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Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with commercial feed supplemented with 1.0% (diet 1) and 1.5% (diet 2) TCM at 10 day of post-feeding were not different from those of the control group fed with feed unsupplemented TCM 10 days post-feeding (P>0.05), but at 20 and 30 days they increased significantly (P<0.05). The values of diet 1 group and diet 2 group at 20 day and at 30 day were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other. In addition, the TCM formula increased body weight of experimental fish by about 16.84% (diet 1) and 19% (diet 2) above that of the control group. Therefore, these data suggest that the TCM formula could elevate the function of non-specific immunity of Jian carp. The optimal dosage added to commercial carp feed was 1.0% (w/w) and the oral administration time as a course of treatment was 20 days. PMID:15123322

Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of multiple leptin genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


Three leptin genes (jlLEP-A1, jlLEP-A2 and jlLEP-B) were cloned and characterized in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), with a highly conserved organization encoded by two exons and one intron. jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 contained 93 and 102bp introns, respectively, encoding a 171-amino acid protein. jlLEP-B contained a 687bp intron encoding a 168-aa protein. jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 shared 82.5% identity, but only 29.2% and 28.6% with jlLEP-B, respectively. jlLEP-A1, jlLEP-A2, and jlLEP-B were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the expression pattern differed between juveniles and adults (and females and males). In juveniles, the expression of jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-B was higher than jlLEP-A2, and was the highest in the liver and gonad. In females, jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 expression was the highest in the hypothalamus and liver, whereas jlLEP-B mRNA was detected at low levels in all tissues. In males, jlLEP-A1 mRNA was expressed primarily in the hypothalamus, with only very low levels in the peripheral tissues. jlLEP-A2 and jlLEP-B mRNA were primarily expressed in the muscle, hypothalamus, and liver. The expression of jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-B mRNA was high in the ovary and testis, respectively. Our results suggest that leptins play an important physiological role in reproduction. PMID:23959260

Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Juhua; Li, Hongxia; Xu, Pao; Li, Jianlin; Ren, Hongtao



cDNA sequence and tissues expression analysis of lipoprotein lipase from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio Var. Jian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA coding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was cloned from liver of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio Var. Jian) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The cDNA obtained was 2,411 bp long with a 1,524 bp\\u000a open reading frame (ORF) encoding 507 amino acids. This amino acid sequence contains two structural regions: N-terminus (24–354\\u000a residues) and C-terminus (355–507

Han-liang Cheng; Si-ping Sun; Yong-xing Peng; Xiao-yun Shi; Xin Shen; Xue-ping Meng; Zhi-guo Dong



Effects of graded levels of dietary methionine hydroxy analogue on immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


Immune response and antioxidant status of immune organs in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) fed graded levels of methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) (0, 5.1, 7.6, 10.2, 12.7, 15.3 g kg(-1) diet) for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that head kidney index, spleen index, red and white blood cell counts significantly increased with increasing MHA levels up to a point (P < 0.05), whereupon decreased (P < 0.05). Glutathione reductase activity in head kidney and spleen, anti-hydroxy radical and glutathione-S-transferase activities in spleen, catalase activity and GSH content in head kidney significantly increased by MHA supplement, while malondialdehyde content, anti-superoxide anion, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities in head kidney and spleen, protein carbonyl content and catalase activity in spleen, anti-hydroxy radical activity in head kidney significantly decreased by MHA supplement. However, protein carbonyl content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in head kidney, GSH content in spleen remained unaffected. After 60-day feeding trial, a challenge study was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 17 days. Results showed that survival rate, leukocytes phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, total iron-binding capacity, haemagglutination titre, complement 3, 4 and immunoglobulin M contents significantly increased by optimal dietary MHA supplement (P < 0.05). These data suggested that MHA affected antioxidant status of immune organs and promoted immune response in juvenile Jian carp. PMID:22245840

Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Hu, Kai; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Dietary choline modulates immune responses, and gene expressions of TOR and eIF4E-binding protein2 in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on immune parameters, immune-related gene expression and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, Fish were challenged with AH and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly enhanced spleen and head kidney weights, spleen index, red blood cell and white blood cell counts, and intestinal Lactobacillus counts of juvenile Jian carp; whereas, intestinal Escherichia coli and A. hydrophila counts decreased. Moreover, the post-challenge survival rate, leucocyte phagocytic capacity, serum lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, hemagglutination titer, complement 3 and 4 contents, immunoglobulin M content, and anti-AH antibody titer were significantly enhanced by choline and the lowest in choline-deficient group, while serum total iron-binding capacity was the highest in choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of interleukin 10 in spleen and head kidney, target of rapamycin (TOR) in spleen and eIF4E-binding protein2 (4E-BP2) in head kidney significantly increased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expressions of interleukin 1?, tumor necrosis factor ? and transforming growth factor ?2 in spleen and head kidney, TOR in head kidney and 4E-BP2 in spleen significantly decreased. In conclusion, dietary choline improved disease resistance, enhanced the immune function, and regulated immune-related gene expression of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:23774323

Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Phenotypic Changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian Introduced by Sperm-Mediated Transgenesis of Rearranged Homologous DNA Fragments.  


Common carp, specifically the Jian variety (Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical variations, thus optimizing artificially engineered carp stocks with Jian variety and native stock varieties. Random rearrangement of homologous DNA fragments from parent specimens of C. carpiovar var. Jian were attained by digestion of genomic DNA with MspI followed by religation and redigestion with EcoR I to specifically rearrange homologous DNA fragments of myostatin and microsatellite genes. Based on known characteristics of myostatin gene function, growth pattern changes in resultant carp mutant varieties was expected. DNA fragments were introduced into metaphase-II oocytes, resulting in one to several dozen insertions of homologous fragments into the host genome by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Introduction of rearranged homologous DNA fragments often resulted in phenotypic changes in C. carpiovar var. Jian, including significant phenotypic changes linked to growth rate at 4 months. PMID:23824532

Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao



Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova



[Sequences analysis of jlFABP2 and the correlation between polymorphisms and body weight gain in Cyprinus carpio var. jian].  


Two replicate intestine fatty acid binding protein genes (jlFABP2a and jlFABP2b) were cloned from Cyprinus carpio var. jian using PCR. Both ORFs were 399 bp in length sharing 92.2% similarity with each other, and 88.0% and 90.5% with their counterpart in zebrafish, respectively. The gene structure of jlFABP2s was same as other FABPs, which contained four exons and three introns. Sequences and lengths of introns between 2a and 2b. were obviously different Phylogenetic tree displayed that two jlFABP2s corresponded to one zebrafish FABP2 which matches the fact that the chromosome number of common carp was twice of zebrafish. Real time-PCR showed that jlFABP2 genes mainly expressed in intestine and the expression level was very significantly higher than other tissues such as brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and gonad (P<0.01). The expression level of jlFABP2a was significantly (male, P<0.05) or very significantly (females, P<0.01) higher than 2b in intestine; and 2b was expressed slightly higher than 2a in other tissues. It seemed that 2a expressed specifically in intestine, while 2b expressed ubiquitously. Twelve and four SNP loci were found at jlFABP2a and 2b introns through comparison sequences from 8 individuals, respectively. Genotypes of I1-A15G, I1-A99G, I2-C487T, and I3-A27T on jlFABP2a were detected using PCR-RFLP in selection population of C. carpio var. jian. The SNP genotypes and individual weight gain correlation indicated that four SNPs were significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) associated with adult weight gain. Diplotype analysis displayed that individuals with genotype AGGGCCXX or AGGGXXAT grew faster than other individuals by 15%. The individuals with these two genotypes only occupied 9% in total selection populations, indicating the presence of large selection space. The 4 SNPs detected in this experiment can be used in C. carpio var. Jian growth selection breeding plan. PMID:23732670

Xia, Zheng-Long; Yu, Ju-Hua; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Jian-Lin; Tang, Yong-Kai; Ren, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Shuang-Ning



Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.



Life History and Ecology of Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of life history and ecology of carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were conducted from June 1964 through August 1969, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico. Carp are the least abundant and constitute the smallest management problem of three rough-fish sp...

C. Sanchez



Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics



Seasonal Variation in Condition Factor, Gonadosomatic Index and Processing Yield of Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length-weight relationship parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio) males, females, and combined sexes were calculated. Seasonal variations in condition factor (K), gonadosomatic index (GSI), and processing yield of wild carp are presented. A resting period (October-March) and another one of rapid growth (April-September) were observed in gonads of female carp. Spawning took place in August-September. During the gonadal resting period, high

Aurora Zugarramurdi; María Amelia Parin; Liliana Gadaleta; Guillermo A. Carrizo; Claudia Montecchia; Ricardo L. Boeri; Daniel H. Giannini



[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  


Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K



Concentration Effects of Selected Insecticides on Brain Acetylcholinesterase in the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration–response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96

Korami Dembélé; Eric Haubruge; Charles Gaspar



Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas



Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong



Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: Ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish populations, limnological conditions, lake basin morphology and watershed characteristics to evaluate patterns in population characteristics of ecologically important fish species in relation to environmental conditions in agriculturally eutrophic lake systems. Fish populations and environmental characteristics were sampled from 129 Iowa lakes using standard techniques from 2001–2006. Lakes with high catch rates of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) had

Zachary J. Jackson; Michael C. Quist; John A. Downing; Joseph G. Larscheid



Invasive potential of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in American freshwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonnative fish introductions disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South America, these introductions stem from aquaculture facilities, as well as historical introductions for recreational angling. An emergent field of

Luis Zambrano; Enrique Martínez-Meyer; Naercio Menezes; A. Townsend Peterson



Hypoxia and recovery perturb free radical processes and antioxidant potential in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hypoxia exposure and subsequent normoxic recovery on the levels of lipid peroxides (LOOH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonylproteins, total glutathione levels, and the activities of six antioxidant enzymes were measured in brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Hypoxia exposure (25% of normal oxygen level) for 5h generally decreased the levels

Volodymyr I. Lushchak; Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Oleh V. Lushchak; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey



Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling



Socioeconomic characterisation of specialised common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) anglers in Germany, and implications for inland fisheries management and eutrophication control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater ecosystems suffer from dense common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks. From the ecological point of view, high carp densities are not desirable because of several negative impacts (e.g. bioturbation, competition with other benthivores). A mail and internet survey among specialised carp anglers (SCAs) (n=710) suggests that, in Germany, carp anglers’ catch exceeds commercial carp harvest by up to

Robert Arlinghaus; Thomas Mehner



Effects of 2Phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profi le on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velíšek J., Z. Svobodová, V. Pia?ková: Effects of 2-Phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profi le on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 487-492. The aim of this study was to assess changes in haematological profi le of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after the exposure to anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol. The




A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Releases of non-native fish into the wild is an increasing problem posing considerable ecological and genetic threats through direct competition and hybridisation. 2. We employed six microsatellite markers to identify first generation hybrids and backcrosses between native crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and introduced goldfish (C. auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the U.K. We also investigated the



[Polymorphism of the cytochrome oxidase b gene (cyt b) in Russian populations of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


Polymorphism of the mitochondrial cyt b gene was examined in 35 individuals of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish examined represented two natural populations from Khabarovsk krai (Ac and Am), Volga wild common carp, Don wild common carp, and two common carp breeds, Ropsha (strains BB and MM) common carp and Hungarian common carp. The highest level of nucleotide (pi) and haplotype (h) diversity was detected in two strains of Ropsha common carp (MM, pi = 0.67%, h = 0.7; and BB, pi = 0.21%, h = 0.9) and in one population (Am) of Amur wild common carp (pi = 0.26%; h = 0.6). The second population of Amur wild common carp (Ac) and Hungarian common carp were characterized by lower variation estimates (pi = 0.035%, h = 0.4; and pi = 0.09%, h = 0.7, respectively). Genetic homogeneity was demonstrated for the populations of Volga and Don wild common carp (pi = 0, h = 0). In the sample of the cyt b sequences examined, three lineages were identified. Lineages I and II united all haplotypes of the Am Amur wild common carp along with two haplotypes of Ropsha common carp, strain MM. The third lineage (III) was formed by the haplotypes of three individuals of Ropsha common carp strain MM, all representatives of Ropsha common carp strain BB, Hungarian common carp, Ac Amur wild common carp, and Don and Volga wild common carps. Statistically significant amino acid differences were observed only for the sequences, corresponding to haplotypes of lineage III, and the sum of sequences of lineages I and II. Effectiveness of different types of markers to differentiate the two subspecies of European and Amur wild common carp (C. c. carpio and C. c. haematopterus) is discussed, as well as the issues of the origin and dispersal of Russian common carp and wild common carp breeds. PMID:22567860

Torgunakova, O A; Khrisanfov, V E; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



Anaesthetic properties of Propiscin (Etomidaat) and 2-phenoxyethanol in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), neural and behavioural measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effects of Propiscin (2% etomidate) and 2-phenoxyethanol on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by observing neural and behavioural measures. When exposed to the anaesthetic agent, the carp lost equilibrium after approximately 90 s of exposure. They did not breathe and the controls did not respond to tail pinch or prick

Bert Lambooij; Maciek Pilarczyk; Henrik Bialowas; Henny Reimert; G. Andre; Vis van de J. W



Effects of Primary Exposure to Environmental and Natural Estrogens on Vitellogenin Production in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (vtg) is a precursor of the yolk proteins lipovitelline and phosvitin and is synthesized as a consequence of estrogen-depen- dent gene expression in female and male hepatocytes of egg-laying vertebrates. Freshly isolated carp hepatocytes of a genetically uni- form strain of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to inves- tigate the effects of primary exposure to estrogenic compounds

T. Rouhani Rankouhi; I. van Holsteijn; R. Letcher; J. P. Giesy; M. van den Berg



Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio was injected 108 cfu\\/ml with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. After inoculation, the disease signs began on the 7th day as a haemorrhagic spot at the site of injection and the lesion subsequently progressed in size. After this period, the mortality of infected group was 10±5% daily; hence, they were dip treated

R Harikrishnan; M Nisha Rani; C Balasundaram



Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg mż3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded groups after 15, 39 and 87 hours of crowding (hc). A transient elevation

N. M. Ruane; E. C. Carballo; J. Komen



Comparison of the exomes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).  


Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4-1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which--due to a higher degree of compactness--did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; Jansen, Hans J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Spaink, Herman P



Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.



PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.  


Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation. PMID:20609460

Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S



Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp ( Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ? ×  Cyprinus carpio ?) fed different carbohydrate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6 ± 0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ? × Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7 ± 0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each.\\u000a The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g?1 (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content

Chun Fang Cai; Yuan Tu Ye; Li Qiao Chen; Jian Guang Qin; Yong Ling Wang



Fasting and Renourishment of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.), 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of artificial complete fasting of carp on variations of their content of polysomal and ribosomal RNA, as well as of soluble RNA, was investigated. This effect was ascertained by separately weighing the specimens and their livers, as well as by ...

G. Bouche J. F. Narbonne A. Serfaty



Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The main indication of cimetidine is being H2-receptor antagonist, but studies suggest that cimetidine may also act as a non-specific stimulant of cell-mediated immunity and immunomodulator. In order to determine the immunomodulatory effect of dietary intake of cimetidine in the common carp (100 ± 10 g), subjects were fed diets containing 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 mg cimetidine kg(-1) of dry diet for a period of 6 weeks. TLC and NBT assays were significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated in cimetidine-supplemented groups displaying the highest value in 200 mg kg(-1) group. A decrease (P < 0.05) in cortisol and ACH50 value was recorded in fish treated with cimetidine. Serum protein, albumin and serum globulin levels were not significantly changed. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the incorporation of cimetidine in the diet of common carp enhances the non-specific immunity. PMID:23703690

Hosseinifard, Seyyed Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Asieh; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Razeghi Mansour, Majid; Ebrahimpour, Arezo



Red cell function of carp (Cyprinus carpio) in acute hypoxia.  


The red cell function of carp, subjected to acute hypoxia, was studied. During hypoxic exposure red cell water content, sodium and chloride concentration and pH increased, whereas plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased. Treatment of the animals with a beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, before the onset of hypoxia, largely inhibited the increase in red cell water content, diminished the changes in red cell pH and prevented the changes in red cell and plasma sodium concentration. The red cell chloride concentration increased also in propranolol-treated animals thus illustrating the effect of the deoxygenation of haemoglobin on the ion concentrations of red cells. These data indicate that adrenergic activation of sodium/proton exchange across red cell membrane plays a role in the acute responses of carp to hypoxia. PMID:2822469

Nikinmaa, M; Cech, J J; Ryhänen, E L; Salama, A



Hexavalent chromium: Toxicity and impact on carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hexavalent chromium on the carp,Cyprinus carpio was assessed using static bioassay. The 96h LC50 was found to be 93.6mg · l-1. In carp exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium (15 and 25 mg · l-1), significant depletion of liver and muscle glycogen and decreasing leucocyte counts were recorded during prolonged exposure and with increasing concentration of chromium.

A. S. Al-Akel; M. J. K. Shamsi



Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol




Detrimental Effects of Metronidazole on the Liver of Freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The widely used antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) was investigated for its toxic effects on the liver of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/L MTZ in water for 30 days, and parameters that are indicative of liver damage and oxidative stress were measured. MTZ increased liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels, and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. These parameters usually showed significant differences in the 0.5 and 2.5 mg/L MTZ groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). These findings indicated that MTZ induced oxidative stress and caused liver damage in common carp, suggesting that measures should be taken to avoid contamination of surface waters with MTZ. PMID:23884169

Han, Junyan; Cai, Huixin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guangchun



Structure, organization and expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) SLP-76 gene.  


SLP-76 is an important member of the SLP-76 family of adapters, and it plays a key role in TCR signaling and T cell function. Partial cDNA sequence of SLP-76 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was isolated from thymus cDNA library by the method of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Subsequently, the full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was obtained by means of 3' RACE and 5' RACE, respectively. The full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was 2007 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 285 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 240 bp, and an open reading frame of 1482 bp. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of carp SLP-76 had an overall similarity of 34-73% to that of other species homologues, and it was composed of an NH2-terminal domain, a central proline-rich domain, and a C-terminal SH2 domain. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated the existence of a Gads binding site R-X-X-K, a 10-aa-long sequence which binds to the SH3 domain of LCK in vitro, and three conserved tyrosine-containing sequence in the NH2-terminal domain. Then we used PCR to obtain a genomic DNA which covers the entire coding region of carp SLP-76. In the 9.2k-long genomic sequence, twenty one exons and twenty introns were identified. RT-PCR results showed that carp SLP-76 was expressed predominantly in hematopoietic tissues, and was upregulated in thymus tissue of four-month carp compared to one-year old carp. RT-PCR and virtual northern hybridization results showed that carp SLP-76 was also upregulated in thymus tissue of GH transgenic carp at the age of four-months. These results suggest that the expression level of SLP-76 gene may be related to thymocyte development in teleosts. PMID:18353678

Huang, Rong; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Ping; Guo, Qiong-Lin



Isolation and characterization of beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


A beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio) was isolated from a genomic EMBL3 library. The nucleotide sequence of the gene indicates six exons spanning 3.6 kb. Southern blot hybridization of restriction endonuclease digests of carp genomic DNA indicate that there are two copies of the beta-actin isotype and several other species of actin genes. The transcriptional start site is 85 bp and 24 bp downstream respectively from consensus CCAAT and TATA promoter elements. The organization of the carp beta-actin gene is identical to that of chicken, human, and rat genes in terms of size, exon/intron locations and junctions and in having a translationally silent first exon. The fish gene is 90% and 99% conserved at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, with land vertebrate beta-actin genes. Northern blot analysis of beta-actin gene expression indicated that the gene is highly expressed in brain, less so in muscle, and much less so in liver cells. The putative beta-actin proximal promoter of carp, identified by the conservation of known actin regulatory sequences, is transcriptionally active in both mammalian and piscine cells. PMID:2134183

Liu, Z J; Zhu, Z Y; Roberg, K; Faras, A; Guise, K; Kapuscinski, A R; Hackett, P B




Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna liver meal (TLM) was tested to replace fish meal (FM) in diets for carp fry, Cyprinus carpio Linneus, 1758. Triplicate groups of fish with average weight of 0.32 ± 0.65g were fed each of six isonitogenous (42%), isolipidic (16%) and isoenergetic (18 KJ DE g -1 ) diets prepared to include 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (diets



Effect of different cyanobacterial biomasses and their fractions with variable microcystin content on embryonal development of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous studies focused on the effects of microcystins, the role of other components of complex cyanobacterial water blooms in toxicity is poorly understood. In this study we have evaluated effects of various fractions of cyanobacterial biomass with different composition and microcystin content on embryolarval development of carp (Cyprinus carpio). The following samples (fractions) of four natural water blooms were

Miroslava Palíková; Roman Krej?í; Klára Hilscherová; Pavel Babica; Stanislav Navrátil; Radovan Kopp; Lud?k Bláha




EPA Science Inventory

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...


Seasonal variation of plasmatic and hepatic vitellogenin and EROD activity in carp, Cyprinus carpio, in relation to sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the health of aquatic fauna living in waters containing biologically active levels of estrogenic compounds is particularly focused on the effects on their reproductive success. To that end, carp, Cyprinus carpio, a feral fish living in warm waters of Southern Europe (NE Spain), were selected for signs of estrogenicity. The study area covered two tributaries (the Anoia and

Montserrat Solé; Damiŕ Barceló; Cinta Porte



Effects of the “all-fish” GH (growth hormone) transgene expression on resistance to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken on the susceptibility of the F4 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone transgenic carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections. When 1-year old, transgenic carp, with non-transgenic carp and non-manipulated carp (controls) were split into three batches, and experimental infections were performed throughout the 3-month period. All 72 fish were successfully infected. It was shown that

Fei Ling; Qing Luo; Jian-Guo Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Wen-Bo Wang; Xiao-Ning Gong



Koi herpesvirus epizootic in cultured carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L., in Taiwan.  


Koi herpesvirus (KHV) poses a significant threat to cultured koi and common carp, both Cyprinus carpio L. Since the first reported case in Israel in 1998, KHV has rapidly spread worldwide. This study investigates the spread of KHV to Taiwan by collecting 49 cases of suspected common carp and koi infections from 2003 to 2005 for analysis. Clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, increased respiratory movements and uncoordinated swimming. Hyperaemia, haemorrhage on body surface and necrotic gill filaments were recorded. Gill epithelial hyperplasia, necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed by histological examination, while virions were detected using transmission electron microscopy. By detecting the presence of the KHV thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the KHV 9/5 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 37 cases were identified as KHV-positive, and the cumulative mortality of infected fish was 70-100%. Positive cases showed identical sequences for the genes analysed, implying that they were of the same origin. For the KHV 9/5 gene sequence, these cases exhibited 100% identity with the Japanese strain (TUMST1, accession number AP008984) and 99% identity with the Israeli (KHV-I, DQ177346) and US (KHV-U, DQ657948) strains. Additionally, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was performed and found to be more sensitive than PCR tests, suggesting its potential use as a rapid diagnostic method for KHV. This is the first epidemiological study of KHV infection in cultured common carp and koi in Taiwan. PMID:21675996

Cheng, L; Chen, C-Y; Tsai, M-A; Wang, P-C; Hsu, J-P; Chern, R-S; Chen, S-C



Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: A lakewide survey.  


Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

Stong, Todd; Osuna, Claudia Alvarado; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; de Jesús Díaz Torres, José



Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.  


Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian



Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.



Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.



Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi



Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.  


In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu



Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of the zebrafish genome. BES of common carp are tremendous tools for comparative mapping between the two closely related species, zebrafish and common carp, which should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in common carp.



