deboned and washed. Samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. Half was spiked to obtain levels of approximately 100 pptr. Fillets (7.5 cm in diameter) were roasted covered and uncovered at 177°C to end internal

N. C. Stachiw; M. E. Zabik; A. M. Booren; M. J. Zabik



The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems  

E-print Network

periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases... periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases...

Elder, Howard Stanton



A tale of four “carp:” Invasion potential and ecological niche modeling  

E-print Network

of Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, including areas in China, Russia, and Northern Indochina [53]. The native range for tench includes Europe and parts of western Asia [52,64]. Because native range limits for common carp are poorly..., Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas [30]; evidence of reproduction has been recorded from the Mississippi River drainage of all of these states except Texas [47]. Grass carp have already adversely affected U.S. ecosystems in several areas...

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Isolation and expression analyses of the Sox9a gene in triploid crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the evolutional significance of Sox9 in fish, we isolated and characterized Sox9a cDNA and genomic clones in triploid crucian carp. The cDNA encoded a protein of 457 amino acids with an HMG box and showed\\u000a more than 60% amino acid sequence identity with known vertebrate Sox9 proteins. Triploid crucian carp and vertebrate Sox9s showed similar gene structure, and

Xinhong Guo; Jinpeng Yan; Shaojun Liu; Bing Xiang; Yun Liu



Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun



The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle



Sequence analysis and subcellular localization of crucian carp Carassius auratus viperin.  


Human viperin is known as an interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral protein and localizes to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via its N-terminal amphipathic ?-helix. Little is known about subcellular localization of fish viperin. Herein, we characterized subcellular localization of a fish viperin from crucian carp Carassius auratus. Crucian carp viperin is nearly identical to the other viperin proteins in sequence, with the exception of the first N-terminal 70 amino acids that are defined as N-terminal variable domain including an amphipathic ?-helix. In addition to N-terminal variable domain, crucian carp viperin protein harbors a conserved middle radical SAM domain and a conserved C-terminal domain. Subcellular localization analyses indicate that crucian carp viperin is a cytoplasmic protein associated with ER. Sequence analyses reveal that amino acids 1-74 forms an amphipathic ?-helix domain that drives ER-localization of crucian carp viperin. In addition, Coimmunoprecipitation assays show that crucian carp viperin proteins are able to self-associate. These results together indicate that similar to mammalian homologs, fish viperins likely play important roles in IFN response. PMID:24825429

Wang, Bing; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang



Journal of Fish Biology (2011) doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03140.x, available online at  

E-print Network

at Phenotypic variation and associated predation risk of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio M) Juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio were collected from 10 lakes with variable predator abun- dance over 4 months to evaluate if morphological defences increased with increasing predation risk. Cyprinus carpio


Aquaculture ELSEVIER Aquaculture 129 (1995) 95-l 12  

E-print Network

Poissons, F-49033 Angers, France Abstract Although the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, has been cultivated bottles, sometimes 200 litre circular jars). Kqvwords: : Cyprinus carpio; Spermatozoa; Motility) 95-112 1. Introduction The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 1758) has been cultivated for several

Villefranche sur mer



E-print Network

of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swim- ming flowers. ­ Aquaculture 129, 3­48. BALON, E. K. 1995b, The common carp, Cyprinus carpio: its wild origin, domestication in aquaculture of Slovenia. ­ Arh. vest. 53, 77­89. BARUS, V., M. PEÁZ in K. KOHLMANN 2001, Cyprinus carpio. ­ V/in: P. M

Cufar, Katarina


Genet. Sel. Evol. 39 (2007) 319340 319 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2007  

E-print Network

of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Lior DAVIDa,d , Noah A. ROSENBERGb , Uri LAVIc , Marcus W. FELDMANd can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows.1051/gse:2007006 #12;320 L. David et al. 1. INTRODUCTION The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Learning from the past: rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares.  


Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored "Hare's Fur" (HF) strips and the silvery "Oil Spot" (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis. PMID:24820819

Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi



Learning from the past: Rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored ``Hare's Fur'' (HF) strips and the silvery ``Oil Spot'' (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis.

Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi



Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions Lifa Zhang,1 Jian-Sheng Wang,1 and Baowen Li1,2,*  

E-print Network

Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions Lifa Zhang,1 Jian-Sheng Wang manuscript received 8 February 2010; published 22 March 2010 We study ballistic thermal transport in three-terminal atomic nanojunctions by the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find that there is ballistic

Li, Baowen


Efficient Computation of Iceberg Cubes with Complex Measures \\Lambda Jiawei Han y Jian Pei y Guozhu Dong z Ke Wang y  

E-print Network

Efficient Computation of Iceberg Cubes with Complex Measures \\Lambda Jiawei Han y Jian Pei y Guozhu. Computing an iceberg cube, which contains only aggregates above certain thresholds, is an effective way efficient methods for comput­ ing iceberg cubes with some popularly used complex mea­ sures, such as average

Dong, Guozhu


Keping Long, R. Tucker, Shiduan Cheng, Jian Ma, Runtong Zhang, An New Approach to Multi-layer Network Survivability: Strategies, Model and  

E-print Network

1 Keping Long, R. Tucker, Shiduan Cheng, Jian Ma, Runtong Zhang, An New Approach to Multi-Layer Network Survivability: Strategies, Model and Algorithm * Keping, Long 1, 2 Rod Tucker2 , Shiduan, Cheng 1.tucker} 3 Nokia China R&D Center, No. 11, He Ping Li Dong Jie, Beijing 100013, P.R. China Fax: +86 10

Zhang, Runtong


Design of Unitary Precoders for ISI Channels Jian-Kang Zhang 1 , Aleksandar Kav ci c 1 , Xiao Ma 1 and Kon Max Wong 2  

E-print Network

i Design of Unitary Precoders for ISI Channels Jian-Kang Zhang 1 , Aleksandar Kav#20;ci#19;c 1 for suppressing the intersymbol interference (ISI) and being robust to fre- quency selective channels interblock interference and devising simple but e#11;ective precoders for suppress- ing ISI and being robust

Kavcic, Aleksandar


Large, uni-directional actuation in dielectric elastomers achieved by fiber Jiangshui Huang, Tongqing Lu, Jian Zhu, David R. Clarke, and Zhigang Suo  

E-print Network

Large, uni-directional actuation in dielectric elastomers achieved by fiber stiffening Jiangshui, 192902 (2012) Large actuation and high dielectric strength in metallized dielectric elastomer actuators-directional actuation in dielectric elastomers achieved by fiber stiffening Jiangshui Huang,1 Tongqing Lu,1,2 Jian Zhu,1

Suo, Zhigang


Second Harmonic Studies of Ions Crossing Liposome Membranes in Real Time Jian Liu, Mahamud Subir, Kim Nguyen, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*  

E-print Network

Second Harmonic Studies of Ions Crossing Liposome Membranes in Real Time Jian Liu, Mahamud Subir of the positively charged triphenylmethane dye, malachite green (MG+ ), across liposome bilayers effects of these ionophores on the kinetics and extent of MG+ crossing into the liposome, investigated using the interface

Eisenthal, Kenneth B.


Evoked responses to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the medulla and mesencephalon of Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical stimulation of the facial nerve—the afferent pathway for chemical nonolfactory reception inCyprinus carpio—elicits negative wave evoked responses with 3 msec latency in the ipsilateral facial and vagus nerve lobes of the medulla; amplitude is greater in the facial nerve lobe than in the vagus lobe. In the contralateral zones of the medulla the amplitudes of the responses are 1.5–2

N. E. Vasilevskaya; N. N. Polyakova



Efficacy of Jian'ganle () versus Hugan Pian (), glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione in prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury.  