Allelic discrimination, three-dimensional analysis and gene expression of multiple transferrin alleles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


We cloned and sequenced four different transferrin (Tf) alleles (C, D, F and G) of European common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) and studied allelic diversity with respect to differences in sequence, constitutive transcription and three-dimensional structure. Most of the disulfide bonds were conserved between human and carp Tf, and modeling confirmed the overall conservation of the three-dimensional structure of carp Tf. While the iron-binding sites in the C-lobe of carp Tf were completely conserved, in the N-lobe the majority of iron-coordinating residues were not conserved. This may have a serious impact on the ability of carp Tf to bind iron with both the C- and N-lobe. In contrast to human Tf, we could not detect potential N-glycosylation sites in carp Tf, which does not seem to be a glycoprotein. Comparison of the cDNA of the four Tf alleles of carp indicated 21 polymorphic sites of which 13 resulted in non-synonymous changes. Allelic diversity did not seem to influence the overall conservation of carp Tf. Neither the iron binding sites nor the receptor binding of carp Tf seemed influenced by allelic diversity. Possibly, interaction with pathogen-associated receptors for Tf could be influenced by allelic diversity. Basal gene expression of Tf alleles D and G was especially high in carp liver. Although we could detect a higher transcription level of allele D than of Tf allele G in head kidney, thymus and spleen, the differences seem minor with respect to the very high transcription level in liver. Preliminary results with Tf-typed serum suggest a difference in the ability of Tf alleles D and G to modulate LPS-induced NO production in carp macrophages. PMID:18824109

Jurecka, Patrycja; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Westphal, Adrie H; Forlenza, Maria; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F



Survival of F2 Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Containing pRSVrtGH1 Complementary DNA When Subjected to Low Dissolved Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract The survival and tolerance of F2 transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) containing pRSVrtGH1 complementary DNA\\u000a were compared with nontransgenic (control) common carp when subjected to low dissolved oxygen. The tolerance of low oxygen\\u000a was evaluated in 8 families of common carp in rectangular tanks (3 ? 1 ? 1 m). The absolute mean percentage of survival of\\u000a transgenic common

Rex A. Dunham; Nagaraj Chatakondi; Amy Nichols; Thomas T. Chen; D. A. Powers; Huseyin Kucuktas



Effects of Iron Sulfate Dosage on the Water Flea ( Daphnia magna Straus) and Early Development of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult water fleas, Daphnia magna Straus, and the early life stages of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were exposed to river water near an iron sulfate dosage installation to determine the effects of phosphate precipitation\\u000a with iron(II)sulfate. Tests were conducted during two consecutive dosage periods of 3,000 and 5,000 kg\\/day iron sulfate (520\\u000a and 620 ?g\\/L total Fe respectively) at the

F. A. T. Spanings; A. H. Knol; J. A. van der Velden; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga



Major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like genes. The Cyca-DAB1-like genes especially, could be linked to high polymorphism and

Krzysztof ?. Rakus; Geert F. Wiegertjes; Patrycja Jurecka; Peter D. Walker; Andrzej Pilarczyk; Ilgiz Irnazarow



Subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to Microcystis under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was investigated in this study. The fish (mean body weight of 322±36g, n=10) were orally exposed to Microcystis by feeding with bloom scum at a dose of 50?g microcystins\\/kg body weight under laboratory conditions for 28 days. Growth assay results showed that microcystin could completely inhibit the growth

Xiao-Yu Li; Ik-Kyo Chung; Jung-In Kim; Jin-Ae Lee



Experimental xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The potential anesthetic effect of ketamine in combination with xylazine was examined in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Anesthesia (indicated by cessation of voluntary swimming and loss of responses to pinching the skin with forceps and pricking the tail with a needle) was induced by mixing 14.4 ml of ketamine (5% solution), or 11.4 ml of xylazine (2% solution), or both, in 10 l of water containing 10 fish/group. Xylazine alone induced sedation and anesthesia in 5-12.3 min with a mean duration of 7.3 min. Ketamine alone induced similar effects in 7.2-9.7 min for an average of 24.2 min. Combined xylazine and ketamine took longer (14-22.8 min) to induce sedation and anesthesia, but the duration was longer (42.7 min). The respiratory rates of anesthetized fish significantly decreased in all treatments when compared to controls. In conclusion, the combination of xylazine-ketamine was found to induce smooth anesthesia in the common carp for a time sufficient for common clinical and surgical interventions. PMID:20688657

Al-Hamdani, A H; Ebrahim, S K; Mohammad, F K



Effect of phenol on ovarian secretion of 17?-estradiol in common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


Phenol is a common substance present in many industrial wastewaters and in nonspecific pesticides. Due to its solubility and volatility phenol is often found in marine and freshwater environment. It is lipophilic compound and has a high potential for accumulating along the trophic chain. Phenol thus is not only a threat to natural environment but also to human health. The effects of phenol on the secretion of 17?-estradiol were examined in female common carp Cyprinus carpio. Vitellogenic stage fish were exposed to physiological safe dose of phenol for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h. In the in vitro experiments, vitellogenic follicles were incubated with phenol and dose- and time-course effects on leuteinising hormone (LH) induced steroid production were examined. Exposure of fish with phenol gradually attenuated serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels with increasing time and maximum inhibition was noticed after 96 h. Administration of phenol significantly inhibited LH-induced secretion of 17?-estradiol by the ovarian follicles in vitro. To clarify the mechanism of attenuated production of 17?-estradiol in phenol-treated follicles, stimulated by LH, in vitro effect phenol and LH on aromatase activity (conversion of testosterone to 17?-estradiol) and cytochrome P450arom gene expression in carp ovarian follicles were investigated. Physiological safe dose of phenol significantly inhibited LH-stimulated aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression in ovarian follicles. The present study further demonstrated that LH-induced activation of ovarian steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is strongly inhibited by phenol treatment. These results suggest that physiological safe dose of phenol as endocrine disruption (ED) potential and the effect can be mediated via several cellular pathways including the inhibition of SF-1 activity, aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression. PMID:23423282

Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Mukherjee, Dilip



Kinematics and muscle dynamics of C- and S-starts of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


An analysis is presented of body curvature, acceleration and muscle strain during fast-starts in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). C- and S-starts were filmed at 200 frames s-1 at 23 degreesC. Curvatures and accelerations of mid-body axes were calculated from digitised outlines. Maximum accelerations at 0.3 FL (fork length) from the snout were 54 m s-2 for C-starts and 40 m s-2 for S-starts. The total turning angle was approximately 150 degrees in C-starts. This angle was 70 degrees during escape S-starts, significantly larger than for predatory S-starts in other species. Sarcomere strains of axial muscle fibres were calculated at 0.4 and 0.8 FL. During C-starts, white muscle fibres were exposed to maximum sarcomere strains of up to approximately 16 %, and posterior fibres had similar strains to anterior fibres (red 27 %; white 16 %). During S-starts, however, maximum strains in anterior fibres (red 39 %; white 24 %) were more than twice those in posterior fibres (red 17 %; white 10 %). In a C-start, the fish made a large turning angle directed away from the stimulus by bending its tail strongly and thereby producing a large thrust. A larger anterior peak curvature of the fish during S-starts enabled the carp to control the direction of escape better than during C-starts, but with lower accelerations and smaller turning angles. During cyclic and intermittent swimming, red posterior fibres experienced the largest strains. Interestingly, previous studies have shown these fibres to have the lowest passive stiffness and the largest titin isoform, allowing them to attain large strain amplitudes with relatively low passive tensions. PMID:9914147

Spierts; Leeuwen



Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation and elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms.  


Two species of common edible fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were exposed to a Microcystis spp.-dominated natural cyanobacterial water bloom for two months (concentrations of cyanobacterial toxin microcystin, 182-539 microg/g biomass dry wt). Toxins accumulated up to 1.4 to 29 ng/g fresh weight and 3.3 to 19 ng/g in the muscle of silver carp and common carp, respectively, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay. Concentrations an order of magnitude higher were detected in hepatopancreas (up to 226 ng/g in silver carp), with a peak after the initial four weeks. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 for muscle and from 7.3 to 13.3 for hepatopancreas. Microcystins were completely eliminated within one to two weeks from both muscle and hepatopancreas after the transfer of fish with accumulated toxins to clean water. Mean estimated elimination half-lives ranged from 0.7 d in silver carp muscle to 8.4 d in common carp liver. The present study also showed significant modulations of several biochemical markers in hepatopancreas of fish exposed to cyanobacteria. Levels of glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were induced in both species, indicating oxidative stress and enhanced detoxification processes. Calculation of hazard indexes using conservative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology indicated rather low risks of microcystins accumulated in edible fish, but several uncertainties should be explored. PMID:18020691

Adamovský, Ondrej; Kopp, Radovan; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, Miroslava; Pasková, Veronika; Navrátil, Stanislav; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek



Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A



Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 ?g/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 ?g/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress. PMID:20888428

Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevăo; Zanella, Renato



Primary genome scan for complex body shape-related traits in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect body shape in common carp Cyprinus carpio, a linkage map, 2159·23 cM long, was constructed with a total of 307 markers covering 51 linkage groups (LG). The map included 167 new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from expressed sequence tags (EST) together with 140 microsatellite markers reported earlier. A primary genome scan was conducted for QTL for standard length (L(S)), head length (L(H)), body height (H(B)), body width (W(B)) and tail length (L(TAIL)) in an F1 line containing 92 offspring. A total of 15 suggestive QTL on six LGs were found to associate with L(S), L(H), H(B), W(B) and L(TAIL) which explained 10·7-17·4% of the variance. Five significant QTL were detected for body-shape related traits and located for LGs (lg1, 12 and 20). These QTL included: one associated with L(S) (21·1% variance explained), three for H(B) (almost 20% variance explained) and one for W(B) (20·7% variance explained). PMID:23331142

Zhang, Y; Wang, S; Li, J; Zhang, X; Jiang, L; Xu, P; Lu, C; Wan, Y; Sun, X



Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon



Characterization of a novel cell line from the caudal fin of koi carp Cyprinus carpio.  


A continuous cell line (KF-101) derived from the caudal fin of the koi carp Cyprinus carpio was established and characterized. The KF-101 cell line multiplied abundantly in Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum at 25° C, and was subcultured for >90 passages over a period of 3 years. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the KF-101 cells contain keratin, junction proteins connexin-43 and occludin, and ectodermal stem-cell marker Pax-6, but not vimentin. Furthermore, the KF-101 cells reacted with anti-human DARPP-32 and anti-human GATA-4 antibodies, and the labelling was regulated according to the cell cycle. The labels of the DARPP-32 and GATA-4 antibodies in the KF-101 cells were the suggested phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 and GATA-3, respectively. In addition, the KF-101 cells were susceptible to koi herpesvirus but were resistant to eel herpesvirus, iridovirus, grouper nodavirus and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) virus. The results indicate that the KF-101 cells are suitable materials for investigating biological and virological development. PMID:23731143

Lin, S-L; Cheng, Y-H; Wen, C-M; Chen, S-N



Recombinant human leptin attenuates stress axis activity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Proper functioning of the endocrine stress axis requires communication between the stress axis and other regulatory mechanisms. We here describe an intimate interplay between the stress axis and recombinant human leptin (rhLeptin) in a teleostean fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Restraint stress (by netting up to 96h) increased plasma cortisol but did not affect hepatic leptin expression. Perifusion of pituitary glands or head kidneys with rhLeptin revealed direct effects of rhLeptin on both tissues. RhLeptin suppresses basal and CRF-induced ACTH-secretion in a rapid and concentration-dependent manner. The rhLeptin effect persisted for over an hour after administration had been terminated. RhLeptin decreases basal interrenal cortisol secretion in vitro, and by doing so attenuates ACTH-stimulated cortisol production; rhLeptin does not affect interrenal ACTH-sensitivity. Our findings show that the endocrine stress axis activity and leptin are inseparably linked in a teleostean fish, a notion relevant to further our insights in the evolution of leptin physiology in vertebrates. PMID:22543190

Gorissen, Marnix; Bernier, Nicholas J; Manuel, Remy; de Gelder, Stefan; Metz, Juriaan R; Huising, Mark O; Flik, Gert



Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.



Effect of Mozart's music (Romanze-Andante of “Eine Kleine Nacht Musik”, sol major, K525) stimulus on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) physiology under different light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that music could have relaxing and antidepressant effects on humans, other mammals and birds. The present study aimed to evaluate music effects on common carp Cyprinus carpio growth and physiology, under different light conditions. Therefore, common carp (130.9±0.67g) was reared, in recirculating water system, under constant darkness (D) or normally illuminated conditions (L) for 12 weeks.

S. E. Papoutsoglou; N. Karakatsouli; E. Louizos; S. Chadio; D. Kalogiannis; C. Dalla; A. Polissidis; Z. Papadopoulou-Daifoti



Differential effects of age-structured common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) stocks on pond invertebrate communities: implications for recreational and wildlife use of farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of common carp Cyprinus carpio pond fisheries in Europe postulates their multifunctional use, integrating exploitation of aquaculture resources with recreational\\u000a services and maintenance of high levels of local biodiversity. Age classes of farmed carp are grown separately and pond ecosystems\\u000a may be differently affected by different ontogenetic stages of fish. To examine these relationships, a study was conducted

Janusz Kloskowski



Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the biochemical parameters of the external mucus of carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to 1 µM concentrations of heavy metal salts (CuSO45H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and ZnSO47H2O) were studied. The biochemical parameters of external mucus (specific weight, pH, total protein, hemoglobin, ketones) were measured during exposure at 1, 3, 6, 24 h and regularly during a 21-day post-exposure period.

Nina Lebedev; Milda Zita Vosylien; Tamara Golovkina


Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels  

SciTech Connect

The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.



Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements. PMID:19520514

Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás



Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environme ntal pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface a nd groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of lan dfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae) in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach:

Jaffar Y. M. Alkassasbeh; Lee Yook Heng; Salmijah Surif



Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger



Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to ?g L(-1). In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4±9.2, 7.3±1.5 and 4.8±0.2 mg L(-1) for embryos (E5-E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 ?g L(-1). Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 ?g L(-1) of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF>500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2±1.6 days and 44.2±8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23727993

Steinbach, Christoph; Fedorova, Ganna; Prokes, Miroslav; Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour



Comparison of nitrofen uptake via water and food and its distribution in tissue of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to nitrofen (NIP) by different routes (via water or food) to compare bioaccumulation parameters and tissue distribution. The bioconcentration factor of NIP was 5,100, and the lipid-corrected biomagnification factor was 0.137. Growth-corrected elimination half lives were 2.1-3.0 days via aqueous exposure and 2.7-2.9 days via dietary exposure. From either uptake route, the tissue distribution of NIP was highest in the head, followed by muscle, viscera, dermis, digestive tract and hepatopancreas, which was highly correlated with the tissue lipid content. We conclude that the uptake route has no influence on tissue distribution of NIP and that the accumulation potential in tissues depends on the lipid content. PMID:21713387

Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Naoki; Kikushima, Erina; Otsuka, Masanori



Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6\\/ MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6\\/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels

B. T. Thai; C. P. Burridge; T. A. Pham; C. M. Austin



Genetic Divergence Between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, with Emphasis on Origin of European Domestic Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination

Jian Feng Zhou; Qing Jiang Wu; Yu Zhen Ye; Jin Gou Tong



Adaptation of intestinal morphology in the temperature-acclimated carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and photoperiod acclimation upon the morphology of carp intestinal mucosa have been studied using morphometric techniques. Carp intestine showed an absence of anatomical regionalisation. There was a gradual reduction in the dimensions of villi along the tract. The decrease in the dimensions of the villi was greatest in the anterior half. Temperature acclimation had no effect

Jonathan A. C. Lee; Andrew R. Cossins



Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson



Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon



Absorption of ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate and ascorbate metabolism in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate metabolism was analyzed in fasted common carp and carp offered diets lacking ascorbic acid or supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) or ascorbic sulfate (AS). Ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate were analyzed in the contents collected from various parts of the digestive tract. The major site of the dietary ascorbate absorption was located in the first 20% of the anterior

K. Dabrowski



Analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) obtained from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., head kidney cells after stimulation by two mitogens, lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative cDNA library from mRNA obtained from lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-induced head kidney cells of carp, Cyprinus carpio, was constructed. Two hundred single pass and partially sequenced clones (AU183343 to AU183542) were generated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and these were searched for homology in the DDBJ\\/GENBANK with blastN and blastX programs. Clones matching known genes were classified according to

Ram Savan; Masahiro Sakai



Non-linear release of Bohr protons with haemoglobin-oxygenation in the blood of two teleost fishes; carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some teleost fishes exhibit a non-linear release of H+ with haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in whole blood that may be related to the Root effect and a low apparent cooperativity in oxygen binding. To further investigate this correlation, the relationship between red cell pH (pHi) and SO2 was evaluated in two teleost fishes, the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tambaqui (Colossoma

C. J. Brauner; T. Wang; A. L. Val; F. B. Jensen



Effects of the herbicide LASSO MTX (alachlor 42% W\\/V) on biometric parameters and liver biomarkers in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic exposure to the herbicide LASSO MTX (alachlor 42% W\\/V) on biometric parameters and important liver biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One year old fish were exposed for 28 days to LASSO MTX added to the tank water at concentrations of 240 and 2400?gL?1. The exposure did

Premysl Mikula; Jana Blahova; Kamila Kruzikova; Marcela Havelkova; Danka Nemethova; Martin Hulak; Zdenka Svobodova



Biologic Responses of Bacteria Communities Living at the Mucus Secretion of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) After Exposure to the Carbon Nanomaterial Fullerene (C 60 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria communities living in mucus secretions of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed to the organic nanomaterial fullerene (C60) to evaluate its potential bactericidal effects. End points analyzed were viability, growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS)\\u000a concentration, and total antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals. Viability was not affected (p > 0.05), whereas growth was arrested (p 60 assayed (0.1, 1, and 10 mg\\/L). Levels

Rafaela Elias Letts; Talita C. B. Pereira; Mauricio Reis Bogo; José M. Monserrat



Tissue-specific Cu bioaccumulation patterns and differences in sensitivity to waterborne Cu in three freshwater fish: rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp ( Cyprinus carpio), and gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to copper (1–20?M) in softened Antwerp City tap water at pH 7.3 ± 0.1 and with a water hardness of 292.4 ± 8.1mg\\/L CaCO3 (Ca 100.8 ± 3.0mg\\/L; Mg 11.0 ± 0.2mg\\/L). LC50s (96h) were determined and copper accumulation in gills, liver, and kidney

Gudrun De Boeck; Wouter Meeus; Wim De Coen; Ronny Blust



Haemato-immunological and growth response of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed a tropical earthworm meal in experimental diets.  


An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a tropical earthworm meal (Perionyx escavatus) on the haemato-immunological response and growth performance of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were fed diets for a total of 88 days, fishmeal served as the main protein source in the control diet. Two remaining diets consisted of fishmeal fixed at 33.65% provision of protein and the remaining 66.35% protein was provided by soybean meal (SBM diet) or P. excavatus meal (EW diet). Compared to control and SBM fed fish (7.69 ± 0.28 and 5.92 ± 0.31 g/dl, respectively), a significant increase in haemoglobin was measured in EW fed fish (9.57 ± 0.24 g/dl). Consequently significant elevations were also observed in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH; 79.13 ± 4.59 pg) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; 22.69 ± 0.54 pg) in EW fed fish. On the contrary, compared to control and SBM fed carp total leukocyte levels (2.72 ± 0.17 and 3.10 ± 0.17 × 10(4)/mm(3), respectively) were significantly decreased in the EW group (2.15 ± 0.14 × 10(4)/mm(3)). Moreover at day 14 and 21 post immunisation with bacterin isolated from Aeromonas hydrophila fish fed the EW diet displayed a significant reduction in respiratory burst activity (RBA) compared to control and SBM fed fish. After 60 days of feeding, fish fed EW diet showed a significant elevation in final body weight compared to fish fed a fishmeal based diet (control treatment) and fish fed a soybean meal based diet. Similar improvements were observed in feed utilisation efficiency. The present study shows that feeding P. excavatus meal to mirror carp decreases some aspects of the innate immune response, but at the same time gives rise to significant enhancement of growth and feed utilisation efficiency. PMID:22554572

Rawling, M D; Merrifield, D L; Snellgrove, D L; Kühlwein, H; Adams, A; Davies, S J



Life History, Ecology, and Management of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of eight years of investigations of carp in Elephant Butte Lake are combined into this monographic report which includes ecological life history, population ecology, and management methods and techniques. Classification, taxonomy, and range of the...

D. B. Jester



Ca2+ signals during early lymphocyte activation in carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure cellular responses and the involvement of increased cytosolic Ca2 levels ([Ca2 ]i), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of carp were loaded with the fluorescent intracellular Ca2 indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-2. Responses of lymphocytes to T-cell mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), to B-cell mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and to immunoglobulin (Ig) cross-linking with a monoclonal antibody to carp Ig were measured using flow

B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. P. J. Saeij; G. Flik; P. H. G. M. Willems



Distribution of macrophages during fish development: an immunohistochemical study in carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody against carp macrophages (WCL15) has been utilised in flow cytometry, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy to assess the distribution of monocytes\\/macrophages in developing carp lymphoid tissues. In suspensions of living cells WCL15 reacted strongly with cytoplasm and plasmic membrane of macrophages. It also cross-reacted with a subpopulation of thrombocytes, but this reaction could be neglected by double immunostaining

N. Romano; S. Picchietti; J. J. Taverne-Thiele; N. Taverne; L. Abelli; L. Mastrolia; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. H. W. M. Rombout



Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation.



[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  


In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz



Black carp growth hormone gene transgenic allotetraploid hybrids of Carassius auratus red var. (?)×Cyprinus carpio (?).  


Ecological safety is a major consideration in the commercialization of transgenic fish. Development of sterile transgenic triploid fish through hybridization of transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is a feasible way to solve this problem. The "all-fish" transgene, pbcAbcGHc, containing the black carp ?-actin gene promoter and the open reading frame (ORF) of the black carp growth hormone (GH) gene was constructed and introduced into fertilized eggs of allotetraploid fish through microinjection. Contrast cultivation results showed that the growth rate of 150 day-old P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish was much higher than that of controls. Sixty 150 day-old transgenic allotetraploid fish were assayed by PCR for transgene integration and 90% of fish were positive for the transgene. The transgene was detected in 13 of 20 sperm samples from male transgenic allotetraploid fish. RT-PCR detected transcription of the exogenous black carp GH gene in the muscle, liver, kidney and ovaries of the largest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish with a highly increased growth rate, which provides a solid foundation for the establishment of a pure line of transgenic allotetraploid fish and for the large scale production of sterile transgenic triploid fish. PMID:21809038

Feng, Hao; Fu, Yongming; Luo, Jian; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun



Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.



Ecotoxicological Assessment of Cobalt Used as Supplement in the Diet of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed in the laboratory to determine if excess levels of Co used as dietary supplement (0.0, 0.05, 0.10\\u000a and 1.0%) to enhance growth of the fish Cyprinus carpio was safe for aquatic organisms. Lethal concentrations of Co for tadpole of toad Bufo melanostictus (96 h LC50, 17.2 mg\\/L), oligochaet worm Branchiura sowerbyi (96 h LC50, 179 mg\\/L) and crustacean zooplankton Diaptomus forbesi

Sanjukta Mukherjee; Anilava Kaviraj


Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar



Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate acute toxicity of clove oil for common carp and, using values of haematological and biochemical profiles of blood and histological tissue examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of clove oil for carp were found 10 minLC50 74.3 mg\\/l; 10minLC0.1 51.6 mg\\/l; 10minLC99.9 110.1



DNA Methylation Analysis of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.

Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun



Selective breeding of quantitative traits in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio): a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp is one of the main aquaculture species in the world. Despite this, most of the production is carried out using unselected strains. Selective breeding for fast growth has not proven to be effective in this species, but other traits (disease resistance, shape) could be successfully selected for. Most heritability estimates in the literature are unreliable due to

Marc Vandeputte



Characterization of a pattern recognition molecule vitellogenin from carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pattern recognition proteins function in innate immune responses by binding to molecules on the surface of invading pathogens and initiating host defense reactions. To explore the role of vitellogenin (Vg) in fish innate immunity, we purified Vg from Carp by gel filtration combined with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) chromatography. The purified Vg was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity analysis showed

Qing-Hui Liu; Shi-Cui Zhang; Zhao-Jie Li; Chun-Ren Gao



SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...


[Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].  


In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan



Population genetics and management units of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.  


Common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into Australia on several occasions and are now the dominant fish in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the continent's largest river system. In this study, variability at 14 microsatellite loci was examined in C. carpio (n = 1037) from 34 sites throughout the major rivers in the MDB, from 3 cultured populations, from Prospect Reservoir in the Sydney Basin and from Lake Sorrell in Tasmania. Consistent with previous studies, assignment testing indicated that the Boolara, Yanco and koi strains of C. carpio are present in the MDB. Unique to this study, however, the Prospect strain was widely distributed throughout the MDB. Significant genetic structuring of populations (Fisher's exact test, AMOVA and distribution of the different strains) amongst the MDB sub-drainages was detected, and was strongly associated with contemporary barriers to dispersal and population history. The distributions of the strains were used to infer the history of introduction and spread of C. carpio in the MDB. Fifteen management units are proposed for control programmes that have high levels of genetic diversity, contain multiple interbreeding strains and show no evidence of founder effects or recent population bottlenecks. PMID:20738540

Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Nicholas, F W



Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.  


Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y



Nutritional, microbial and organoleptic qualities of fish patties prepared from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) of three weight groups.  


Fish patty from common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) which has low consumer preference due to the presence of intramuscular spines was developed and the effects of fish weight and the type of extender on product quality were determined. Six different types of fish patties were prepared by using the fish belonging to 3 weight groups (250-500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) and using 2 extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). Patties containing potato had higher moisture (70.6-73.3%), protein (31.5-32.7%) and lipid (3.3-4.6%) contents than those with corn flour (60-65.2, 27.8-33.3, 2.6-3.8%, respectively). Cooking decreased protein but increased lipid, soluble sugars, and gross energy contents of patties. Corn flour used patties gave higher cooking yield than those with boiled potato. These also had higher fat retention capacity and gross energy values. The 501-750 g group patties containing boiled potato had significantly higher scores for texture and overall acceptability. PMID:23572741

Sehgal, Harjeet S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, Gurpreet K; Thind, Sukhcharan S



Molecular characterization of Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa), the agent of gill sphaerosporosis in common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio.  


Sphaerospora molnari Lom, Dyková, Pavlásková and Grupcheva, 1983 often causes severe infections in the gills and skin of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio carpio in Central Europe. Although most Sphaerospora spp. are coelozoic and affect the excretory system of fish, S. molnari develops mature spores in the epithelia of gill filaments, making it a rare representative of histozoic freshwater species within the genus. On the basis of a partial 18S rDNA sequence assigned as belonging to S. molnari, previous phylogenetic studies located the species within the Myxobolus clade. In the present study, S. molnari isolates from Hungary and the Czech Republic were characterized based on morphology, DNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic comparison. The obtained 3714 bp final consensus 18S rDNA sequence of the parasite showed several, sometimes extremely long inserts in the variable regions of the gene and differed considerably from the one published in GenBank in 2002. In situ hybridization confirmed the validity of the obtained DNA sequence and detected pre-sporogonic blood stages in the interstitium and blood vessels of the kidney. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. molnari clusters within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade with a high support, revealing it as the first known histozoic member of the Sphaerospora subclade comprising parasites of freshwater fish. PMID:23670080

Eszterbauer, E; Sipos, D; Forró, B; Ová, P Barto; Holzer, A S



Identification of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) microRNAs and microRNA-related SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. Results Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3’ untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. Conclusions The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification.



Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki



Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin



Long-term potentiation and olfactory memory formation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) olfactory bulb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission is considered to be an elementary process underlying the cellular mechanism of memory formation. In the present study we aimed to examine whether or not the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses in the carp olfactory bulb show plastic changes after their repeated activation. It was found that: (1) the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses showed three types

M. Satou; S. Anzai; M. Huruno



Catecholamine and volume-dependent ion fluxes in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carp erythrocytes, noradrenaline (10-6 mol·l-1) induces a 30- to 40-fold activation of Na+\\/H+ exchange (the ethylisopropylamiloride-inhibited component of the 22Na influx) and a fourfold stimulation of the Na+, K+ pump (ouabain-inhibited component of 86Rb influx). In both cases the effect of noradrenaline is blocked by propranolol but not phentolamine and is imitated by forskolin. An activator of protein kinase

S. N. Orlov; G. A. Skryabin



Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 years, this would last some 15-30 years. Nowadays experimental fishes are usually obtained from

J. Komen



CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp CXC chemokine. Phylogenetic analyses clearly show that neither CXC chemokine resembles any of the mammalian CXC chemokines in particular. However, basal expression is most prominent in immune organs like anterior kidney and spleen, suggesting involvement in the immune response. Furthermore we show that anterior kidney phagocyte-enriched leukocyte suspensions express both chemokines and that this expression is upregulated by brief (4 h) stimulation with PMA, but not lipopolysaccharide. Neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched leukocytes display chemotaxis to human recombinant CXCL8 (hrCXCL8; interleukin-8), confirming CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes in teleost fish. Factors secreted from carp phagocytes are also capable of inducing chemotaxis and secretion of these factors into culture supernatants is upregulated by PMA. Finally we demonstrate involvement of both CXC chemokines as well as CXCR1 and CXCR2 in acute Argulus japonicus infection. Collectively the data presented implicate the involvement of CXC chemokines in chemotaxis of fish neutrophils in a fashion that shares characteristics with the mammalian situation. However, the CXC chemokines involved differ enough from those involved in neutrophil chemotaxis in mammals to warrant their own nomenclature. PMID:12880637

Huising, Mark O; Stolte, Ellen; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy



Investigation of acute toxicity and the effect of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide on the behavior of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 96-h LC50 values of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], a common contaminating agricultural herbicide, were determined on the adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae). The study was conducted in two stages using 130 carp. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method and a 96-h LC50

Rabia Sarikaya; Mehmet Y?lmaz



Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M.  


TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru; Lu, Qiang



The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  


Abstract Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581?bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun



Hypotonic treatment prior to freezing improves cryoresistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.  


Post-thaw motility rate, curvilinear velocity (VCL), and fertilizing ability of carp spermatozoa can be improved by short-term treatment with moderately hypotonic media prior to freezing. Before cryopreservation, carp sperm samples were treated with NaCl solutions of differing osmolalities, ranging from 100 to 300mOsmkg(-1) for 10s, after which final osmolality was adjusted to 300mOsmkg(-1). The resulting sperm suspension was diluted 1:1 with cryoprotective medium and frozen using conventional techniques. Control samples were treated in the same way, without the pre-dilution step. Post-thaw motility rate in samples pretreated with 200mOsmkg(1) NaCl was significantly higher (44±10%) than in controls (21±15%) and samples pretreated with 100mOsmkg(-1) (25±15%) and 300mOsmkg(-1) (25±12%) NaCl. Significantly higher mean VCL were observed in samples pretreated with 100, 150, and 200mOsmkg(-1) (119±24, 118±22, and 115±32?ms(-1), respectively) compared to controls (92±27?ms(-1)). Fertilization rate of frozen-thawed sperm treated with 200mOsmkg(-1) solution of 2M NaCl was significantly higher (25±18%) than that of sperm treated with 300mOsmkg(-1) NaCl solutions (12±7%) and the control (9±6%). PMID:23270681

Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Yamaner, Gunes; Bondarenko, Olga; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bondarenko, Volodymir; Shaliutina, Anna; Linhart, Otomar



Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp.

Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou



Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K



Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: Protective role of lycopene.  


The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

Yonar, Serpil Mi?e



3-methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 microM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome p450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, alpha-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes. PMID:12711420

Reynaud, S; Duchiron, C; Deschaux, P



Characterization and ion channel activities of novel antibacterial proteins from the skin mucosa of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


A detergent-solubilized fraction of skin mucus of carp (Cyprinus carpio) induced ion channels after reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers. A differential extraction using a non-ionic detergent followed by electrophoretic separation led to the isolation of two hydrophobic 31-kDa and 27-kDa proteins. In contrast to the 27-kDa protein, which was glycosylated, the 31-kDa did not bind to concanavalin A. The reconstitution of these proteins into a planar lipid bilayer restored the ionophore behavior already observed with the crude mucus. The main unit conductance levels were about 900 pS for the 27-kDa protein and 500 pS for the 31-kDa protein, and selectivity measurements gave Pcl/Pk ratios of 0.6 and 1.0, respectively. These proteins had large potent microbicidal activities (0.018-0.18 microM) against different strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This behavior can be compared with insect defensins that are known to form large ion channels in the bacterial membrane. To exclude the eventuality of bacterial origin, the bacterial flora of the crude mucus were analysed and the following were identified: Pseudomonas cepacia; Micrococcus luteus; Micrococcus roseus; Flavobacterium sp.; Aeromonas hydrophila. Antibacterial assays with both proteins were performed against these specific strains and revealed good growth inhibition activities. Furthermore, microsequencing analysis showed that the 31-kDa protein was protected on its N-terminal extremity in contrast to the 27-kDa protein, which had a 19-amino-acid sequence. This last sequence, when compared with sequences in protein data banks, did not reveal any significant similarities to other proteins. These results suggest that these novel proteins could be involved in antibacterial defense processes in fish. PMID:8797847

Lemaître, C; Orange, N; Saglio, P; Saint, N; Gagnon, J; Molle, G



[Comparative study of biological effect of purified gonadotropins of sturgeon (Acepenser stellatus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)].  


A comparison was made of the biological effect of purified gonadotropins of the sevryuga and the carp on the activation of adenyl cyclase in the homogenate of the goldfish ovary, the reaction of spermiation in two species of frogs, and the in vitro maturation of oocytes of two amphibian species and sevryuga. The ratio of specific activities of the preparations under study was shown to vary markedly with respect to test-subject and test-reaction. The data obtained suggest, thus, qualitative differences in the effect of the gonadotropins under study and the response of organs-targets. It is proposed to use the system of in vitro maturation of amphibian oocytes for studying the phenomenon of species specificity of gonadotropins of lower vertebrates. PMID:934594

Goncharov, B F; Burzava-Zherar, E; Fonten, N A



Tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin are utilized more efficiently than tricaprylin by carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae.  


We investigated the effect of chain length of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on growth performance and fatty acid composition of first-feeding carp larvae. In a first trial, five semi-purified isolipidic (23-24 g/100 g of dry matter) diets were formulated to contain either 10 g/100 g triolein (control diet) or 5 g/100 g triolein and 5 g/100 g medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) supplied as tricaproin, tricaprylin, tricaprin or trilaurin. After 21 d, survival and growth rates were significantly greater in larvae fed diets containing triolein, tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin (final survival: 92 +/- 7% and mean larval weight: 42 +/- 15 mg) than in larvae fed tricaprylin (final survival: 56 +/- 12% and mean larval weight: 15 +/- 1 mg). The recovered levels of the fed MCFA in larval total lipids were respectively 0, 1.3, 7.3 and 8.1 g/100 g of total fatty acids. In a second trial, two isolipidic (18 g/100 g) diets containing 10 g/100 g triolein or tricaprylin were tested. High amounts of capric acid (up to 25 g/100 g of total fatty acids) were found in neutral lipids of carp larvae fed tricaprylin for 11 d, suggesting an unusual elongation of caprylic acid. This study underlines the peculiarity of tricaprylin among other MCT which seem well utilized up to 20-30 g/100 g of total dietary fatty acids. The exception of tricaprylin raises the question of the metabolic pathways followed by this MCT, especially for the suggested direct elongation of caprylic acid into capric acid. PMID:10917917

Fontagné, S; Corraze, G; Bergot, P



Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi).  


Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and the different mode of inheritance of the two black patterns associated with them. Identifying the genetic basis of color and color patterns in Koi will promote the production of this valuable ornamental fish. Furthermore, given the rich variety of colors and patterns, Koi serves as a good model to unravel pigmentation genes and their phenotypic effects and by that to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of colors also in natural populations. PMID:23355846

Bar, Ido; Kaddar, Ethan; Velan, Ariel; David, Lior



Effect of dietary L-tryptophan on osmotic stress tolerance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, juveniles.  


Common carp juveniles were fed two types of diet (control: 0.1% tryptophan and TRP: 0.6% tryptophan) over 15 days. Thereafter, both groups were directly subjected to osmotic challenge (from 0 to 10 ppt) for 168 h. Blood samples were collected at -240, 0, 6, 24, 72 and 168 h after challenge. Survival and serum cortisol, glucose, sodium and chloride levels were measured to determine stress response and osmoregulation condition. While TRP group showed no mortality until 168 h, cumulative mortality was near 100% at 72 h after challenge in control group. Feeding tryptophan-supplemented diet led to increase in prechallenge cortisol, but not glucose, sodium and chloride values at -240 h that stayed elevated until 0 h after challenge. After challenge, cortisol and glucose values did not significantly affected by time of sampling but type of diet and diet×time interaction. Sodium values significantly affected by diet type and time of sampling but not their interaction. Chloride values significantly affected by time of sampling but not diet type and their interaction. Control group had higher cortisol, glucose and sodium than TRP at each time of sampling. Control and TRP group showed increasing and decreasing pattern in cortisol and glucose values when experiment progressed after osmotic challenge. Both group showed increasing pattern in sodium and chloride values when experiment progressed after osmotic challenge. Results indicated that tryptophan supplementation enhanced salt water tolerance of carp that is due to increase in basal cortisol and anti-stress effect of tryptophan and possibly increase in serotonergic activity. PMID:20148306

Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas



Cadmium triggers kidney cell apoptosis of purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) without caspase-8 activation.  


Caspase-8, the essential initiator caspase, is believed to play a pivotal role in death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway. It also participates in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cleavage of proapoptotic Bid in mammals. However, its role in fish remains elusive in Cadmium-induced apoptotic pathway. In this study, we isolated the caspase-8 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-8 comprised 475 amino acids, which showed approximately 64.1% identity and 79.8% similarity to zebrafish (Danio rerio) caspase-8, possessed two conserved death effector domains, a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that caspase-8 formed a clade with zebrafish caspase-8. In kidney, cadmium (Cd) exposure triggered apoptosis and increased caspase-3 and -9 activities, whereas it did not affect caspase-8 activity. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-8 transcriptional level was not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to Cd. Using Western blot analysis, no caspase-8 cleaved fragment was detected and no significant alteration of procaspase-8 level was found with the same Cd-treated condition. Moreover, the immunopositive staining was predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunoreactivities were observed using immunohistochemical detection after Cd treatment. The results reveal that Cd can trigger apoptosis, while it cannot activate caspase-8 in purse red common carp. PMID:23954723

Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen'e; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chunchao; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping



Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for any application in aquaculture and ecological research and management where the tracking of high numbers of offspring is needed.

Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas



Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

Leiker, T. J.; Abney, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Rosen, M. R.



Heavy metals content and microbiological quality of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) muscle from two Southwestern Slovak fish farms.  


The purpose of this study was to assess concentration and correlation of selected heavy metals and level of some microbiological indicators (total bacteria count-TBC, mesophilic anaerobic sporulating bacteria-MASB) in the muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were collected by seine net within the frame of pondfishing, in October (pond Horné Obdokovce--pond A) and December (pond Budmerice--pond B) 2003. Concentrations of selected metals were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Pye Unicam SP9. The concentrations of metals (mg/kg wet weight basis) ranged as follows: Fe 3.47-15.15; Mn 0.14-0.42; Zn 3.47-9.52; Cu 0.24-1.32; Co 0.05-0.17; Ni 0.07-0.42; Cr 0.08-0.19; Pb 0.11-0.30; and Cd 0.01-0.05. The count of MASB and TCB (in CFU/g) varied as follow: 1.12-7.76 x 10(3) and 0.03-7.59 x 10(6), respectively. Significant differences (P < 0.05) for Cu, Ni, and Cr bioaccumulation, as well as for count of MASB between ponds were recorded. An opposite trend of bioaccumulation was found in only 12 of 36 cases. Positive correlations between counts of MASB and accumulated heavy metals, except Ni and negative correlations between TBC and accumulated heavy metals, except Cr, were recorded, (P < 0.05) for TBC-Mn and TBC-Cd relationship. Lead concentrations exceeded the maximum values allowed concentration in Slovakia by Codex Alimentarius (0.2 mg/kg) by 60% for pond-A and 40% for pond-B. The level of MASB count exceeded the maximum allowed concentration in 100% by both ponds. On average, the order of metal concentrations in the fish muscle was: (Pond-A) Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co > Cd; (Pond-B) Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Co > Cd. PMID:16760086

Andreji, Jaroslav; Stranai, Ivan; Kacániová, Miroslava; Massányi, Peter; Valent, Miroslav



The efficacy of chromium as a growth enhancer for mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L): an integrated study using biochemical, genetic, and histological responses.  


A growth trial was conducted on juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for 8 weeks to compare the efficacy of three chromium (Cr) compounds (Cr chloride, Cr picolinate, and Cr yeast) at a level 0.5 mg/kg as a potential growth enhancer. In addition, a high level of Cr (2.0 mg/kg) as Cr chloride has also been added in parallel for comparison. All Cr fortified diets at a level 0.5 mg/kg produced superior growth for carp compared to the control group and the group fed the high level of Cr chloride (2.0 mg/kg). Metabolic indicators measured included two of the key liver enzymes (hexokinase, HK) and (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD) activity. The results validated the positive effect of Cr at a level 0.5 mg/kg on enzyme activity and carbohydrate utilization producing significantly better growth performance for mirror carp. The study also included measurement of DNA strand breaks in the erythrocytes using the comet assay which revealed significantly (P < 0.05) increased DNA damage in fish fed on high level of Cr chloride (2.0 mg/kg) but the other treatments were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control groups. The concentration of Cr in the liver, gut, and whole fish tissues increased with increasing dietary Cr supplementation. Overall, Cr supplementation at a level 0.5 mg/kg from different sources may affect growth performance in carp by activation of some key liver enzymes (HK and G6PD). PMID:22351105

Ahmed, Arafat R; Jha, Awadhesh N; Davies, Simon J



Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))



Differences in some properties of lactate dehydrogenase from muscles of the carp Cyprinus carpio and trout Salmo gairdneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some catalytic and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isolated from trout and carp skeletal muscles were compared.\\u000a The specific activity of LDH in the carp muscle was lower by about one third than the activity in the trout muscle. Temperature\\u000a and pH optima for LDH isolated from the carp muscle were higher than those for the trout muscle LDH.

A. Tylicki; D. Masztaleruk; S. Strumilo



Effects of flow regulation on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) recruitment in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp biomass density and the numbers of 'sub-adult' (juvenile, plus young-of-the-year) carp were used to indicate net recruit- ment (hereafter 'recruitment') to carp populations in 'regulated' and 'unregulated' lowland rivers (<300 m altitude) and 'slope' rivers (300-700 m) of the Murray-Darling Basin, southeastern Australia. Most recruitment occurred at lower-altitude reaches, during October-March (water temperature 95% confidence limits Ľ 16-32? C).

P. D. Driver; J. H. Harris; G. P. Closs; T. B. Koen



Effects of environmental temperature on the development of the myotomal white muscle in larval carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


A study was conducted on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to determine the effects of environmental temperature experienced by embryos and larvae on the development of myotomal white muscle. Eggs from one female were divided into two groups following fertilisation and incubated at constant pre-hatch temperatures of 18 or 28 degrees C. At hatching, larvae from the 18 degrees C-incubated eggs were divided into two groups and either reared at the same temperature of 18 degrees C ('cold' group) or transferred over a period of 5 days (at 2 degrees C per day) to 28 degrees C ('transferred' group). Larvae hatched from eggs incubated at 28 degrees C were reared at the same temperature of 28 degrees C ('warm' group). Larvae were sampled at two developmental stages (stage 1, inflation of the back chamber of the swimbladder; stage 2, inflation of the front chamber of the swimbladder) and at 26 days post-hatching. The maturation of myotome shape during larval life was studied in parallel with the changes occurring in the organisation of white fibres. At stage 1, the epaxial part of the myotomes surrounding the vent had the shape of lamellae inclined backwards, and only one central layer of white fibres was present. At stage 2, the epaxial part of the myotomes began to acquire a V-shape, which was well developed at 26 days post-hatch. At stage 2 and at 26 days post-hatch, two layers of white fibres were identified: the initial central layer and a second apical layer. These differ in their orientation, the initial central layer being orientated backwards and the apical layer forwards, and in the mean fibre diameter, which is greater in the initial central layer. Studies on the effects of temperature (constant 18 degrees C, constant 28 degrees C, transfer from 18 to 28 degrees C at hatching) were carried out according to both the developmental stage and the length of the larvae. At stage 1, no significant differences were found between the three groups for larval standard length and muscle variables. The number of fibres in one quadrant of epaxial white muscle sectioned at the level of the vent was 100-111. At stage 2, there were significant differences between groups. Larval standard length and mass were higher in the cold group than in the warm group. The transferred larvae were of intermediate standard length but had a significantly higher cross-sectional area of white muscle than either of the other two groups. This increase in surface area was related to a 50 % greater fibre number (233) in the transferred larvae compared with the cold (165) or the warm (152) larvae. The increase in fibre number was more marked for large-diameter ( >20 microm) white fibres located in the initial central fibre layer (+58-72 % in transferred larvae) than in small-diameter ((less than equal to) 10 microm) white fibres mainly located in the apical layer (+18-35 %). In 26 days post-hatch samples, transferred larvae still showed a higher total number of white fibres than warm larvae, but the difference was no longer significant when the total number of white fibres was regressed against larval standard length, suggesting that this stimulation may be temporary. PMID:11076732

Alami-Durante, H; Bergot, P; Rouel, M; Goldspink, G



Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp ( Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4?-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2?-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a

Robert J.. Letcher; J. Thomas Sanderson; Abraham Bokkers; John P. Giesy; Martin van den Berg



Biologic responses of bacteria communities living at the mucus secretion of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposure to the carbon nanomaterial fullerene (C60).  


Bacteria communities living in mucus secretions of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed to the organic nanomaterial fullerene (C(60)) to evaluate its potential bactericidal effects. End points analyzed were viability, growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and total antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals. Viability was not affected (p > 0.05), whereas growth was arrested (p < 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure to the three concentration of C(60) assayed (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L). Levels of RO measured at different C(60) concentration showed that some colonies were reactive (significant dose-response relation, p < 0.05) to C(60), whereas others were not. The nonreactive colonies to C(60) presented higher antioxidant competence to peroxyl radicals compared with the reactive colonies (p < 0.05). The strains isolated and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of 16S rRNA showed a predominance of Aeromonas genus between all the isolated Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the present results indicate that C(60) affects bacterial communities that live in mucus secretions of common carp. PMID:21072630

Letts, Rafaela Elias; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Monserrat, José M



The Relationship between Electric Impedance and Quality Parameters of Ungutted and Gutted Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Stored at 4°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the relationship between electric conductivity and quality parameters of common carp during storage, the electric impedances in the frequencies ranging from 1 to 20 kHz, total viable count (TVC), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and K values of gutted and ungutted common carp were determined during 4°C storage. The result showed that the change ratio of

Wei Lu; Sumei Hu; Yongkang Luo; Hang Wang; Huixing Shen



Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and sequence analysis of complete glucokinase cDNAs from gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata), rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) 1 1 GenBank accession numbers for the fish glucokinase are: AF135401 for gilthead seabream; AF135402 for common carp; and AF135403 for rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme glucokinase (GK) (EC plays an important role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Qualitative and\\/or quantitative variations in GK enzyme have been postulated by previous studies to explain why dietary carbohydrate utilisation is lower in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) than in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In this study, we report the isolation

S. Panserat; C. Blin; F. Médale; E. Plagnes-Juan; J. Brčque; J. Krishnamoorthy; S. Kaushik



Molecular characterization and expression pattern of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


A full-length cDNA encoding the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was cloned from the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by RT-PCR. The IGFBP-3 cDNA sequence is 1,680 bp long and has an open reading frame of 882 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 293 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 25 amino acid residues resulting in a mature protein of 268 amino acids. A single band of approximate 1.9 kb was found in liver by Northern blot analysis. IGFBP-3 mRNA was observed in all regions of brain with high levels. In peripheral tissues, high levels of IGFBP-3 mRNA were found in retina, red muscle, liver, heart, posterior intestine, spleen, and testis. Relatively lower levels were found in white muscle, kidney, thymus gland, and ovary, while in head kidney, blood, skin, gill, middle intestine, and anterior intestine, the IGFBP-3 mRNA levels were much lower. IGFBP-3 mRNA was first detected in the blastula stage with significantly high level. The level sharply decreased in gastrula stage, and it became to increase in the following stages. During the reproductive cycle, the abundance of IGFBP-3 mRNA significantly decreased between the recrudescing stage and the matured stage in ovary, although in testis, IGFBP-3 mRNA expression level did not exhibit a significant change. The mRNA expression profiles in the present study imply that the IGFBP-3 may play important physiological functions in common carp development and reproduction. PMID:22736237

Chen, Wenbo; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng



Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “L?rinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature.

Pankovics, Peter; Simmonds, Peter



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNF?,

Maria Forlenza; Peter D. Walker; Beitske J. de Vries; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Geert F. Wiegertjes



Apparent digestibility of tuna oil for common carp, Cyprinus carpio — effect of inclusion level and adaptation time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of inclusion level and adaptation time on the apparent digestibility of tuna oil for common carp were determined by incorporation into a casein-based reference diet at 10% and 15% inclusion. Chromium oxide (1%) was used as an external indicator and faeces were collected via siphon. Analyses were performed on faeces pooled over 10 consecutive days (Days 8 to

Peter Appleford; Trevor A. Anderson



Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in Poho?elice, Czech Republic. Two-year-old stocked common carp Cyprinus carpio harvested in late March were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. Additionally, three body condition indices were measured. Endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. Wounded fish were more susceptible to the ectoparasites Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. (Monogenea), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). The intensity of infection of other ectoparasites Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea), Argulus spp. (Branchiura) and trichodinids (Ciliophora) did not significantly differ between wounded and control groups of fish. Lysozyme concentration in fish mucus was significantly higher in wounded fish and was positively associated with both the extent of damaged epithelium and Gyrodactylus spp. abundance. There were no differences in Fulton's condition factor and lipid content in muscle and liver tissues between wounded and non-wounded fish. Higher values of spleen-somatic index in wounded fish corresponded to increased intensity of parasite infection, most likely reflecting changes in immune system of infected fish. Although our results did not show any significant effect of cormorant attacks on fish condition, the wounded fish had significantly higher parasite numbers which could impact the growth or survival of the fish throughout the production season. PMID:21979786

Ondra?ková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, Ji?í; Vojtek, Libor; Adámek, Zden?k



Cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm in 1.2 and 5 ml straws and occurrence of haploids among larvae produced with cryopreserved sperm.  


Experiments were carried out on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm in order to test the suitability of using 1.2 and 5 ml straws and to investigate the ploidy of malformed larvae found among the hatched progeny. In the first set of experiments, the effect of freezing time was investigated on the hatch rate of embryos. The highest hatch rate for 1.2 ml straws was 69+/-16% at the freezing time of 4 min, and 39+/-27% for 5 ml straws at 5 min. In the second set, the effect different egg volumes fertilized with one straw of sperm on the hatch rate and the rate of malformed larvae was investigated. The highest hatch rate with 1.2 ml straws (86+/-12%) was observed when 10 g of eggs were fertilized with one straw, whereas with 5 ml straws the hatch rate was highest (65+/-18%) when 40 g of eggs were fertilized. The highest rate of malformed larvae (15+/-9%) was found in the control, whereas the highest rate of malformed larvae among the groups fertilized with cryopreserved sperm (13+/-7%) was found in the 1x dose group fertilized with 5 ml straw. The chromosome numbers of malformed larvae were investigated and haploids were found among those hatched from eggs fertilized with cryopreserved sperm whereas only diploids were found in the controls. PMID:17400204

Horváth, Akos; Miskolczi, Edit; Mihálffy, Szilvia; Osz, Katalin; Szabó, Krisztián; Urbányi, Béla



Validating and corroborating the deposition of two annual growth zones in asteriscus otoliths of common carp Cyprinus carpio from South Africa's largest impoundment.  


A total of 816 common carp Cyprinus carpio asteriscus otolith pairs were collected from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Otoliths were interpreted whole, submerged in methyl salicylate and viewed under transmitted light. The precision of growth zone counts of the primary reader was estimated at 5·54 and 7·03% using the average per cent error method and the coefficient of variation, respectively. Age-bias plots indicated no systematic bias between the primary reader and the three secondary readers for up to nine growth zones (95% of the sample). Growth zone deposition rate was validated using a mark-recapture experiment of chemically tagged C. carpio (n = 21) conducted in a large earthen pond under ambient conditions in the vicinity of Lake Gariep. The validation results were corroborated for the wild population by edge analysis and a length-based age-structured model. All three methods suggest that growth zone formation occurred biannually, exemplifying the importance of age validation as a prerequisite for understanding the life history of C. carpio. PMID:21155779

Winker, H; Weyl, O L F; Booth, A J; Ellender, B R



Bioaccumulation and sub-acute toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio): a comparative study with its bulk counterparts.  


In this study, bioaccumulation and sub-acute toxicity of water-borne nano-ZnO in the test fish, juvenvile carp (Cyprinus Carpio) were evaluated. To clarify the contribution of particle size and free Zn ion to NPs toxicity, its bulk counterparts (bulk-ZnO) and the released Zn(2+) were also tested. The results showed that after a 30-day exposure, 50mg/L of nano-ZnO and bulk-ZnO could be significantly accumulated and distributed in various tissues of fish, but nano-ZnO exhibited more hyper-bioaccumulation than bulk-ZnO. Liver and gill might be the target tissues with exposure to nano-ZnO, instead, the target tissue for bulk-ZnO might be intestine. Also, 50mg/L of nano-ZnO caused more severe histopathological changes than the same concentration of bulk-ZnO, which was in accordance with the induction of higher levels of intracellular oxidative stress. The effects of dissolved Zn ions were assessed and the ion toxicity was negligible herein. The results of this study indicated that the observed toxicities of nano-ZnO were not likely a result solely of particle dissolution and identified as a function of particle toxicity and the possibility for a size dependence. The main toxic mechanism of nano-ZnO was possibly by increasing cellular oxidative stress response. PMID:23375439

Hao, Linhua; Chen, Lei; Hao, Jianmin; Zhong, Na



A survey of potential stressor-induced physiological changes in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and barbel (Barbus bocagei) along the Tajo River.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate fish response to acute stress induced by confinement after capture. Because of the previously reported presence of chemical compounds in the Tajo River basin where the study samplinig took place, an exposure biomarker to organic chemicals (retinol) was used. Cortisol and glucose were used as stress biomarkers. Plasma levels of cholesterol were used as lipidic metabolism indicators, and retinol level was used as a specific exposure biomarker. A reference site was established along 300 km of the Tajo River, and nine sampling sites were selected on the basis of whether various human activities and hydrographic characteristics were present. A total of 55 carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 52 barbel (Barbus bocagei) were examined. Cortisol and glucose levels were considered acceptable indicators of the response of the fish to induced stress. In the barbel, plasma retinol levels decreased at two of the sampling sites indicating possible exposure to organic compounds. The overall evaluation of these parameters enabled us to identify three sampling sites at which more studies should be carried out. The possible relationship between the health state of wild fish and the presence of organic compounds or sources of pollution was considered. PMID:15793831

Carballo, Matilde; Jiménez, J Antonio; de la Torre, Ana; Roset, Jaime; Muńoz, Maria Jesús



The immune system of cyprinid fish. Kinetics and temperature dependence of antibody-producing cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed Central

After immunization of carp with sheep red blood cells, the spleen accounts for only 5% of the total number of plaque-forming cells (PFC). In addition, thymus, peripheral blood and heart contained low numbers of PFC (< 0.5, 1 and 0.5%, respectively). Pronephros and mesonephros were the major antibody-forming organs (53 and 40% of total PFC, respectively). The temperature dependence of the antibody-forming cell response in spleen, pronephros and mesonephros as studied in animals kept at 12-24 degrees. Lowering temperatures induced a delay in the peak of the primary response but had no effect on the magnitude of the response. The temperature-peak day relationship indicated that there are steps in the primary immune response of carp differing in temperature sensitivity. The anamnestic character of the secondary response was clearly demonstrated at 24 and 20 degrees but lost at 18 degrees.

Rijkers, G T; Frederix-Wolters, E M; van Muiswinkel, W B



The effects of anticoagulants on hematological indices and blood cell morphology of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC, WBC, PLT), erythrocyte size, and osmotic fragility, differential leukocyte count, ROS production in common carp blood collected on three anticoagulants: heparin (10 IU\\/mL, Na2EDTA (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg\\/mL), and sodium citrate (0.3 mg\\/mL) were compared. Na2EDTA caused partial blood hemolysis in Ht tubes which made Ht measurement impossible, and resulted in high variability of the results. Both,

Jacek Walencik; Ma?gorzata Witeska



Substrate concentration affects the in vitro metabolism of 17-hydroxyprogesterone by ovaries of the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp ovarian tissue was incubated with 3H-17-hydroxyprogesterone in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g ml?1 unlabeled 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The pattern of metabolites formed showed a marked variation with substrate concentration.\\u000a Formation of glucuronide and sulphate conjugates was important only at low substrate concentration. At high substrate concentration\\u000a (10 and 100 ?g ml?1) 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was the major metabolite,

David E. Kime; Mohammad A. S. Abdullah; Miroslawa Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk; Piotr Epler



Effects of water pH on copper toxicity to early life stages of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp eggs were exposed immediately after fertilization to Cu concentrations of 0.3 and 0.8 ÎĽmol\\/L at water pH 7.6 or pH 6.3. Mortality, the incidence of spinal cord deformation, heart rate, tail movements, hatching success, and whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and Cu were determined over time. Light microscopical preparations of eggs (48 h after fertilization) and larvae

A. J. H. X. Stouthart; Jeroen L. M. Haans; Robert A. C. Lock; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga



Effects of Bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Sex Hormones of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Protection of Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEHP is a priority pollutant and sex hormone endocrine disruptor, which can disturb all physiological processes. In this study, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) toxicities to common carps were investigated using multiple sex hormones, such as testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17? -estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P), and the precursor of sex steroids Chl, aromatase activity, as well as and the protection effects of

Zhao-Xiang Han; Chun-Xia Lv; Huang Li



Application of PCR-RF-SSCP to study major histocompatibility class II B polymorphism in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of methods have been applied for the characterization of major histocompatibility (MH) polymorphism in fish. We optimized a technique designated polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-RF-SSCP) for screening a large number of individuals for the Cyca-DAB1 and Cyca-DAB2 genes polymorphism in common carp. The advantages of this technique are simplicity, high sensitivity and low costs. PCR-RF-SSCP

Krzysztof ?. Rakus; Geert F. Wiegertjes; Miko?aj Adamek; Vitaliy Bekh; René J. M. Stet; Ilgiz Irnazarow



Hypocorticism and interrenal hyperplasia are not directly related to masculinization in XX mas ?1\\/ mas ?1 carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on a homozygous XX male strain of common carp (E5), which fail to mount a normal cortisol stress response. Earlier classical genetic analysis had indicated that masculinization of E5 fish was caused by a putative recessive mutation (mas?1\\/mas?1). Hypocorticism in E5 fish was studied to investigate if it was related to masculinization. Head-kidney tissues isolated from E5

N. M. Ruane; J. G. D. Lambert; H. J. Th. Goos; J. Komen



Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.



Hypocorticism and interrenal hyperplasia are not directly related to masculinization in XX mas(-1)/mas(-1) carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


This study reports on a homozygous XX male strain of common carp (E5), which fail to mount a normal cortisol stress response. Earlier classical genetic analysis had indicated that masculinization of E5 fish was caused by a putative recessive mutation (mas(-1)/mas(-1)). Hypocorticism in E5 fish was studied to investigate if it was related to masculinization. Head-kidney tissues isolated from E5 fish showed a low cortisol-producing capacity in vitro, and also demonstrated a reduced sensitivity to stimulation with ACTH, when compared with an isogenic XY male carp strain (STD). There was no strain difference in androgen production by head-kidney tissues in vitro. E5 fish exhibited significant hyperplasia of the interrenal tissue (adrenal homologue of teleost fish) located in the head-kidney. Conversion of pregnenolone was significantly lower in E5 head-kidney homogenates, compared to STD homogenates, however, no strain difference was found in the conversion of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone into cortisol. Gonad homogenates incubated with pregnenolone showed no strain difference in conversion to corticosteroids and androgens. Results indicate that the interrenal hyperplasia and hypocorticism in this strain of carp may be due to a dysfunction of the 17alpha-hydroxylase activity of the enzyme P450c17 in the interrenal, but that this defect may not be the primary factor resulting in masculinization of these XX genotypes. PMID:15993106

Ruane, N M; Lambert, J G D; Goos, H J Th; Komen, J



Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam



Thermoacclimatory changes in the ionic microenvironment of haemoglobin in the stenothermal rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and eurythermal carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


1. Haematological characteristics (erythrocyte number, haematocrit, haemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume and haemoglobin content) and plasma and packed red blood cell water and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-) levels were determined in summer and winter populations of rainbow trout acclimated to 2, 10 and 18 degrees C, and for carp held at 2, 16 and 30 degrees C. Erythrocyte electrolyte concentrations and ion:haemoglobin ratios were calculated from these data. 2. Modest increases in red cell abundance and reductions in mean erythrocytic volume were the most obvious haematological changes accompanying acclimation to higher temperatures. Haemoglobin levels in carp also tended to increase with temperature. 3. In winter trout plasma sodium and potassium were elevated following acclimation to increased temperature. No significant cges in plasma composition were observed in summer fish. Carp held at higher temperatures were characterized by increases in plasma chloride and calcium and reductions in sodium and magnesium levels. 4. Red cell potassium and magnesium and K+:Hb and Mg2+:Hb ratios tended to be higher in winter than in summer trout, with the converse being true of chloride and calcium and Cl-:Hb and Ca2+:Hb. Only potassium and K+:Hb were significantly altered following acclimation; rising at higher temperatures. In carp, potassium and K+:Hb were relatively thermostable, but sodium and chloride and Na+:Hb and Cl-:Hb increased with temperature while magnesium and Mg2+:Hb decreased. Changes in the ionic composition of carp red cells support the suggestion that cellular pH is reduced in the warm-acclimated animal. 5. These variations may be of adaptive value. Increases in chloride and hydrogen ion commonly reduce haemoglobin=oxygen affinity, and should facilitate oxygen unloading at the tissue level. Reductions in cellular magnesium, by maximizing organophosphate modulator levels, should produce much the same effect. 6. In both species reductions in mean erythrocytic volume took place at higher temperatures despite increases in cellular ion content which exceeded those of plasma. It is probable that reductions in cellular volume, which should favour branchial oxygen loading, were achieved by export of some as yet unidentified solute or solutes. PMID:501276

Houston, A H; Smeda, J S



PCR-cloning and gene expression studies in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) insulin-like growth factor-II.  


Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a member of a growth factor family related to fetal growth in mammals but its physiological role has not been clearly identified in fish. In teleosts, the basic mechanism of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF axis is known to be operative but in a different manner. For instance, IGF-I exhibits GH dependence whereas for IGF-II, its GH dependence varies in different fish species. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to obtain a common carp IGF-II (ccIGF-II) cDNA fragment and methods of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) to obtain a full-length ccIGF-II sequence. The ccIGF-II encodes for a predicted amino acid sequence showing identities of 70.6%, 68.7%, 63.4% and 35% in comparison with salmon, barramundi, tilapia and human IGF-II, respectively. The nucleotide identity between the open reading frame (ORF) of the ccIGF-II and ccIGF-I cDNA sequence is only 36.2%. Distribution of ccIGF-II mRNA levels in common carp tissues was also studied; ccIGF-II expressed in hepatopancreas, heart, and many other tissues in adult carps are similar to the levels of ccIGF-I except in gills and testis. ccIGF-II levels were significantly higher than that of ccIGF-I in most juvenile tissues except in hepatopancreas, where ccIGF-I was higher (threefold) than that of ccIGF-II. The levels of ccIGF-I were also higher than ccIGF-II in carp larvae, from pre-hatched stage to day 30 post-hatching. Injection of porcine GH (pGH) increased the IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and brain of juvenile carps. However, hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels were induced more than IGF-II by pGH, whereas ccIGF-II levels gave a higher response than IGF-I in the brain in response to GH induction. PMID:12020820

Tse, Margaret C L; Vong, Queenie P; Cheng, Christopher H K; Chan, King Ming



Cortisol emphasizes the metabolic strategies employed by common carp, Cyprinus carpio at different feeding and swimming regimes.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between feeding, exercise and cortisol on metabolic strategies of common carp over a 168h post-implant period. Feeding provided readily available energy and clearly increased muscle and liver protein and glycogen stores. Swimming, feeding and cortisol all induced aerobic metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, and stimulated protein metabolism as demonstrated by the increased ammonia and urea excretion and ammonia quotient. Hypercortisol stimulated ammonia self-detoxifying mechanisms by enhancing ammonia and urea excretion, especially during severe exercise. At high swimming level, higher branchial clearance rates in cortisol treated fish succeeded in eliminating the elevation of endogenous ammonia, resulting in reduced plasma Tamm levels compared to control and sham implanted fish. Carp easily induced anaerobic metabolism, both during routine and active swimming, with elevated lactate levels as a consequence. Both feeding and cortisol treatment increased this dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Hypercortisol induced both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia and muscle and liver glycogen deposition, most likely as a protective mechanism for prolonged stress situations and primarily fuelled by protein mobilization. PMID:23921225

Liew, Hon Jung; Chiarella, Daniela; Pelle, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun



[Screening and body correlation analysis of microsatellite markers related to intermuscular bone number in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].  


In this study, 149 polymorphic markers were screened from 200 microsatellite markers. From a family of mirror carp, which included 107 individuals. All samples were analyzed for body correlation, and intermuscular bone number was tested using the General Linear Model (GLM) single marker regression. Determination of the threshold values by 10,000 permutation tests showed that eight markers had significant correlation (P<0.05), in which HLJ3086, HLJ3642 and HLJ3515 had very significant correlation with intermuscular bone number (P<0.01). In addition, the genotypes of the captured correlative loci were determined by Duncan's test using SPSS17.0 software. Markers were used to screen the protein and nucleotide database in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Blasting results showed that HLJ2891 was highly correlated (92%) with latrophilin-2-like and HLJ3515 was highly correlated (81%) with serine/threonine-protein kinase 32B-like of zebrafish. These functional markers and genotypes may provide an efficient basis for marker-assisted selection of intermuscular bone number in mirror carp. PMID:23913892

Ma, Ji-Min; Kuang, You-Yi; Zheng, Xian-Hu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Lyu, Wei-Hua; Chang, Yu; Zhou, Dan; DU, Ke; Sun, Xiao-Wen



Determination of hypoxia and dietary copper mediated sub-lethal toxicity in carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different levels of biological organisation.  


Hypoxic events frequently occur in the aquatic environment in association with micro pollutants, including heavy metals. Only a few studies are however available on the uptake and biological responses of heavy metals under hypoxic conditions. To elucidate the phenomenon, mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. (16.13-16.22 g) were exposed chronically to dietary copper (Cu; 250 and 500 mg kg dry wt.(-1)) for 30 d under normoxic (8.25 mg O(2) L(-1)) and hypoxic (~3 mg O(2) L(-1)) conditions and adopting an integrated approach, sub-lethal biomarker responses were determined at different levels of biological organisation. Level of oxidative DNA damage (as determined by modified Comet assay) showed strong significant difference following exposure to dietary Cu level under normoxic (1.6-fold) as well as under hypoxic condition at both Cu levels (2.1 and 2.5-folds respectively). Significant difference was also observed for haematological parameters (i.e. increased red and white blood cells, haematocrit value and haemoglobin concentration). Quantitative histology revealed alterations in tissues (i.e. liver and gills) for hypoxic and all dietary Cu treatment groups under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions suggesting a compensatory response to these organs (p<0.05). The order of Cu accumulation in tissues (as determined by ICP-OES) was liver>intestine>kidney>gill. Interestingly, SGR under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions reduced with elevating Cu levels (p=0.019). Overall, the results provide evidence for enhanced toxicological responses in fish following exposure to Cu either alone or in combination with hypoxic condition and lends support to the evolving viewpoint that many water quality guidelines should be revisited in terms of new ecotoxicological criteria. PMID:22239943

Mustafa, Sanaa A; Davies, Simon J; Jha, Awadhesh N



[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura).  


In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNFalpha, are good indicators of parasite-induced skin damage at 2 days post-parasite exposure. Up-regulation of gene transcription corresponded well with an increase in leucocytes, probably neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in skin samples collected at the sites of infection. We show that time-point controls are essential when studying gene expression, especially in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL). In addition, we demonstrate that non-infected control samples isolated from the skin of infected fish are suitable autologous controls, at least until after larval A. japonicus have undergone their first moult and begun to demonstrate increased mobility over their host's integument. The observed results are indicative of A. japonicus affecting the skin as a whole organ, particularly after the parasites' first moult, a phenomenon which has a great impact on correct skin sampling for RNA isolation. PMID:18502149

Forlenza, Maria; Walker, Peter D; de Vries, Beitske J; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd E; Wiegertjes, Geert F



Major distinctions in the antioxidant responses in liver and kidney of Cd(2+)-treated common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


This study is related to the accumulation of Cd(2+), its effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and its role in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp. We present evidence of an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in both organs after 10mg/L Cd(2+) exposure, with different underlying biological mechanisms and consequences. In the liver, the expressions and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase increased to cope with the Cd(2+)-generated toxic effects during the first 48h of treatment. In contrast, none of these selected antioxidant markers was significantly altered in the kidney, whereas the expression of glutathione synthetase was upregulated. These results suggest that the major defense mechanism provoked by Cd(2+) exposure involves the regeneration of GSH in the liver, while its de novo synthesis predominates in the kidney. High levels of accumulation of Cd(2+) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) were detected in the kidney; the major consequences of ONOO(-) toxicity were enhanced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. The accumulation of ONOO(-) in the kidney suggests intensive production of NO and the development of nitrosative stress. In the liver the level of hydrogen peroxide was elevated. PMID:23919949

Dugmonits, Krisztina; Ferencz, Agnes; Jancsó, Zsanett; Juhász, Renáta; Hermesz, Edit



The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0?±?1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish. PMID:23435858

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun



Physiological, haematological and histopathological responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings fed with differently detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal.  


Protein rich Jatropha curcas kernel meal is toxic. It was detoxified using heat treatment and solvent extraction. Two duration of detoxification process were investigated: shorter (30 min) and longer (60 min) and the detoxified meals so obtained were designated as J(a) and J(b) respectively. Common carp fingerlings (252 fish; 3.2+/-0.07 g) were fed with the following diets: Control containing fishmeal (FM); S(50,) J(a50) and J(b50): 50% of FM protein replaced by soybean meal (SBM), detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJ(a)KM and DJ(b)KM); S(75), J(a75) and J(b75): 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM, DJ(a)KM and DJ(b)KM. White blood cells count, mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, calcium and sodium ions and total bilirubin in blood did not differ significantly among the groups. Higher (P>0.05) RBC count was observed in plant protein fed groups compared to control group. Highest alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities in blood were observed in J(a75), which were not different (P>0.05) from those in J(a50) group, but were higher than in the other groups. No adverse histopathological changes in liver and muscle of any group were observed, but intestinal mucosa of J(a75) groups showed severe pathological lesions. The results demonstrate that Jb was completely detoxified. Since the performance of J(b50) group was similar to control group and better than the other groups, optimum inclusion level of J(b) is 50% replacement of FM protein. PMID:20457206

Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Amselgruber, Werner; Becker, Klaus



The effects of zinc and copper salts on Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zinc and copper salts on the survival of the two species of freshwater fish, common carp,- Cyprinus carpio, and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, were investigated. It was discovered that the levels of tolerance to the concentration of the metals were species-specific. Cyprinus carpio was found to be more susceptible to copper, whereas Ctenopharyngodon idellus was more susceptible

M. H. Wong; K. C. Luk; K. Y. Choi



Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and ?9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our study revealed seasonally-dependent H2A.Z enrichment for active ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters during the carp environmental adaptation. Moreover, seasonal H2A.Zub enrichment appears as a specific mechanism contributing to the regulation of chromatin architecture under natural conditions. The existence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp suggests that the epigenetic regulation in this species constitutes a complex and finely tuned mechanism developed to cope with seasonal environmental changes that occur in its habitat.



Cyclooxygenase-derived products, rather than nitric oxide, are endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) in the ventral aorta of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


In some fish blood vessels, the existence of a NO (nitric oxide) system has been reported. We examined the possibility that this NO system acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in carp aorta using the carp aorta alone and in a combined carp-rat aorta donor-detector system. Use of the typical NO stimulating agent in mammal acetylcholine (ACh) only induced constriction of the carp aorta. This response was not modified by denudation or by NO synthesis inhibition with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the indirect NO stimulating agents bradykinin and histamine nor the direct NO releasers sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and SIN-1 induced vasorelaxation. Both SNP and ACh elevated the cGMP concentration in rat aorta, but not in carp aorta. In the aorta combination set-up, where carp served as a NO donor and rat aorta served as a NO detector, no relaxation of the rat aorta was observed. The calcium ionophore A23187, a known EDRF producer in mammals, induced relaxation of carp aorta through an endothelium- and cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that carp aorta does not produce NO as an EDRF nor does it respond to exogenously supplied NO. The major EDRF in carp is apparently a product(s) of cyclooxygenase metabolism. PMID:10996821

Park, K H; Kim, K H; Choi, M S; Choi, S H; Yoon, J M; Kim, Y G



Intestinal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during a cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infection: molecular identification and regulation of the mRNA expression of claudin encoding genes.  


As a major part of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium of vertebrates, claudin proteins are crucial to develop a selective permeable function and to maintain integrity of the barrier. The intestine has been reported as one of the targeted tissue of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) which causes major disease problems in carp production worldwide. To analyse the impact of the disease on the epithelial barrier of the intestine, carp claudin encoding genes were cloned, their tissue expression was described, and the abundance of gene transcripts in the intestine of carp under CyHV-3 infection was determined. Some of the carp claudin genes such as claudin-7 and -11 were expressed in various tissues, whilst others, like claudin-2 and -23, showed more tissue-specific expression profiles, which may reflect specific functions of these particular claudins. Along the gut axis, a spatial distribution of claudin gene expressions was found, with a lower abundance of gene transcripts in anterior regions of the intestine and increased expression in the distal section of the intestine, which might indicate specific functions of different regions in the intestinal tract of carp. In carp under CyHV-3 infection, an up-regulation in the expression of IFN-a2, IL-1beta and iNOS was observed, together with an elevation of transcriptional levels of claudin-2, -3c, -11, and -23. The data suggest that expression of claudins is involved in the reorganisation of the intestinal epithelium in CyHV-3-infected carp, which may be responsible for changes in the paracellular permeability. An increased expression of the claudins might be a response to the disturbance of the hydromineral balance in carp under CyHV-3 infection. PMID:23194746

Syakuri, Hamdan; Adamek, Miko?aj; Brogden, Graham; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Matras, Marek; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter



Evidence that a substance P-like peptide mediates the non-cholinergic excitatory response of the carp intestinal bulb (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of substance P in the noncholinergic contraction induced by transmural stimulation (TMS) of the carp intestinal bulb was examined. In the presence of atropine, substance P caused the contraction of carp intestinal bulb smooth muscle in a concentration dependent manner (1 nmol\\/1 - 1 µmol\\/l). The EC50 value was 28 ± 7 nmol\\/l (n = 6). Substance P-induced

Takio Kitazawa; Katsunori Kudo; Mitsue Ishigami; Hidenari Furuhashi; Kyosuke Temma; Hiroshi Kondo



Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g\\/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after\\u000a (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4. CCl4

Guojun YinLiping; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao; Chengping Lu



Administration of yeast glucan enhances survival and some non-specific and specific immune parameters in carp ( Cyprinus carpio) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ?-glucan administration on survival and immune modulations were studied in Cyprinus carpio against the bacterial pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. ?-glucan was extracted from Saccharomyces cervisiae and purified. A virulent strain of the pathogen A. hydrophila was collected from infected fish. Different concentrations of ?-glucan were administered to test animals on day 1, 3 and 5 through different routes (intraperitoneal

V. Selvaraj; K. Sampath; V. Sekar



Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).  


In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. PMID:23583469

Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei



Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) response to two pieces of music (“Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” and “Romanza”) combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available\\u000a information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 ± 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control,\\u000a ambient noise only), 4 h of

Sofronios E. Papoutsoglou; Nafsika Karakatsouli; Eustratios S. Papoutsoglou; Georgios Vasilikos



Effects of background color on growth performances and physiological responses of scaled carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in a closed circulated system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth performances and physiological responses of Cyprinus carpio after long-term (14 weeks) background color adaptation were investigated. Six groups of ten individuals each (initial body weight 116 g) were reared in black, green and white tanks (two replicate groups for each color). At the end of the experiment, blood (cortisol, glucose, haematocrit, cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, osmolality, electrolytes, pCO2, pH),

S. E Papoutsoglou; G Mylonakis; H Miliou; N. P Karakatsouli; S Chadio



Gene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the etiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis underlying the common carp immune response to the CyHV-3 virus. Two common carp lines (R3 and K) were infected with CyHV-3 by immersion. The R3 line presented a 20% higher survival rate compared to the K line and significantly lower viral loads as measured at day 3 post infection (p.i.). Microarray analysis using a common carp slides containing a number of 10,822 60-mer probes, revealed that 581 genes in line K (330 up-regulated, 251 down-regulated) and 107 genes in line R3 (77 up-regulated, 30 down-regulated), showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression at day 3 p.i. compared to day 0. Genes which showed at least a 4-fold difference in expression in both lines were selected as potential markers of a CyHV-3 infection in common carp. Additionally, 76 genes showed at least 2-fold differentially expression between K and R3 lines at day 3 p.i. Significantly higher expression of several immune-related genes including number of those which are involve in pathogen recognition, complement activation, MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and development of adaptive mucosal immunity was noted in more resistant R3 line. Further real-time PCR based analysis provided evidence for higher activation of CD8(+) T cells in R3 line. This study uncovered wide array of immune-related genes involved into antiviral response of common carp toward CyHV-3. It is also demonstrated that the outcome of this severe disease in large extent could be controlled by genetic factors of the host. PMID:22212509

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Adamek, Miko?aj; Palmeira, Leonor; Kawana, Yuriko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Matras, Marek; Steinhagen, Dieter; Flasz, Barbara; Brogden, Graham; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Aoki, Takashi




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Carp, when subjected to air stress in vivo, developed a hypoxaemia associated with an acidosis due to elevation of P ca , and arterial lactate content. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels rose markedly, and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in mmolHbl\\




The innervation of the chromaffin cells in the head kidney of the carp, Cyprinus carpio; regional differences of the connections between nerve endings and chromaffin cells.  