Evidence-based medicine is advocated by WHO and adopted by developed countries for many years. In China, however, the selection of essential medicine and various medical insurance reimbursement schemes medicine is usually based on experts' experience of prescription practice which is under heavy critics resulting from the lack of related comparative efficacy and evidence-based research. The efficacy of Jian'ganle in prevention of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by antituberculotics was evaluated in this study by comparison with Hugan Pian, glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione. Evidence was provided for relevant sectors such as Ministry for Human Resources and Social Security of the People's Republic of China and National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China to select and renew the Essential Medicine List (EML), the new rural cooperative medical scheme in China (NRCMS) list or the reimbursement list of industrial injury insurance. A total of 189 patients with initial pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into four groups who took antituberculotics combined with Jian'ganle, Hugan Pian, glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione respectively. Their liver function profile including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total protein (TP), albumin (A) and globulin (G) were detected at admission as baseline and after treatment. The Jian'ganle group was compared with the three others by chi-square tests. In an aspect of maintaining bilirubin indexes normal, Jian'ganle was more efficacious than glucuronolactone. And Jian'ganle had a little more efficacy than reduced glutathione to maintain protein indexes normal as well. And the therapeutic regimen of antituberculotics combined with Jian'ganle was the best in treating tuberculosis and preventing DILI at the same time. The study showed that among the four hepatinicas which demonstrated similar prevention of DILI caused by antituberculotics, Jian'ganle has more advantages over the three others to some extent, which provides a reliable basis for health sectors to select and renew the EML, NRCMS List or the reimbursement list of industrial injury insurance. PMID:24939315

Zhang, Quan; Zhong, Fang-ying; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Xin-ping



Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)



Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.



A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770



Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  


Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H



Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. PMID:24819892

Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng



This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

: The importance of hook size in recreational angling for large common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Tobias Rappa.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., have been widely introduced fish such as common carp (Cyprinius carpio L.). Yet, such information is crucial in the context

Cooke, Steven J.



E-print Network



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

E-print Network

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Wetlands Ecology and Management 6: 4357, 1998. 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

August 1997; accepted in revised form 28 June 1998 Key words: conceptual model, Cyprinus carpio, Hamilton and spawning activities of a very large population of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Due to vegetation loss

McMaster University


Fisheries Research 110 (2011) 9297 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Cyprinus carpio population in relation to thermal influences on invasive populations Dalmas O. Oyugia carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) population of Lake Naivasha between June 2008 and November 2009

Cucherousset, Julien


NORFOLK BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN Reference: LS/3 Local Species Action Plan 3  

E-print Network

carp Cyprinus carpio through hybridization (Wheeler 2000, Hänfling et al. 2005, Smartt 2007). Indeed Cyprinus carpio (Hänfling et al. 2005, Smartt 2007), including `koi' and `chagoi', which are released


Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio  

PubMed Central

The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations.

Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai



Monitoring the effects of water pollution on Cyprinus carpio in Karakaya Dam Lake, Turkey.  


Karakaya Dam Lake (KDL) is one of the most important water sources, both for irrigation and fishery, located in eastern part of Turkey. This study is concerned with the pollution of the lake contributed by urban, industrial and agricultural activities. The parameters selected for this aim were the enzymes commonly used as biomarkers of environmental pollution. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) has been determined in liver tissue samples of Cyprinus carpio, a representative species of KDL. Furthermore, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity which is mainly affected by pesticides such as organophosphates, has been assayed. Chemical analysis results showed that KDL was polluted by various heavy metals as it was apparent from water, sediment and gill tissue. The activity of brain AChE was significantly lower in all localities than Tecimli area (St-5) where there is no agricultural and industrial activities in the immediate periphery. Thus, this change of AChE activity may relate to agricultural pollution in KDL. On the other hand, no significant differences were found for selected enzyme biomarkers, but condition factor (CF) or hepatosomatic index were significantly different from the St-5 samples, a result that may be attributed to water pollution in KDL by various contaminants. PMID:16374666

Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Kucukbay, F Zehra; Güler, R Elif



Organochlorine pesticides and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated with liver enzyme gene expression in Cyprinus carpio.  


The present study was designed to investigate the association between levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and liver enzyme responses in Cyprinus carpio. Fish were caught at three stations in the Büyük Menderes River (BMR): the origin, the Sarayköy station, and the estuary. Seventeen OCPs were quantified in liver tissue, as well as in river water by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detection, and structures were confirmed by negative chemical ionization-GC-mass spectrometry. The activities of CYP1A, GST, Se-GPx, CAT, and SODs were determined by spectrophotometry or fluorimetry. The mRNA levels of CYP1A, GST, and SOD1 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. CYP1A and antioxidant enzyme activities were dramatically higher at the Sarayköy station, where OCP pollution is higher than the other two stations. Mn-SOD is responsible for the increase in total SOD activity in the Sarayköy samples. However, gene expression levels of certain enzymes were heavily suppressed. Our findings show that the transcriptional and functional responses of CYP1A and antioxidant enzymes are inversely correlated. PMID:24583044