PubMed Central

Nerve fibres and their connections with chromaffin cells in the carp head kidney were studied by light and electron microscopy. Some nerve bundles entered the head kidney from the dorsal aspect along veins. Many unmyelinated axons emerged from the nerve bundles to invade the clusters of chromaffin cells, the distribution of which was restricted to the neighbourhood of the venous trunks and their tributaries. Most of the nerve endings were attached to a chromaffin cell by synaptic junctions and were generally invaginated into the cell. Some nerve endings were flattened in shape and connected with two chromaffin cells. Occasional exocytotic figures of synaptic vesicles opening into the intercellular space, or synaptic junctions along the course of the nerve fibre were observed. The percentage of the chromaffin cells supplied by nerve endings in the head kidney as a whole was similar to that in primitive amphibians. The distribution of the chromaffin cells and the frequency of their innervation suggest that carp chromaffin cells are phylogenetically similar to those of amphibians. The frequencies of synaptic connections in the carp head kidney showed regional differences. The number in dorsal portion was significantly higher than that in two ventral portions. It is suggested that chromaffin cells in the head kidney are separable into two populations: one (in the dorsal portion) shows closer and the other (in the ventral portions) less contact with nerve fibres. The fine structure of the nerve endings indicates that catecholamine secretion of carp chromaffin cells is partially modulated by nerve fibres (probably preganglionic cholinergic fibres). However, the low frequency of synaptic connections on the chromaffin cells and their distribution suggest that carp chromaffin cells are mainly modulated by the endocrine system via the bloodstream. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Imagawa, T; Kitagawa, H; Uehara, M



Molecular cloning and expression analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio) interleukin-1 beta, high affinity immunoglobulin E Fc receptor gamma subunit and serum amyloid A.  


Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) is a powerful means to identify genes of cytokines and other genes that express small amount of mRNA. In this study, cDNA of normal fish (carp) head kidney cells (HKC) was subtracted from pooled cDNA of HKC and peritoneal cell (PC) obtained from fish which had been injected with sodium alginate (SA) and scleroglucan (SG) 3-48 h earlier. This subtraction produced 248 clones of cDNA fragments. After sequencing some of the fragments of interest were used as probes, and yielded full-length cDNAs homologous to mammalian interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), the gamma subunit of high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI gamma) and serum amyloid A (SAA); these were cloned and sequenced. Carp IL-1 beta shows 21.8-24.7% amino acid identities to mammalian mature IL-1 beta, and lacks a signal sequence, which is consistent with mammalian IL-1 beta. Carp Fc epsilon RI gamma, which was the first cloned non-mammalian Fc receptor subunit, shows 39.3-40.4% amino acid identities to mammalian Fc epsilon RI gamma, and contains the immunoreceptor tyrosin-based activation motif characteristic of the signal transduction subunit of antigen- and Fc-receptors. Carp SAA is most similar to mammalian acute phase responsive type SAA with 53.0-55.3% amino acid identities. Both SA-elicited and SG-elicited PC expressed higher amounts of IL-1 beta and SAA mRNA compared to saline-injected fish HKC and PC, indicating that these proteins are associated with inflammatory responses, similar to mammalian homologues. Fc epsilon RI gamma was constitutively expressed in leucocytes and not immunopotentiator-responsive, but this indicates that Fc receptor including Fc epsilon RI gamma subunit is likely functional in the carp immune system. PMID:10938736

Fujiki, K; Shin, D H; Nakao, M; Yano, T



Diversity of complement factor B/C2 in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): three isotypes of B/C2-A expressed in different tissues.  


Complement factor B and C2 are two critical proteases for complement activation. Some bony fish have been reported to possess duplicated genes for B/C2, but there is no direct evidence regarding possible functional divergence. Here, we report the isolation of the second and third isotypes of carp B/C2-A, a close relative of other bony fish B reported to date, and designated B/C2-A2 and B/C2-A3. B/C2-A1 (previously reported B/C2-A) and B/C2-A2 share 78% amino acid identity and are synthesized mainly in hepatopancreas. On the other hand, B/C2-A3 showed less (approximately 60%) sequence identity with the other two isotypes. It was expressed mainly in kidney and spleen, and was up-regulated after injection of carp with scleroglucan or sodium alginate, known immunostimulants for fish. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that B/C2-A3 diverged before separation of carp and zebrafish. B/C2-A3 represent a novel B/C2-lineage functioning as an acute phase reactant in cyprinid fish. PMID:12031413

Nakao, Miki; Matsumoto, Momoe; Nakazawa, Mika; Fujiki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Tomoki



Genetic variability and structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) populations throughout the distribution range inferred from allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild\\/feral populations of common carp from Europe, Central Asia and East\\/South-East Asia were examined for allozyme (23 populations), microsatellite (11 populations) and mitochondrial DNA (21 populations) variation. Allozyme variability (1.06–1.81 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.006–0.136 at 16 loci) was much lower than microsatellite variability (2.5–14.0 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.426–0.887 at four loci). Differences in variability between domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild-caught ones were

Klaus Kohlmann; Riho Gross; Asiya Murakaeva; Petra Kersten



In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Astragalus polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in common carp in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, APS (200, 400 and 800 ?g/ml) was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium. APS at concentrations of 200, 400 and 800 ?g/ml significantly improved cell viability and inhibited the elevation of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly increased the reduced level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In vivo administration of APS at the doses of 1.5 and 3 g/kg in the diet for 60 days prior to CCl(4) intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of GPT, GOT and LDH and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum; meanwhile, the reduced levels of SOD, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were markedly increased and the MDA formation was significantly inhibited in liver tissue. Overall results proved the hepatoprotective action of APS, which is likely related to its antioxidant activity. The results support the use of APS as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish. PMID:22089693

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun



Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 ?g/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 ?g/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 ?g/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish. PMID:20865324

Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping



Comparative study of ?-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by ?-glucans in head kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS on a real-time scale at frequent and continual time intervals for time course experiments, providing more detailed information on the respiratory burst response. The real-time chemiluminescence assay was used to measure respiratory burst activity in macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched head kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by ?-glucans. PMID:23454430

Vera-Jimenez, N I; Pietretti, D; Wiegertjes, G F; Nielsen, M E



In vivo response of melatonin, gonadal activity and biochemical changes during CYP19 inhibited sex reversal in common carp Cyprinus carpio (L).  


CYP19 aromatase is the key enzyme in vertebrate steroidogenesis, catalyzing the conversion of C19 androgens to 17?-estradiol (E(2)). The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the CYP19 inhibitors (AIs) fadrozole and anastrozole on gonadal development and sex differentiation in Cyprinus carpio and investigate the possible involvement of in vivo melatonin (MLT) production during sex differentiation. The CYP19 activity in 30 day-post fertilized (30 dpf) fingerlings was inhibited by treating with fadrozole and anastrozole in doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of feed. Gonado-somatic-index (GSI) of fish decreased (P<0.005) and the changes in GSI was dose dependent. Serum testosterone (T) concentration increased (P<0.001) after AI treatments and was negatively correlated with serum E(2) concentration which decreased (P<0.005). Morning serum MLT concentration decreased during the period of inhibited CYP19 activity with a positive correlation with E(2) concentration. Sex-ratio in anastrazole (200mg/kg) treated fish were 98.1% males while with fadrozole treatment at the same dose resulted in a 97.1% masculinization. Histological examination of fadrozole-treated fish gonads resulted in detection of atretic follicles and intensified spermiation. The protein and lipid production was depressed in AIs-treated fish. The results suggested that fadrozole and anastrozole both effectively inhibited oogenesis and ovarian development in C. carpio accelerating testicular formation. There was a physiological correlation between CYP19 activity, E(2) and MLT synthesis during gonadal development and sex differentiation. PMID:23218911

Singh, Atul K; Singh, Ruchi



Description of an as Yet Unclassified DNA Virus from Diseased Cyprinus carpio Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and

Marina Hutoran; Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Maya Ilouze; Arnon Dishon; Izhak Bejerano; Nissim Chen; Moshe Kotler



Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp ( Carassius cuvieri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4200 mJ\\/cm2 and 3600 mJ\\/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the

Yuan-Dong SUN; Chun ZHANG; Shao-Jun LIU; Min TAO; Chen ZENG; Yun LIU



Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time  

SciTech Connect

Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.



Common Carp Distribution, Movements, and Habitat Use in a River Impounded by Multiple Low-Head Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an introduced species that is abundant in many impounded rivers. We assessed habitat conditions and common carp abundance in three flowing sites and three impounded sites of the Fox River, Illinois, to examine factors that influence the success of common carp in these systems. Radiotelemetry was used to determine long-term movement and habitat use

Steven E. Butler; David H. Wahl



Effect of adrenaline and blood gas conditions on red cell volume and intra-erythrocytic electrolytes in the carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


1. Carp, when subjected to air stress in vivo, developed a hypoxaemia associated with an acidosis due to elevation of PCO2 and arterial lactate content. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels rose markedly, and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in mmol Hb l-1 red blood cells) decreased, indicating swelling of the erythrocytes. 2. No effect of adrenaline could be observed in vitro after equilibration at normal pH and oxygenation level. 3. Simulation of air stress in vitro, by using hypercapnic hypoxia together with adrenaline, caused appreciable swelling of the red cells. The effect of adrenaline could be blocked by propranolol and was reversible when the blood gases were readjusted to normal values. Swelling due to hypercapnic hypoxia was not affected by propranolol. 4. At normal PO2, lowering pH by increasing PCO2 or adding HCl to the blood at PCO2 = 3.5 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa) both led to swelling of red cells; further swelling occurred when adrenaline was added. 5. At normal or even elevated intracellular pH, hypoxia led to red cell swelling; further swelling occurred when adrenaline was added. 6. The swelling of red cells under hypoxic and/or acidotic conditions (induced by either added HCl or increased PCO2) was associated with an increase in the intracellular K+, Na+ and Cl- levels, together with an increase in the Donnan distribution ratio of Cl-, rCl. delta K+:delta Na+ was 4:1. The swelling associated with the addition of adrenaline was also accompanied by an increase in K+, Na+, Cl- and rCl. In this case the ratio delta K+:delta Na+ was 1:2.4. 7. There was a correlation between the Donnan ratio, rCl, and the change in MCHC, even in those cases where extracellular and intracellular pH were above normal. In addition to pH and oxygen saturation, rCl should therefore be considered as a possible triggering factor for the action of adrenaline. 8. In addition to the increased catecholamine levels, stress during sampling may be inferred if low values of MCHC and high values of intraerythrocytic chloride and a high chloride distribution ratio, rCl, are found in whole blood. PMID:3145321

Fuchs, D A; Albers, C



Purification and characterization of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase from common carp liver.  


1. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) was purified and characterized. 2. Its molecular weight, isoelectric point, electrophoretic mobility, amino acid pattern and some other characteristics were determined. PMID:2591201

Víg, E; Gabrielak, T; Leyko, W; Nemcsók, J; Matkovics, B




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Rates of protein synthesis were measured in the white myotomal muscle of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) at a number of environmental temperatures before and after they had spent an acclimatory period at these temperatures. For carp previously kept at a mid-range temperature of 15 °C the rates of muscle protein synthesis showed a Qio of



Aynali Sazan (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) Yumurtalarinin Açilmasi ve Larvalarin Ya?ama Orani Üzerine Suyun pH De?erinin Etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water pH on the hatching of eggs and survival rates of larvae of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758). In this study, the effects of 3 different pH (control: 7.0-8.0, high pH: 8.5-9.0 and low pH: 5.0-5.5) on the hatching time of eggs and the survival rates of larvae of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) were

Metin Çalta; Firat Universitesi; Süleyman Demirel; Keban Meslek; Yüksek Okulu


Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient

Peifeng Ji; Guiming Liu; Jian Xu; Xumin Wang; Jiongtang Li; Zixia Zhao; Xiaofeng Zhang; Yan Zhang; Peng Xu; Xiaowen Sun



First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from hatch through the next spring in two South Dakota, USA lakes to identify factors affecting year-class strength. Hatching occurred over 37- and 47-day periods in the two lakes. Common carp that hatched earlier achieved greater total lengths at the end of the first growing season (Brant Lake: r = )0.84,




Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) were excluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with the construction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampled intensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997, 1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts in community structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser



Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser



Seasonal Distribution, Aggregation, and Habitat Selection of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and

Christopher R. Penne; Clay L. Pierce



Speciation of polyploid Cyprinidae fish of common carp, crucian carp, and silver crucian carp derived from duplicated Hox genes.  


Recent studies on comparative genomics have suggested that a round of fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R) in ray-finned fishes might have occurred around 226-316 Mya. Additional genome duplication, specifically in cyprinids, may have occurred more recently after the divergence of the teleosts. The timing of this event, however, is unknown. To address this question, we sequenced four Hox genes from taxa representing the polyploid Cyprinidae fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 2n=100), crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus, 2n=100), and silver crucian carp (C. auratus gibelio, 2n=156), and then compared them with known sequences from the diploid Cyprinidae fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, 2n=48). Our results showed the presence of two distinct Hox duplicates in the genomes of common and crucian carp. Three distinct Hox sequences, one of them orthologous to a Hox gene in common carp and the other two orthologous to a Hox gene in crucian carp, were isolated in silver crucian carp, indicating a possible hybrid origin of silver crucian carp from crucian and common carp. The gene duplication resulting in the origin of the common ancestor of common and crucian carp likely occurred around 10.9-13.2 Mya. The speciations of common vs. crucian carp and silver crucian vs. crucian carp likely occurred around 8.1-11.4 and 2.3-3.0 Mya, respectively. Finally, nonfunctionalization resulting from point mutations in the coding region is a probable fate for some Hox duplicates. Taken together, these results suggested an evolutionary model for polyploidization in speciation and diversification of polyploid fish. PMID:20700889

Yuan, Jian; He, Zhuzi; Yuan, Xiangnan; Jiang, Xiayun; Sun, Xiaowen; Zou, Shuming



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie



Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.  


Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J. PMID:23174162

Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling



Effectiveness of a Plastic Mesh Substrate Cover for Reducing the Effects of Common Carp on Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort has been directed at eliminating or controlling common carp Cyprinus carpio populations, but these efforts have had limited success. We assessed the effectiveness of an alternative approach, using plastic-mesh substrate covers, to reduce environmental effects of common carp, Multiple trophic levels were monitored in 0.06-ha enclosures in experimental ponds that contained either common carp with

Joseph J. Parkos III; Victor J. Santucci Jr; David H. Wahl



Structural conservation and food habit-related liver expression of uncoupling protein 2 gene in five major Chinese carps.  


The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be 149.4 +/- 15.6 (common carp), 127.4 +/- 22.1(mud carp), 96.7 +/- 12.7 (silver carp), 94.1 +/- 26.8 (bighead carp) and 63.7 +/- 16.2 (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detritus-eating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorous fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food. PMID:16889676

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ling; Lin, Xiaotao; Bai, Junjie; Jian, Qing



Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, the contents of complement C3 and IgM, and IgM and complement C3 expressions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Chlorpyrifos is one of the organophosphate pesticides widely used in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. In the present study, toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, contents of IgM and complement C3, and the expressions of IgM and complement C3 at mRNA level in common carp were evaluated by acute exposure of 15 (1/10 LC50) or 75?gL(-1) (1/2 LC50) of chlorpyrifos for 7d. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96h-LC50 of chlorpyrifos for common carp was determined to be 149?gL(-1). We also found that chlorpyrifos promoted lysozyme activities at the earlier stages of exposure but inhibited it at the late stages in the serum, hepatopancreas, and spleen of common carp. Furthermore, it was observed that chlorpyrifos-exposure decreased IgM contents in fish serum and spleen while increased it in kidney. No obvious change was found in the contents of complement C3 in fish spleen, while a slight increase of complement C3 was observed in fish serum and kidney after 1d of chlorpyrifos-exposure. In addition, the results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that IgM and complement C3 expressions were up-regulated at the earlier stage of exposure but down-regulated at later stage. Our results indicate that chlorpyrifos causes immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:23769463

Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yaning; Fang, Qian; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuanlong



Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...




Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio )t o fluctuating thermal conditions was studied in the Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station discharge canal on Lake Erie. Locomotory activity of fish in the canal was monitored using electromyogram telemetry of the axial musculature. Carp activity was variable but, in general, they were more active during




Environmental Monitoring Using Physiological Telemetry – A Case Study Examining Common Carp Responses to Thermal Pollution in a Coal-Fired Generating Station Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal conditions was studied in the Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station discharge canal on Lake Erie. Locomotory activity of fish in the canal was monitored using electromyogram telemetry of the axial musculature. Carp activity was variable but, in general, they were more active during times

Steven J. Cooke; Jason F. Schreer



Reproduction mode of an artificial allotetraploid carp (Pisces; Cyprinidae).  


Mature eggs of allotetraploid carp were activated by inactive sperm or crossed with normal sperms of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Chinese blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), Hemiculter leucisculus and Pseudorasbora parva. Chromosome counts showed that all offspring of these crosses presented a mode number of 200 chromosomes (4n = 200), and their morphological traits are much like maternal. Microsatelite marker and RAPD patterns between allotetraploid maternal and its offspring, reproduced from different paternal species, were identical. Cytological, morphological and molecular evidences suggested that allotetraploid carp female nucleus would not fuse with any male nucleus and its reproduction mode might be gynogenesis and therefore their offspring are retaining their tetraploidy and give origin to clonal individuals. PMID:12627840

Ye, Yuzhen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaohu; Wu, Qingjiang



Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.



Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.  


Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?

Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K



Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond,

B. G. B. Solheim; M. Pettersson




EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...


Nutritional Composition and Use of Common Carp Muscle in Yellow Perch Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal

Travis W. Schaeffer; Matthew J. Hennen; Michael L. Brown; Kurt A. Rosentrater



First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 °C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot



Genetic monitoring and effects of stocking practices on small Cyprinus carpio populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to detect genetic differences both in space and time is crucial for conserving genetic variation. It can reveal\\u000a genetic diversity and genetic composition changes of declining native populations that are supported through stocking with\\u000a captive bred individuals. The present study was designed to analyse the temporal stability of a declining common carp (Cyprinus carpio) population from Lake Volvi

Nikoleta Karaiskou; Maria Lappa; Stefanos Kalomoiris; George Oikonomidis; Chariklia Psaltopoulou; Theodore J. Abatzopoulos; Costas Triantaphyllidis; Alexander Triantafyllidis


Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.



Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate for the Control of Experimentally Induced Infestations of Argulus sp. in Goldfish and Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet\\/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24–25°C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number

Shari K. Hanson; Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson; Roy P. E. Yanong; Richard Endris



The effects of zinc and copper salts on Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  


The effects of zinc and copper salts on the survival of the two species of freshwater fish, common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, were investigated. It was discovered that the levels of tolerance to the concentration of the metals were species-specific. Cyprinus carpio was found to be more susceptible to copper, whereas Ctenopharyngodon idellus was more susceptible to zinc. In general, copper was more toxic than zinc, as revealed by the survival times. The body and the gills of dead fish seemed to be covered by a veil-like film which looked like coagulated mucus and which was formed by the heavy-metal ions reacting with some constituents of the mucus and which was formed by the heavy-metal ions reacting with some constituents of the mucus secreted by the gill. The histopathological assessment of the gill and liver of Cyprinus carpio was also carried out. Particles were observed around the gills of the dead fish treated with zinc and copper salts, although no other major changes were found in the gill. Several histopathological changes were observed in the livers, including the presence of particles. The symptoms of the liver suggested that the internal injury was also an important feature of the intoxicants. PMID:899709

Wong, M H; Luk, K C; Choi, K Y



Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies.

Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of farmed fish has increased considerably over the past years, and is now providing a significant contribution to the food market. Mortality however, can be high especially in young fish. The administration of immuno-stimulants via the food can be a sustainable approach especially in young animals because of its uncomplicated use, fast delivery, less stressful entry route and

B. T. Huttenhuis



Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates of Carp Oil: Chemical Hydrolysis and Urea Complexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to compare three treatments in the chemical hydrolysis reaction of bleached oil from carp (Cyprinus carpio) heads and to obtain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates by urea complexation. The three treatments were carried out\\u000a with different oil:ethanol molar ratios. In the treatment with a 1:39 molar ratio, a higher yield of free fatty acids was

Valéria T. Crexi; Micheli L. Monte; Maurício L. Monte; Luiz A. A. Pinto


Functional Enzymes Activity and Gill Histology of Carp after Copper Sulfate Exposure and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper sulfate is one of the most widely used algicides for the control of phytoplankton in lakes, reservoirs, and ponds. It is also used for aquatic weed control. To study the toxic effects of copper on carp (Cyprinus carpioL.), toxicity tests were carried out. Fish recovery in copper-free water was followed. After a 14-day period of exposure to five concentrations

V. Karan; S. Vitorovi?; V. Tutundži?; V. Poleksi?



Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  


Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim



Description of an as Yet Unclassified DNA Virus from Diseased Cyprinus carpio Species  

PubMed Central

Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may represent an as yet unclassified virus species that is endemic in C. carpio (carp).

Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe



Description of an as yet unclassified DNA virus from diseased Cyprinus carpio species.  


Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis as well as petechial hemorrhages in the liver and other symptoms that were not consistent with viral disease, suggesting a secondary infection. Here we report the isolation of carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), which is the etiologic agent of this disease. The virus propagates and induces severe cytopathic effects by 5 days postinfection in fresh koi or carp fin cell cultures (KFC and CFC, respectively), but not in epithelioma papillosum cyprini cells. The virus harvested from KFC cultures induced the same clinical signs, with a mortality of 75 to 95%, upon inoculation into naive koi and common carp. Using PCR, we provide final proof that the isolated virus is indeed the etiologic agent of food and ornamental carp mortalities in fish husbandry. Electron microscopy revealed viral cores with icosahedral morphology of 100 to 110 nm that resembled herpesviruses. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. However, the genome of the isolated virus is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule of 270 to 290 kbp, which is larger than known herpesviruses. The viral DNA seems highly divergent and bears only small fragments (16 to 45 bp) that are similar to the genomes of several DNA viruses. Nevertheless, amino acid sequences encoded by CNGV DNA fragments bear similarities primarily to members of the Poxviridae and Herpesviridae and to other large dsDNA viruses. We suggest, therefore, that the etiologic agent of this disease may represent an as yet unclassified virus species that is endemic in C. carpio (carp). PMID:15681400

Hutoran, Marina; Ronen, Ariel; Perelberg, Ayana; Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Bejerano, Izhak; Chen, Nissim; Kotler, Moshe



Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  


In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G



The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.  


The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming



Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.



[Textual research on 5 words of disease in chu jian (bamboo slips of Chu State) of the Warring States Period].  


There are not a few words of disease in the unearthed chu jian (bamboo slips of Chu State) of the Warring States Period. The morphology, pronunciation and meaning among these characters are completed. By collecting the diseases in the equivocally deciphered words, this article comprehensively discusses the words among them. It is claimed that in Geling jian (Geling slips), "Xie" is pronounced as xie, and "Xie disease" refers to the pain below the oxter and above the waist; "Bei", pronounced as jian, and "Bei Pi disease" refers to the pain of the shoulder and back;"Jie" reads as jie and refers to scabies; "Du" pronounced as fu, and "Du disease" refers to distending pain of the skin. In Wangshan jian (Wangshan slips), "Du" is equal to "Du", and is the same as "Du" in baoshan jian (baoshan bamboo slips), pronounced as du, refers to exacerbation of disease. PMID:24135471

Luo, Bao-Zhen



Combined Effects of Different Food Rations and Sublethal Copper Exposure on Growth and Energy Metabolism in Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration; LR) and 5% body weight (high ration; HR), throughout acclimation,\\u000a sublethal (64 ?g\\/L) Cu exposure for 28 days, and a subsequent 2-week recovery period. Growth, liver water content, and liver\\u000a energy stores were assessed during this period. Growth rates were elevated in HR fish compared to

Shodja Hashemi; Ronny Blust; Gudrun De Boeck



Expression of common carp growth hormone in the yeast Pichia pastoris and growth stimulation of juvenile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA encoding mature growth hormone (GH) was cloned from the pituitary of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by RT-PCR. To construct the expression plasmid, the GH cDNA was inserted into the pUC18 plasmid and subsequently subcloned into vector pPICZ?A, which contains the promotor from the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) gene and the ?-factor signal peptide sequence. The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115

Yinghua Li; Junjie Bai; Qing Jian; Xing Ye; Haihua Lao; Xinhui Li; Jianren Luo; Xufang Liang



Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits.



[Comparative studies on gene expression of isozymes in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp during embryogenesis].  


Isozyme zymograms of esterase (EST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analysed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis at different developmental stages of embryogenesis in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp embryos, including haploids, diploids, natural triploids, and multiple tetraploids, and 2 types of haploid and diploid common carp embryos. Haploid embryos of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were produced by treating eggs with UV-irradiated milt from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Natural triploid embryos were obtained from the eggs of gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) inseminated with milt from red common carp. Multiple tetraploid embryos were also produced by gynogenesis from eggs of the newly discovered multiple tetraploid females inseminated with milt from red common carp. Gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that the band types and staining intensity of 4 isozymes expressed in haploid embryos of crucian carp and red common carp were similar to that in the correlative diploid embryos. In natural triploid silver crucian carp embryos, the zymograms of MDH and SOD isozymes were identical with that of diploid crucian carp embryos, but the EST and LDH isozymes manifested more new enzyme bands in comparison with diploid embryos. The corresponding expressed products of some bands in the triploid embryos, such as EST5 and EST6, could be observed also in red common carp embryos, which provided evidence for hybrid origin about the gynogenetic fish. The multiple tetraploids incorporated one foreign genome of red common carp, therefore, the effects of genes from the foreign genome could be observed in the multiple tetraploid embryos. Gene expression of the isozymes in the tetraploid embryos was somewhat similar to that in hybrids. Owing to interaction of triploid silver crucian carp genomes and common carp haploid genome, some isozyme bands, such as EST5 and EST6, changed in quantity, and some bands increased, such as s-SOD1, s-SOD2, s-SOD3 and s-SOD4 in the tetraploid embryos. Moreover, the heterogeneity was revealed among embryos developed from gynogenetic eggs of 3 different multiple tetraploid individuals. PMID:12016959

Zhu, L F; Gui, J F



Tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.  


Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are susceptible to fluoride contamination of their environment. In this study, we examined the tissue distributions of fluoride and its toxicity in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Carp were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoride (35-124 mg/L) and sampled at 30, 60 and 90 days. The accumulation of fluoride in the tissues increased with the level and duration of exposure. Steady state was not achieved under the experimental conditions. The gills accumulated the highest levels of fluoride followed by the liver>brain>kidney>muscle>intestine. A dose-dependent inhibition was observed for the enzyme activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the gills after the fish were exposed for 90 days. Also, accumulation of fluoride was associated with the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the gill tissues, suggesting that fluoride promoted oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations revealed injuries to gill tissues and chloride cells, with the severity of injury increasing with exposure concentration. These results suggest that chronic exposure to elevated concentrations of fluoride may induce toxicity in the common carp. PMID:23376696

Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Wu, Xiangtian; Li, Yundong; Xie, Lingtian



A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



A comparison of growth, survival rate and number of marketable koi carp produced under different management regimes in earthen ponds and concrete tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the growth performance of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi, produced in concrete tanks (2.13 ×  0.91 × 1.22 m; capacity: 2,000 l each) and earthen ponds (9.1 × 6.10 × 1.07 m; capacity: 59650 l each), fish larvae (stocking size: 0.12 ± 0.008 g) were cultured for 11 weeks and individual weight gain, survival rate and number of marketable fish produced were compared among four management regimes for each culture

Prithwiraj Jha; S. Barat; C. R. Nayak



Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market  

PubMed Central

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

Hart, Vlastimil; Kusta, Tomas; Nemec, Pavel; Blahova, Veronika; Jezek, Milos; Novakova, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimir; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stipek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek



Phylogeny of interleukins: growth factors produced by leucocytes of the cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Supernatants of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated pronephric leucocytes from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) contain a lymphocyte growth factor which can induce a proliferative response of purified lymphoblasts but not freshly isolated leucocytes. The growth-promoting activity can be reduced by absorbing the supernatant with mitogen-activated blasts. In addition, increased incorporation of tritiated thymidine into PHA-activated blast cells is also induced by supernatants from two-way mixed leucocyte cultures. The data show that even at the evolutionary level of teleost fish, amplifying/regulatory leucocyte products exist. It is suggested that these factors play as important a role in the regulation of the immune response in fish as they do in mammals.

Grondel, J L; Harmsen, E G



Use of Eyeballs for Establishing Ploidy of Asian Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi

Jill A. Jenkins; R. Glenn Thomas



Physiological responses to mercury in feral carp populations inhabiting the low Ebro River (NE Spain), a historically contaminated site.  


The low Ebro River course (Northeast Spain) is historically affected by mercury pollution due to a chlor-alkali plant operating at the town of Flix for more than a century. River sediments analysed during the last 10 years showed high mercury levels in the river section starting just downstream the factory and spanning some 90km, down to the river delta. The possible environmental impact was studied by a combination of field and laboratory studies. Mercury concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle of feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled downstream Flix were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from carps sampled upstream Flix. Elevated levels of mercury in these samples associated with significant increases on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and on mRNA expression of two metallothionein genes, MT1 and MT2, in kidney and, partially, in scales, but not in liver. Conversely, no biochemical evidence for oxidative stress or DNA damage was found in these tissues. Non-contaminated carps subjected to intraperitoneal mercury injection resulted in a 20-fold increase of MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels in carp kidney, with minimal changes in liver levels. Our data suggests the coordinate increase of metallothionein mRNA in kidney and of GSH in liver constitutes an excellent marker of exposure to sub-toxic mercury levels in carps. This study also demonstrates that apparently healthy fish populations may exceed the mercury contamination acceptable for human consumption. PMID:19482362

Navarro, Anna; Quirós, Laia; Casado, Marta; Faria, Melissa; Carrasco, Luís; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Díez, Sergi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barata, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Pińa, Benjamin



[Lin Xue-Jian's experience on treatment of a part of cerebral diseases with scalp acupuncture].  


LIN Xue-Jian adopts Chinese traditional acupuncture and moxibustion manipulation methods to stimulate the special area of scalp to treat a part of brain-derived diseases, such as infantile cerebral palsy, nerve deafness, cerebellar ataxia, lacunar cerebral infarction, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety, insomnia and central constipation, and so on. Scalp acupuncture can improve ability of blood and oxygen supply for general blood vessels; stimulation of corresponding acupoint area according to symptoms and signs can control condition of disease; and can repair, activate and regenerate the injured, dormancy and aging neurons, so as to dredge nerve network in the brain, hence better therapeutic effect. PMID:16318137

Wang, Hai-Li; Wu, Jiu-Wei



Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo



Properties of Carp Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro- retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast com- ponent was investigated further. In complete



High-jumping Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...



Comparison of the Effects of Gonadotropic Preparations of the Carp and Stellate Sturgeon Pituitaries onin vivoand in vitroOocyte Maturation in the Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeriBrandt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injections of 2.5 mg\\/kg of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatusPall.) pituitary extract and 5 mg\\/kg of carp (Cyprinus carpioL.) pituitary extract in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeriBrandt) females did not reveal significant differences in the effects of these preparations. There were no differences in the percentage of females that responded by ovulation, duration of the period from injection to ovulation, rate of

B. F. Goncharov; P. Williot; F. Le Menn



Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp.  


The cDNAs encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were cloned and sequenced from the liver of three Chinese carps with different tolerance to hepatotoxic microcystins, phytoplanktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Using genome walker method, a 750 bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GPx gene was obtained, and several potential regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the GPx gene. The silver carp GPx gene was widely expressed in all tissues examined. Despite phylogenetic analysis, assigning this newly described carp GPx to the group of mammalian GPx2, the carp GPx seems more similar to GPx1 from a physiological point of view. The constitutive expression pattern of the three carp liver GPx gene, shows a positive relationship with their tolerance to microcystins. PMID:18377723

Li, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yao, Wei; Liao, Wan-Qin; Zhu, Wei-Feng



Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.  


Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer 109Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 degrees C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia. PMID:16046241

Hattink, Jasper; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny



Modular changes of cis-regulatory elements from two functional Pit1 genes in the duplicated genome of Cyprinus carpio.  


The pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit1 is involved in its own regulation and in a network of transcriptional regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors including prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). In the ectotherm teleost Cyprinus carpio, Pit1 plays an important role in regulation of the adaptive response to seasonal environmental changes. Two Pit1 genes exist in carp, a tetraploid vertebrate and transcripts of both genes were detected by RT-PCR analysis. Powerful comparative analyses of the 5'-flanking regions revealed copy specific changes comprising modular functional units in the naturally evolved promoters. These include the precise replacement of four nucleotides around the transcription start site embedded in completely conserved regions extending upstream of the TATA-box, an additional transcription factor binding site in the 5'-UTR of gene-I and, instead, duplication of a 9 bp element in gene-II. Binding of nuclear factors was assessed by electro mobility shift assays using extracts from rat pituitary cells and carp pituitary. Binding was confirmed at one conserved Pit1, one conserved CREB and one consensus MTF1. Interestingly, two functional Pit1 sites and one putative MTF1 binding site are unique to the Pit1 gene-I. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that the expression of gene-I in winter carp was significantly stronger than that of gene-II. Our data suggest that the specific control elements identified in the proximal regulatory region are physiologically relevant for the function of the duplicated Pit1 genes in carp and highlight modular changes in the architecture of two Pit1 genes that evolved for at least 12 MYA in the same organism. PMID:16724305

Kausel, G; Salazar, M; Castro, L; Vera, T; Romero, A; Muller, M; Figueroa, J



Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  


The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A



Fault zone evolution and its controls on ore-grade distribution at the Jian Cha Ling gold deposit, western Qinling region, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jian Cha Ling gold deposit is sited in folded and faulted Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the uplifted Mian-Lue-Yang block, adjacent to the Mianlue suture zone within the West Qinling mineral province, along the northern margin of the South China craton. Early Mesozoic gold mineralization at Jian Cha Ling, which has a pre-mined resource of about 536,000 oz Au, is controlled by

Richard M. Vielreicher; Noreen M. Vielreicher; Steffen G. Hagemann; Greg Jones



Absence of tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in carp tissues.  


We have previously reported that carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue mitochondria contain a novel form of monoamine oxidase (MAO), which belongs neither to MAO-A nor to MAO-B of the mammalian enzyme. This conclusion results from the findings that the carp MAO was equally sensitive to a selective MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline and to the MAO-B selective inhibitor l-deprenyl, when tyramine, a substrate for both forms, serotonin or beta-phenylethylamine, a substrate for either A or B-form of mammalian MAO, was used. In the present study, we tried to detect another amine oxidase, termed tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), activity in carp tissues. As definition of SSAO was used, such as insensitivity to inhibition of the kynuramine oxidizing activity by an MAO inhibitor pargyline and high sensitivity to the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide. The results indicated that the oxidizing activity was selectively and almost completely inhibited by 0.1 mM pargyline alone or a combination of 0.1 mM pargyline plus 0.1 mM semicarbazide, but not by 0.1 mM semicarbazide alone. We also tried to detect any SSAO activity by changing experimental conditions, such as lower incubation temperature, higher enzyme protein concentration, a lower substrate concentration and different pH's in the reaction, as the enzyme source. However, still no SSAO activity could be detected in the tissues. These results conclusively indicate that carp tissues so far examined do not contain SSAO activity. PMID:17215008

Takahashi, Kazuya; Kakuta, Izuru; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Obata, Toshio; Oreland, Lars; Kinemuchi, Hiroyasu



Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.  


In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin



CARP: fishing for novel mechanisms of neovascularization.  


Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to its role as a nuclear transcription cofactor in many cell types including vascular endothelium, CARP is also a structural component of the sarcomere. CARP transcripts are prominent in cardiogenesis and muscle injury, and they are under complex regulation by cytokines, hypoxia, doxorubicin, and other forms of stress. CARP overexpression in wounds by adenoviral gene transfer leads to a high vascular density, and CARP exerts effects on endothelial behavior. The unusual cellular distribution and actions of CARP make it a novel candidate gene in tissue repair. PMID:17069020

Samaras, Susan E; Shi, Yubin; Davidson, Jeffrey M



Serum proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic profiles in myasthenia gravis patients during treatment with Qiangji Jianli Fang  

PubMed Central

Background Qiangji Jianli Fang (QJF) has been used for treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) in China. However, our understanding of the effects of QJF against MG at the molecular level is limited. This study aims to investigate the effects of QJF treatment of MG patients on the protein, peptide and metabolite levels in serum. Methods High-throughput proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic techniques were applied to investigate serum samples from 21 healthy individuals and 47 MG patients before and after QJF treatment via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry, respectively. Results After QJF treatment, the expression levels of peptides m/z 1865.019, 2021.128 and 1211.668 of complement C3f increased (P?=?0.004, P?=?0.001 and P?=?0.043, respectively), while that of peptide m/z 1739.931 of component C4b decreased (P?=?0.043), in the serum of MG patients. The levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (P?=?0.000) and coenzyme Q4 (P?=?0.000) resumed their normal states. Conclusion QJF could inhibit the activity of the complement system and restore the normal levels of metabolites.



Environmental Temperature and Plasma Electrolyte Regulation in the Carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE the ability of the freshwater teleost to control body fluid electrolyte composition has been appreciated primarily in terms of neuromuscular and related membrane-dependent phenomena, an increasing body of evidence points to an equally important role in the regulation of intermediary metabolism1. Control of water-electrolyte balance in these animals involves adjustment of a variety of passive and metabolically-dependent transfer processes

A. H. Houston; Jane A. Madden



Corticosteroid receptors involved in stress regulation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol\\/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone, teleostean fishes do have an MR with cortisol and possibly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) (as alternative for aldosterone)

H. H. Stolte; Mazon de A. F; Karen M Leon-Koosterziel; M. M. Jesiak; Nic R Bury; Armin Sturm; Huub F J Savelkoul; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; G. Flik



Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa cryobanks — strategies in research and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial methods for successful cryopreservation of spermatozoa (Spz) from cultured teleosts have been reported for a large number of species. Nevertheless, the main obstacle to the formation of large-scale ‘sperm banks’ lies in the efficient upscaling of these techniques. In the present paper, attempts to develop reliable, simple and efficient methods for operating a large-scale cryobank for the Japanese ornamental

E. Lubzens; N. Daube; I. Pekarsky; Y. Magnus; A. Cohen; F. Yusefovich; P. Feigin



Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen



Branchial cobalt uptake in the carp, Cyprinus carpio: Effect of calcium channelblockers and calcium injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using tracer-uptake studies we investigated whether the branchial uptakeof cobalt occurs via selective, inhibitable, calcium uptake routes.Modulation of the calcium transport system was performed using generalcalcium channel blockers (Cd2+, La3+,Mg2+), a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker (diltiazem)and an intraperitoneal CaCl2 injection. Adding Cd2+ orMg2+ to thewater or injecting the fish with theCa2+-solution resulted in decreased Co2+ andCa2+ uptake rates. Addition of

S. Comhaire; R. Blust; L. Van Ginneken; P. M. Verbost; O. L. J. Vanderborght



Potassium channels regulate hypo-osmotic shock-induced motility of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmolality and composition of fish seminal plasma usually suppress sperm motility in the testis and sperm duct. Change in the osmolality of the environment at spawning activates flagellar motion of the sperm tail. The effect of inhibitors of anion and cation channels on active motion was investigated by a microscopic motility test. While sodium channel inhibitors (amiloride and tetrodotoxin)

Zoltán Krasznai; Teréz Márián; László Balkay; Rezsó Gáspár; Lajos Trón



Administration of a herbal immunoregulation mixture enhances some immune parameters in carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal immunoregulation mixture (HIRM) were extracts of several traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs): Astragalus membranaceus (from the root and stem), Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (from the root), Isatis tinctoria L. (from the root), Glycyrrhiza glabra (from the stem). Immune parameters, which included macrophage phagocytic activity, macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a activity of serum lysozyme, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase

Chuntao Yuan; Dongmei Li; Wei Chen; Fangfang Sun; Guanghong Wu; Yi Gong; Jianqing Tang; Meifang Shen; Xiaodong Han



Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak



Microsatellite analysis of different ploidy offspring of artificial gynogenesis in Cyprinus carpio.  


Gynogenesis was induced by using UV-irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala to activate eggs of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The maternal genome was then duplicated by cold shock in 0 to 4° C cold water to retain the second polar body. Two kinds of fry, normal fry and abnormal tortuous fry, were hatched. Their DNA content was measured by flow cytometry. The normal fry were identified as diploid, representing the successful gynogenesis in C. carpio whereas the abnormal tortuous fry were haploid. Ten microsatellite loci were used to study the genetic diversity among C. carpio, diploid gynogenetic C. carpio and unduplicated haploid tortuous fry. The results indicated that the genetic homozygosity of gynogenetic C. carpio was significantly higher than that of C. carpio. The genetic homozygosity of the haploid C. carpio was intermediate between that of gynogenetic C. carpio and C. carpio. It might be easier for the allogenetic DNA fragments to be integrated into the haploid genome than into diploid gynogenetic genome. PMID:21235552

Xiao, J; Zou, T M; Chen, L; Liu, S J; Xiao, J; Zhang, H; Long, Y; Yan, J P; Zhao, R R; Tao, M; Zhang, C; You, C P; Liu, Y



Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these\\u000a Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning\\u000a period

D. M. Papoulias; D. Chapman; D. E Tillitt



Effects of pharmaceuticals on the expression of genes involved in detoxification in a carp primary hepatocyte model.  


Fish in many surface freshwaters are exposed to a range of pharmaceuticals via wastewater treatment works effluent discharges. In mammals the pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a key role in the regulation of a suite of genes involved in drug biotransformation, but information on the role of this response pathway in fish is limited. Here we investigated the effects of exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio) primary hepatocytes to the human PXR agonist rifampicin (RIF) on expression of target genes involved in phase I (cyp2k, cyp3a) and phase II (gst?, gst?) drug metabolism and drug transporters mdr1 and mrp2. RIF induced expression of all target genes measured and the PXR antagonist ketoconazole (KET) inhibited responses of cyp2k and cyp3a. Exposure of the primary carp hepatocytes to the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen (IBU), clotrimazole (CTZ), clofibric acid (CFA) and propranolol (PRP), found responses to IBU and CFA, but not CTZ or PRP. This is in contrast with mammals, where CTZ is a potent PXR-agonist. Collectively our data indicate potential PXR involvement in regulating selected genes involved in drug metabolism in fish, but suggest some divergence in the regulation pathways with those in mammals. The carp primary hepatocyte model serves as a useful system for screening for responses in these target genes involved in drug metabolism. PMID:22559005

Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Winter, Matthew J; Tyler, Charles R



Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio



Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations  

PubMed Central

The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Assessment of global proteome dynamics in carp: a model for investigating environmental stress.  


Fish have to respond to a range of natural and man-made environmental stressors, which can lead to molecular changes within their tissues. Many studies focused on environmental stress in fish have examined the change in protein abundance or mRNA level. However, it is well-known that there is a disconnect between mRNA and protein expression. In order to bridge this gap, protein turnover must also be considered. We have developed an experimental strategy to determine the synthesis rates of individual proteins in the tissues of fish on a proteome-wide scale. This approach has been applied to the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ), a key model species for investigating environmentally induced physiological plasticity. We have calculated the rates of protein synthesis for over a thousand individual proteins from the skeletal muscle and liver of carp. The median synthesis rate of proteins from liver was higher than that of skeletal muscle. The analysis further revealed that the same protein can have a different rate of synthesis depending on the tissue type. Our strategy permits a full investigation of proteome dynamics in fish and will have relevance to the fields of integrative biology and ecotoxicology. PMID:24047415

Doherty, Mary K; Owen, Matthew A G; Davies, Simon J; Young, Iain S; Whitfield, Phillip D



Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.  


The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



High Throughput Mining and Characterization of Microsatellites from Common Carp Genome  

PubMed Central

In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827 distinct contig sequences. These microsatellites were characterized in the common carp genome. Information of all microsatellites, including previously published BAC-based microsatellites, was then stored in a MySQL database, and a web-based database interface ( was built for public access and download. A total of 3,110 microsatellites, including 1,845 from WGS and 1,265 from BAC end sequences (BES), were tested and genotyped on a mapping family with 192 individuals. A total of 963 microsatellites markers were validated with polymorphism in the mapping family. They will soon be used for high-density linkage mapping with a vast number of polymorphic SNP markers.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chao; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay



Direct detection of unamplified spring viraemia of carp virus RNA using unmodified gold nanoparticles.  


Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a viral disease that mainly affects carp Cyprinus carpio and other cyprinid fish, causing severe economic losses. Rapid detection and identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is crucial for effective disease management. Recent advances in nanoscience are having a significant impact on many scientific fields, especially biodiagnostics, where a number of nanoparticle-based assays have been introduced for biomolecular detection. Single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides can be adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in colloidal solution under certain conditions. We exploited this phenomenon to develop a specific hybridization assay for direct detection of SVCV-RNA without prior amplification. The result of the hybridization process could be detected visually within 1 min when the colour of the reaction mixture changed from red to blue (positive reaction) or remains red (negative). The lower detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 10-3 TCID50 ml-1 SVCV-RNA, and it has the feasibility to detect the target virus-RNA in clinical specimens without previous amplification. In order to obtain an indication of the assay's performance on clinical samples we compared the optimized assay with nested RT-PCR in detection of SVCV-RNA in infected fish samples. The concordance of the 2 methods was defined as 100% when compared to nested RT-PCR positive and negative samples. The SVC-AuNPs assay requires only 15 min, eliminates the need for thermal cycling or detection instruments and is a specific and rapid tool for detection of SVCV-RNA directly from clinical samples. PMID:22885508

Saleh, Mona; Soliman, Hatem; Schachner, Oskar; El-Matbouli, Mansour



Ingestion of bacteria in suspension Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita) and Chinese carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-species groups of fry of the planktivorous, filter-feeding carps (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, rohu Labeo rohita and catla Catla catla) were exposed to the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum to assess if they could detect or ingest unattached bacteria. The results indicate that planktivorous carp fry are able to ingest unattached bacteria and that the numbers ingested increase

S. M. Rahmatullah; M. C. M. Beveridge



Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...


History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...


Protective effect of lycopene on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during cypermethrin exposure.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of lycopene against the toxic effects of cypermethrin (CYP) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were divided into seven groups of 10 fish each and received the following treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, orally administered corn oil; group 3, oral lycopene (10 mg/kg body weight); group 4, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP; group 5, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene; group 6, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP; and group 7, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. MDA level, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in CYP groups compared with controls. Administration of lycopene ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of lycopene might alleviate CYP-induced oxidative stress. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28:609-616, 2013. PMID:24150867

Yonar, M Enis



The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.  


The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa



Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging

Namsoo Kim; Dong-Kyung Kim; Yong-Jin Cho; Dae-Kyung Moon; Woo-Yeon Kim



Characterization of a Novel Virus Causing a Lethal Disease in Carp and Koi  

PubMed Central

Since 1998 a lethal disease of carp and ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio) has afflicted fisheries in North America, Europe, and Asia, causing severe economic losses to the fish farming industry. This review summarizes the isolation and identification of the disease-causing agent and describes the currently known molecular characteristics of this newly isolated virus, distinguishing it from other known large DNA viruses. In addition, we summarize the clinical and histopathological manifestations of the disease. Providing information on the immune response to this virus and evaluating the available means of diagnosis and protection should help to reduce the damage induced by this disease. This review does not discuss the economic aspects of the disease or the debate on whether the disease should be registered; both of these issues were recently reviewed in detail (O. L. M. Haenen, K. Way, S. M. Bergmann, and E. Ariel, Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol. 24:293-307, 2004; D. Pokorova, T. Vesely, V. Piackova, S. Reschova, and J. Hulova, Vet. Med. Czech. 50:139-147, 2005).

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe



Functional analysis of elements affecting expression of the beta-actin gene of carp.  


Regulatory regions of the beta-actin gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) have been examined by linking upstream, 5'-flanking sequences and regions of the first intron to a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. By analysis of the mRNA products and encoded CAT activity, we have identified four putative regions that influence expression: (i) a negative regulatory region 2,300 to 1,100 base pairs (bp) ahead of the gene; (ii) a proximal promoter element, containing the highly conserved CCAAT, CC(A/T)6GG, and TATA boxes, that is within the first 204 bp upstream of the initiation site; (iii) a negative element of 426 bp in the 5' region of the first intron; and (iv) a positive 304-bp element near the end of the first intron that contains highly conserved sequences found in all characterized beta-actin genes. The positive intron element is not a classical enhancer; it is position and orientation dependent, as has been observed in other housekeeping genes in vertebrates. Depending on the elements joined together, CAT gene expression can be modulated more than 500-fold in transfected mouse cells. PMID:2355913

Liu, Z J; Moav, B; Faras, A J; Guise, K S; Kapuscinski, A R; Hackett, P B



Neuroendocrine modulation of the inflammatory response in common carp: adrenaline regulates leukocyte profile and activity.  


Inflammatory responses have to be carefully controlled, as high concentrations and/or prolonged action of inflammation-related molecules (e.g. reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines) can be detrimental to host tissue and organs. One of the potential regulators of the inflammatory process are stress mediators including adrenaline. In vivo effects of adrenaline were studied during zymosan-induced (Z) peritoneal inflammation in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. Adrenaline injected together with zymosan (ZA) did not change the number of inflammatory leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity, however at 24h post-injection it significantly reduced the percentage of monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, compared to cells retrieved from fish treated with PBS or zymosan only, adrenaline increased the percentage of apoptotic leukocytes in the focus of inflammation. Furthermore, adrenaline significantly reduced the expression of chemokine CXCL8_L1 (a functional homolog of mammalian IL-8) and its receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2), indicating changes in leukocyte recruitment after stress. We conclude that adrenaline may contribute to a coordinated reaction by influencing the inflammatory response via direct regulation of leukocyte migration and/or apoptosis. PMID:23211751

Kepka, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Chadzinska, M



Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun



Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.



Variability of a cyprinid lake ecosystem with special emphasis on the native fish fauna under intensive fisheries management including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lake investigated (Lake Heiliger See near the town of Angermünde, North-East Germany) is small (10.2 ha) but deep (zmax = 12 m, ? = 6.5 m). During summer the thermocline is at a depth of 4–5 m, and the hypolimnion is filled with H2S already by mid-June, making 60–75% of the bottom area inaccessible to fish. The native fish

Detlev Barthelmes; Uwe Brämick



Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping



Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping



Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison



Analysis of gangliosides from carp intestinal mucosa.  


The gangliosides of carp intestinal mucosa were isolated and analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC immunostaining test, and TLC/secondary ion mass spectrometry (TLC/SIMS). Four species of gangliosides, designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4, were separated on TLC. The TLC/SIMS analysis of the G-1 ganglioside of carp intestinal mucosa revealed a series of [M-H](-)ions from m/z 1061 to m/z 1131 representing the molecular mass range of GM4-like ganglioside with NeuAc. G-2, G-3 and G-4 gangliosides were analysed by the TLC immunostaining test. G-2 ganglioside was recognised by the monoclonal antibody specific for ganglioside GM1 (AGM-1 monoclonal antibody). However, G-3 ganglioside migrating on TLC between GM3 and GM1 ganglioside was not recognised by anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody and by AGM-1 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, G-4 ganglioside with a similar TLC mobility as GD1a ganglioside did not show the reactivity to the anti-GD1a monoclonal antibody. In addition using the AGM-1 monoclonal antibody, the expression of GM1 ganglioside in the carp intestinal tissue was studied. GM1 ganglioside was detected on the epithelial cell surface of carp intestinal mucosa. PMID:15123316

Irie, Takuya; Watarai, Shinobu; Kushi, Yasunori; Kasama, Takeshi; Kodama, Hiroshi



Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour



Asian Carp Control, FY 2012: Strategy Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Lakes food web has been significantly degraded in recent decades by aquatic invasive species (AIS). The most acute AIS threat facing the Great Lakes today is movement of carp not native to the United Sates (bighead and silver)collectively known ...



Comparison of bioconcentration and biomagnification factors for poorly water-soluble chemicals using common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Existing regulatory criteria for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals are mainly based on a bioconcentration factors (BCF) not a biomagnification factors (BMF). We performed dietary exposure tests for nine poorly water-soluble chemicals and developed a linear regression between the 5 % lipid normalized BCF (BCF(L)) and the lipid-corrected BMF (BMF(L)). The BMF(L) of substances with BCF(L) = 5,000 was 0.31 (95 % CI 0.11-0.87), whereas the BCF(L) of substances with BMF(L) = 1 was 13,000 (95 % CI 5,600-30,000). Five substances can be considered very bioaccumulative (vB) according to the BCF end point (BCF > 5,000), but only two substances were recognized to biomagnify according to the BMF end point (BMF ? 1). Although our results are highly suggestive of a relationship between BCF and BMF, additional BMF and trophic magnification factor data for chemicals are required to support this relationship, and new techniques (e.g., fugacity approach) may help in resolving the apparent contradiction in hazard categorization. PMID:22484798

Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Naoki; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Murakami, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Koga, Yuka; Takeshige, Ryoko; Kikushima, Erina; Yakata, Naoaki; Otsuka, Masanori



Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

M. Kálmán



Biochemical and morphological changes in carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) liver following exposure to copper sulfate and tannic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of human activity various toxicants reach the aquatic ecosystems; humics may interact with them and may change their toxicity. Many fish are exposed to a considerable concentration of humics and pollutants. Because of paucity of data on the biochemical action of tannins in the presence of the fungicide CuSO4 a comparative study was undertaken. The alterations of

Zsolt Varanka; Imre Rojik; István Varanka; János Nemcsók; Magdolna Ábrahám




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates are known endocrine disrupting compounds that commonly occur in polluted waters. Convincing evidence is still meager to show a causality link between the presence of these heavily-used surfactants and endocrine activity in fish. The Environmental Protection ...


[Comparison of the effects of gonadotropic preparations of the carp and stellate sturgeon pituitaries on in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation in the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baeri brandt].  


Injections of 2.5 mg/kg of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pall.) pituitary extract and 5 mg/kg of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pituitary extract in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt) females did not reveal significant differences in the effects of these preparations. There were no differences in the percentage of females that responded by ovulation, duration of the period from injection to ovulation, rate of ovulation, or quality of mature eggs as estimated by the percentage of fertilization or percentage of normal embryos at the small yolk plug stage. Thus, an insufficient efficiency in the artificial reproduction of the Siberian sturgeon grown in captivity is not related to the use of the carp pituitary preparation as a stimulus. Estimation of the ratio of specific activities of the pituitary extracts and purified gonadotropins of the stellate sturgeon and carp by in vitro oocyte maturation has shown that it varies within wide limits as a function of the medium composition and physiological state of follicles. Hence, the ratio of activities of the gonadotropins of different species as determined by in vitro maturation of sturgeon oocytes may markedly differ from that upon injection of these preparations in breeders. PMID:11605413

Goncharov, B F; Viio, P; Menn, F L


Molecular Identification and Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Rapid Detection of Thelohanellus kitauei, a Myxozoan Parasite Causing Intestinal Giant Cystic Disease in the Israel Carp  

PubMed Central

Intestinal giant-cystic disease (IGCD) of the Israel carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been recognized as one of the most serious diseases afflicting inland farmed fish in the Republic of Korea, and Thelohanellus kitauei has been identified as the causative agent of the disease. Until now, studies concerning IGCD caused by T. kitauei in the Israel carp have been limited to morphological and histopathological examinations. However, these types of diagnostic examinations are relatively time-consuming, and the infection frequently cannot be detected in its early stages. In this study, we cloned the full-length 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei isolated from diseased Israel carps, and carried out molecular identification by comparing the sequence with those of other myxosporeans. Moreover, conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using oligonucleotide primers for the amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragment were established for further use as methods for rapid diagnosis of IGCD. Our results demonstrated that both the conventional PCR and real-time quantitative PCR systems applied herein are effective for rapid detection of T. kitauei spores in fish tissues and environmental water.

Seo, Jung Soo; Jeon, Eun Ji; Kim, Moo Sang; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Jin Do; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Myoung Ae; Jee, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Yi-Cheong



Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of xinxiang, china.  


Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong



Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.



Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor.  


A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging from the sensor responses according to stepwise antibody immobilization. This was also supported by a negligible sensor response found at bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted in double-logarithmic scale for carp vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, a linear relationship was found between analyte concentration and sensor response, together with the limit of detection of 0.00675 nM. The reusability of the immunosensor after the regeneration with 10mM HCl was reasonably good, as presumed from the coefficient of variability of 6.02% for nine repetitive measurements. The model sample prepared by spiking a purified carp vitellogenin into a 10-fold diluted vitellogenin-free carp serum in 9.45 nM showed the response ratio of 96.70% against 9.45 nM of the purified carp vitellogenin. When a female and male carp sera induced with 17beta-estradiol injection were analyzed, biomarker induction was even identifiable at 2000-fold serum dilution. PMID:18534837

Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Dong-Kyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Moon, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Yeon



Sixteen polymorphic microsatellites in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and cross-amplification in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


A (GT)(n) enriched partial genomic library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was constructed by employing the (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) FIASCO protocol. Sixteen loci exhibited polymorphism with two to seven alleles/locus (mean 3.263) in a test population and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.100 to 0.690 (mean 0.392). Eleven of the 16 bighead carp microsatellites were found to be also polymorphic in silver carp. These polymorphic loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate population structure of bighead carp. PMID:21585862

Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Tong, J



Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.  


The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1). PMID:21699134

Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard



Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2?000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Abtahi, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjatollah



Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J. A.; Thomas, R. G.



Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink



Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Carp and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of acute fluoride intoxication in carp and rainbow trout include lethargy, violent and erratic movement, and death where there is partial or complete muscle contraction. Excessive mucus production associated with an increase in mucous cells in the epithelium of the head region and the gills also occurs. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of the serum proteins in carp

John M. Neuhold; William F. Sigler



Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne



Router and Firewall Redundancy with OpenBSD and CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more reliance is placed on computing and networking systems, the need for redundancy increases. The Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) protocol and OpenBSD's pfsync utility provide a means by which to implement redundant routers and firewalls. This paper details how CARP and pfsync work together to provide this redundancy and explores the performance one can expect from the open

Garhan Attebury; Byrav Ramamurthy



Grass Carp as a Potential Control Agent for Cattails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in t...

C. E. Carney F. DeNoyelles




EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...


Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.



Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) TRAF6 and TAK1: molecular cloning and expression analysis after Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection.  


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a pathogenic ciliate parasite, infects almost all freshwater fish species and causes significant economic losses. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) are two important signaling molecules involved in toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction. To date, the roles of TRAF6 and TAK1 in host defense against fish parasites are still poorly understood. In the present study, TRAF6 (CiTRAF6) and TAK1 (CiTAK1) were identified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length cDNA sequence of CiTRAF6 (2250 bp) includes an open reading frame (ORF) of 1629 bp, which shows a high similarity to that of Cyprinus carpio TRAF6 and encodes a putative protein of 542 amino acids containing one RING domain, two zinc fingers, one coiled-coil region, and one MATH domain. The full-length CiTAK1 cDNA sequence is 2768 bp and includes an ORF of 1626 bp that encodes a putative protein of 541 amino acids containing a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domain and a coiled-coil region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CiTRAF6 and CiTAK1 were clustered with TRAF6 and TAK1 of other teleosts, respectively. CiTRAF6 and CiTAK1 were both constitutively expressed in all examined tissues but with varied expression levels. The highest expressions of CiTRAF6 and CiTAK1 were in the head kidney and spleen, respectively. The expression profiles of CiTRAF6 and CiTAK1 were detected in grass carp after I. multifiliis infection. Expressions of both genes were significantly up-regulated in the skin, gill, head kidney, and spleen at most time points after infection, indicating that CiTRAF6 and CiTAK1 may play essential roles in grass carp defense against I. multifiliis. PMID:23542602

Zhao, Fei; Li, Yan-Wei; Pan, Hou-Jun; Wu, Shu-Qin; Shi, Cun-Bin; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing



Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.  


Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P



The Major Portal of Entry of Koi Herpesvirus in Cyprinus carpio Is the Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid

B. Costes; V. Stalin Raj; B. Michel; G. Fournier; M. Thirion; L. Gillet; J. Mast; F. Lieffrig; M. Bremont; A. Vanderplasschen



PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.



Spawning of major carps in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning biology and spawn fishery of three valuable species of Indian major carps,Catla catla, Labeo rohita andCirrhinus mrigala, in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh, were studied in 1978. The major carps spawned only in the Sonairchar oxbow-bend from\\u000a April to June on or near the dates of the full moon and the new moon. The tide was then at its

Chu-fa Tsai; M. Nazrul Islam; Rezaul Karim; K. U. M. Shahidur Rahman



Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds

P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay



Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.



Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.  


Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D



On the mechanical behavior of scales from Cyprinus carpio.  


The present paper describes an experimental evaluation on the mechanical behavior of fish scales from Cyprinus carpio using a novel experimental approach. Scales were obtained from three different positions about the body (head, mid-length and tail) and as a function of moisture (from hydrated to fully dehydrated). Mechanical properties were determined from uniaxial tension experiments where the full-field deformation behavior was quantified using microscopic Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Results of the tension tests were used in estimating the tangent modulus (0.1 ? E ? 0.8 GPa), strength (10 ? ?(uts) ? 40 GPa), strain to failure (0.05 ? ?(max) ? 0.20 m/m), and the modulus of toughness (0.5 ? MOT ? 3.5 MPa). There were significant differences in properties as a function of anatomical position and hydration. Fully hydrated scales from the head exhibited an elastic modulus and strength nearly twice that of those properties for the tail. However, after dehydration there were no significant differences in the mechanical properties as a function of anatomical position. Considering all three regions of evaluation, dehydration had the largest influence on changes in the elastic modulus and scales from the tail underwent the most significant changes in properties with moisture loss. PMID:22340681

Marino Cugno Garrano, A; La Rosa, G; Zhang, D; Niu, L N; Tay, F R; Majd, H; Arola, D



Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.  


We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M



Molecular characterization of Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic parasite of common carp, and its differentiation from the invasive species Atractolytocestus huronensis.  


Sequence structure of complete internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA region and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene sequences were studied in the monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.). Intraindividual sequence diversity was observed in both ribosomal spacers. In ITS1, a total number of 19 recombinant clones yielded eight different sequence types (pairwise sequence identity, 99.7-100%) which, however, did not resemble the structure typical for divergent intragenomic ITS copies (paralogues). Polymorphism was displayed by several single nucleotide mutations present exclusively in single clones, but variation in the number of short repetitive motifs was not observed. In ITS2, a total of 21 recombinant clones yielded ten different sequence types (pairwise sequence identity, 97.5-100%). They were mostly characterized by a varying number of (TCGT)(n) repeats resulting in assortment of ITS2 sequences into two sequence variants, which reflected the structure specific for ITS paralogues. The third DNA region analysed, mitochondrial cox1 gene (669 bp) was detected to be 100% identical in all studied A. sagittatus individuals. Comparison of molecular data on A. sagittatus with those on Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958, an invasive parasite of common carp, has shown that interspecific differences significantly exceeded intraspecific variation in both ribosomal spacers (81.4-82.5% in ITS1, 74.4-75.2% in ITS2) as well as in mitochondrial cox1, which confirms validity of both congeneric tapeworms parasitic in the same fish host. PMID:21987104

Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Stefka, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš



Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid-mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio.  


Premaxillary protrusion in cypriniform fishes involves rotation of the kinethmoid, an unpaired skeletal element in the dorsal midline of the rostrum. No muscles insert directly onto the kinethmoid, so its rotation must be caused by the movement of other bones. In turn, the kinethmoid is thought to push on the ascending processes of the premaxillae, effecting protrusion. To determine the causes and effects of kinethmoid motion, we used XROMM (x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology) to measure the kinematics of cranial bones in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Mean kinethmoid rotation was 83 deg during premaxillary protrusion (18 events in 3 individuals). The kinethmoid rotates in a coordinated way with ventral translation of the maxillary bridge, and this ventral translation is likely driven primarily by the A1? muscle. Analyses of flexibility (variability between behaviors) and coordination (correlation between bones within a behavior) indicate that motion of the maxillary bridge, not the lower jaw, drives premaxillary protrusion. Thus, upper jaw protrusion is decoupled from lower jaw depression, allowing for two separate modes of protrusion, open mouth and closed mouth. These behaviors serve different functions: to procure food and to sort food, respectively. Variation in starting posture of the maxilla alone dictates which type of protrusion is performed; downstream motions are invariant. For closed mouth protrusion, a ventrally displaced maxillary starting posture causes kinethmoid rotation to produce more ventrally directed premaxillary protrusion. This flexibility, bestowed by the kinethmoid-maxillary bridge-A1? mechanism, one of several evolutionary novelties in the cypriniform feeding mechanism, may have contributed to the impressive trophic diversity that characterizes this speciose lineage. PMID:22675187

Gidmark, Nicholas J; Staab, Katie Lynn; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Hernandez, L Patricia




Microsoft Academic Search

The WorldFish Center and its research partners have recently made efforts to develop genetically improved carp strains. This paper analyses the comparative performance of the genetically improved carp strains on both average and efficient farms in four carp-dominating Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam). The results show superior performance of improved strains in terms of body weight and survival

Madan Mohan Dey; Praduman Kumar; Ferdinand J. Paraguas; Chen Oai Li; Nartaya Srichantuk



Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu




Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp have effectively controlled submergent aquatic macrophytes in large reservoirs when stocked at densities up to 75 fish per vegetated hectare. Large systems pose special concerns relative to decisions on whether to stock grass carp. Multiple use, multiple agency involvement, and interstate jurisdictions complicate decisionmaking. Complex vegetation communities of large systems make results less predictable. Grass carp movements not

Richard L. Noble; Phillip W. Bettoli; Robert K. Betsill



Cloning, expression, and bioinformatics analysis of the sheep CARP gene.  


The cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed specifically in mammalian cardiac muscle and plays important roles in stress responses, transcriptional regulation, myofibrillar assembly, and the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle. In this study, the sheep homolog of the CARP gene was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the gene consists of 960 bp and encodes 319 amino acids with molecular weight 36.2 KD. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene contains many AU-rich elements that are associated with mRNA stability and a potential regulatory site for miRNA binding. The protein was predicted to contain 14 potential phosphorylation sites and an O-GlcNAc glycosylation site and to be expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the sheep CARP exhibited a high level of homology with the mammalian counterparts; however, the protein exhibited an increased evolutionary distance from the chicken, frog, and fish homologs. RT-PCR revealed that in addition to its high mRNA expression level in cardiac muscle, trace amounts of the sheep CARP mRNA were expressed in the skeletal muscle, stomach, and small intestine. However, western blot analysis demonstrated that the CARP protein was expressed only in cardiac muscle. The coding sequence was cloned into the pET30a-TEV-LIC vector, and the soluble CARP-MBP (maltose-binding protein) fusion protein was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified by affinity chromatography. Our data provide the basis for future studies of the structure and function of sheep CARP. PMID:23475534

Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Li, You; Cui, Lili; Cui, Yudong; Li, Qingzhang; Li, Keshen; Zhao, Bin



Chinese Medicine Formula "Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction" Attenuates Tourette Syndrome via Downregulating the Expression of Dopamine Transporter in Mice.  


Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS) with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350?mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.) for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n = 20, each): control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50?mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and JPZDD (20?g kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased (11)C-?-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS. PMID:23431337

Wang, Dao-Han; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Su-Mei



A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Modified Yi Guan Jian, Induces Apoptosis in Hepatic Stellate Cells through an ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial/Caspase Pathway  

PubMed Central

The Chinese herb modified Yi Guan Jian (mYGJ) is an effective regimen that is usually used in outpatients with chronic liver diseases such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, the mechanism for the action of mYGJ on liver fibrosis is not yet clear. In this study, we found that mYGJ induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) apoptosis concomitant with the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and slight elevation of Bax level. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in the early stages of mYGJ-induced HSCs apoptosis to facilitate calcium and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol. Subsequently, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were activated. Furthermore, the activation of ER stress-associated caspase 12 in HSCs was also evaluated. Together, we report the first evidence-based study to demonstrate that mYGJ decoction induces HSCs apoptosis through ROS accumulation and the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. These findings provide rationale for further clinical investigation of traditional Chinese medicine recipes against liver fibrosis.

Lin, Hung-Jen; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lin, Chia-Fan; Liao, Mei-Huei; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Kao, Shung-Te; Cheng, Ju-Chien



Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  


Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo



Potential use of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diets to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in carp.  


This study reports the effect of probiotic- and triherbal extract-enriched diet on Cyprinus carpio (52 +/- 2 g, n = 250) inoculated intramuscularly (50 microl) with Aeromonas hydrophila (1.8 x 106 CFU ml(-1)). On Day 6 post-infection, the fish were divided into 4 groups and fed with the basal diet (IU) or with diets supplemented with triherbal extract (H), Sporolac (S) or Lactobacillus (L). A fifth group of non-infected fish fed with the basal diet was used as a control. Haematology and immunology parameters were measured in Weeks 1, 2 and 4. In the H, S, and L groups, white blood cell levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. In the H and S groups, red blood cell and haemoglobin levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in Weeks 1, 2 and 4. In all the diet groups, the haematocrit and mean corpuscular volume did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in Week 1, and these values remained near those of the control in Week 2. The S and L groups did not exhibit significant changes (p > 0.05) in glucose, and cholesterol levels in Weeks 2 and 4 compared to controls, and the L group also showed no change in total protein. Respiratory burst activity was significantly increased in Weeks 1 to 4 in the H, S and L groups. Serum-mediated killing of Escherichia coli was significantly increased in the L group in Weeks 1 to 4. Mortalities after A. hydrophila challenge were higher in the IU (85%) and H (50%) groups than in the S (45%) and L (35%) groups. Our results show that formulated probiotic-enriched diets can speed up the recovery of ulcerative dermatitis induced by A. hydrophila in carp. PMID:21166313

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo



Genome Sequences of Three Koi Herpesvirus Isolates Representing the Expanding Distribution of an Emerging Disease Threatening Koi and Common Carp Worldwide?  

PubMed Central

Since the mid-1990s, lethal infections of koi herpesvirus (KHV) have been spreading, threatening the worldwide production of common carp and koi (both Cyprinus carpio). The complete genome sequences of three KHV strains from Japan, the United States, and Israel revealed a 295-kbp genome containing a 22-kbp terminal direct repeat. The finding that 15 KHV genes have clear homologs in the distantly related channel catfish virus (ictalurid herpesvirus 1) confirms the proposed place of KHV in the family Herpesviridae, specifically in the branch with fish and amphibian hosts. KHV thus has the largest genome reported to date for this family. The three strains were interpreted as having arisen from a wild-type parent encoding 156 unique protein-coding genes, 8 of which are duplicated in the terminal repeat. In each strain, four to seven genes from among a set of nine are fragmented by frameshifts likely to render the encoded proteins nonfunctional. Six of the affected genes encode predicted membrane glycoproteins. Frameshifts or other mutations close to the 3? ends of coding sequences were identified in a further six genes. The conclusion that at least some of these mutations occurred in vivo prompts the hypothesis that loss of gene functions might be associated with emergence of the disease and provides a basis for further investigations into the molecular epidemiology of the virus.

Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Kurokawa, Ken; Fukuda, Hideo; Nahary, Ronen; Eldar, Avi; Davison, Andrew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Bercovier, Herve; Hedrick, Ronald P.



Effects of sublethal copper exposure on muscle energy metabolism of common carp, measured by {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of shock and subchronic exposure of copper on the energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied by means of in vivo {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-NMRS). During the experiments, fish were submitted to an additional hypoxic challenge and recovery from this challenge was followed for 6 hs. During all experiments adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels remained stable. Under control conditions, levels of phosphocreatine (P{sub Cr}) and inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) recovered rapidly after the hypoxic challenge; however, full recovery was not observed after shock copper exposure. Also, intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) did not recover from the hypoxic challenge after shock exposure. After 1 week of exposure the fish had clearly developed an increased tolerance to copper. At both copper concentrations, P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} levels returned to resting levels after the hypoxic challenge, but at the highest copper concentration P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios were significantly lower than P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios in the control group and levels of P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} were very unstable. At the high copper concentration, pH{sub i} was clearly decreased compared to the control group even before the hypoxic challenge.

Boeck, G. De; Borger, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Blust, R. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)



Detection of hybridization between Chinese carp species ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis) in hatchery broodstock in Bangladesh, using DNA microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) has been reported to occur fairly frequently in commercial aquaculture hatcheries in Bangladesh. The consequences of hybridization for broodstock purity had not previously been investigated. Allelic variation at three microsatellite DNA loci isolated from silver carp routinely distinguished between silver carp and bighead carp. These markers were used in

M. Younus Mia; John B. Taggart; Ann E. Gilmour; Almas A. Gheyas; Topan K. Das; A. H. M. Kohinoor; M. Aminur Rahman; M. Abdus Sattar; M. Gulam Hussain; M. Abdul Mazid; David J. Penman; Brendan J. McAndrew



[Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].  


The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides. PMID:23937045

Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V


Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp, and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.  


Two full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) were cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of planktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The silver carp and bighead carp GST cDNA were 920 and 978 bp in length, respectively, and both contained an open reading frame that encoding 223 amino acids. Partial GST cDNA sequences were also obtained from the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratu), mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), and tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). All these GSTs could be classified as alpha-class GSTs on the basis of their amino acid sequence identity with other species. The three-dimensional structure of the silver carp GST was predicted using a computer program, and was found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Using the genome walker method, a 875-bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GST gene was obtained, and several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response elements were identified in the promoter region of the phytoplanktivorous fish GST gene, indicating that the GST gene expression of this fish might be regulated by LPS, released from the toxic blue-green algae producing microcystins. To compare the constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene among the six freshwater fishes with completely different tolerance to microcystins, beta-actin was used as control and the ratio GST/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined as 130.7 +/- 6.6 (grass carp), 103.1 +/- 8.9 (bighead carp), 92.6 +/- 15.0 (crucian carp), 72.3 +/- 7.8 (mud carp), 58.8 +/- 11.5 (silver carp), and 33.6 +/- 13.7 (tilapia). The constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene clearly shows that all the six freshwater fishes had a negative relationship with their tolerance to microcystins: high-resistant fishes (phytoplanktivorous silver carp and tilapia) had the lowest tolerance to microcystins and the high-sensitive fish (herbivorous grass carp) had the highest tolerance to microcystins. Taken together with the reciprocal relationship of constitutive and inducible liver GST expression level in some of the tested fish species to microcystin exposure, a molecular mechanism for different microcystin detoxification abilities of the warm freshwater fishes was discussed. PMID:16788955

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Lei, La-Mei; Han, Bo-Ping



Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.



Protective Roles of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx Isoforms against Grass Carp Reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3) were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%), and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively) from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C) treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN-I gene.

Peng, Limin; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On November 16, 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weed...


The Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, we collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. Young-of-the-year fish were caught in 1992 and 1994, which suggests that the species is able to reproduce in the Mississippi River and may

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Robert A. Hrabik; Michael D. Petersen; David P. Herzog



Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological

Tong Qiu; Ping Xie; Longgen Guo; Dawen Zhang



Evaluation of oxidative stress responses and neurotoxicity potential of diazinon in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, but, oxidative stress may be involved in the toxicity of this pesticides. Therefore, it was investigated whether diazinon, a commonly used organophosphate, may induce oxidative stress and cholinesterase inhibition in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Sublethal concentrations of diazinon (0.0036, 0.018 and 0.036ppb) were administired to C. carpio

Elif Özcan Oruç; Demet Usta



Optimization of the isolation and cultivation of Cyprinus carpio primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic environment is affected by numerous chemical contaminants. There is an increasing need to identify these chemicals\\u000a and to evaluate their potential toxicity towards aquatic life. In this research we optimized techniques for primary cell culture\\u000a of Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes as one adjunct model for ecotoxicological evaluation of the potential hazards of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment.\\u000a In this study,

Fan Yanhong; He Chenghua; Liu Guofang; Zhang Haibin



Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge



Characterisation of acid-soluble collagen from skin of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from the skin of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was isolated and some properties of ASC were investigated. SDS–PAGE patterns showed ASC from silver carp skin was type ? collagen. Sulfopropyl-Toyopearl 650(M) column chromatography indicated that ASC from silver carp skin was composed of three kinds of ? chains, ?1, ?2 and ?3. Hydroxyproline and proline content of

Junjie Zhang; Rui Duan; Yuanyong Tian; Kunihiko Konno



Growth Response of Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., to Feed Supplementation in Earthen Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp is one of the most important fish used in polyculturing the earthen fish ponds in semi-intensive fish farms. Silver carp depends mainly on natural foods, and there is no available data focusing the ability of silver carp to consume the artificial diet. Therefore, a 15-week feeding trial was conducted in eight earthen ponds (0.1 ha each) to investigate

Mohammad H. Ahmad; Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab; Yassir A. E. Khattab



Soluble expression, purification, and stabilization of a pro-apoptotic human protein, CARP.  