Karaca, Melis; Var??l?, Lokman; Korkmaz, Kemal; Ozayd?n, Okan; Perçin, Fatih; Orhan, Hilmi



of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles  

E-print Network

Abstract – Nanotechnology is an advancing field of research which has revolutionized all industrial needs, such as medical, environmental and other industrial applications. Despite the rapid progress and early acceptance of nanotechnology, the potential for adverse health effects due to prolonged exposure at various concentration levels in humans and the environment has not yet been studied. With the widespread application of nanomaterials, numerous nanoscale products might consequently be released into aquatic environments and elicit an impact not only on one particular ecosystem but also on human health. The environmental impact of nanomaterials is expected to increase dramatically in near future. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have wide ranging applications in a diverse array of industrial and consumer products, ceramic manufacturing, paint formulation, sunscreen and hair care products. Toxicological studies indicate that ZnO nanoparticles have adverse impacts on human health and environmental species. Hence it is due process to characterize the health and safety aspects of ZnO nanoparticles to humans and environment. The present study has been conducted to develop first hand information on the acute toxicity (LC50) and gill histopathology of ZnO nanoparticles in fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio. It was found that the 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) of ZnO nanoparticle for C. carpio is 4.897 mg/L. Gill histopathological damage exposed to sublethal concentration of ZnO nanoparticles for 21 d are also discussed in this paper.

S. Subashkumar; M. Selvanayagam


Comparison of the protective effects of antioxidant compounds in the liver and kidney of Cd- and Cr-exposed common carp.  


The aim of this study was to see whether the taurine (TAU), alpha-lipoic acid (LA), curcumin (CUR), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) protection against oxidative stress caused by heavy metals is owed to the metal-decreasing or antioxidative effect. In this context, liver and kidney tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) were exposed in vivo to model toxicants cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). The tissues were dissected 96 h after intraperitoneal injection of the metals and antioxidant substances. Cd and Cr levels were determined in the liver using the ICP-OES, but we could not obtain enough kidney tissue to make the same measurements in the kidney. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx, and the GSH redox status and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. Of all investigated antioxidants, only NAC decreased metal levels in the liver. Cd had little effect on oxidative stress parameters, while Cr showed a weak prooxidative effect. Cotreatment with TAU/LA/CUR/NAC and Cr significantly increased liver SOD activity. Chromium induced kidney SOD and CAT, but all antioxidants lowered CAT activity. Cadmium reduced liver and increased kidney GSSG. NAC increased liver GSH, but the increase did not correlate with decrease in Cd. Curcumin given with Cd increased kidney and decreased liver lipid peroxidation, whereas TAU with Cr increased lipid peroxidation in both tissues. N-Acetylcysteine was the most effective antioxidative agent, owing to its metal-decreasing function as well as to its effects on the GSH redox status. We believe that the investigated antioxidant substances which may have been involved in the reduction of Cr caused an increase in SOD activity and a decrease in CAT activity. Changes in the GSSG levels in both tissues might be an adaptive response to the prooxidative potential of Cd. Because of their respective tissue- and metal-dependent prooxidative effects, CUR and TAU deserve particular attention in regard to their use against metal toxicity, Cr in particular. PMID:21987389

Karaytug, Sahire; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Karayakar, Fahri



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D



Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.



Real Space Surface Reconstructions of Decapped As-rich In0.53Ga0.47As(001)-(24) Jian Shena,b  

E-print Network

Real Space Surface Reconstructions of Decapped As-rich In0.53Ga0.47As(001)-(2Ã?4) Jian Shena, CA 92093, USA The surface reconstructions of decapped In0.53Ga0.47As(001) have been studied using, predicted by density function theory (DFT) (1-3) for GaAs(001)- (2Ã?4), InAs(001)-(2Ã?4) and InGaAs(001

Kummel, Andrew C.


Structural and electronic properties of group III Rich In0.53Ga0.47As(001) Jian Shen a,b  

E-print Network

Structural and electronic properties of group III Rich In0.53Ga0.47As(001) Jian Shen a,b , Jonathon gallium arsenide Bader charge The structural and electronic properties of group III rich In0.53Ga0.47As (300 K), STM images show that the In0.53Ga0.47As(001)­(4�2) reconstruction is comprised of undimerized

Kummel, Andrew C.


Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing



North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20:570574, 2000 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2000  

E-print Network

, common carp Cyprinus carpio, bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio carpio, bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinel- lus, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, shorthead redhorse


Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure.  


Fish, being an important native of the aquatic ecosystem, are exposed to multipollution states and are therefore considered as model organisms for ecotoxicological studies of aquatic pollutants, including metal toxicity. We investigated oxidative stress (OS) in liver, kidney and gill tissues through antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity induced in whole blood and gill tissues through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in Cyprinus carpio after 96-hour in vivo static exposure to potassium dichromate at three sublethal (SL) test concentrations, including SL-I [93.95 mg/L, i.e. one quarter of half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50)], SL-II (187.9 mg/L, i.e. one half of LC50), and SL-III (281.85 mg/L, i.e. three quarters of LC50), along with a control. The 96-hour LC50 value for potassium dichromate was estimated to be 375.8 mg/L in a static system in the test species. Tissues samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexposure. Results indicated that the exposed fish experienced OS as characterized by significant (p < 0.05) variation in antioxidant enzyme activities, as compared to the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased, whereas activity of catalase decreased with the progression of the experiment. The mean percent DNA damage in comet tail and MN induction in gills and whole blood showed a concentration-dependent increase up to 96-hour exposure. The findings of this study would be helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr(VI)-induced OS and genotoxicity in fishes. PMID:23534497

Kumar, Pavan; Kumar, Ravindra; Nagpure, Naresh S; Nautiyal, Prakash; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Dabas, Anurag




E-print Network

The aquatic biota is being contaminated with heavy metals due to industrialization and anthropogenic activities. In present study, the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tissues of fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio communis was determined. EBWR is a hyper-eutrophic urban Edulabad Water Reservoir (EBWR) located in Andhra Pradesh, India, which is being polluted from industrial, domestic and sewage effluents. The metal concentrations in EBWR reservoir were found to be higher than Indian standard limits and exhibiting the following sequence, Fe> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. All these metal concentrations were slightly increased in 2006-07 when compared to 2005-06. Since, the heavy metals could find their way into the human food chain; we analyzed bioaccumulation of these metals in the fish tissues. Pb, Fe and Ni concentration in the order of liver> gill> kidney. Cr and Cd concentration in order of kidney> gill> liver and liver> kidney> gill. The bioaccumulation of these metals in fish tissues were of the following trend, Cd> Cr> Fe> Ni> Pb. Higher bioaccumulation factors were found for Cd in liver, gill and kidney indicated the sensitivity of fish to this metal even at low concentrations. Further, the bioaccumulations were lesser in monsoon than pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons throughout two consecutive years. These bioaccumulations can possibly attribute to relationship between abiotic factors and physiological characteristics. Further, glycogen and lipid contents were decreased predominantly in pre-monsoon season with sequence of gill> liver> kidney and liver> gill> kidney respectively. The present study indicates that the presence of heavy metals in EBWR might be affecting aquatic life through bioaccumulation.

Pharm Res; Vidyasagar Gummadavelli Et Al; Vidyasagar Gummadavelli; Ravi Shankar Piska; Sreenu Noothi; Pavan K Manikonda


Toxic and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Native Aquatic Macrophytes on Exotic Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass

Joseph E. Murphy; Kimberlee B. Beckmen; Julie K. Johnson; Rhian B. Cope; Todd Lawmaster; Val R. Beasley




EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...


Fluctuations in gonadotropin and ovarian steroids during the annual cycle and spawning of the common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the paper is to describe the annual changes in hormones associated with reproduction in the female carp under the conditions prevailing in the Israeli fish culture. Fish were sampled monthly throughout 1984; gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated and the diameter of ovarian follicles was measured. Gonadotropin (GTH) content in the pituitary and the circulating GTH, estradiol,

Zvi Yaron; Berta Levavi-Zermonsky



Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich



Establishment and evaluation of a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) preadipocytes.  


The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp preadipocytes. The morphology characteristic from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes was observed with the microscopic morphology, and the proliferation kinetics of cells was tested by cell counting. In addition, the nature