CARP is a novel pro-apoptotic protein that has been cloned and characterized in our previous report. Previous studies showed that suppression of CARP expression results in cell proliferation in several mammalian cell lines and over-expression of CARP leads to apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in seven tumor cell lines [Liu et al., CARP is a novel caspase recruitment domain containing pro-apoptotic protein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 293 (2002) 1396]. To obtain soluble and active form of CARP protein for further functional and structural studies, we have expressed CARP in Escherichia coli by using Gateway cloning system. Optimal induction and expression conditions were also studied. Recombinant histidine-tagged CARP was expressed in E. coli when the carp gene was subcloned into a Gateway expression vector pET21-DEST. The partially soluble recombinant CARP protein was purified to near homogeneity by a two-step FPLC procedure, first by Ni2+ affinity chromatography followed by a gel-filtration chromatography, which yielded about 10 mg protein/L culture with at least 95% purity. Two peaks were detected in the analytical gel-filtration chromatograph while only one peak corresponding to monomer of the CARP protein was left after adding 2 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The polymers observed are likely due to the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges. These results suggest that adding DTT is a good solution to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds and to stabilize the protein. Successfully growing crystals of the purified CARP protein also proved that we can produce well folded CARP protein in E. coli. PMID:16139514

Chen, Qiang; Hui, Rutai; Sun, Changhong; Gu, Xiaocheng; Luo, Ming; Zheng, Xiaofeng



Induced Gynogenesis in Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) Using Irradiated Sperm of Allotetraploid Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (?)?×?common\\u000a carp (?) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4–6°C water for 10–12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in\\u000a two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period,\\u000a a total

Hong Zhang; ShaoJun Liu; Chun Zhang; Min Tao; LiangYue Peng; CuiPing You; Jun Xiao; Yi Zhou; GongJian Zhou; KaiKun Luo; Yun Liu


Nutritional studies on rats and fish (carp Cyprinus carpio) fed diets containing unheated and heated Jatropha curcas meal of a non-toxic provenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unheated and heated (121 °C, 66% moisture; 15, 30 and 45 min) Jatropha meals of non-toxic provenance from Veracruz state in Mexico were evaluated using rats and fish. With rats, the weight gain was highest for the casein diet followed by heated (30 min; only this treatment was studied using rats) and unheated Jatropha meal containing diets. The protein efficiency

H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker



Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design.

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.



Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.  


Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed. PMID:21894510

Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Nebesá?ová, Jana



Environmental Assessment for Listing Largescale Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this environmental assessment, we consider two alternatives for the proposed action to add silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live silver carp, gametes, viable eg...



Environmental Assessment for Listing Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We considered two alternatives for the proposed action to list largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi) as an injurious species under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live largescale silver carp, gametes, viable eggs and hybrids. Two...



Carp expresses fast skeletal myosin isoforms with altered motor functions and structural stabilities to compensate for changes in environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Myosin and its subfragment-1 (Sl) from carp acclimated to 10°C showed higher actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity and lower thermostability than their counterparts from carp acclimated to 30°C. Accordingly, filament velocity for the 10°C-acclimated carp myosin was higher at any measuring temperatures from 3 to 23°C than that for the 30°C-acclimated carp myosin.2.2. Three types of cDNA clones encoding myosin heavy

Shugo Watabe; Yasushi Hirayama; Misako Nakaya; Makoto Kakinuma; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Xiao-Feng Guo; Satoshi Kanoh; Shigeru Chaen; Tatsuo Ooi



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar

Z. Franic; G. Marovic



Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are influenced by levels of certain metals in the Lake Mead environment. ?? 2011.

Patino, R.; Rosen, M. R.; Orsak, E. L.; Goodbred, S. L.; May, T. W.; Alvarez, D.; Echols, K. R.; Wieser, C. M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.



Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.  


The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen



Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.



Feeding behaviour of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and its impact on the food web in Lake Kinneret, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. have been stocked in Lake Kinneret, Israel, since 1969. From 1972 to 1981, 11 × 106 fingerlings were introduced into the lake. Total silver carp catch however was only 642 during this period, resulting in a progressive increase in the silver carp population.

P. Spataru; M. Gophen



CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice and humans, B cells, antigen-presenting cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and natural killer cells can be stimulated directly or indirectly by the bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing the CpG motifs (CpG DNA). Using head kidney macrophages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of several CpG-ODNs on fish

Zhen Meng; Jianzhong Shao; Lixin Xiang



The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just



9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...virus, a rhabodivrus capable of infecting several carp species, in addition to some other cyprinid and...species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver...



Demonstration of hematopoietic stem cells in ginbuna carp ( Carassius auratus langsdorfii) kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system of ginbuna carp (clonal triploid fish, Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and ginbuna-goldfish hybrids (tetraploid fish, having three sets of chromosomes from a triploid clone and a haploid set of chromosomes from goldfish) was employed to demonstrate the presence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in kidney hematopoietic tissues. Kidney hematopoietic cells were obtained from ginbuna carp (S3n, donor) and

Isao Kobayashi; Mayuko Sekiya; Tadaaki Moritomo; Mituru Ototake; Teruyuki Nakanishi



Tales of two fish: the dichotomous biology of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L.)) in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crucian carp, a common Eurasian cyprinid fish, shows striking dichotomies in several aspects of its physiology and ecology, at both the individual and population levels. These dichotomies consistently reflect the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, contrasting crucian carp that occur in \\

Ismo J. Holopainen; William M. Tonn; Cynthia A. Paszkowski



The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood


Identification of grass carp haemorrhage virus as a new genogroup of aquareovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three aquareovirus strains isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), geoduck clams (Pan- ope abrupta) and herring (Clupea harengus )i n North America and Asia were examined by RNA-RNA blot hybridization to determine their genogroup. The isolates from clams and herring were identified as members of genogroup A, but the isolate from grass carp did not hybridize to any of the

Aymara A. C. Rangel; Daniel D. Rockemann; Frank M. Hetrick; Siba K. Samal




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hatchery advances producing sterile triploid grass carp and the relaxing of state and federal restrictions on their distribution are expected to result in widespread use of these fish for aquatic plant management in North America. This large Asian cyprinid is a voracious herbivore and must be used properly to avoid major reductions in desirable aquatic vegetation. Grass carp exhibit

Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Jess M. Van Dyke; Rue S. Hestand III; Boyd Z. Thompson



Efficiency of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) in controlling Submerged Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Asiatic grass carp is a herbivorous fish which is being bred and extensively cultured for food in Russia and eastern Europe. In Britain where freshwater fish are seldom eaten, apart from eels and salmonids, grass carp are arousing interest because of the possibility of using them as a supplement, or in some situations as an alternative, to present methods

B. Stott; T. O. ROBSON



Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

Donovan D. Verrill; Charles R. Berry JR



Functional properties of proteins recovered from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation at acidic and basic pH ranges was applied to whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in order to recover muscle proteins. Thermal denaturation (Tonset, Tmax, and ?H), viscoelasticity (G?), and texture properties (shear stress) of proteins recovered from carp as affected by functional additives (beef plasma protein, potato starch, exogenous transglutaminase, polyphosphate, and titanium dioxide) were determined and

Latif Taskaya; Yi-Chen Chen; Jacek Jaczynski



The contribution of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the biological control of Netofa reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When silver carp were introduced into the Netofa reservoirs at an initial density of 300–4500 fish per hectare in order to control phytoplankton and zooplankton, there was a significant reduction of algae, zooplankton, and suspended organic matter; the silver carp prevents the growth of blue-green algae.

H. Leventer; B. Teltsch



High fry production rates using post-thaw silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) spermatozoa under farming conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is not endemic to Cuba, and egg fertilization is totally artificial; males produce spermatozoa only between March and October. Cryopreservation of silver carp spermatozoa would reduce the number of males needed, minimize handling stress through less frequent stripping, and facilitate artificial propagation when eggs are available. The effects on motility and fry production from eggs fertilized

Bárbaro Alvarez; Roberto Fuentes; Rafael Pimentel; Zoila Abad; Edenaida Cabrera; Eulogio Pimentel; Amilcar Arenal



Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1,

Lei Zhong; Xiaomu Yu; Jingou Tong



QSAR study of the toxicity of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp were measured. The results showed that the toxicity to V. fischeri and Daphnia decreased in the order of bromo>chloro>fluoro?aminobenzoic acids. The toxicity of substituted benzoic acids to carp and Daphnia was much lower than that to V. fischeri. The results also showed that the toxicity of benzoic acids

Y. H. Zhao; G. D. Ji; M. T. D. Cronin; J. C. Dearden



Oral vaccination of BacFish-vp6 against grass carp reovirus evoking antibody response in grass carp.  


To obtain a vaccine and evaluate its immune efficacy as an oral vaccine against Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a donor vector pFastBac-FA-VP6-ph-VP6 containing two GCRV vp6 genes, one driven by the Megalobrama amblycephala ?-actin promoter and another one controlled by baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed to generate the recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6. From the hemolymph of 5th instar silkworm inoculated with BacFish-vp6, a 53 kDa recombinant VP6 protein could be detected. And the infected pupae collected at 120 h post-inoculation with BacFish-vp6 were used to make freeze-dried powder as an oral vaccine. When the grass carps were orally administrated with feed containing 1%, 5% and 10% of the freeze-dried powder, their specific antibody against VP6 could be detected. Further studies showed that vp6 has been transcripted in the grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with BacFish-vp6 and the different tissues of orally vaccinated fish. All the results suggested the powder of the silkworm pupae infected with BacFish-vp6 could possibly be used as an orally administered vaccine. PMID:23202374

Xue, Renyu; Liu, Lin; Cao, Guangli; Xu, Shiying; Li, Jinghui; Zou, Yong; Chen, Hui; Gong, Chengliang



Evaluation of a carp primary hepatocyte culture system for screening chemicals for oestrogenic activity.  


The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment has driven the development of screening and testing assays to both identify chemicals with hormonal activity and evaluate their potential to cause adverse effects. As the number of animals used for research and regulatory purposes rises, and set against a desire to reduce animal testing, there is increased emphasis on the development and application of in vitro techniques to evaluate chemical risks to the environment. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in isolated fish liver cells has been used successfully to identify a wide range of EDCs, including both natural and synthetic oestrogens and a variety of other xenoestrogens. However, the vitellogenic response reported for hepatocytes in culture has been shown to vary widely, making comparisons between studies difficult. The work presented in this paper explored the variability of the vitellogenic response in primary cultures of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes following exposure to the model oestrogenic compound, 17beta-oestradiol (E2). As expected, variability in the vitellogenic response was observed, both in terms of the sensitivity and magnitude of VTG induction, for hepatocytes isolated from different fish. An apparent difference was observed in the response of isolated hepatocytes based on the sex of the donor fish; maximum levels of E2-stimulated VTG synthesis in hepatocytes derived from females appeared higher (1962 ng mL(-1)+/-487 [n=9] compared with 1194 ng mL(-1)+/-223 for hepatocytes from males [n=9]) and EC(50) values lower (1.61+/-0.4 microM E2 for females and 2.12+/-0.2 microM E2 for males). However, these differences were not statistically significant, likely in part due to the variation observed in the vitellogenic response. In particular, hepatocytes derived from female fish showed more variation than their male counterparts (the co-efficient of variation for females was 77% compared to 28% for males). Despite the variation observed in the vitellogenic response between different cultures, data from the different donor fish could be compared by standardising responses relative to the maximum VTG induction in each culture following exposure to E2. Adopting this approach in the future will allow for data from different hepatocyte cultures and from donor fish of different sexes, age and stage of maturity to be compared with greater consistency. Measurement of vtg mRNA expression was relatively more sensitive to the oestrogenic effects of E2 exposure than measurement of VTG protein (the LOEC at the transcriptome level was 10-fold lower [0.01 microM E2] than at the protein level [0.1 microM E2]) and changes in vtg mRNA expression showed less variation between individual hepatocyte isolations. Measurement of vtg mRNA in the hepatocyte culture system therefore may offer the most sensitive and consistent option for the screening of chemicals with oestrogenic activity in fish primary hepatocyte cultures. PMID:19695720

Bickley, L K; Lange, A; Winter, M J; Tyler, C R



Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.  


Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa



Effects of metal ions on cyprinid fish immune response: In vitro effects of Zn2/sup +/ and Mn/sup 2+/ on the mitogenic response of carp pronephros lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Lymphocytes from the pronephros of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) have been subjected to transformation by mitogens, concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with Zn or Mn at varying concentrations. Addition of Zn/sup 2+/ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated T and B cells enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. Addition of 10(-5) M Zn/sup 2+/ inhibited the response to Con A, PHA, and LPS. At this concentration, Zn was toxic. Addition of Mn2+ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. This effect was observed with Con A- and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, but not with LPS-stimulated lymphocytes. In contrast, addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to lymphocyte cultures exerted an inhibitor on the response to Con A or to PHA, while the response to LPS was unaffected. Addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to Con A- or PHA-stimulated cultures at different times after initiation of stimulation indicated that Mn/sup 2+/ was inhibitory only when it was added before the first 16 hr of cultures. The inhibition induced by 10(-1) M Mn2+ could be reversed by adding 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/ to the culture.

Ghanmi, Z.; Rouabhia, M.; Othmane, O.; Deschaux, P.A.



Optimization of the isolation and cultivation of Cyprinus carpio primary hepatocytes.  


The aquatic environment is affected by numerous chemical contaminants. There is an increasing need to identify these chemicals and to evaluate their potential toxicity towards aquatic life. In this research we optimized techniques for primary cell culture of Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes as one adjunct model for ecotoxicological evaluation of the potential hazards of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment. In this study, Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes were isolated by mechanical separation, two-step collagenase perfusion, and pancreatin digestion. The hepatocytes or parenchymal cells could be separated from cell debris and from non-parenchymal cells by low-speed centrifugation (Percoll gradient centrifugation). The harvested hepatocytes were suspended in DMEM, M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)), or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)) medium then cultured at 17, 27, or 37 degrees C. Cell yield was counted by use of a hemocytometer, and the viability of the cells was assessed by use of the Trypan blue exclusion test. Results from these studies showed that the best method of isolation was pancreatin digestion (the cell yield was 2.7 x 10(8) per g (liver weight) and the viability was 98.4%) and the best medium was M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)) or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)). The optimum culture temperature was 27 degrees C. The primary hepatocytes culture of Cyprimus carpio grew well and satisfied requirements for most toxicological experiments in this condition. PMID:19002769

Yanhong, Fan; Chenghua, He; Guofang, Liu; Haibin, Zhang



Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  


Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping



Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.



Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

Bonar, S. A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.



Structure of a calcium-binding carp myogen.  


The amino-acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of a calcium-binding protein prepared from carp muscle has been determined. This protein, designated carp-muscle calcium-binding protein B, is one of three closely related parvalbumins found in this tissue. The electron density map, calculated by heavyatom substitution crystallographic methods to 2.0-A resolution, reveals the orientation of most of the amino-acid side chains. The calcium coordination site consists of one glutamic- and three aspartic-acid carboxyl groups in a tetrahedral arrangement. The core of this spherical molecule is remarkably hydrophobic, with 8 of its 10 phenylalanine side chains packed in an approximate herringbone pattern. 52 of the 108 residues are in six alpha-helixes; there is no beta-pleated sheet. The acetylated amino-terminal alanine appears not to be accessible to solvent. All of the heavy-atom derivatives are bound at the sole cysteine. The properties of this protein suggest a relationship to troponin A of mammalian tissue. PMID:4501574

Nockolds, C E; Kretsinger, R H; Coffee, C J; Bradshaw, R A



Evidence of Grass Carp ('Ctenopharyngodon idella') Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi river basin. We have been col...

P. T. Raibley D. Blodgett R. E. Sparks



Production of Reproductively Limited Grass Carp for Biological Control of Aquatic Weeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a biological aquatic weed control is increasingly evident as the cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns make chemical treatment less desirable. The grass carp, a native fish of Southeast Asia is an effective consumer of aquatic macroph...

W. L. Shelton G. L. Jensen



[Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].  


To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun



Effects of Salinity on Food Consumption and Growth of Grass Carp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The herbivorous food habits combined with high rates of food consumption, fast growth and high palatability, and adaptability to environmental fluctuations make the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) an ideal fish for aquatic weed control and commercial...

R. V. Kilambi



Sequence of the growth hormone (GH) gene from the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and evolution of GH genes in vertebrates.  


The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) growth hormone (GH) gene was isolated and sequenced following amplification from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The gene spans a region of approx. 2.5 kb nucleotides (nt) and consists of five exons. The sequence predicts a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (aa) including a putative signal peptide of 22 hydrophobic aa residues. The arrangement of exons and introns is identical to the GH genes of common carp, grass carp, and very similar to mammals and birds, but quite different from that for the GH genes of tilapia and salmonids. The silver carp GH gene shares a high homology at the nt and aa levels with those of grass carp (95.3% nt, 99.5% aa) and of common carp (81% nt, 95.7% aa). PMID:8373806

Hong, Y; Schartl, M



Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH.  


Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S



A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.



Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ) growth and zooplankton species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive Asian carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. are an ecological threat to non-native aquatic ecosystems throughout the world, and are poised to enter the Laurentian\\u000a Great Lakes. Little is known about how these filter-feeding planktivores grow and impact zooplankton communities in mesotrophic\\u000a to oligotrophic systems like the Great Lakes. Our purpose was to determine how different plankton densities affect bighead\\u000a carp H.

Sandra L. Cooke; Walter R. Hill; Kevin P. Meyer



Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo



Construction and Characterization of Two Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is an important tool in genomic research. We constructed two libraries from\\u000a the genomic DNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a crucial part of the grass carp genome project. The libraries were constructed in the EcoRI and HindIII sites of the vector CopyControl pCC1BAC. The EcoRI library comprised 53,000 positive clones, and approximately 99.94%

Songhun Jang; Hang Liu; Jianguo Su; Feng Dong; Feng Xiong; Lanjie Liao; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu



Complete genome sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp, indicating different genotypes of GCRV in China.  


A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China. PMID:23087123

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin; Wu, Shuqin



Introduction of the human lactoferrin gene into grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to increase resistance against GCH virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage can be an epidemic and fatal condition in grass carp. It is known now that the Grass Carp Haemorrhage Virus (GCHV) triggers haemorrhage. Human lactoferrin (hLF) plays an important role in the non-specific immune system, making some organisms more resistant to some viruses. Sperm of grass carp was mixed with linearized pCAhLFc, which is a DNA construct containing an

Jiayu Zhong; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu



Complete Genome Sequence of a Reovirus Isolated from Grass Carp, Indicating Different Genotypes of GCRV in China  

PubMed Central

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin



Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg



Establishment of kinetic models based on electrical conductivity and freshness indictors for the forecasting of crucian carp ( Carassius carassius) freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study quality changes in cold chain circulation, kinetic models were developed to predict the freshness of crucian carp at different temperatures during storage. Electrical conductivity (EC) and freshness indictors (Total volatile basic nitrogen, Total aerobic count and K-value) at 270, 273, 277, 282 and 288K were accessed to investigate the relation between the crucian carp’s freshness and storage condition

Lei Yao; Yongkang Luo; Yunyun Sun; Huixing Shen



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987–2002 and 5 years during 1993–2005.The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other

Zdenko Frani?; Gordana Marovi?



Grass carp transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological activity in teleost peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is a potent regulatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. To examine the role of TGF-?1 in fish immunity, the full-length cDNA of grass carp TGF-?1 was isolated from grass carp spleen. The open reading frame of grass carp TGF-?1, 1134bp in length, encodes a 377 amino acid protein. Tissue distribution study by RT-PCR

Mu Yang; Hong Zhou



Phenotypic plasticity in gut length in the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 +/- 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 +/- 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish. PMID:18301818

Ke, Zhixin; Ping, Xie; Guo, Longgen



CARP, a Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein, Is Up-Regulated during Wound Healing and Induces Angiogenesis in Experimental Granulation Tissue  

PubMed Central

Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was identified by subtractive hybridization as one of a group of genes that are rapidly modulated by acute wounding of mouse skin. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CARP was strongly induced during the first day after wounding (157.1-fold), and the high level persisted for up to 14 days. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that CARP was expressed in skeletal muscle, vessel wall, hair follicle, inflammatory cells, and epidermis in the wound area. To examine the effects of CARP on wound healing, we developed an adenoviral CARP vector to treat subcutaneously implanted sponges in either rats or Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice. Four days after infection, CARP-infected sponges in rats showed a remarkable increase in the vascular component in granulation tissue as compared to Ad-LacZ controls. This result was confirmed by CD34 immunostaining. By 7 days post-infection of sponge implants in Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice, granulation tissue showed many more LacZ-positive cells in Ad-CARP-infected sponges than in virus controls. Ad-CARP treatment also induced neovascularization and increased blood perfusion in rabbit excisional wounds in and ischemic rat wounds. These findings indicate that CARP could play a unique role in therapeutic angiogenesis during wound healing.

Shi, Yubin; Reitmaier, Birgit; Regenbogen, Johannes; Slowey, R. Michael; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wolf, Eckhard; Goppelt, Andreas; Davidson, Jeffrey M.



Water quality evaluation of two interconnected dam lakes with field-captured and laboratory-acclimated fish, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karakaya and Sultansuyu Dam Lakes, located in the eastern part of Turkey, are important water sources, both for irrigation\\u000a and fishery. The main goal of the study was to investigate water qualities of dam lakes using a set of biomarkers in the fish\\u000a Cyprinus carpio. For this aim, field sample and laboratory-acclimated fish were compared to identify changes in selected

Abbas Güngördü; Murat Ozmen


Alterations in plasma electrolyte levels of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to acidic pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acidification (Low pH 5.0) on plasma electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, and Mg) in a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied for a 35 day (long term) exposure period, while control groups were maintained at neutral pH (7.3). During long-term (35 days) exposure periods, plasma K and Mg levels were increased (77.8% and 16.0%) in the low

Ramesh Mathan; Senthil Kumar Kurunthachalam; Mahalashmi Priya



Identification of amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina.  

PubMed Central

1. Amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina were identified from such criteria as photoresponses, intracellular dye staining, responses to optic nerve stimulation and behaviour to a synapse blocking agent. 2. Responses of ganglion cells were accompanied by spike discharges., either facilitated or suppressed by photic stimulation. The cells were also invaded by antidromic impulses, which survived after chemical synapses had been blocked by application of atomized CoCl2 solution. In subsequent histology of the Procion-stained neurones, the cell bodies were found in the ganglion cell layer and the axons were often traced. 3. Amacrine cells were subdivided into two types. The first type gave rise to transient depolarizations at both on- and offsets of spot and annulus illuminations, usually being associated with spike discharges of which the amplitudes varied in different cells. In histology, the cell bodies of this type were situated in the inner nuclear layer and dendrites ramified in two or more discrete sublayers of the inner plexiform layer (the stratified amacrine cell of Cajal). 4. The second type of amacrine cells produced sustained responses during illumination, being associated with no spike but with small oscillatory wavelets. The cell bodies were situated in the inner nuclear layer and the dendrites ramified in a single sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (the monolayered amacrine cell). 5. An attempt was made to see the effect of activation of centrifugal fibres on amacrine cells, but almost all of about 200 cells examined did not respond to optic nerve stimulation. Only two cells produced, with long latency, a small post-synaptic depolarization which disappeared after chemical synapses in the retina had been blocked. It is considered that the physiological role of the centrifugal system is insignificant in the carp retina. Images Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 1

Murakami, M; Shimoda, Y



A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation.

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  


Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H



Selective Breeding of Carp and Intensification of Fish Breeding in Ponds (Selektsiya Karpa I Voprosy Intensifikatsii Prudovogo Rybovodstva).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains articles on various problems of pond pisciculture. The first section is devoted to the genetics and selection of carp. The primary aim of this collection is to state the theoretic principles of carp selection. Several articles deal wi...

V. S. Kirpichnikov



Response of zooplankton to the reduction and elimination of submerged vegetation by grass carp and herbicide in four Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton populations were monitored monthly for a three year period in four Florida lakes. Each lake received an aquatic vegetation control program using grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) and herbicide, either alone or in combination. All aquatic vegetation was eliminated in the three lakes with grass carp; it was severely reduced and exhibited qualitative shifts in the lake treated with

David I. Richard; James W. Small; John A. Osborne



Identification of immune genes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in response to infection of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major is an important pathogen of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To understand the immune response of grass carp to the copepod infection, suppression subtractive hybridization method was employed to characterize genes up-regulation during the copepod infection in liver and gills of the fish. One hundred and twenty-two dot blot positive clones from infected subtracted library were

M. X. Chang; P. Nie; G. Y. Liu; Y. Song; Q. Gao



Gel properties of surimi from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as affected by heat treatment and soy protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of setting conditions and soy protein isolate (SPI) on textural properties of surimi produced from silver carp were investigated. Effects of setting temperature, setting time and protein concentration on the gel strength were evaluated and compared utilizing response surface methodology. Models for breaking force and breaking distance of silver carp surimi were established. The total protein content was

Yongkang Luo; Huixing Shen; Daodong Pan; Guanhao Bu



Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bláha L., R. Kopp, K. ·imková, J. Mare‰: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom. Acta Vet Brno 2004, 73: 477-482. In the present paper we evaluated the effects of natural toxic cyanobacterial water bloom on oxidative stress biomarkers in silver carp. Modulations of reduced gluthatione (GSH), an important cellular



Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

Thomas, R. M.; Miranda, L. E.; Kirk, J. P.



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin;Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian ;Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. PMID:23727283

Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei



Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.  


Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing



Mortalities induced by the copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus in farmed silver and bighead carp in a reservoir.  


The frequency distributions of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus were examined in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis during a disease outbreak of the 2 species of fish in a reservoir in China. The mean abundance of the copepod was positively related with host length and age, and the overdispersion of the copepod in both silver and bighead carp was fitted well with negative binomial distribution. Although parasite-induced host mortality was observed, a peaked age-parasite abundance curve was not detected in the present parasite-host system. It is also proposed that this peaked age-abundance curve is unlikely to be observed in its natural host populations. PMID:12033711

Wang, Gui T; Li, Wen X; Yao, Wei J; Nie, P



Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.



Gene structure, recombinant expression and functional characterization of grass carp leptin.  


Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypop