Sample records for jian carp cyprinus

  1. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  2. Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp ( Cyprinus carpio var . Jian)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jichang Jian; Zaohe Wu

    2004-01-01

    The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w\\/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongkai; Li, Hongxia; Li, Jianlin; Yu, Fan; Yu, Juhua

    2014-12-01

    Two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues (jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2) were cloned and characterized in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), with a highly conserved organization encoded by four exons and three introns. The cDNAs for jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 were 693 and 730 bp in size, respectively. jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 both encoded a 96-amino acid protein, which shared 97.9 % identity. Phylogenetic tree showed that it has two NPYa genes, called jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2, that presumably resulted from the tetraploidization event in the carp lineage. Analysis of expression profiles of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 showed that the two NPY genes had a broad tissue distribution but expressed primarily in the forebrain, hypothalamus, testis and liver. The expression pattern was different in juvenile and adult (female and male) Jian carp. In juvenile, the highest expression level of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 was detected in the testis. In adult, it was detected in the forebrain. In female hypothalamus, the expression level of jlNPYa1 was significantly higher than that of jlNPYa2. However, the opposite was true in male hypothalamus. The differing distribution patterns of the two NPY genes suggested that jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 might play different roles in Jian carp. PMID:25015546

  4. Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of multiple leptin genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Juhua; Li, Hongxia; Xu, Pao; Li, Jianlin; Ren, Hongtao

    2013-10-01

    Three leptin genes (jlLEP-A1, jlLEP-A2 and jlLEP-B) were cloned and characterized in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), with a highly conserved organization encoded by two exons and one intron. jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 contained 93 and 102bp introns, respectively, encoding a 171-amino acid protein. jlLEP-B contained a 687bp intron encoding a 168-aa protein. jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 shared 82.5% identity, but only 29.2% and 28.6% with jlLEP-B, respectively. jlLEP-A1, jlLEP-A2, and jlLEP-B were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the expression pattern differed between juveniles and adults (and females and males). In juveniles, the expression of jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-B was higher than jlLEP-A2, and was the highest in the liver and gonad. In females, jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 expression was the highest in the hypothalamus and liver, whereas jlLEP-B mRNA was detected at low levels in all tissues. In males, jlLEP-A1 mRNA was expressed primarily in the hypothalamus, with only very low levels in the peripheral tissues. jlLEP-A2 and jlLEP-B mRNA were primarily expressed in the muscle, hypothalamus, and liver. The expression of jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-B mRNA was high in the ovary and testis, respectively. Our results suggest that leptins play an important physiological role in reproduction. PMID:23959260

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  7. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P < 0.05), and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and the amounts of Lactobacillus and Bacillus in the intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that relative mRNA expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), CAT, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) in the intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P < 0.05). Conversely, the relative mRNA expression of occludin, claudin-3, claudin-7, TNF-?, IL-10, Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 (Keap1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in the intestine showed a downward trend (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Ile improves intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp. PMID:25451003

  8. Effects of anthraquinone extract from rhubarb Rheum officinale Bail on the crowding stress response and growth of common carp Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Xie; Bo Liu; Qunlan Zhou; Yongteng Su; Yijin He; Liangkun Pan; Xianping Ge; Pao Xu

    2008-01-01

    A total of 750 common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, fingerlings were divided randomly into five groups: a control group on a basal diet, four treatment groups fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 4.0% anthraquinone extract, respectively. After 10 weeks, the fish were exposed to crowding stress for 1 and 7 days. In treated fish before the stress

  9. In vitro and in vivo protective effect of arginine against lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Hu, Yi; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Zhao, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess the possible protective effects of arginine (Arg) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. Firstly, inflammatory response was established by exposing enterocytes to different concentrations of LPS for 24 h. Secondly, the protective effects of Arg against subsequent LPS exposure were studied in enterocytes. Finally, we investigated whether dietary Arg supplementation could attenuate immune challenge induced by LPS in vivo. The result indicated that 10 mg/L LPS could induced inflammatory response in enterocytes. Cells exposed to LPS (10-30 mg/L) alone for 24 h resulted in a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) (P < 0.05). The cell viability, protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity were decreased by LPS (P < 0.05). Moreover, LPS exposure significantly increased TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 mRNA expression in vitro (P < 0.05). However, pre-treatment with Arg remarkably prevented the increase of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 by inhibiting the excessive activation of TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway through down-regulating TLR4, Myd88, NF?B p65, and MAPK p38 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the experiment in vivo showed that Arg pre-supplementation could attenuate immune challenge induced by LPS via TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway, and thus protect fish against LPS-induced inflammatory response. In conclusion, all of these results indicated pre-supplementation with Arg decreased LPS induced immune damage and regulated TLR4-Myd88 signaling pathway in juvenile Jian carp in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. PMID:25433136

  10. Effects of curcumin on antioxidative activities and cytokine production in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with CCl4-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Du, Jingliang; Jia, Rui; Liu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Caiyuan; Shen, Yujin; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of curcumin on liver-damaged Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (Jian carp). The carp were fed 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% curcumin for 60 days, then injected intraperitoneally with 30% carbon tetrachloride solution. Liver and blood samples were collected to measure the liver index, serum- and liver-associated enzymes, liver histology, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)/c-Rel, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and IL-12 mRNA expression, and the level of NF-?B/c-Rel protein in the liver, and for a comet assay. We found that 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced the CCl4-induced increase in the liver index. The comet assay showed that the tail moment, olive tail moment, tail length, and tail DNA% improved in fish pretreated with 0.5 or 1.0% curcumin. CCl4-induced histological changes, including extensive hepatocyte degeneration, indistinct cell borders, nuclear condensation, and karyolysis were clearly reduced after treatment with 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin. Moreover, 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly inhibited the CCl4-induced increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and promoted the restoration of superoxide dismutase in the liver; 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde, but significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels in the liver. The CCl4-induced upregulation of NF-?B/c-Rel, IL-1?, and TNF-? mRNAs and NF-?B/c-Rel protein levels was inhibited by 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin, and IL-12 mRNA was reduced by all three doses of curcumin. The effects of curcumin on the liver index, enzymes, histological changes, and cytokines were dose-dependent. Our results indicate that curcumin reduces CCl4-induced liver damage in Jian carp by upregulating antioxidative activities and inhibiting NF-?B, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-12 expression. PMID:25549934

  11. Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

  12. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

  13. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae). PLoS ONE 9(9): e

  14. Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

  15. Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

  16. Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Size- and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Emili, Cyprinus carpio, diet, Lake Banyoles, Spain. ABSTRACT The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyo- les (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant

  17. Breeding Behaviour and Embryonic Development of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Haniffa; P. S. Allen Benziger; A. Jesu Arockiaraj; M. Nagarajan; P. Siby

    Induced breeding experiments of Nikishigoi (koi carp), Cyprinus carpio were conducted in mature males and females by administrating a single intramuscular injection of ovaprim at a dosage of 0.3 mL\\/kg weight. Spawning was observed six hrs after the injection at ambient temperature (26-28oC). The fertilized eggs were adhesive and transparent with diameter ranging between 0.9 mm and 1.10 mm. Incubation

  18. The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

    1990-01-01

    The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

  19. Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emili García-Berthou

    2001-01-01

    The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  1. Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

  2. Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids and energy metabolism during the early life history of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, we followed changes, Academy of Agriculture and Techno%gy Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland. Summary. Juvenile carp (Cyrpinus carpio

  3. Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems

    E-print Network

    Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2006-07-25

    Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)in American freshwater systems Luis Zambrano, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Naercio Menezes, and A. Townsend Peterson Abstract: Nonnative fish introductions... disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South...

  4. Nitrite Intoxication of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at Different Water Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kroupová; J. Máchová; V. Pia?ková; M. Flajšhans; Z. Svobodová; G. Poleszczuk

    2006-01-01

    Kroupová H., J. Máchová, V. Piaãková, M. Flaj‰hans, Z. Svobodová, G. Poleszczuk: Nitrite Intoxication of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at Different Water Temperatures. Acta Vet Brno 2006, 75: 561-569. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to nitrite (1.45 mmol·l -1 NO 2 - ) for 48 hours at 14 °C and 20 °C, in order to investigate the

  5. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

  6. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio amino acids and the apparent absorption of amino acids (AAaa) were evaluated in different segments of carp intestine. The AAaa analysed using Crz03 as a marker indicated that 73.2 % of the amino acids were

  7. Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

  8. Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

    2000-01-01

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

  9. Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pinto; N. Chandrasena; J. Pera; P. Hawkins; D. Eccles; R. Sim

    2005-01-01

    In Australia, the carp Cyprinus carpio L. is regarded as a threat to the native fish and the aquatic environment. In recent years, Botany Wetlands, a significant coastal wetland in the Sydney region, has been invaded by the undesirable cyprinids, carp and goldfish (Carrasius auratus L.). 2. In 1996 a cyprinid removal programme commenced at Botany Wetlands with the objective

  10. Interactions of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) with benthic crayfish decapods in shallow ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demián Hinojosa-Garro; Luis Zambrano

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for aquaculture increased in recent decades. This fish is now established in many new water systems creating interactions with native species. Some of these interactions have been partly understood, but most of them remain unknown. For instance, in shallow ponds of central Mexico, populations of crayfish (Cambarellus montezumae) are reduced with high carp densities,

  11. Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2

    E-print Network

    Leung, Brian

    and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

  12. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether-99 (BDE99) in carp ( Cyprinus carpio) microflora and microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae T. Benedict; Heather M. Stapleton; Robert J. Letcher; Carys L. Mitchelmore

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous findings in dietary studies with carp (Cyprinus carpio), we investigated the mechanism of 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) debromination to 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) using liver and intestinal components. In vitro aerobic and anaerobic experiments tested the ability of carp intestinal microflora to debrominate BDE-99. No debromination of BDE-99 to BDE-47 was observed in microfloral samples; therefore, carp enzymatic pathways

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of domesticated and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingxue; Zou, Jixing; Wang, Chenghui

    2014-01-17

    Abstract Glass red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wananensis) were occasionally found among wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 50 years ago. In this paper, we determined the complete sequences of Glass red common carp and wild common carp mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes exhibited the same length of 16,581?bp, order in 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The sequence similarity between them reached 99.62% and 100% in 21 tRNA genes (excluding tRNA(Ser)) and 2 protein-coding genes (ATP8 and ND4L), respectively. The two mitogenomes will be useful in elucidating the evolutional relationship of the common carp. PMID:24438270

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2014-11-27

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

  15. Concentration Effects of Selected Insecticides on Brain Acetylcholinesterase in the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Korami Dembélé; Eric Haubruge; Charles Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration–response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96

  16. Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lílian L. Amado; Márcia L. Garcia; Talita C. B. Pereira; João S. Yunes; Maurício R. Bogo; José M. Monserrat

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg\\/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the

  17. Body composition of transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chatakondi; R. T. Lovell; P. L. Duncan; M. Hayat; T. T. Chen; D. A. Powers; J. D. Weete; K. Cummins; R. A. Dunham

    1995-01-01

    F1 transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene, pRSVrtGH1 cDNA were compared to non-transgenic full-siblings for body composition. Percent protein was higher (P < 0.05), for transgenic individuals than for controls (19.5 vs. 18.1). Percent fat was lower (P < 0.05) for transgenic common carp (3.3), than for non-transgenic controls, (3.8). Transgenic individuals had lower (P

  18. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

    2009-01-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

  19. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) gill epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hidalgo; A. Velasco; I. Sánchez Aguayo; P. Amores

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted

  20. Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

  1. Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

  2. Digestion par la trypsine de la coque de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) et incubation des embryons sans coque

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Digestion par la trypsine de la coque de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) et incubation digestion of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggshell and incubation of shell-free embryos. The present work reports an experiment to eliminate the shell of carp eggs before the 2-cell stage and to incubate

  3. Effects of Primary Exposure to Environmental and Natural Estrogens on Vitellogenin Production in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rouhani Rankouhi; I. van Holsteijn; R. Letcher; J. P. Giesy; M. van den Berg

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (vtg) is a precursor of the yolk proteins lipovitelline and phosvitin and is synthesized as a consequence of estrogen-depen- dent gene expression in female and male hepatocytes of egg-laying vertebrates. Freshly isolated carp hepatocytes of a genetically uni- form strain of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to inves- tigate the effects of primary exposure to estrogenic compounds

  4. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

  5. Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara

    1997-01-01

    1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

  6. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

  7. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProT?) and thymosin beta (T?) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProT? b and T? are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProT? b and T?-like (T?-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProT? b and T?-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProT? b and T?-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProT? b and T?-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-?, CD4 and CD8?). These results suggest that carp ProT? b and T? may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  8. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Scale and bone type I collagens of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Miyauchi, Y; Uchida, N

    1991-01-01

    1. Soluble Type I collagens were isolated from the scale and bone (skull) of lathyritic carp. Each tissue collagen was assumed to consist of two different molecular forms, (alpha 1)2 alpha 2 as a main component and alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 as a minor one. 2. The possible coexistence of these two forms in soluble Type I collagen of carp was previously observed for skin and muscle, but not for the swim bladder in which only the form of (alpha 1)2 alpha 2 was found. 3. These composite results suggest the wide distribution of alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers in collagenous tissues of carp. PMID:1764927

  10. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp ( Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ? ×  Cyprinus carpio ?) fed different carbohydrate diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Fang Cai; Yuan Tu Ye; Li Qiao Chen; Jian Guang Qin; Yong Ling Wang

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6 ± 0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ? × Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7 ± 0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each.\\u000a The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g?1 (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content

  11. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  12. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  13. Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

  14. Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn

    1998-01-01

    .   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

  15. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92?mg?L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21?mg?L(-1) ?NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. PMID:22724455

  16. Multimarker approach analysis in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three freshwater sites.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiene; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Haouas, Zohra; Mlayah, Ammar; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the response of a multimarker approach in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three Tunisian dam lakes selected according to different environmental and ecological characteristics. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed in carp liver and used as a phase II detoxification enzyme, hepatic metallothionein content (MTs) was used as a metallic stress indicator, and cholinesterase activities were analyzed in muscle and brain and used as neurotoxicity biomarker. Micronucleus frequency test (MN) as a genotoxicity marker. GST and MT levels showed an increase in fish from the Bir Mcherga site and a decrease in Sidi Saâd site with respect to fish from Nebhana site. Results showed a strong inhibition of cholinesterase activities in fish from Bir Mcherga and Sidi Saâd sites compared to Nebhana site. Relatively high level of MN is reported specially in fish blood from the Bir Mcherga site. PMID:19728127

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    David, Lior; Rosenberg, Noah A; Lavi, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W; Hillel, Jossi

    2007-01-01

    Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi) variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp) to 32% (koi) and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication. PMID:17433244

  18. [Sequences analysis of jlFABP2 and the correlation between polymorphisms and body weight gain in Cyprinus carpio var. jian].

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Long; Yu, Ju-Hua; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Jian-Lin; Tang, Yong-Kai; Ren, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Shuang-Ning

    2013-05-01

    Two replicate intestine fatty acid binding protein genes (jlFABP2a and jlFABP2b) were cloned from Cyprinus carpio var. jian using PCR. Both ORFs were 399 bp in length sharing 92.2% similarity with each other, and 88.0% and 90.5% with their counterpart in zebrafish, respectively. The gene structure of jlFABP2s was same as other FABPs, which contained four exons and three introns. Sequences and lengths of introns between 2a and 2b. were obviously different Phylogenetic tree displayed that two jlFABP2s corresponded to one zebrafish FABP2 which matches the fact that the chromosome number of common carp was twice of zebrafish. Real time-PCR showed that jlFABP2 genes mainly expressed in intestine and the expression level was very significantly higher than other tissues such as brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and gonad (P<0.01). The expression level of jlFABP2a was significantly (male, P<0.05) or very significantly (females, P<0.01) higher than 2b in intestine; and 2b was expressed slightly higher than 2a in other tissues. It seemed that 2a expressed specifically in intestine, while 2b expressed ubiquitously. Twelve and four SNP loci were found at jlFABP2a and 2b introns through comparison sequences from 8 individuals, respectively. Genotypes of I1-A15G, I1-A99G, I2-C487T, and I3-A27T on jlFABP2a were detected using PCR-RFLP in selection population of C. carpio var. jian. The SNP genotypes and individual weight gain correlation indicated that four SNPs were significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) associated with adult weight gain. Diplotype analysis displayed that individuals with genotype AGGGCCXX or AGGGXXAT grew faster than other individuals by 15%. The individuals with these two genotypes only occupied 9% in total selection populations, indicating the presence of large selection space. The 4 SNPs detected in this experiment can be used in C. carpio var. Jian growth selection breeding plan. PMID:23732670

  19. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17?-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20?-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  20. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  1. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  2. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  3. Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel

    2003-01-01

    Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

  4. Effects of subchronic exposure to carbofuran on antioxidant defence system and malondialdehyde levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ensibi; D Hernández Moreno; F Soler Rodríguez; MN Daly Yahya; MP Míguez-Santiyán; M Pérez-López

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the assessment of oxidative stress induction by pesticides such as carbamates which are widely used as insecticides and nematicides and contaminate aquatic ecosystems on certain biomarkers in liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Biomarkers selected for stress monitoring were malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defence system enzymes, mainly catalase (CAT),

  5. PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH TUNA LIVER MEAL IN DIETS FOR COMMON CARP FRY, CYPRINUS CARPIO L. 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GÜMÜ?; Y. KAYA; B. A. BALCI; B. B. ACAR

    Tuna liver meal (TLM) was tested to replace fish meal (FM) in diets for carp fry, Cyprinus carpio Linneus, 1758. Triplicate groups of fish with average weight of 0.32 ± 0.65g were fed each of six isonitogenous (42%), isolipidic (16%) and isoenergetic (18 KJ DE g -1 ) diets prepared to include 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (diets

  6. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; E?imovi?, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

  7. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  8. Primary structures of multiple forms of urotensin II in the urophysis of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Lederis, K; Kobayashi, H

    1984-07-01

    Multiple forms of urotensin II (UII), one of the hormonal peptides of the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, were purified from the urophyses of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Three distinct peaks with UII activity (classified as UII-alpha, -beta and -gamma) were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Edman degradation as well as digestion with carboxypeptidase A revealed the primary structures of these peptides as UII-alpha: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-beta: Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Thr-Glu-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-gamma: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Ile The results of thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, amino acid analysis, and sequencing indicate that UII-alpha and -gamma are homogeneous. UII-beta appears, however, to be a mixture of two components, differing only at position 2. Thus, in the carp urophysis, four forms of UII appear to be present, although the separation of two components in UII-beta has not been obtained. Sequence of positions 6-11 is common to all forms of UII isolated from the carp, sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and goby (Gillichthys mirabilis). PMID:6745627

  9. An in vivo study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver during prolonged hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Poon, W L; Hung, C Y; Nakano, K; Randall, D J

    2007-12-01

    Hypoxia induced apoptosis has been studied extensively in many mammalian cell lines but there are only a few studies using whole animal models. We investigated the response of the intact liver to hypoxia in a hypoxia tolerant fish, the carp (Cyprinus carpio, L). We exposed carp to hypoxia for up to 42 days, using oxygen level (0.5 mgO(2)/L) that were slightly higher than the critical oxygen level of carp. There was extensive DNA damage in liver cells, especially during the first week of exposure, indicated by a massive TUNEL signal. However there was no change in cell proliferation, cell number or size, no increase in caspase-3 activity, no increase in single stranded DNA and this, combined with a number of other observations, led us to conclude there was no increase in apoptosis in the liver during hypoxia. There was up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bcl-2, HSP70, p27) and down-regulation of some pro-apoptotic genes (Tetraspanin 5 and Cell death activator). The cells appeared to enter cell cycle arrest, presumably to allow repair of damaged DNA. As there was no change in cell proliferation and cell number, the damaged cells were not entering apoptosis and must have recovered during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:20483301

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280

  11. Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Urán, P A; Gonçalves, A A; Taverne-Thiele, J J; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A J; Rombout, J H W M

    2008-12-01

    The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1, most of the inflammation parameters were already present, but at week 3, a strong aggravation of the condition was observed which included a shortening of the mucosal folds, the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, an increased number of goblet cells, a thickened lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa with increased numbers of basophilic granulocytes as well as a decreased uptake capacity of enterocytes (impaired endocytosis and microvilli). Contrary to previous observations made with respect to Atlantic salmon, common carp start to recover from the fourth to the fifth week after switching to SBM feeding. At this stage, the supranuclear vacuoles refill and most of the parameters revert to basal levels. During the enteritis process, a real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to measure the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in the isolated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). The pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha1 (TNF-alpha1) genes were up-regulated during the inflammation process while the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) was down-regulated after an initial up-regulation at week 1. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression showed an up-regulation from week 3 onwards despite the high Ct value and the low primer efficiency shown. This study confirms the contribution of IEL (mainly T-like cells) and basophils in the enteritis process. In addition, the results show a clear involvement of up- and down-regulated cytokine genes in both the onset and recovery of the SBM-induced enteritis in the hindgut of carp. PMID:18954997

  12. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g(- 1) dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g(- 1) dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g(- 1) dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?(13)C, ?(15)N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

  13. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

  14. Assessment of environmental quality and inland water pollution using biomarker responses in caged carp ( Cyprinus carpio): Use of a bioactivation:detoxication ratio as a Biotransformation Index (BTI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. van der Oost; S. C. C. Lopes; H. Komen; K. Satumalay; Bosch van den R; H. Heida; N. P. E. Vermeulen

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the bioaccumulation of poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the responses of a suite of biochemical parameters were investigated in a standardized carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish line. Carps were caged for 2 to 8 weeks at two Amsterdam freshwater sites: the relatively unpolluted Outer IJ and the heavily polluted Volgermeerpolder. The

  15. Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

  16. Phenotypic variation and associated predation risk of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Weber, M J; Rounds, K D; Brown, M L

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio were collected from 10 lakes with variable predator abundance over 4 months to evaluate if morphological defences increased with increasing predation risk. Cyprinus carpio dorsal and pectoral spines were longer and body depth was deeper when predators were more abundant, with differences becoming more pronounced from July to October. To determine if morphological plasticity successfully reduced predation risk, prey selection of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides foraging on deep- and shallow-bodied C. carpio was evaluated in open and vegetated environments. Predators typically selected deep- over shallow-bodied phenotypes in open habitats and neutrally selected both phenotypes in vegetated habitats. When exposed to predators, shallow-bodied C. carpio phenotypes shoaled in open habitat, whereas deep-bodied phenotypes occupied vegetation. Although deep-bodied phenotypes required additional handling time, shallow-bodied phenotypes were more difficult to capture. These results suggest that juvenile C. carpio gradually develop deeper bodies and larger spines as predation risk increases. Morphological defences made it more difficult for predators to consume these prey but resulted in higher vulnerability to predation in some instances. PMID:22220889

  17. Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló

    2000-01-01

    Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

  18. Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand A. Sibbing

    1988-01-01

    Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

  19. The effect of sublethal levels of copper on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun De Boeck; Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust

    1995-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of 15–30 g body weight were exposed to copper levels of 0.22 ± 0.07, 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.84 ± 0.35 ?mol · l?1. Oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion were determined repeatedly for up to 2 weeks of exposure to copper. Critical oxygen concentrations for oxygen consumption as well as for ammonia excretion were determined after

  20. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  1. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    PubMed

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids. PMID:25862034

  2. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  3. Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation and elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Adamovský, Ondrej; Kopp, Radovan; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, Miroslava; Pasková, Veronika; Navrátil, Stanislav; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek

    2007-12-01

    Two species of common edible fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were exposed to a Microcystis spp.-dominated natural cyanobacterial water bloom for two months (concentrations of cyanobacterial toxin microcystin, 182-539 microg/g biomass dry wt). Toxins accumulated up to 1.4 to 29 ng/g fresh weight and 3.3 to 19 ng/g in the muscle of silver carp and common carp, respectively, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay. Concentrations an order of magnitude higher were detected in hepatopancreas (up to 226 ng/g in silver carp), with a peak after the initial four weeks. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 for muscle and from 7.3 to 13.3 for hepatopancreas. Microcystins were completely eliminated within one to two weeks from both muscle and hepatopancreas after the transfer of fish with accumulated toxins to clean water. Mean estimated elimination half-lives ranged from 0.7 d in silver carp muscle to 8.4 d in common carp liver. The present study also showed significant modulations of several biochemical markers in hepatopancreas of fish exposed to cyanobacteria. Levels of glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were induced in both species, indicating oxidative stress and enhanced detoxification processes. Calculation of hazard indexes using conservative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology indicated rather low risks of microcystins accumulated in edible fish, but several uncertainties should be explored. PMID:18020691

  4. Biological uptake and depuration of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Liu, Sisi; Chen, Jingwen; Jiang, Jingqiu; Xie, Qing; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48 d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k 2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84 L kg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838 d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCF kg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73 L kg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish. PMID:25462302

  5. Retroperitoneal hemangiosarcoma in a common carp Cyprinus carpio: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Clauss, Tonya M; Dennison, Sophie E; Camus, Alvin C

    2013-12-12

    A 7.5 kg common carp Cyprinus carpio presented with prominent localized swelling in the caudal right coelomic area, identified by ultrasound as a fluid filled mass. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and culture results suggested a sterile seroma. Centesis removed 290 ml of serosanguinous fluid that returned within days. Recheck ultrasonography revealed a solid component within the cavity. Radiography demonstrated irregular lysis and misalignment of vertebrae adjacent to the mass, most suggestive of bacterial osteitis or neoplasia. Treatment with antibiotics followed for 2 mo but failed to resolve the lesion. Repeated radiography and ultrasonography showed progressive enlargement of the mass, with vertebral lysis and invasion characteristic of neoplasia. Ultrasound-guided FNA of the solid component of the mass was non-diagnostic. Euthanasia was elected due to the poor clinical response and primary differential of neoplasia. Post-mortem MRI and CT confirmed a retroperitoneal soft tissue mass, partially surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity, causing vertebral lysis and infiltration of the spinal canal. Expansion of the mass caused severe muscle loss and an associated elevation in creatine kinase (>120000 U l-1). Necropsy results corroborated the MRI and CT findings, revealing a retroperitoneal, multilobular, red and tan mass causing dorsal displacement of the vertebral column, with vertebral lysis, pathologic fracture and invasion of the spinal canal. Histopathologic examination revealed a locally aggressive neoplasm exhibiting multiple patterns of growth, including endothelial lined vascular channels and solid areas formed by more pleomorphic polygonal and spindle cells, consistent with hemangiosarcoma. PMID:24334357

  6. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by aluminum in the lymphocytes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    García-Medina, Sandra; Razo-Estrada, Celene; Galar-Martinez, Marcela; Cortéz-Barberena, Edith; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Alvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been made in regard to the effect of aluminum on the molecular and cellular structure and function of aquatic organisms; therefore, in the present report we determined the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by the metal on the lymphocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three groups of fish were exposed to 0.05, 120, and 239 mg/L of aluminum (Al), respectively, by using Al? (SO?)?·7H?O, and another group was included as control. The cells obtained were studied with the comet assay, flow cytometry, and the TUNEL method. With the first method we found a concentration and time dependent, significant increase in the amount of DNA damage induced by Al, and a higher damage when we evaluated the level of oxidized DNA. By applying flow cytometry we established that the metal induced a DNA content increase and ploidy modifications as well as apoptosis and disturbances of the cell cycle progression. With the last method we determined a significant increase in the amount of apoptotic cells, mainly in the 72-96 h period. Our results established that Al caused deleterious DNA and cellular effects in the tested organism, and they suggested the pertinence of evaluating toxicity induced by the metal in organisms living in contaminated water bodies. PMID:20883821

  7. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  8. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Biomarker Response in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Silver Catfish (Rhamdia quelen) Exposed to Clomazone.

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment. PMID:25779373

  10. Effect of Mozart's music (Romanze-Andante of “Eine Kleine Nacht Musik”, sol major, K525) stimulus on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) physiology under different light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Papoutsoglou; N. Karakatsouli; E. Louizos; S. Chadio; D. Kalogiannis; C. Dalla; A. Polissidis; Z. Papadopoulou-Daifoti

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that music could have relaxing and antidepressant effects on humans, other mammals and birds. The present study aimed to evaluate music effects on common carp Cyprinus carpio growth and physiology, under different light conditions. Therefore, common carp (130.9±0.67g) was reared, in recirculating water system, under constant darkness (D) or normally illuminated conditions (L) for 12 weeks.

  11. Changes in the respiratory properties of the blood in the carp, Cyprinus carpio , induced by diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Lykkeboe; Roy E. Weber

    1978-01-01

    Summary  Effects of diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension on acid-base balance and blood respiratory properties were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp were subjected to two cycles in ambient\\u000a$$P_{O_2 }$$\\u000a between about 130 mm Hg and about 12 mm Hg at 17°C (cf. Figs. 1 and 2). The first period of hypoxia was characterized by a non-compensated respiratory

  12. The complement component C5 of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ): cDNA cloning of two distinct isotypes that differ in a functional site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kato; Miki Nakao; Junichi Mutsuro; Ioannis K. Zarkadis; Tomoki Yano

    2003-01-01

    The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. The present study was designed to obtain the complete primary structure of C5 from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and

  13. Effect of dietary arginine on the immune response and gene expression in head kidney and spleen following infection of Jian carp with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gangfu; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Weidan; Kuang, Shengyao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wuneng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiaoqiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that elevated dietary arginine enhances immunity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed graded levels of dietary arginine for 9 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila. Head kidney and spleen weights, as well as erythrocyte and leukocyte counts were significantly influenced by dietary arginine levels. A similar trend was also observed for hemagglutination titre, serum lysozyme activity, IgM concentration, C3 and C4 content. The highest survival rates following A. hydrophila infection were obtained in fish fed the diets containing arginine at 16.1-21.9 g/kg diet. Phagocytic activity of leukocytes was significantly enhanced by dietary arginine supplementation. In contrast, acid phosphatase activity significantly decreased with dietary arginine levels. Dietary arginine levels did not have a significant effect on the total iron-binding capacity. Gene expression of TNF-? and TGF-? in head kidney significantly increased with dietary arginine levels up to 21.9 g/kg diet, and decreased thereafter. Fish fed the basal diet exhibited the highest IL-10 mRNA expression level. Gene expression of IL-1? and TOR increased with dietary arginine addition, reaching a plateau at 18.5 and 21.9 g arginine/kg diet, respectively. In spleen, higher IL-1? and TNF-? gene expressions were obtained in fish fed the diets containing 24.5 g arginine/kg diet than in fish fed the other dietary treatments. TGF-? mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in fish fed the diets containing ?21.9 g arginine/kg diet. IL-10 and TOR mRNA expression levels were lower in fish fed 16.1 g arginine/kg diet, while 4E-BP mRNA expression levels increased with dietary arginine levels up to 12.7 g/kg diet and decreased thereafter. Our results indicate that arginine has beneficial effects on regulating mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, as well as TOR and 4E-BP and improving humoral and cellular immunity, therefore enhancing disease resistance of fish. PMID:25721332

  14. Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

  15. Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

    2000-03-01

    The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

  16. Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin on cryosurvival and fertility of cryopreserved carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Yavas, Ilker; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Aksoy, Melih

    2015-04-01

    Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) to the diluents of mammalian semen increased stability and rigidity of phospholipid hydrocarbon chains of plasma membrane during sperm cryopreservation process. CLC has been tested successfully as cryoprotectant in various livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving of fish sperm has not previously been tested. In the present study, different cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin concentrations were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with Ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300mM glucose and 10% DMSO supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0mg per 120×10(6) spermatozoa) and without CLC (control). The pooled semen was diluted separately at a ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using CLC extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25ml straws were equilibrated at 4°C for 15min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1×10(5) spermatozoa/egg. Fresh sperm with no treatment showed the greatest sperm motility, duration of motility, viability, and fertilization results compared to the other tested cryopreserved and control groups (p<0.05). Supplementation of 1.5mg CLC to the extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility, duration of motility, and viability against freezing damage in comparison to extenders containing 2.5mg, 3.0mg CLC, and control group (p<0.05). Cryopreserved sperm containing 1.5mg CLC provided greater result in term of fertilization success when compared to other extenders containing 0.5, 2.5, and 3.0mg CLC or control (p<0.05). The amount of CLC effected post-thaw sperm quality and fertility as a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that treatment of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin for carp sperm cryopreservation significantly improves cell cryosurvival and fertilization. PMID:25661710

  17. Haematological indices are modulated in juvenile carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to microcystins produced by cyanobacterial water bloom.

    PubMed

    Kopp, R; Palíková, M; Mareš, J; Navrátil, S; Kubí?ek, Z; Ziková, A

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of toxic cyanobacterial water blooms on the blood indices of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Experimental fish were exposed to a natural population of cyanobacterial water blooms (mainly Microcystis aeruginosa and M. ichthyoblabe), which contained microcystins [total concentration 133-284 ?g g?¹ (DW), concentration in water 2.8-7.4 ?g L?¹]. Haematological indices showed marked changes in fish exposed to the cyanobacterial population in comparison with the control group. Statistical evaluation of the influence of cyanobacterial water blooms on biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed a distinct decrease in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol, glucose, phosphorus and iron when compared to controls. Values of red blood counts [haemoglobin, haematocrit (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] and lactate were significantly increased compared to controls. After exposure to cyanobacterial water bloom, the carp were kept in clean water to monitor the persistence of biochemical indices. The influence of cyanobacterial populations on calcium, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, phosphorus and PCV persisted up to 28 days after conclusion of the experiment. Duration of exposure, toxicity and density of cyanobacterial water blooms had an important impact on individual haematological indices. PMID:21158871

  18. Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

  19. Compensatory responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under ammonia exposure: additional effects of feeding and exercise.

    PubMed

    Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Mauro, Nathalie; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. The toxic effects of ammonia can be modulated by other physiological processes such as feeding and swimming. In this study, we wanted to examine these modulating effects in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (unfed for seven days prior to the sampling), and swimming at a sustainable, routine swimming speed or swum to exhaustion, while being exposed chronically (up to 28 days) to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 1 mg/L ~58.8 ?mol/L as NH4Cl at pH 7.9). Swimming performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and metabolic responses such as oxygen consumption rate (MO2), ammonia excretion rate (Jamm), ammonia quotient, liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), plasma ammonia and lactate, as well as plasma ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and Ca(2+)) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and iono-regulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. Cortisol plays an important role in stress and in both the regulation of energy and the ion homeostasis; therefore plasma cortisol was measured. Results show that during HEA, Jamm was elevated to a larger extent in fed fish and they were able to excrete much more efficiently than the starved fish. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in plasma of HEA exposed fed fish was much slower. MO2 increased considerably in fed fish after exposure to HEA and was further intensified during exercise. During exposure to HEA, the level of cortisol in plasma augmented in both the feeding regimes, but the effect of HEA was more pronounced in starved fish. Energy stores dropped for both fed and the starved fish with the progression of the exposure period and further declined when swimming to exhaustion. Overall, fed fish were less affected by HEA than starved fish, and although exercise exacerbated the toxic effect in both feeding treatments, this was more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that fish become more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise, and feeding protects the fish against the adverse effects of high ammonia and exercise. PMID:24001429

  20. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  1. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  2. Reduced swimming abilities in fast-growing transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio associated with their morphological variations.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Hu, W; Wang, Y; Zhu, Z; Fu, C

    2009-01-01

    Critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) and morphological characters were compared between the F(4) generation of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and the non-transgenic controls. Transgenic fish displayed a mean absolute U(crit) value 22.3% lower than the controls. Principal component analysis identified variations in body shape, with transgenic fish having significantly deeper head, longer caudal length of the dorsal region, longer standard length (L(S)) and shallower body and caudal region, and shorter caudal length of the ventral region. Swimming speeds were related to the combination of deeper body and caudal region, longer caudal length of the ventral region, shallower head depth, shorter caudal length of dorsal region and L(S). These findings suggest that morphological variations which are poorly suited to produce maximum thrust and minimum drag in GH-transgenic C. carpio may be responsible for their lower swimming abilities in comparison with non-transgenic controls. PMID:20735532

  3. Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. (Visva-Bharati Univ., Santiniketan (India))

    1990-09-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

  4. Genetic Divergence Between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, with Emphasis on Origin of European Domestic Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Feng Zhou; Qing Jiang Wu; Yu Zhen Ye; Jin Gou Tong

    2003-01-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination

  5. Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

    1999-01-01

    In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

  6. Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene K. Balon

    1995-01-01

    Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

  7. Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

    2000-01-01

    In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

  8. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

  9. The role of CcTpt1 in scale and early embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Yangyang; Cheng, Anda; Zhang, Baoyong; Ma, Long; Liu, Yongxin; Sun, Xiaowen

    2013-10-13

    The full length cDNA sequence of the Tpt1/TCTP (Tumor protein, Translationally-controlled1) gene was identified from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae), and was designated as CcTpt1 gene. The CDS is 510 bp and encodes a 170-amino acid peptide with a typical Tpt1 signature 2 domain, and is a typical Tpt1 protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of Tpt1 shared significant identity with the Tpt1 from other animals. A phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Common Carp Tpt1 protein has the closest genetic relationship and evolutional distance with Tpt1 from Medaka (Oryzias Latipes). Analysis by RT-PCR showed that the Tpt1 mRNA was detected in heart, liver, gill, kidney, muscle and skin. In embryogenesis, the Tpt1 mRNA was expressed gradually stronger from two-cell stage until prim-5 stage by whole-mount in situ. In larval stage, the Tpt1 was specifically expressed at eyes and brain, later at the ear stone, intestines, gills and internal organs. In addition, the Tpt1 was also found to be expressed in skin matrix being developed into scales and gradually disappeared when the scales were fully formed. These data suggested that the CcTpt1 may play important roles in early embryogenesis and scale initiation in fish. PMID:24122620

  10. Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus

    Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16?m in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) obtained from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., head kidney cells after stimulation by two mitogens, lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Savan; Masahiro Sakai

    2002-01-01

    A representative cDNA library from mRNA obtained from lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-induced head kidney cells of carp, Cyprinus carpio, was constructed. Two hundred single pass and partially sequenced clones (AU183343 to AU183542) were generated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and these were searched for homology in the DDBJ\\/GENBANK with blastN and blastX programs. Clones matching known genes were classified according to

  12. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Leiker; Sonja R. Abney; Steven L. Goodbred; Michael R. Rosen

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical

  13. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping innate immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kongchum, Pawapol; Palti, Yniv; Hallerman, Eric M; Hulata, Gideon; David, Lior

    2010-08-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to develop molecular tools for breeding CyHV-3-resistant carp, we have amplified and sequenced 11 candidate genes for viral disease resistance including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4ba, TLR7, TLR9, TLR21, TLR22, MyD88, TRAF6, type I IFN and IL-1beta. For each gene, we initially cloned and sequenced PCR amplicons from 8 to 12 fish (2-3 fish per strain) from the SNP discovery panel. We then identified and evaluated putative SNPs for their polymorphisms in the SNP discovery panel and validated their usefulness for linkage analysis in a full-sib family using the SNaPshot method. Our sequencing results and phylogenetic analyses suggested that TLR3, TLR7 and MyD88 genes are duplicated in the common carp genome. We, therefore, developed locus-specific PCR primers and SNP genotyping assays for the duplicated loci. A total of 48 SNP markers were developed from PCR fragments of the 13 loci (7 single-locus and 3 duplicated genes). Thirty-nine markers were polymorphic with estimated minor allele frequencies of more than 0.1. The utility of the SNP markers was evaluated in one full-sib family and revealed that 20 markers from 9 loci segregated in a disomic and Mendelian pattern and would be useful for linkage analysis. PMID:20420915

  14. Black carp growth hormone gene transgenic allotetraploid hybrids of Carassius auratus red var. (?)× Cyprinus carpio (?)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Feng; YongMing Fu; Jian Luo; Hui Wu; Yun Liu; ShaoJun Liu

    Ecological safety is a major consideration in the commercialization of transgenic fish. Development of sterile transgenic\\u000a triploid fish through hybridization of transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is a feasible way to solve this\\u000a problem. The “all-fish” transgene, pbcAbcGHc, containing the black carp ?-actin gene promoter and the open reading frame (ORF) of the black carp growth hormone (GH)

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

    1994-01-01

    The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

  16. Fasting goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, use different metabolic strategies when swimming.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-11-01

    Fish need to balance their energy use between digestion and other activities, and different metabolic compromises can be pursued. We examined the effects of fasting (7 days) on metabolic strategies in goldfish and common carp at different swimming levels. Fasting had no significant effect on swimming performance (U(crit)) of either species. Feeding and swimming profoundly elevated total ammonia (T(amm)) excretion in both species. In fed goldfish, this resulted in increased ammonia quotients (AQ), and additionally plasma and tissue ammonia levels increased with swimming reflecting the importance of protein contribution for aerobic metabolism. In carp, AQ did not change since oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and T(amm) excretion followed the same trend. Plasma ammonia did not increase with swimming suggesting a balance between production and excretion rate except for fasted carp at U(crit). While both species relied on anaerobic metabolism during exhaustive swimming, carp also showed increased lactate levels during routine swimming. Fasting almost completely depleted glycogen stores in carp, but not in goldfish. Both species used liver protein for basal metabolism during fasting and muscle lipid during swimming. In goldfish, feeding metabolism was sacrificed to support swimming metabolism with similar MO(2) and U(crit) between fasted and fed fish, whereas in common carp feeding increased MO(2) at U(crit) to sustain feeding and swimming independently. PMID:22884681

  17. Zinc transferrin stimulates red blood cell formation in the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Fang, Szu-Wei; Jeng, Sen-Shyong

    2013-09-01

    The common carp is one of the few fish able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels. These fish store zinc in their digestive tract tissue and head kidney at concentrations of 300-500?g/g of fresh tissue, which is 5-10 times higher than in other fish. Previous studies have indicated a link between the high zinc levels in the common carp and stress erythropoiesis. In this report, using suspension-cultured common carp head kidney cells with or without ZnCl2 supplementation, we found that zinc stimulated the proliferation of immature red blood cells; however, this effect was only observed when the culture was supplemented with carp serum. We identified the active component of carp serum to be transferrin. The zinc-transferrin complex interacts with the transferrin receptor and stimulates the proliferation of immature red blood cells. In addition, the growth rate of the immature red blood cells was regulated by the supplied ZnCl2 concentration. Under stress, the zinc in the common carp digestive tract tissue was released and used as a signal to induce red blood cell formation in the head kidney. This cell culture system might provide a means for exploring the regulatory role of zinc in hematopoietic cell growth. PMID:23665074

  18. In-depth proteomic analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 348 proteins in carp spermatozoa, most of which were for the first time identified in fish. Dynein, tubulin, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, adenosylhomocysteinase, NKEF-B, brain type creatine kinase, mitochondrial ATP synthase, and valosin containing enzyme represent high abundance proteins in carp spermatozoa. These proteins are functionally related to sperm motility and energy production as well as the protection of sperm against oxidative injury and stress. Moreover, carp spermatozoa are equipped with functionally diverse proteins involved in signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein turnover and transport. About 15% of proteins from carp spermatozoa identified here were also detected in seminal plasma which may be a result of leakage from spermatozoa into seminal plasma, adsorption of seminal plasma proteins on spermatozoa surface, and expression in both spermatozoa and cells secreting seminal plasma proteins. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins provides substantial advances for an understanding of sperm function and for future development of molecular diagnostic tests of carp sperm quality, the evaluation of which is currently limited to certain parameters such as sperm count, morphology and motility or viability. The mass spectrometry data are available at ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD000877 (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6019/PXD000877). PMID:25305539

  19. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  20. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

  1. Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar

    2008-01-01

    The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

  2. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jacob G; Nielsen, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49 after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7 days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7 days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed in the investigated genes as a result of the wounding. HSP70 was downregulated 1 and 3 days post-wounding in the smallest larvae. However, HSP70 was differentially expressed at different time-points in a similar manner in wounded and mock-wounded groups, thus suggesting a stress effect of the handling, which may have overshadowed some transcriptional effects of the wounding. MMP-9, TGF-?1 and IgZ1 were slightly but significantly upregulated at few time-points, while no effect of wounding was detected on the expression of IgM, C3, IL-1? and IL-6 family member M17. PMID:24064235

  3. Effect of cadmium chloride on secretion of 17?-estradiol by the ovarian follicles of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumana; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a common environmental pollutant present in wastes associated with mining, smelting and electroplating. It is a major constituent of the tobacco smoke. Exposure of this heavy metal has been linked to wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction particularly on ovarian steroidogenesis. Low doses of Cd(2+) are reported to stimulate ovarian luteal progesterone synthesis whereas high doses inhibited it. Cd(2+) exposure is also reported to inhibit gonadal function in fish. In the present study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) on the secretion of gonadotropin-induced 17?-estradiol was examined in female common carp Cyprinus carpio. Vitellogenic stage fish were exposed to physiological safe dose of CdCl(2) for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h and serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels were estimated. In the in vitro experiments, vitellogenic follicles were incubated with CdCl(2) and a dose- and time-dependent effects on steroid production were estimated induced by LH. Exposure of fish with CdCl(2) gradually attenuated serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels with increasing time and maximum inhibition was noticed after 96 h. Administration of CdCl(2) to the incubations significantly inhibited LH-induced release of 17?-estradiol in vitro. To clarify the mechanism of attenuated production of 17?-estradiol, in vitro effects of CdCl(2) on LH induced P450 aromatase activity (conversion of testosterone to 17?-estradiol) and cytochrome P450arom gene expression in carp ovarian follicles were evaluated. Results show that LH-stimulated P450 aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression in ovarian follicles were significantly inhibited by CdCl(2). The present study further demonstrated that LH-induced stimulation of ovarian steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) which activates aromatase enzyme, is strongly inhibited by cadmium chloride treatment. PMID:23146792

  4. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

  5. DNA Methylation Analysis of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids. PMID:23457564

  6. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  7. Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

    1974-01-01

    In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

  8. Oxidative stress responses in different organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) with exposure to ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Linhua; Chen, Lei

    2012-06-01

    Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and non-enzymatic antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) content and levels of Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in gill, liver, brain and intestine of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) were evaluated after exposure to different concentrations (0.5, 5.0 and 50.0mg/L) of waterborne nano-ZnO for 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 day. The results showed that the variation trendency of antioxidant defense systems and LPO levels would be more significant with increasing concentration and exposure time. 50.0mg/L nano-ZnO caused significant decrease of several enzymes activities and GSH content and increase of LPO level. As a result, these biomarkers were all appropriate for monitoring oxidative stress status of fish after exposure to nano-ZnO. Gill, liver and brain might be more sensitive response organs, being intestine the least altered organ. Further ecotoxicological evaluation should be made concerning the risk of nano-ZnO on aquatic environment. PMID:22425733

  9. [Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].

    PubMed

    Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

  10. Short-term dynamic change of gill copper in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, evaluated by a sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Liu, W X; Liu, G J; Dawson, R; Cao, J; Wong, P K

    2006-10-01

    Dynamic changes in Cu speciation and its binding to fish gills were investigated by exposing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to a 1 mg/1 Cu solution for 7 hours. Cu speciation in the bulk solution and fish gill microenvironment was calculated using general chemical equilibrium modeling. A sequential extraction procedure using distilled water, magnesium dichloride (1.0 mol/1), and acetic acid (10%) was used to characterize the Cu associated with the fish gills. Cu residual in the gill tissue was measured after the sequential extraction. Changes in total Cu concentration, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (Doc) in the bulk solution were recorded during the experimental period and calculated for the fish gill microenvironment. Cu-hydroxide species and Cu2 were dominant Cu species in both bulk solution and the fish gill microenvironment, whereas increased Cu-mucus was found in the fish gill microenvironment. DOC in the exposure medium, assumed to arise from mucus release, also increased and complexed Cu in solution. Forty-three percent of the Cu associated with the gills was readily water extractable, with an additional 22% exchangeable with Mg2+ or protons. Only 35% of the Cu accumulated within the gill tissues. The binding of Cu to the fish gills reached apparent equilibrium after 3 hours of exposure. Furthermore, the amount of water-extractable Cu within the gills showed significant correlation to the concentration of Cu predicted to be complexed with calculated free mucus in the gill microenvironment. PMID:16865604

  11. Identification and expression of the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Wan, Q Y; Wang, L F; Su, J G

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 gene (lgp2) from common carp Cyprinus carpio was isolated and characterized. The full-length complementary (c)DNA of lgp2 was 3061?bp and encoded a polypeptide of 680 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 77 341·2?Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 6·53. The predicted protein included four main overlapping structural domains: a conserved restriction domain of bacterial type III restriction enzyme, a DEAD-DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase super family C-terminal domain and a regulatory domain. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed widespread expression of lgp2, mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (mavs) and interferon transcription factor 3 (irf3) in tissues of nine organs. lgp2, mavs and irf3 expression levels were significantly induced in all examined organs by infection with koi herpesvirus (KHV). lgp2, mavs and irf3 messenger (m)RNA levels were significantly up-regulated in vivo after KHV infection, and lgp2 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro after stimulation with synthetic, double-stranded RNA polyinosinic polycytidylic [poly(I:C)]. These findings suggest that lgp2 is an inducible protein involved in the innate immune defence against KHV in C. carpio. These results provide the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of lgp2 in fishes. PMID:25359511

  12. Massive mortality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) in the St. Lawrence River in 2001: diagnostic investigation and experimental induction of lymphocytic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Monette, S; Dallaire, A D; Mingelbier, M; Groman, D; Uhland, C; Richard, J-P; Paillard, G; Johannson, L M; Chivers, D P; Ferguson, H W; Leighton, F A; Simko, E

    2006-05-01

    A massive fish kill affecting exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) in the St. Lawrence River, Québec, Canada, during the summer of 2001 was investigated by use of laboratory diagnostic methods and by an attempt to experimentally induce the disease. The ultimate causes of mortality were opportunistic bacterial infections with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. secondary to immunosuppression induced by physiologic (i.e., spawning) and environmental (i.e., high temperatures and low water levels) stressors, and possibly enhanced by an infection causing lymphocytic encephalitis observed in 9 of 18 (50%) fish examined. Experimental induction of disease was attempted in captured wild carp by administration of crude and filtered (particulate <0.22 microm) inocula prepared from a homogenate of tissues from carp affected by the natural outbreak. Although significant clinical disease or mortality was not induced by experimental challenge, lymphocytic encephalitis similar to the one observed in naturally affected carp was induced in four of seven (57%) fish administered crude inoculum and four of seven (57%) fish administered filtered inoculum. None of the control fish inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (n = 6) were affected by encephalitis. The cause of the encephalitis observed in carp from the natural outbreak and in experimentally inoculated fish could not be determined by use of virus isolation and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:16672577

  13. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  14. Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of prometryne to early life stages of common carp was assessed. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was estimated as 1100?µg/l; and no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 850?µg/l. Fulton's condition factor was significantly lower than in controls in fish exposed to 4000?µg/l after 7, 14, and 21 days. By day 14, fish exposed to 4000?µg/l prometryne showed significantly lower mass and total length compared to controls. Fish exposed the 1200 and 4000?µg/l showed delay in development, severe hyperaemia in gill, liver, and caudal and cranial kidney. Subchronic prometryne exposure of early-life stages of common carp at concentrations of 1200 and 4000?µg/l affected their survival, growth rate, early ontogeny, and histology. PMID:25752431

  15. Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang

    2014-05-01

    To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L(-1), thus the safe concentration (1/10LC(50)) is 1.63 mg L(-1). The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was also measured in the same way. XOD, CAT and MDA had shown an evident change while exposure time and concentration increased, combined exposure can aggravate this change. They might be used as early warning indicators and monitors, and have potentials in the ecological risk assessment. PMID:24468924

  16. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the metabolome of the freshwater carp, Cyprinus Carpio.

    PubMed

    Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Pal, Sandipan; Koyama, Jiro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of waterborne chlorpyrifos with concentrations of 1 and 100 µg/L for L and H-groups, respectively, on metabolome profiles of carp plasma using (1) H-NMR. Principal component analysis suggests that chlorpyrifos exposure firstly affected in L and H-groups on day 2 or 4, and followed a second effect in both exposure groups on day 14. Levels of metabolites related to the energy production in the body, such as glucose, glycerol, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrates and acetoacetate, significantly changed by exposures of chlorpyrifos. Those results suggest that energy production was severely affected in carp. The exposure could also be highly elevated ammonia levels especially in H-group due to severe convulsion in muscle caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 253-260, 2015. PMID:23997021

  17. Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

    2003-01-01

    One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

  18. Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

    2010-01-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

  19. Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Farkas; ISTVAN CSENGERI

    1976-01-01

    Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and

  20. Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Miko?aj; Bili?ska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

  1. Factors influencing fatty acid composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle.

    PubMed

    Mráz, Jan; Pickova, Jana

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health, especially for the cardiovascular system. The sources of n-3 HUFA, including EPA and DHA, are scarce in diet consumed by the Czech population. Thus, it would be beneficial to generally increase fish consumption and also to increase the content of the beneficial fatty acids (FA) in locally produced fish and other products. Therefore the overall aim of this paper was to review factors influencing lipid content and composition in common carp, which is the major cultured fish in the Czech Republic, and to identify long term sustainable ways for increasing the beneficial fatty acids in the carp flesh. We conclude that there are several ways to improve the FA composition of common carp in the traditional pond production. High amount of natural food, good supplemental diet containing high level of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and suitable processing and cooking were identified as the most important ones. PMID:22101873

  2. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

  3. Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

  4. Ecotoxicological assessment of cobalt used as supplement in the diet of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjukta; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed in the laboratory to determine if excess levels of Co used as dietary supplement (0.0, 0.05, 0.10 and 1.0%) to enhance growth of the fish Cyprinus carpio was safe for aquatic organisms. Lethal concentrations of Co for tadpole of toad Bufo melanostictus (96 h LC(50), 17.2 mg/L), oligochaet worm Branchiura sowerbyi (96 h LC(50), 179 mg/L) and crustacean zooplankton Diaptomus forbesi (96 h LC(50), 1.5 mg/L) were compared with the concentration of Co in the medium leached from the unused diets and faeces. The results indicated that the Co leached from diet containing 1.0% Co was ecotoxicologically unsafe for crustacean zooplankton. PMID:21858707

  5. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru

    2013-01-01

    TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

  6. Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

    1987-03-01

    We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

    2014-02-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

  8. Toxic effects of paraquat on cytokine expression in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of paraquat (PQ) in common carp was determined. Then, the contents and mRNA levels of the cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interferon-? (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were evaluated following subacute exposure to PQ. The results show that the LC50 of PQ for common carp at 72 and 96 h was 15.962 and 15.106 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, after 7 days of subacute PQ exposure, the IL-1? content in the fish liver and kidney increased, although it decreased in spleen. However, changes in the IFN-? content showed an irregular trend. The TNF-? content increased in the liver and spleen but decreased in the kidney. Additionally, PQ exposure also induced alterations in the mRNA levels of IL-1?, IFN-?, and TNF-?. These results suggest that PQ exposure may result in suppression or excessive activation of the immune system in treated fish and lead to immune dysfunction and reduced immunity. PMID:24989943

  9. Examination of the early infection stages of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Kempter, J; Bergmann, S M

    2015-05-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly infectious disease afflicting common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Various molecular and antibody-based detection methods have been used to elucidate the rapid attachment and dissemination of the virus throughout carp tissues, facilitating ongoing development of effective diagnostic approaches. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used here to determine the target tissues of KHV during very early infection, after infecting carp with a highly virulent KHV isolate. Analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues (i.e. gills, skin, spleen, kidney, gut, liver and brain) during the first 8 h and following 10 days post-infection (hpi; dpi) revealed positive signals in skin mucus, gills and gut sections after only 1 hpi. Respiratory epithelial cells were positive as early as 2 hpi. Viral DNA was also detected within blood vessels of various tissues early in the infection. Notable increases in signal abundance were observed in the gills and kidney between 5 and 10 dpi, and viral DNA was detected in all tissues except brain. This study suggests that the gills and gut play an important role in the early pathogenesis of this Alloherpesvirus, in addition to skin, and demonstrates ISH as a useful diagnostic tool for confirmation of acutely infected carp. PMID:24925228

  10. Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kyuchukova, Ralica; Milanova, Aneliya; Pavlov, Alexander; Lashev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the third and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to the respective serum samples. In the muscles, enrofloxacin concentrations were also higher compared with the respective serum samples. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were lower and showed smaller variations in all investigated tissues. The serum and tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in common carp showed two peaks, with the first Cmax at the third hour after drug administration as in rainbow trout. Concentrations of both investigated substances were higher in the liver than in the serum. The differences in common carp were less pronounced in comparison with rainbow trout. Relatively high levels of both substances were found in the muscles. Seven days after treatment enrofloxacin concentrations in the serum and tissues were within the therapeutic levels for most of the sensitive microorganisms in trout. Lower concentrations of its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found in the investigated tissues at the last sampling point. Lower levels of both substances were found in carp. PMID:25372241

  11. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Protection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa motility under oxidative stress by antioxidants and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Shaliutina-Kolešová, A; Gazo, I; Cosson, J; Linhart, O

    2014-12-01

    The protective influence of seminal plasma and the antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GTH) on quality parameters, oxidative stress indices, and antioxidant activity was studied in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa exposed to the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system. Fish spermatozoa were incubated for 5 and 20 min at 4 °C with X-XO concentrations of 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL, 0.6 mM X-0.05 U/mL, 0.3 mM X-0.025 U/mL, and 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 0.1 mM X-0.0125 U/mL to 1 mM X-0.1 U/mL XO. Increase in spermatozoa motility parameters was recorded following treatment with antioxidants and seminal plasma. The level of the oxidative stress indices lipid peroxidation (LPO) and carbonyl derivatives of proteins (CP) was significantly reduced after addition of CAT, SOD, or GTH along with seminal plasma. Significant differences in SOD, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were seen in spermatozoa incubated with, compared to that without, seminal plasma at all studied X-XO concentrations. The data demonstrated that CAT, SOD, or GTH in combination with SP can reduce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa and improve spermatozoa quality. PMID:25079247

  13. The combined effect of hypoxia and nutritional status on metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Moyson, Sofie; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the combined effects of hypoxia and nutritional status were examined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a relatively hypoxia tolerant cyprinid. Fish were either fed or fasted and were exposed to hypoxia (1.5-1.8mg O2L(-1)) at or slightly above their critical oxygen concentration during 1, 3 or 7days followed by a 7day recovery period. Ventilation initially increased during hypoxia, but fasted fish had lower ventilation frequencies than fed fish. In fed fish, ventilation returned to control levels during hypoxia, while in fasted fish recovery only occurred after reoxygenation. Due to this, C. carpio managed, at least in part, to maintain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia: muscle and plasma lactate levels remained relatively stable although they tended to be higher in fed fish (despite higher ventilation rates). However, during recovery, compensatory responses differed greatly between both feeding regimes: plasma lactate in fed fish increased with a simultaneous breakdown of liver glycogen indicating increased energy use, while fasted fish seemed to economize energy and recycle decreasing plasma lactate levels into increasing liver glycogen levels. Protein was used under both feeding regimes during hypoxia and subsequent recovery: protein levels reduced mainly in liver for fed fish and in muscle for fasted fish. Overall, nutritional status had a greater impact on energy reserves than the lack of oxygen with a lower hepatosomatic index and lower glycogen stores in fasted fish. Fasted fish transiently increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity under hypoxia, but in general ionoregulatory balance proved to be only slightly disturbed, showing that sufficient energy was left for ion regulation. PMID:25263807

  14. The effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xia, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish. We also measured the biochemical indices of both trained and non-trained fish immediately after Ucrit, after exhaustive exercise and 1h after exhaustive exercise. The aerobic swimming performance, as indicated by Ucrit, increased significantly after exercise training, most likely because of the higher tissue metabolic capacity, as suggested by the higher CS activity in the red muscle tissue, and the higher energy store and more efficient substrate utilization, as suggested by higher liver and muscle glycogen contents at rest but lower tissue glycogen contents after Ucrit. The lower lactate content after Ucrit is most likely because of higher aerobic metabolic capacity, and (or) the clearance rate of lactate in trained fish may also contribute to improved aerobic swimming performance. Compared to Ucrit, exhaustive exercise elicited higher plasma and muscle lactate contents. The anaerobic metabolic performance is not affected by the exercise training, as suggested by the EPOC. However, trained fish did show higher lactate clearance rates, as suggested by lower muscle lactate content after a 1h recovery period following exhaustive exercise compared to non-trained fish. Furthermore, trained fish decreased their liver and muscle glycogen contents more profoundly after exhaustive exercise, suggesting that training can improve the substrate utilization during anaerobic exercise. PMID:23838144

  15. Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics

    E-print Network

    ). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

  16. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, Mikuláš

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomes of the invasive tapeworm Khawia sinensis (Caryophyllidea), the specific parasite of common carp, were analyzed by means of conventional Giemsa staining and using fluorescent DAPI and YOYO-1 dyes, silver staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe. The karyotype is composed of eight pairs of metacentric and telocentric chromosomes (2n = 16, n = 3m + 5t, TCL = 42.54 ?m). Constitutive heterochromatin was located at pericentromeric regions of all pairs, except for the largest metacentric pair (no. 1), which possessed no DAPI-positive band. FISH with rDNA probe revealed that both homologues of chromosome pair no. 6 carry a cluster of ribosomal arrays, which were located interstitially close to the centromere. Present results are compared with previous cytogenetic data on Khawia spp., and comments are made on the karyotypes with respect to their phylogenetic links. PMID:22167367

  17. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ö?retmen, F; ?nanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. PMID:25459081

  18. Cadmium-induced changes in the histology of kidneys in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (cyprinidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.N.; Jain, M. [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)] [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)

    1997-03-01

    Heavy metals pose a wide variety of challenges to aquatic organisms, especially to fish. These pollutants are uncommon, but are a major problem because of their toxicity, persistence and tendency for bio-accumulation in food chains. Cadmium is important because of its use in various industrial processes, and as a by product of zinc mining, fossil fuel, base metal smelting, combustion and atmospheric transport. Since this biologically non-essential element is highly toxic to aquatic organisms and is a known renal toxicant, there is a need to understand its effects on the kidneys of an edible fish Cyprinus carpio communis. This fish offers some unique experimental advantages for the study of cadmium renal toxicity due to its tolerance to temperature variations, toughness and biennial breeding. The natural level of cadmium - a stable non-volatile element, varies from 0.1 to 10 {mu}g/l in freshwater. However, anthropogenic processes discharge can increase this level from 50 {mu}g/1 to 10,00,000 {mu}g/1. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for any application in aquaculture and ecological research and management where the tracking of high numbers of offspring is needed.

  20. Effect of dietary astaxanthin against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Jagruthi, Chandrasekar; Yogeshwari, Govintharaj; Anbazahan, Sannasi Muthu; Mari, Lourthu Samy Shanthi; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Mariappan, Pitchaimuthu; Sudhakar, Gunamoni Rajam Learnal; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2014-12-01

    The effect of astaxanthin at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) incorporated in basal feed on immune response and disease resistance in Cyprinus carpio against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. When fed with 25 mg kg(-1) diet, the cumulative mortality was 35% whereas it was 10% and 20% with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. With all enriched diets the growth rate increased significantly from week 1 to 4 when compared with control. However, the specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not vary significantly from that of the control except with 50 mg kg(-1) diet. When fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values significantly increased. However, the serum total protein, albumin, and globulin contents significantly increased only when fed with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets. The phagocytic ratio also significantly raised with 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diets on week 2 and 4 whereas the phagocytic index significantly increased with all groups only on fourth week. The respiratory burst activity significantly increased in 25 mg kg(-1) diet group on first week whereas in 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) diet groups the activity increased on weeks 2 and 4; a similar trend was observed in the anti-protease activity only on weeks 2 and 4. The serum lysozyme activity and bactericidal activity registered a significant increase with all enriched diets. This study suggests that supplementation of astaxanthin at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet significantly promotes the growth restores hematology and modulates the immune system in C. carpio against A. hydrophila. PMID:25462460

  1. QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1%. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p???0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20%. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

  2. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 ?g/L and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  3. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  4. A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon Hulata

    1995-01-01

    Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

  5. 571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    , and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: nling@waikato.ac.nz Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

  6. Alternative techniques for producing a quality surimi and kamaboko from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

    2008-11-01

    The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol-gel transition stage (at 75 degrees C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G' for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. PMID:19021796

  7. Sensitivity of seven PCRs for early detection of koi herpesvirus in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by lethal and non-lethal sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Bergmann, S M

    2015-03-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes an economically important, highly infectious disease in common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Since the occurrence of mass mortalities worldwide, highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for KHV detection. The sensitivity and reliability of these assays have essentially focused at the detection of low viral DNA copy numbers during latent or persistent infections. However, the efficacy of these assays has not been investigated with regard to low-level viraemia during acute infection stages. This study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of seven different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect KHV during the first hours and days post-infection (hpi; dpi), using lethal and non-lethal sampling methods. The results highlight the limitations of the assays for detecting virus during the first 4 dpi despite rapid mortality in experimentally infected carp. False-negative results were associated with time post-infection and the tissue sampled. Non-lethal sampling appears effective for KHV screening, with efficient detection in mucus samples obtained from external swabs during this early infection period (<5 dpi), while biopsies from gills and kidney were negative using the same PCR assays. Non-lethal sampling may improve the reliability of KHV detection in subclinical, acutely infected carp. PMID:24547985

  8. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  9. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  10. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Thomas J; Abney, Sonja R; Goodbred, Steven L; Rosen, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (<51 microg kg(-1) ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada. PMID:19054547

  11. Molecular characterization and expression of three preprosomatostatin genes and their association with growth in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Pang, Meixia; Liu, Haiyang; Tong, Jingou

    2015-04-01

    Somatostatins (SSs) are a structurally diverse family of peptides that play important roles in the regulation of growth, development and metabolism in vertebrates. In this study, three preprosomatostatin genes (PSSs) in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cc) were identified and characterized. Based on cloned sequences and genome BLAST, six isoforms of the PSS gene in C. carpio (CcPSS) were identified and included CcPSS1a and CcPSS1b, CcPSS2a and CcPSS2b, and finally, CcPSS3a and CcPSS3b. The open reading frames (ORF) of CcPSS1a, CcPSS2a and CcPSS3a consist of 345, 336 and 363 nucleotides. During embryonic development, the expressions of CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were first observed at the stage of optic vesicle, and CcPSS1 mRNA was initially detected at the stage of muscular effect. The highest mRNA levels of CcPSS1, CcPSS2 and CcPSS3 were observed at 1-day post-hatch (dph), 2-dph and the stage of heart beating, respectively. In the adult brain, the distributions of three CcPSS mRNAs were differential but overlapping in the hypothalamus, telencephalon and medulla oblongata. For peripheral tissues, all three CcPSS mRNAs were detected in the mid-intestine, and CcPSS1 and CcPSS3 mRNAs were also expressed in the liver. Owing to the importance of somatostatins on regulating growth, functional mutations of CcPSSs were identified in a C. carpio population. A total of 23 polymorphic sites were detected in CcPSS1a and CcPSS3a. Of them, two SNPs (CcPSS1a-g.922C>T, and CcPSS3a-g.1125C>A) were significantly associated with growth traits, indicating their potential applications in gene (marker)-assisted selective breeding in C. carpio. PMID:25536408

  12. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  13. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor-7 cDNA from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Tanekhy; Tomoya Kono; Masahiro Sakai

    2010-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single strand RNA and RNA-like compounds (imidazoquinoline), and it induces interferon production. We identified and described carp TLR7 cDNA and its mRNA expression. The full-length cDNA of carp TLR7 gene is 3427bp, encoding 1049 amino acids (AB553573). The similarities of carp TLR7 with zebrafish, rainbow trout, fugu, and human TLR7 were 89.6,

  14. Low levels of cadmium exposure induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in the liver of Oujiang colored common carp Cyprinus carpio var. color.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiuying; Zhang, Hangjun; Liu, Xiaoxu

    2011-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. In China, the Oujiang color common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. color, is a very important fish, from an economic point of view, and is well used for fish culture in paddy fields. The purpose of this study was to show the low concentrations of cadmium-induced oxidative stress response and DNA damage in the livers of Cyprinus carpio var. color. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) in liver were measured after exposure to Cd levels (0.41, 0.52, 0.69, 1.03 and 2.06 mg/L, respectively) for 7 days and compared with the control groups. DNA damage, including indicators of damage percentage, DNA tail length (TL) and DNA tail moment (TM) were also analyzed by comet assays. Results showed that MDA and GSH levels in all treatment groups increased significantly relative to the controls (P < 0.01). Treatment with Cd at concentration of 0.41 mg/L increased SOD activity, while treatment with Cd at concentrations >0.41 mg/L inhibited SOD activities. DNA damage percentage, TL and TM also significantly increased when the Cd level was >0.41 mg/L. Positive correlations were also found between DNA damage levels and MDA levels (r = 0.74 for DNA damage percentage, r = 0.83 for TL, r = 0.84 for TM; P < 0.01 for all) as well as between GSH and MDA levels (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). These results strongly suggested that Cd-induced DNA damage in the livers of Cyprinus carpio var. color was due to lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:20658319

  15. A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

  16. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 ?g DON kg?1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  17. Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes. PMID:23060516

  18. The effect of reactive oxygen species on motility parameters, DNA integrity, tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphatase activity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gazo, Ievgeniia; Shaliutina-Kolešová, Anna; Dietrich, Mariola A; Linhartová, Pavla; Shaliutina, Olena; Cosson, Jacky

    2015-01-01

    The effect of reactive oxygen species production on the motility parameters, DNA integrity, acid phosphatase activity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. Spermatozoa were exposed to different concentrations of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) either in the presence or absence of antioxidants for 15 and 60?min. A dose- and time-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed. Comet assays showed a dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation after 15?min. Changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of spermatozoa proteins were observed by Western blotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, and proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry. After a 60?min exposure to X-XO, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase, isoform 4 was phosphorylated and septin-8-A was dephosphorylated. Acid phosphatase activity also decreased in a dose-dependent manner after a 60?min exposure to oxidative stress. The results demonstrate that oxidative stress impaired functional variables (sperm motility, velocity, DNA integrity) of carp spermatozoa, and altered intracellular signalling pathways through changes in tyrosine phosphorylation and acid phosphatase activity. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 48-57, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556750

  19. The effect of arsenic on some antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in various tissues of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    PubMed

    Altikat, Sayit; Uysal, Kazim; Kuru, Halil Isa; Kavasoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Gul Nihan; Kucuk, Aysegul

    2015-03-01

    The effect of arsenic bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, skin, muscle, and intestinal tissues of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) was investigated on lipid peroxidation and certain antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, three aquarium groups were formed from mirror carp: control group, 0.5-, and 1-mg/L arsenic concentrations. The fish were dissected after 1 month. Arsenic bioaccumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities were determined in the tissues. Results showed that arsenic was accumulated in liver, kidney, muscle, skin, and intestinal tissues. As the final product of lipid peroxidation, MDA levels were determined to have increased in all tissues with the exception of muscle. On the other hand, CAT and SOD enzyme activities in the fish tissues were decreased as compared to the control group. In the muscle tissue, differences were observed in the enzyme activities depending on arsenic concentration. Considering the increases in enzyme inhibition and MDA levels, liver was observed to be the main tissue affected in response to the arsenic toxicity. PMID:24770925

  20. Impact of acute arsenic and cadmium exposure on the expression of two haeme oxygenase genes and other antioxidant markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jancsó, Zsanett; Hermesz, Edit

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) on haeme oxygenases (HOs) and other oxidative stress biomarkers, and their roles in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). HOs play a critical role in the defence system against oxidative damage, producing biliverdin and carbon monoxide with important free radical scavenging properties. However, increased HO activity in haeme degradation may also lead to a pro-oxidant effect through the liberation of Fe-modifying Cd and As toxicity. The response of an organism to exposure to toxic metals is in many cases brought about by changes at the level of gene expression. In this study, the genes ho-1 and ho-2 of the common carp were identified, and the changes in gene expressions were analysed from the aspect of Cd and As accumulation. Both ho-1 and ho-2 are transcriptionally induced by Cd and As, but their inductions differ in time course, dose response and tissue specificity. The expression of ho1 was mostly affected by As, primarily in the liver (45-fold), whereas it was enhanced with higher efficacy by Cd in the kidney (25-fold). The cellular redox status and the damage of lipid molecules were monitored via the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, the levels of H2 O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24706384

  1. The relationship of cytotoxic and genotoxic damage with blood aluminum levels and oxidative stress induced by this metal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    García-Medina, Sandra; Núñez-Betancourt, Judith Angélica; Lucero García-Medina, Alba; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements in nature and is used in diverse industrial processes. As a result, it contaminates aquatic ecosystems, inducing damage on associated biota. In fish, it has been observed to induce hypoxia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis and respiratory arrest. Although there is little information on Al-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage, this type of studies are essential in order to identify the mechanisms of action of this metal. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by Al on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) erythrocytes were determined in specimens exposed to 0.05, 120 and 239mgAlL(-1) in static exposure systems. Blood samples were taken at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, erythrocytes were separated, and the following were evaluated: frequency of micronuclei and frequency of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, blood Al levels, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results show that tested aluminum concentrations produces oxidative stress (increase in lipid peroxidation degree and oxidized proteins content, as well as decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity) and induced higher frequencies of micronuclei and TUNEL-positive cells, so this metal can be considered as a cytotoxic and genotoxic agent for erythrocytes of common carp. PMID:23856122

  2. Localization of ?-Synuclein in Teleost Central Nervous System: Immunohistochemical and Western Blot Evidence by 3D5 Monoclonal Antibody in the Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Rosa; Toni, Mattia; Casini, Arianna; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Yu, Shun; D'este, Loredana; Cioni, Carla

    2015-05-01

    Alpha synuclein (?-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of ?-syn aggregates suggested a role for ?-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate ?-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian ?-syn. The distribution of ?-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human ?-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a ?-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that ?-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the ?-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that ?-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1095-1124, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488013

  3. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with ?-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of ?-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with ?-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily ?-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of ?-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the ?-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed ?-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of ?-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial ?-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TELEMETRY A CASE STUDY EXAMINING COMMON CARP

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    . During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

  5. Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler

    1987-01-01

    Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

  6. First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes

    E-print Network

    University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

  7. Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical

    E-print Network

    , often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors

  8. Use of Biological Characteristics of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Indicate Exposure to Hormonally Active Agents in Selected Minnesota Streams, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Talmage, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of hormonally active agents (HAAs) was determined in selected Minnesota streams using biological characteristics (measures of endocrine disruption) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and runoff from agricultural and forested land. Four biological characteristics of common carp were used as indicators of HAAs in the streams selected for this study: (1) high concentrations of vitellogenin in male fish and low concentrations in female fish, (2) high or low plasma concentrations of the sex steroid hormones (17?-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone), (3) low gonado-somatic index (GSI) (gonad weight divided by total body weight multiplied by 100) values, and (4) abnormal gonad histopathology (high percent of atretic oocytes in female ovaries and high percent ceroid/lipofuscin tissue in male or female gonads). The study design was a paired site approach targeting sites downstream and upstream of WWTP discharges on different streams. Male (221 individuals) and female (201 individuals) common carp were collected using electrofishing techniques from seven streams with sites at two locations (upstream and downstream of WWTPs), and eight sites located downstream of WWTPs with no upstream-paired sites. Samples were collected between August 3 and September 13, 1999. The presence of HAAs in selected Minnesota streams was indicated by biological characteristics in common carp. Biological characteristics used in this study identified WWTP effluent as a potential source of HAAs. Additionally, fish located at sites upstream of WWTP effluent primarily draining agricultural land show indications of HAAs, which may be the result of agricultural runoff or other sources of HAAs. There was variability among all sites and among sites within each site group. Differences among sites may be due to differences in water chemistry or fish exposure time. Natural variation in the biological characteristics may account for some of the differences observed in this study. This study and others indicate the presence of HAAs in surface water and the potential signs of endocrine disruption in resident fish populations. Detailed controlled studies could confirm the effects of particular chemicals such as pesticides or components of WWTPs on fish reproduction and population structure.

  9. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming. PMID:23422918

  10. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  11. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the insulin-like growth factor-I gene and their associations with growth traits in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C) in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T) in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01). These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:25486058

  12. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C) in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T) in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01). These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:25486058

  13. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

  14. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  15. Screening of SSR markers associated with scale cover pattern and mapped to a genetic linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tongqian; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Yulan; Li, Chao; Zheng, Xianhu; Cao, Dingchen; Cheng, Lei; Mahboob, Shahid; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    Fish scale is an attractive model in bone physiology research and is also a crucial character for breeding new varieties. Thus, it is important to identify loci in the genome associated with scale formation. In this study, 290 microsatellite markers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were selected and tested for their segregation in a full-sib mapping panel containing 96 individuals (population 1). Association analysis identified seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) (HLJ2509, HLJ3227, HLJ3675, HLJ3766, HLJ3863, FGFR1, FGFR7) that showed significant correlation with scale cover pattern in population 1. When the seven SSRs were investigated in two other populations, seven and five SSRs were significantly correlated with scale cover pattern in population 2 (116 individuals) and population 3 (57 individuals), respectively. The exceptions were FGFR1 and HLJ3227. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the 290 SSRs and 241 SSRs were mapped into 47 linkage groups (LGs), with 2-15 markers per LG. The map spanned 2,241.7 cM, with LG sizes that varied from 1.1 to 124.9 cM. All seven markers associated with scale cover mapped into LG3. We considered that a gene cluster that affected the scale cover pattern possibly existed in LG3. By aligning the seven markers with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome, we identified six candidate genes (atoh1a, ptch1, bmp1a, fgfr1a, fgf17, wnt5a) that may be associated with scale formation. We propose that the seven markers could be used with marker-assisted selection to breed a new variety of common carp, and the six candidate genes could help in understanding the scale cover mechanism. PMID:25339596

  16. Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot

    1998-01-01

    Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

  17. Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele

    1985-01-01

    Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

  18. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  19. Cadmium induces liver cell apoptosis through caspase-3A activation in purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen'e; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  20. Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  1. Bioaccumulation and sub-acute toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio): a comparative study with its bulk counterparts.

    PubMed

    Hao, Linhua; Chen, Lei; Hao, Jianmin; Zhong, Na

    2013-05-01

    In this study, bioaccumulation and sub-acute toxicity of water-borne nano-ZnO in the test fish, juvenvile carp (Cyprinus Carpio) were evaluated. To clarify the contribution of particle size and free Zn ion to NPs toxicity, its bulk counterparts (bulk-ZnO) and the released Zn(2+) were also tested. The results showed that after a 30-day exposure, 50mg/L of nano-ZnO and bulk-ZnO could be significantly accumulated and distributed in various tissues of fish, but nano-ZnO exhibited more hyper-bioaccumulation than bulk-ZnO. Liver and gill might be the target tissues with exposure to nano-ZnO, instead, the target tissue for bulk-ZnO might be intestine. Also, 50mg/L of nano-ZnO caused more severe histopathological changes than the same concentration of bulk-ZnO, which was in accordance with the induction of higher levels of intracellular oxidative stress. The effects of dissolved Zn ions were assessed and the ion toxicity was negligible herein. The results of this study indicated that the observed toxicities of nano-ZnO were not likely a result solely of particle dissolution and identified as a function of particle toxicity and the possibility for a size dependence. The main toxic mechanism of nano-ZnO was possibly by increasing cellular oxidative stress response. PMID:23375439

  2. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  3. Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model

    SciTech Connect

    Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Du, Jin-Liang; Cao, Li-Ping; Jia, Rui; Shen, Yu-Jin; Zhao, Cai-Yuan; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). GLPS (0.1, 0.3, 0.6mg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4 at the concentration of 8mM in the culture medium. The supernatants and cells were collected respectively to detect the biochemical indicators. The levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured by ELISA, the mRNA expressions of CYP1A and CYP3A were determined by RT-PCR, and western blotting was used to assay the relative protein expressions of c-Rel and p65. Results showed that GLPS significantly improved cell viability and inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) and MDA induced by CCl4, and markedly increased the level of SOD. Treatments with GLPS resulted in a significant decrease in the expressions of CYP1A and CYP3A, and significantly down-regulated extrinsic apoptosis and immune inflammatory response. In brief, the present study showed that GLPS can protect hepatocyte injury induced by CCl4 through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity and suppressing apoptosis and immune inflammatory response. PMID:25639226

  5. Asteriscus v. lapillus: comparing the chemistry of two otolith types and their ability to delineate riverine populations of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J I; McNeil, D G; Crook, D A

    2012-10-01

    The chemical composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio asteriscus (vaterite) and lapillus (aragonite) otoliths from the same individual and reflecting the same growth period was measured to (1) determine whether there are differences in the uptake of trace metals (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ) and Sr isotope ratios ((87)Sr:(86)Sr) in co-precipitating lapilli and asterisci and (2) compare the ability of multi-element and isotopic signatures from lapilli, asterisci and both otolith types combined to discriminate C. carpio populations over a large spatial scale within a river basin. Depth profile analyses at the otolith edge using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that asterisci were enriched in Mg and Mn and depleted in Sr and Ba relative to lapilli, whilst (87)Sr:(86)Sr values were nearly identical in both otolith types. Significant spatial differences among capture locations were found when all trace element and Sr isotope ratio data were aggregated into a multi-element and isotopic signature, regardless of which otolith type was used or if they were used in combination. Discriminatory power was enhanced, however, when data for both otolith types were combined, suggesting that analysis of multiple otolith types may be useful for studies attempting to delineate C. carpio populations at finer spatial or temporal scales. PMID:23020570

  6. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 11891197 (1998). 1998 NRC Canada Predictions on the effect of common carp

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes a study to examine the relationship between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality étudié la relation entre l'exclusion des carpes (Cyprinus carpio), la qualité de l'eau, le zooplancton et

  7. Copper Speciation and Accumulation in the Gill Microenvironment of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in the Presence of Kaolin Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tao; A. Long; R. W. Dawson; F. Xu; B. Li; J. Cao; J. Fang

    2002-01-01

    Carp were exposed to copper adsorbed on kaolin particles at various concentrations (0–2.4 mg\\/L), and net accumulation due\\u000a to elevated adsorbed copper in the surrounding water was observed. Copper speciation in the water and fish gill microenvironment\\u000a was modeled in the presence and absence of kaolin using a chemical speciation program (MINTEQA2). The adsorption affinity\\u000a constants of kaolin for copper

  8. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steffens; M. Wirth; B. Rennert

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one?summer?old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn?germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in

  9. Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; L. Ardó; K. D. Thompson; A. Adams; Z. Jeney; G. Jeney

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila\\/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment

  10. Genetic analysis of “all-fish” growth hormone gene trans ferred carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its F 1 generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaping Wang; Wei Hu; Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Shangping Chen; Fuying Zhang; Zuoyan Zhu; Jianxin Feng; Xirui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant “all-fish” growth hormone gene (GH) was microinjected into the fertilized eggs of carp. A comparison between the growth traits of transgenics and non-transgenics\\u000a was carried out, and the transgenic individuals with significant “fast-growing” effect were successfully gained. A comparison\\u000a on the reproductivities was also given out between the transgenics and their non-transgenic siblings, and showed that the\\u000a reproductive capacity

  11. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  12. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  13. Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney. PMID:25434756

  14. Influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Ictalurus melas): in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Kazu?, B; Trapkowska, S; Ma?aczewska, J

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. Several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. These viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. Significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but this approach has not yet been successful in preventing viral diseases in fish culture. However, for an effective therapeutic approach, specific drugs should be developed to selectively inhibit virus replication and/or stimulate antiviral protection. In this investigation we examined the in vitro influence of methisoprinol on the SVCV and virus isolated from catfish (Ictalurus melas) replication by measuring their RNA synthesis. The viruses were propagated in EPC cells and cell cultures containing methisoprinol were followed by infection with SVCV or catfish rhabdovirus suspension containing 10(7) TCID50/ml. Methisoprinol (Polfa, Poland) at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microg/ml of medium (Glasgow MEM) was used in this study. The results of this study show the strong inhibition of incorporation (cpm) of [3H]-uridine into SVCV and catfish rhabdovirus RNA in cell culture exposed to methisoprinol at various concentrations. The highest percent of inhibition of viral RNA at 72 h after infection with two rhabdoviruses were observed in doses of 400 and 500 microg/ml of methisoprinol in medium. The results of this in vitro study showed that methisoprinol inhibits the rhabdoviruses isolated from carp and catfish. PMID:12675468

  15. Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

  16. Evaluating the impacts of osmotic and oxidative stress on common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) sperm caused by cryopreservation techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Li, Zhi-Hua; Dzyuba, Boris; Hulak, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2010-11-01

    Cryopreservation causes osmotic changes and oxidative damage that have sublethal and lethal effects on spermatozoa. We examined these osmotic and oxidative effects on common carp spermatozoa motility; membrane integrity; levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups (CP); and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Sperm was diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol-based extenders, followed by equilibration, freezing, and thawing. Equilibration in DMSO extender resulted in a significant reduction of spermatozoa motility, but motility was induced in those spermatozoa following dilution with saline buffer, which usually inhibits undiluted spermatozoa motility. Spermatozoa velocity and membrane integrity decreased with both extenders following freezing and thawing. No significant difference in levels of TBARS or CP, or in SOD activity, was seen in samples equilibrated with either extender. The freeze/thaw process induced significantly higher levels of TBARS, CP, and GPx activity, but did not affect the level of SOD. Glutathione reductase activity was inhibited in samples exposed to DMSO extender. Ethylene glycol should be considered a preferred cryoprotective agent for common carp spermatozoa to reduce osmotic and oxidative stress during cryopreservation. PMID:20668258

  17. [3H] muscimol receptors sites in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) brain: binding assay and autoradiographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Andrea; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Lucacchini, Antonio; Mascia, Giovanni; Fabbrini, Laura; Italiani, Paola; Uccelli, Angela; Lenzi, Carla; Fabiani, Ortenzio

    2007-10-01

    Autoradiographic and binding techniques were used to study the presence of [(3)H]muscimol receptors sites in the carp brain. The radioligand was distributed with an high degree of anatomical selectivity. We found abundant labelling in the cerebellum, in the nucleus diffusus lobi inferioris, and in the torus longitudinalis. No labelling was detected within the epithalamus, thalamus and hypothalamus, while the telencephalon and the rhombencephalon displayed a low density of [(3)H]muscimol receptors sites. Binding assay showed the highest concentration of receptor sites in the nucleus diffusus lobi inferioris and the lowest in the medulla oblongata. Presence of [(3)H]muscimol binding sites within the visceral sensory area was noted. The rank order of displacement efficacy of unlabelled ligands observed, suggested that in brain membranes of carp the receptor binding of [(3)H]muscimol has the same pharmacological specificity previously reported in a large number of experiments with tissue homogenates. A general agreement in binding and autoradiography was observed. The present findings suggested that muscimol receptor could be involved in neuronal pathway controlling basic central actions like gustatory signal processing or spatial learning acquisition and retention. PMID:17553715

  18. Characterization and expression analysis of an interferon-?2 induced chemokine receptor CXCR3 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chadzinska, M; Golbach, L; Pijanowski, L; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

    2014-11-01

    Chemokine and chemokine receptor signalling pairs play a crucial role in regulation of cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell activation. Expressed in mammals on activated T and NK cells, chemokine receptor CXCR3 binds interferon-? inducible chemokines CXCL9-11 and CCL21. Here we sequenced the carp CXCR3 chemokine receptor and showed its relationship to CXCR3a receptors found in other teleosts. We found high expression of the CXCR3 gene in most of the organs and tissues of the immune system and in immune-related tissues such as gills and gut, corroborating a predominantly immune-related function. The very high expression in gill and gut moreover indicates a role for CXCR3 in cell recruitment during infection. High in vivo expression of CXCR3 at later stages of inflammation, as well as its in vitro sensitivity to IFN-?2 stimulation indicate that in carp, CXCR3 is involved in macrophage-mediated responses. Moreover, as expression of the CXCR3 and CXCb genes coincides in the focus of inflammation and as both the CXCb chemokines and the CXCR3 receptor are significantly up-regulated upon IFN-? stimulation it is hypothesized that CXCb chemokines may be putative ligands for CXCR3. PMID:25036761

  19. Transcription alteration of immunologic parameters and histopathological damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) caused by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of paraquat (PQ) on the transcription of immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) and the histopathological alteration of the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp were evaluated by subacute exposure to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 days. The results demonstrated that PQ exposure altered the transcription of IgM, C3, and LYZ. For example, IgM and C3 expression was generally downregulated, but LYZ was either down- or upregulated, suggesting that PQ may disturb the function of the fish immune system. The results of the histopathological examination revealed that the liver, kidney, and spleen of PQ-treated fish were injured. These injuries included cellular swelling, intracytoplasmic vacuolization, nucleus distortion, and pycnosis in the liver and spleen, and vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in the kidney. This finding indicates that PQ causes toxicity in common carp. PMID:25171222

  20. Cortisol emphasizes the metabolic strategies employed by common carp, Cyprinus carpio at different feeding and swimming regimes.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Chiarella, Daniela; Pelle, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between feeding, exercise and cortisol on metabolic strategies of common carp over a 168h post-implant period. Feeding provided readily available energy and clearly increased muscle and liver protein and glycogen stores. Swimming, feeding and cortisol all induced aerobic metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, and stimulated protein metabolism as demonstrated by the increased ammonia and urea excretion and ammonia quotient. Hypercortisol stimulated ammonia self-detoxifying mechanisms by enhancing ammonia and urea excretion, especially during severe exercise. At high swimming level, higher branchial clearance rates in cortisol treated fish succeeded in eliminating the elevation of endogenous ammonia, resulting in reduced plasma Tamm levels compared to control and sham implanted fish. Carp easily induced anaerobic metabolism, both during routine and active swimming, with elevated lactate levels as a consequence. Both feeding and cortisol treatment increased this dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Hypercortisol induced both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia and muscle and liver glycogen deposition, most likely as a protective mechanism for prolonged stress situations and primarily fuelled by protein mobilization. PMID:23921225

  1. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of immunostimulatory and growth promoting effect of seed fractions of Achyranthes aspera in common carp Cyprinus carpio and identification of active constituents.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Rina; Srivastava, Praveen Kumar; Kundu, Kanika; Khare, Rashmi Sahay; Banerjee, Shanta

    2012-05-01

    Immunostimulatory and growth promoting properties of Achyranthes aspera seeds were studied with larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Four experimental diets were prepared using raw (D1) and alcohol (D2), petroleum ether (D3) and 50% aqueous alcohol (D4) extracts of A. aspera seeds. Diet without seed served as control (D5). Fish were fed with test/control diet for 30 days and then immunized with 10 ?l of c-RBC. Blood samples were collected 7 days after immunization. Survival (93 ± 3%) of fish was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in D1 diet fed group compared to others. Highest specific growth rate was found in fish fed with diet D2. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of serum protein and albumin were found in D1 and D3 compared to others. Highest serum globulin level was found in D1, which was followed by D3, D2, D4 and D5. Hemagglutination titer level was 5-18 folds higher in diet D3 fed fish compared to others. SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control group compared to the treated groups. Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in D1 (2.513 ± 0.27 ? 450 nm) and D3 (2.38 ± 0.07 ? 450 nm) diets fed groups compared to others. The best performance of fish was found in raw A. aspera seeds incorporated diet fed group and the active constituents were identified as ecdysterone and two essential fatty acids linolenic acid and oleic acid. PMID:22348815

  3. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    PubMed Central

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  4. Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

  5. Some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with wide environmental distribution inhibit TCDD-induced EROD activity in primary cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, R V; Bergman, A; Vos, J G; van den Berg, M

    2004-06-10

    Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a catalytic function of the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) microsomal oxygenase subfamily, is a popular biomarker for exposure to xenobiotics, polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in particular. It has found wide use in aquatic pollution assessment both in vivo and in vitro. In such studies, subjects are often exposed to complex mixtures where various constituents can interfere with EROD-activity, possibly resulting in inadequate estimation of toxic hazard or biological response. The present study investigates the effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a relatively new and increasingly detected group of environmental contaminants, on the validity of EROD activity as exposure marker in carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes. Freshly isolated hepatocytes of a genetically uniform strain of male carp were co-exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 pM, and one of the highly purified PBDE/PCB congeners (at concentrations of 0, 0.25, and 2.5 microM) or cleaned-up and untreated DE-71 samples (0, 0.1, and 1 microM). PBDEs were selected from the 209 possible congeners based on their relative abundance in environmental samples: BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153. A tentative metabolite of BDE-47, 6OH-BDE-47, was also included. In addition, a commercial pentabrominated dipenylether mixture (DE-71) was tested for interference with EROD activity both with and without clean-up by carbon fractionating which removed possible planar contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, a reported inhibitor of EROD activity in flounder, was included for comparison. Cells were cultured for a total period of 8 days; exposure started at day 3 after cell isolation. After 5 days of exposure, cell pellets were frozen before EROD activity was determined. Upon exposure to TCDD, the cells responded with increased EROD activity as expected. Significant reduction of TCDD-induced EROD activity was found in the presence of BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-153, but not with BDE-100 and 6-hydroxylated BDE-47. Of these PBDE congeners, the most abundant congener in environmental samples, BDE-47, exhibited the strongest inhibition (down to 6% of the TCDD control value). The cleaned-up fraction of commercial penta-BDE (DE-71) mixture proved an even more potent inhibitor, resulting in reduction of EROD activity to 4% of the control values observed at 1.0 microM. BDE-47 and BDE-153 did not reduce TCDD-induced EROD activity when added shortly prior to measurement, suggesting possible interaction with TCDD at the level of CYP1A biosynthesis. PCB-153 did not show significant effects on EROD activity in carp in this study. The present results indicate that environmentally relevant PBDEs can interfere with determination of EROD activity in vitro, at levels reported earlier for PCBs. The observation that detected PBDE levels are rising, stresses the need for caution when interpreting EROD data on environmental samples. PMID:15145223

  6. Serum and ultrastructure responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-woo; Kim, Ji-eun; Shin, Yu-jin; Ryu, Ji-sung; Eom, Ig-chun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Pil-je; Choi, Kyung-hee; Lee, Byoung-cheun

    2014-06-01

    The uptake of nanoparticles by aquatic organisms such as fish has raised concerns about the possible adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects in juvenile common carp exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for 12 weeks. The carp were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.8, and 2.4mg/L of ZnO-NPs under a flow-through exposure system. Fish were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks to test for zinc in the test water and blood, and biochemistry analysis; further, they were sampled at 12 weeks to observe ultrastructural changes in the liver, kidney, and gill. In the organic serum, changes in the glutamic pyruvic transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (GPT/ALT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (GOT/AST) levels were significant, but changes in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were not significantly different across all exposure periods. In the inorganic serum, the magnesium (Mg), inorganic phosphorus (IP), sodium (Na(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) levels were significantly different in the exposure group and across exposure periods. However, calcium (Ca) and potassium (K(+)) levels were not significantly different. In the enzyme serum, the glucose (GLU) level significantly increased for the highest exposure group, but the total cholesterol (TCHO), triglyceride (Tg), and total protein (TP) levels were not significantly different during the exposure period. Ultrastructural changes in the liver induced changes in the black granules (of various sizes) in the lysosomes, indistinct nucleus membrane, and non-spherical nucleus. In the kidney, some mild changes were observed in the size and number of the lysosomes in the renal tubule. Desquamation and hypertrophy of pavement epithelial cells and vacuolation in the cytoplasm of the chloride cells were observed in the gill. Nanoparticles were also observed in the red blood cells, cytoplasm of all tissues, and glomerulus of the kidney. The observed changes in the serum and tissues may provide useful information regarding environmental conditions and risk assessments of aquatic organisms. PMID:24632117

  7. Different enzymatic activities in carp (cyprinus carpio L.) as potential biomarkers of exposure to the pesticide methomyl.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, David; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Maria Flores, José; González-Gómez, Manuel José; María Neila, Carlos; Soler, Francisco; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of the pesticide methomyl on different enzymatic activities in carp. The fish were exposed to a sub-lethal concentration (0.34 mg L-1) of methomyl for 15 days. On days 4 and 15, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in the liver and gills. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle was also determined. Liver catalase activity slightly increased in exposed fish when compared to controls, but it was statistically significant only at the beginning of the experiment. No changes in CAT activity in the gills of exposed and control animals were observed (mean values were in the range 10.7-11.7 nmol min-1 per mg of protein). Liver GST activity was slightly inhibited in the exposed animals at the beginning of the study; however, it was significantly inhibited in the gills. Brain AChE activity was diminished throughout the experiment and significantly decreased after 96 h of exposure compared to controls (0.041 vs. 0.075 nmol min1 per mg of protein; p<0.001). Our findings suggest that CAT, GST, and AChE are reliable biomarkers of effect after exposure to methomyl. PMID:25274935

  8. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  9. Effects of water pH on copper toxicity to early life stages of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    SciTech Connect

    Stouthart, X.J.H.X.; Haans, J.L.M.; Lock, R.A.C.; Bonga, S.E.W. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Physiology

    1996-03-01

    Carp eggs were exposed immediately after fertilization to Cu concentrations of 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L at water pH 7.6 or pH 6.3. Mortality, the incidence of spinal cord deformation, heart rate, tail movements, hatching success, and whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and Cu were determined over time. Light microscopical preparations of eggs (48 h after fertilization) and larvae (168 h after fertilization) were studied. At pH 7.6, Cu did not affect egg mortality, heart rate, tail movements, and whole-body K and Mg content. Hatching success increased only in the 0.3 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu increased egg mortality and decreased heart rate and tail movements. Furthermore, premature hatching, a concentration-dependent increase of larval mortality, and larval deformation was observed. Exposure to 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu decreased the whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, and Ca. Uptake of Cu after hatching increased two-fold at pH 6.3 compared to the pH 7.6 groups. At pH 6.3, all Cu-exposed larvae were unable to fill their swim bladder. Also, after 168 h the yolk sac remained largely unabsorbed in the 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu resulted in coagulation of proteins in eggs and yolk sacs. No significant changes in any of the assessed parameters were observed in control groups of pH 6.3 and pH 7.6.

  10. First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

    2004-01-01

    In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

  11. Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and ?9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our study revealed seasonally-dependent H2A.Z enrichment for active ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters during the carp environmental adaptation. Moreover, seasonal H2A.Zub enrichment appears as a specific mechanism contributing to the regulation of chromatin architecture under natural conditions. The existence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp suggests that the epigenetic regulation in this species constitutes a complex and finely tuned mechanism developed to cope with seasonal environmental changes that occur in its habitat. PMID:23866978

  12. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-jing; Yuan, Xiao-chen; Yuan, Yong-chao; Xie, Shou-qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

  13. Study of the comparative dynamics of the incorporation of tissue free-water tritium (TFWT) in bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Almaraz nuclear power plant cooling reservoir.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; García, E; Paniagua, J M; Rodríguez, A

    2009-03-01

    The Almaraz nuclear power plant (Spain) uses the water of Arrocampo reservoir for cooling, and consequently raises the radioactive levels of the aquatic ecosystem of this reservoir. From July 2002 to June 2005, monthly samples of surface water, bulrushes (Typha latifolia) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from this reservoir. They were analyzed to determine the temporal evolution of the levels of (3)H in surface water and of its transfer from the surface water to free-water in the tissues (TFWT) of the aforementioned two organisms. The tritium levels in the surface water oscillate with a biannual period, with their values in the study period ranging between 53 and 433 Bq/L. The incorporation of tritium to bulrushes and carp was fairly similar, the respective mean concentration factors being 0.74 and 0.8 (unitless, as Bq/L tissue water per Bq/L reservoir water). The temporal evolution of the levels fairly closely followed that observed for the surface water tritium, although detailed analysis showed the dominant periodicity for the bulrushes to be annual. This difference reflects the influence on the incorporation of tritium to bulrushes of diverse environmental and metabolic factors, especially evapotranspiration and the seasonal growth of this plant. PMID:19128862

  14. Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-07-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-?) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1? in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO. PMID:24774835

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inhabiting three rivers in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Furusawa, Keiki; Tamura, Kazuki; Oguro, Kazuki; Kurihara, Sumire; Seki, Shingo; Oshima, Syun-ichirou; Imajoh, Masayuki

    2015-02-25

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes lethal disease in common and koi carp. Mortality by CyHV-3 disease has not been reported since 2011 in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Here, we detected and quantified CyHV-3 in common carp inhabiting three rivers in the prefecture to examine if the carp are carriers of CyHV-3 as a source of infection. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 16.7% (12/72) of brain samples in Kagami River, 3.9% (3/76) of brain and 3.9% (3/76) of gill samples in Monobe River, and 5.1% (4/79) of brain and 1.3% (1/79) of gill samples in Wajiki River. CyHV-3 genotypes identified in the 23 samples were classified as the J genotype A1 that has been found in Japan. The CyHV-3 DNA load did not differ statistically between sampling months, indicating that CyHV-3 has been silent in common carp, unlike Lake Biwa where the annual reactivation occurs in spring. Taken together, our results represented definitive evidence that seasonal changes in water temperature do not affect CyHV-3 activity in carp. Considering that infectious virus was not isolated from CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples, it was suggested that CyHV-3 establishes a latent infection in carp populations inhabiting Kagami River, Monobe River and Wajiki River. Further, the presence of circular or concatameric CyHV-3 DNA was detected in five of 23 CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples. Common carp inhabiting Lake Biwa were reported previously to harbor linear but not circular CyHV-3 DNA. This difference suggested that the CyHV-3 genome may be circularized for long-term maintenance without active viral replication. PMID:25554244

  16. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic

    E-print Network

    in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history Á Cyprinus carpio Á common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic

  17. Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment

    E-print Network

    on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, S S S De S; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

  19. Cytoplasmic impact on cross-genus cloned fish derived from transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) nuclei and goldfish (Carassius auratus) enucleated eggs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Hua; Chen, Shang-Ping; Wang, Ya-Ping; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2005-03-01

    In previous studies of nuclear transplantation, most cloned animals were obtained by intraspecies nuclear transfer and are phenotypically identical to their nuclear donors; furthermore, there was no further report on successful fish cloning since the report of cloned zebrafish. Here we report the production of seven cross-genus cloned fish by transferring nuclei from transgenic common carp into enucleated eggs of goldfish. Nuclear genomes of the cloned fish were exclusively derived from the nuclear donor species, common carp, whereas the mitochondrial DNA from the donor carp gradually disappeared during the development of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. The somite development process and somite number of nuclear transplants were consistent with the recipient species, goldfish, rather than the nuclear donor species, common carp. This resulted in a long-lasting effect on the vertebral numbers of the cloned fish, which belonged to the range of goldfish. These demonstrate that fish egg cytoplasm not only can support the development driven by transplanted nuclei from a distantly related species at the genus scale but also can modulate development of the nuclear transplants. PMID:15469998

  20. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....

  1. Gynogenesis in carp, Cyprinus Carpio L. and tench, Tinca Tinca L. induced by 60Co radiation in highly homogeneous radiating field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipota, J.; Linhart, O.

    The paper deals with a method of fertility inactivation of fish spermatozoa by gamma radiation. Spermatozoa motility remained unchanged after irradiation. Irradiated sperm has been utilized to induced gynogenesis by means of retention of the second polar body and of mitotic gynogenesis, realized in carp for the first time. Homogeneity of gamma-rays field was + - 1 %.

  2. Effects of light spectrum, rearing density and light intensity on growth performance of scaled and mirror common carp Cyprinus carpio reared under recirculating system conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nafsika Karakatsouli; Eustratios S. Papoutsoglou; Nikolaos Sotiropoulos; Dimitrios Mourtikas; Tone Stigen-Martinsen; Sofronios E. Papoutsoglou

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that fish vision and spectrum perception are strongly related to each species natural habitat and living ethology. Recent research data clearly indicate that light spectrum affects farmed fish stress response, physiological status, behaviour, and consequently growth performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of white (full-spectrum), red (605nm) and blue (480nm) light on common carp

  3. Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076 mg IgY g BW(-1) d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14 mg g BW(-1)) and in carp (0.57 mg g BW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine. PMID:25224559

  4. Whole-body amino acid pattern of F 4 human growth hormone gene-transgenic red common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) fed diets with different protein levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuizhang Fu; Yibo Cui; Silas S. O. Hung; Zuoyan Zhu

    2000-01-01

    F4 generation of human growth hormone (hGH) gene-transgenic red common carp, and the non-transgenic controls were fed for 8 weeks on purified diets with 20%, 30% or 40% protein. Analysis of whole-body amino acids showed that the proportions of lysine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine and alanine, as percentages of body protein, increased significantly, while those of arginine, glutamic acid and tyrosine

  5. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPAR?-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPAR? ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4?g/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPAR? target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPAR? in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPAR?-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  6. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the immune organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liang, Yang; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g/L) and combined ATR/CPF (1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g/L) on common carp head kidneys and spleens following 40 d exposure and 40 d recovery treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) content, activities of anti hydroxyl radical (AHR), anti superoxide anion (ASA), peroxidase (POD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the mRNA levels of the autophagy genes (LC3-II, dynein, TOR) were determined. The results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme (AHR, ASA, POD and iNOS) activities and NO content in the head kidney and spleen of the common carp increased significantly after a 40 d exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. The mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein in common carp increased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone, or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein decreased significantly after a 40-d recovery. However, the mRNA levels of TOR gene for all decreased significantly at the end of the exposure and the recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the oxidative stress-induced autophagic effects in the common carp by exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination. The information presented in the present study may be helpful to understanding the mechanisms of autophagy induced by ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in fish. PMID:25652291

  7. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPAR?-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPAR? ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 ?g/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPAR? target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPAR? in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPAR?-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  8. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) interleukin-1?, high affinity immunoglobulin E Fc receptor ? subunit and serum amyloid A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Fujiki; Dong-Ho Shin; Miki Nakao; Tomoki Yano

    2000-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) is a powerful means to identify genes of cytokines and other genes that express small amount of mRNA. In this study, cDNA of normal fish (carp) head kidney cells (HKC) was subtracted from pooled cDNA of HKC and peritoneal cell (PC) obtained from fish which had been injected with sodium alginate (SA) and scleroglucan (SG) 3–48h

  9. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the expression of immune response genes in head kidney, gill and spleen of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuntao Yuan; Xuping Pan; Yi Gong; Aijun Xia; Guanghong Wu; Jianqing Tang; Xiaodong Han

    2008-01-01

    For fish immune defences, cytokines and anti-microbial peptides (lysozyme) in circulating system play important roles. In the present study, the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) injection on gene expression of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor? (TNF-?) and lysozyme-C in the head kidney, gill and spleen of common carp were determined using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After injection

  10. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-II GnRH (cGnRH-II) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a conservative neurodecapeptide family, which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate. Two differing cGnRH-II cDNAs of common carp, namely cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2, were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The length of cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs (bp), respectively. The cGnRH-II precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids, including a signal peptide, cGnRH-II decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site. The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-II genes in common carp genome were further identified, and that two genes might exist as a single copy. The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-II gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-II genes were detected in five dissected brain regions, pituitary and gonad of common carp. With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary, two cGnRH-II genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues. However, expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions, pituitary and gonad. According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-II genes in brain areas, it was presumed that cGnRH-II might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing. Then, the expression of cGnRH-II genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-II might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator. PMID:15493476

  11. Genetic variability and structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) populations throughout the distribution range inferred from allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kohlmann; Riho Gross; Asiya Murakaeva; Petra Kersten

    2003-01-01

    Domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild\\/feral populations of common carp from Europe, Central Asia and East\\/South-East Asia were examined for allozyme (23 populations), microsatellite (11 populations) and mitochondrial DNA (21 populations) variation. Allozyme variability (1.06–1.81 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.006–0.136 at 16 loci) was much lower than microsatellite variability (2.5–14.0 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.426–0.887 at four loci). Differences in variability between domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild-caught ones were

  12. Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS

    E-print Network

    been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

  13. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    PubMed

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music. PMID:19408132

  14. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  15. Impact of acute Cd(2+) exposure on the antioxidant defence systems in the skin and red blood cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Agnes; Hermesz, Edit

    2014-12-01

    Cd(2+)-induced oxidative stress and its effects on the expression of stress biomarkers and on macromolecule damage in the skin and blood of common carp were studied. Both tissues play important roles in the defence mechanisms against external hazards, serving as an anatomical barrier and as connecting tissue between the organs. In the skin, the production of peroxynitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide was almost doubled after exposure to 10 mg/L Cd(2+). The accumulation of these oxidant molecules suggests an intensive production of superoxide anion and nitrogen monoxide and the development of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Although the metallothioneins and the components of the glutathione redox system were activated in the skin, the accumulation of reactive intermediates led to the enhanced damage of lipid molecules after 24 h of metal exposure. In the blood, the basal levels of metallothionein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were 2-2.5-fold of that measured in the skin. This high level of metallothionein expression could be the reason that the blood was less affected by an acute Cd(2+) challenge and the metallothionein and glutathione systems were not activated. PMID:25471726

  16. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2 6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  17. Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingjie, Hu; Xiaolong, Wang; Xiaoli, Hu; Zhenmin, Bao

    2006-01-01

    Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2-6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

  18. The fate of recent duplicated genes following a fourth-round whole genome duplication in a tetraploid fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong-Tang; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Chun-Yan; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Li, Heng-De; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Xiao-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) results in extensive genetic redundancy. In plants and yeast, WGD is followed by rapid gene deletions and intense expression differentiation with slow functional divergence. However, the early evolution of the gene differentiation processes is poorly understood in vertebrates because almost all studied WGDs are extremely ancient, and the genomes have returned to a diploid status. Common carp had a very recent fourth round of WGD dated to 8 million years ago. It therefore constitutes an ideal model to study early-stage functional divergence and expression differentiation in vertebrates. We identified 1,757 pairs of recently duplicated genes (RDGs) originating from this specific WGD and found that most ancestral genes were retained in duplicate. Most RDGs were conserved and under selective pressure. Gene expression analysis across six tissues revealed that 92.5% of RDG pairs were co-expressed in at least one tissue and that the expression of nearly half pairs ceased to be strongly correlated, indicating slow spatial divergence but rapid expression dissociation. Functional comparison revealed that 25% of pairs had functional divergence, of which neo- and sub-functionalization were the main outcomes. Our analysis revealed slow gene loss but rapid and intense expression and function differentiation after WGD. PMID:25645996

  19. The fate of recent duplicated genes following a fourth-round whole genome duplication in a tetraploid fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong-Tang; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Li, Chun-Yan; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Li, Heng-De; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Xiao-Min; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) results in extensive genetic redundancy. In plants and yeast, WGD is followed by rapid gene deletions and intense expression differentiation with slow functional divergence. However, the early evolution of the gene differentiation processes is poorly understood in vertebrates because almost all studied WGDs are extremely ancient, and the genomes have returned to a diploid status. Common carp had a very recent fourth round of WGD dated to 8 million years ago. It therefore constitutes an ideal model to study early-stage functional divergence and expression differentiation in vertebrates. We identified 1,757 pairs of recently duplicated genes (RDGs) originating from this specific WGD and found that most ancestral genes were retained in duplicate. Most RDGs were conserved and under selective pressure. Gene expression analysis across six tissues revealed that 92.5% of RDG pairs were co-expressed in at least one tissue and that the expression of nearly half pairs ceased to be strongly correlated, indicating slow spatial divergence but rapid expression dissociation. Functional comparison revealed that 25% of pairs had functional divergence, of which neo- and sub-functionalization were the main outcomes. Our analysis revealed slow gene loss but rapid and intense expression and function differentiation after WGD. PMID:25645996

  20. Calcium Channels from Cyprinus Carpio Skeletal Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Grabner; Klaus Friedrich; Hans-Gunther Knaus; Jorg Striessnig; Fritz Scheffauer; Robert Staudinger; Walter J. Koch; Arnold Schwartz; Hartmut Glossman

    1991-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the L-type calcium channel alpha_1 subunit from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) white skeletal muscle was deduced by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. The open reading frame encodes 1852 amino acids (M_r 210,060). A 155-amino acid COOH-terminal sequence (after the fourth internal repeat) is evolutionarily preserved (90% homology) and may represent an important functional domain

  1. Efficient vaccine against the virus causing a lethal disease in cultured Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Julia Abramowitz; Marina Hutoran; Simon Tinman; Izhak Bejerano; Michael Steinitz; Moshe Kotler

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated a virus, which causes a mortal disease in cultured ornamental Koi and Common carps (Cyprinus carpio) in many countries worldwide. This unclassified virus, which causes nephritis and gill necrosis, and so has been given the name carp nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV), has a morphology resembling the herpes virus, but bears a genomic DNA of ca

  2. Description of an as Yet Unclassified DNA Virus from Diseased Cyprinus carpio Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Hutoran; Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Maya Ilouze; Arnon Dishon; Izhak Bejerano; Nissim Chen; Moshe Kotler

    2005-01-01

    Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and

  3. Electrochemical measurement of hydrogen peroxide in plasma: evaluation of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and crucian carp (Cyprinus carpio) phagocytes under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinhong, Wang; Wei, Ji; Yaqing, Chang

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical technique for the real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to describe respiratory burst activity (RBA) of phagocytes in plasma which can be used to evaluate the ability of immune system and disease resistance. The method is based upon the electric current changes, by redox reaction on platinum electrode of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) released from phagocytes stimulated by the zymosan at 680 mV direct current (d.c.). Compared with the control, activation of respiratory burst by zymosan particles results in a high amperometric response, and a current peak was obtained during the whole monitoring process. The peak current was proved by addition of Cu2+ and other controls, to be the result of intense release of H2O2 from phagocytes. The peak area was calculated and used to evaluate the quantity of effective H2O2, which represents the quantity of H2O2 beyond the clearance of related enzymes in plasma. According to Faraday's law, the phagocytes' ability of prawns to generate effective H2O2 was evaluated from 1.253 x 10(-14) mol/cell to 6.146 x 10(-14) mol/cell, and carp from 1.689 x 10(-15) mol/cell to 7.873 x 10(-15) mol/cell. This method is an acute and quick detection of extracellular effective H2O2 in plasma and reflects the capacity of phagocytes under natural conditions, which could be applied for selecting species and parents with high immunity for breeding in aquaculture. PMID:17728150

  4. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  5. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada) and Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bokkers, Abraham [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100 {mu}M, none of the diphenylalkanes directly inhibited aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R cells. Environmental exposure of fish to BPA and related diphenylalkanes, depending on the structure, may pose anti-estrogenic, and to a lesser extent estrogenic, risks to development and reproduction.

  6. Assessment of oxidative damage to DNA, transcriptional expression of key genes, lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes in carp Cyprinus carpio L. following exposure to chronic hypoxic and subsequent recovery in normoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sanaa A; Karieb, Sahar S; Davies, Simon J; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2015-01-01

    In fish, a complex set of mechanisms deal with environmental stresses including hypoxia. In order to probe the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced stress could be manifested in varieties of pathways, a model species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio), were chronically exposed to hypoxic condition (dissolved oxygen level: 1.80 ± 0.6 mg/l) for 21 days and subsequently allowed to recover under normoxic condition (dissolved oxygen level: 8.2 ± 0.5 mg/l) for 7 days. At the end of these exposure periods, an integrated approach was applied to evaluate several endpoints at different levels of biological organisation. These included determination of (i) oxidative damage to DNA in erythrocytes (using modified comet assay), (ii) lipid peroxidation in liver samples by measuring the malondialdehyde production using the 2-thiobarbituric acid [i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay] and (iii) histopathological changes in gills. In addition, transcriptional expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ? (HIF-1?) and genes involved in the repair of oxidative damage to DNA (i.e. ogg1) and base excision repair (i.e. xrcc1) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in liver samples were also determined. The results suggested significantly enhanced expression of these genes in response to hypoxia compared to concurrent normoxic controls. While the expression of HIF-1? reverted to control values within 7 days exposure to normoxic condition (P < 0.05), the transcriptional expression of the two genes involved in DNA repair process remained significantly high under the recovery period, which complemented the induction of oxidative damage to DNA. Hypoxic groups showed significantly increased values for TBARS level (~2-fold) and histopathological changes in gill tissues compared to both normoxic and recovery groups. Overall, oxidative damage to DNA determined by modified comet assay reflected the observed biological responses in other tissues of the fish. Along with other parameters, this integrated experimental design further strengthens the applications of the comet assay as an important technique to assess stress-induced DNA damage in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25527733

  7. Organization of central auditory pathways in a teleost fish, Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Echteler

    1985-01-01

    1.Central auditory pathways were mapped in carp,Cyprinus carpio, by analyzing depth profiles of acoustic evoked field potentials (AEPs) and multiunit activity (MUA) in response to click stimuli. Central nuclei which respond to sound are not activated by lateral line stimulation, indicating that separate pathways are involved in processing these two sensory modalities in carp.2.Two octaval nuclei within the carp medulla

  8. Hormonal replacement therapy in fish:human growth hormone gene function in hypophysectomized carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongbin Cuil; Zuoyan Zhu

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic common carp,Cyprinus carpio, produced by the microinjection of fertilized eggs with a linearized chimeric plasmid pMThGH, a human growth hormone (hGH)\\u000a gene with a mouse metallothionein-1 (MT) gene promoter in pBR322, were used to produce F1 and F2 transgenics. Following hypophysectomy of the transgenic F2 common carp, non-transgenic common carp and non-transgenic crucian carp, growth was monitored for up

  9. Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

    Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

  10. Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONOVAN D. VERRILL; CHARLES R. BERRY

    1995-01-01

    An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

  11. Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  12. Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Zuoyan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The first successful case of transgenic fish was achieved in 1984. It is in a model system that the integration and expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in host red common carp (Cyprinus carpio, red var.) have been thoroughly studied. Recently, the integration sites have been recovered and characterized. Compared with non-transgenic peers, hGH-transgenic fish are prior in dietary

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  14. Polymorphism analysis of the intron one of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor gene (IGF2R) in FFRC strain common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its relationship with growth performance.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z J; Su, S Y; Zhu, W B; Zhang, C F; Ding, M; Chen, W X; Yuan, X H; Xie, Z

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor gene (IGF2R) encodes a transmembrane protein receptor and acts to sequester and degrade excess circulating insulin-like growth factor 2, which is critical for normal mammalian growth and development. Thus, IGF2R may serve as a candidate gene underlying growth trait in the common carp. In this study, we isolated the intron one of common carp IGF2R and detected the diversity in 3 continuous generations of FFRC strain common carp. A total of 8 loci were detected within this region, which were named in accordance with their location (i.e., Loc84, Loc106, Loc119, Loc130, Loc145, Loc163, Loc167, and Loc265). Loc106, Loc119, and Loc145 were moderately polymorphic; while Loc84, Loc130, Loc163, Loc167, and Loc265 exhibited slight level of polymorphism. However, significant differences between polymorphism information content values were not observed among the different generations. For Loc145, all generations deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The total number of significant linkage disequilibria for all generations equaled 40. Among them, 4 pairs were detected in each population, while 8 pairs were found in the 2nd and 3rd generations. For Loc130, the G/T genotype exhibited higher body weight when compared to that of the G/G genotype. The frequency of the homozygous G/G genotype reached 87.96%; thus, we can improve FFRC strain common carp growth performance by increasing the percentage of the G/T genotype within a breeding population. Therefore, the G/T genotype could be used as a molecular marker for superior growth traits. PMID:25729973

  15. Structural conservation and food habit-related liver expression of uncoupling protein 2 gene in five major Chinese carps.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ling; Lin, Xiaotao; Bai, Junjie; Jian, Qing

    2006-07-31

    The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be 149.4 +/- 15.6 (common carp), 127.4 +/- 22.1(mud carp), 96.7 +/- 12.7 (silver carp), 94.1 +/- 26.8 (bighead carp) and 63.7 +/- 16.2 (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detritus-eating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorous fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food. PMID:16889676

  16. Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  17. Viability of Male Gametes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

  18. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  19. Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

  20. Expression and Temperature-Dependent Regulation of the Beta2-Microglobulin (Cyca-B2m) Gene in a Cold-Blooded Vertebrate, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, P. N. S.; Dixon, B.; Roelofs, J.; Rombout, J. H. M. W.; Egberts, E.; Pohajdak, B.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of beta2-microglobulin (? 2m) in the common carp was studied using a polyclonal antibody raised against a recombinant protein obtained from eukaryotic expression of the Cyca-B2m gene. ? 2m is expressed on peripheral blood Ig+ and Ig- lymphocytes, but not on erythrocytes and thrombocytes. In spleen and pronephros, dull- and bright-positive populations could be identified correlating with the presence of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and mature leucocytes or immature and mature cells from the lympho-myeloid lineage, respectively. Thymocytes were shown to be comprised of a single bright-positive population. The Cyca-B2m polyclonal antiserum was used in conjunction with a similarly produced polyclonal antiserum to an MHC class I (Cyca-UA) ? chain to investigate the expression of class I molecules on peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) at different permissive temperatures. At 12?, a temporary downregulation of class I molecules was demonstrated, which recovered to normal levels within 3 days. However, at 6?, a lasting absence of class I cell-surface expression was observed, which could be restored slowly by transfer to 12C. The expression of immunoglobulin molecules on B cells was unaffected by temperature changes. The absence of the class cell-surface expression was shown to be the result of a lack of sufficient Cyca-B2m gene transcription, although Cyca-UA mRNA was present at comparable levels at all temperatures. This suggests that class I expression is regulated by a temperature-sensitive transcription of the Cyca-B2m gene. PMID:9814583

  1. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05ml/10g body weight. At 72h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish. PMID:25572856

  2. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  3. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  4. Nutritional Composition and Use of Common Carp Muscle in Yellow Perch Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis W. Schaeffer; Matthew J. Hennen; Michael L. Brown; Kurt A. Rosentrater

    2012-01-01

    High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal

  5. Genetic monitoring and effects of stocking practices on small Cyprinus carpio populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikoleta Karaiskou; Maria Lappa; Stefanos Kalomoiris; George Oikonomidis; Chariklia Psaltopoulou; Theodore J. Abatzopoulos; Costas Triantaphyllidis; Alexander Triantafyllidis

    The ability to detect genetic differences both in space and time is crucial for conserving genetic variation. It can reveal\\u000a genetic diversity and genetic composition changes of declining native populations that are supported through stocking with\\u000a captive bred individuals. The present study was designed to analyse the temporal stability of a declining common carp (Cyprinus carpio) population from Lake Volvi

  6. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  7. The effects of temperature on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish ( Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio and Spinibarbus sinensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Pang; Zhen-Dong Cao; Shi-Jian Fu

    2011-01-01

    To test whether the effects of temperature on the metabolic mode changed among different fish species, we investigated the specific dynamic action (SDA) and swimming performance of fasting and fed fish at 15 and 25°C in three juvenile Cyprinidae fish species: goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis). Both taxon and temperature had significant effects on

  8. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  9. Assessment of bioavailable PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in water, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), sediments and caged carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Verweij; Kees Booij; Karel Satumalay; Natascha van der Molen; Ron van der Oost

    2004-01-01

    Bioavailable water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed at several freshwater sites in and around the city of Amsterdam. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were caged for 4 weeks at 10 sites, together with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). In addition, sediment samples were taken at each site. SPMDs and sediments were analysed for

  10. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

  11. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  13. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Huttenhuis

    2005-01-01

    The production of farmed fish has increased considerably over the past years, and is now providing a significant contribution to the food market. Mortality however, can be high especially in young fish. The administration of immuno-stimulants via the food can be a sustainable approach especially in young animals because of its uncomplicated use, fast delivery, less stressful entry route and

  14. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

  15. Evidence of immunological Responses by a Host Fish (Ambloplites rupestris) and Two Non-Host Fishes (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) to Glochidia of a Freshwater Mussel (Villosa iris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin T. OConnell; Richard J. Neves

    1999-01-01

    Immunological responses of fishes to glochidia were evaluated using glochidia of the rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) to infest a host species, rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and two nonhost species, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ouchterlony double-diffusion tests showed that host and nonhost species expressed a humoral defense factor specific to glochidial antigens after induced infestation with glochidia.

  16. Rapid growth cost in “all-fish” growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeLiang Li; CuiZhang Fu; Wei Hu; Shan Zhong; YaPing Wang; ZuoYan Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between\\u000a growth rates and critical swimming speed (U\\u000a crit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce

  17. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. P. French; Douglas A. Wilcox; S. Jerrine Nichols

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control\\u000a system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be\\u000a placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of

  18. Heavy metal intracellular balance and relationship with metallothionein induction in the liver of carp after contamination by silver, cadmium and mercury following or not pretreatment by zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Cosson

    1994-01-01

    Determination of metal levels (copper, zinc, cadmium, silver and mercury) in soluble and insoluble fractions of liver homogenates has been performed after 7 days exposure of carps (Cyprinus carpio) to moderate concentrations of cadmium, silver and mercury in water. Metallothionein (MT) levels have been quantified by a polarographic method before and after the contamination and a subsequent decontamination phase (7

  19. Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

  20. A novel posavirus-related single-stranded RNA virus from fish (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Pankovics, Péter; Delwart, Eric; Boros, Ákos

    2015-02-01

    The complete genome sequence of a novel +ssRNA virus, provisionally named fisavirus 1 (strain HAL1/fisa-ssRNAV, KM434233), identified from a freshwater carp (Cyprinus carpio), was determined using viral metagenomics and RT-PCR. The 8712-nt-long genome of HAL1/fisa-ssRNAV shares the same genome organization (i.e., a potential single ORF and N-terminal Hel-Pro-Pol replication domains followed by the structural proteins) and distant phylogenetic relationship to the currently unclassified posaviruses, which suggests that these viruses could belong to different genera in a novel family of the order Picornavirales. PMID:25488292

  1. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. Exposed to Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

  3. A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoshnamvand, Mehdi; Kaboodvandpour, Shahram; Ghiasi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir (SGR) is a mercury polluted lake that is located in the West of Iran. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are the most abundant fishes in the SGR. A total of 48 common and silver carps (24 each) were captured randomly, using 50×6 m gill net (mesh size: 5×5 cm) during July to December 2009. Each month, the levels of accumulated total mercury (T-Hg) in white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of these fishes were measured using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco 254 AMA, USA) on the dry weight basis. There were no statistically significant differences between T-Hg concentrations in white muscle, red muscle and liver in common carp in comparison with similar tissues in silver carp (P>0.05). The content of T-Hg in liver tissue of both species was lower than of white and red muscle tissues. Higher levels of accumulated T-Hg were observed during summer. Results showed that T-Hg concentrations in common and silver carps target tissues were strongly dependent on age, length and weight (P<0.05). The results indicated that the levels of accumulated T-Hg in tissues of all samples with weights of over 850 g were greater than those limits established by WHO and FAO (500 ng g(-1)). PMID:23107055

  4. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  5. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  6. The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2013-10-01

    The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

  7. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  8. Silver and Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  9. Juvenile Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  10. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  11. Silver Carp Egg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  13. Growth and Condition of the Carp and the River Carpsucker in an Altered Environment in Western Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman P. Stucky; Harold E. Klaassen

    1971-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the populations of the carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, and the river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), in Cedar Bluff Reservoir, and the Smoky Hill River, west-central Kansas. Three variables-(1) growth rate, (2) condition factor, and (3) percentage fat content-were used to evaluate the two populations.Data were collected from the spring of 1967 to the fall

  14. Interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Rashpal S; Yao, Lili; Matey, Victoria; Chen, Bo-Jian; Zhang, An-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Brauner, Colin J; Wang, Yuxiang S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    The gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (O2), temperature, and exercise. In this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of Cyprinus carpio). There was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the O2 tension (P(O2)) at which fish lost equilibrium (LOEcrit), among the 10 groups of carp. In normoxia, there was a significant, phylogenetically independent relationship between mass-specific gill surface area and LOEcrit, with the more hypoxia-tolerant carp having smaller gills than their less hypoxia-tolerant relatives. All groups of carp, except the Chinese bream (Megalobrama pellegrini), increased mass-specific gill surface area in response to 48 h of exposure to hypoxia (0.7 kPa) through reductions in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) volume. The magnitude of the hypoxia-induced reduction in the ILCM was negatively correlated with LOEcrit (and thus positively correlated with hypoxia tolerance), independent of phylogeny. The hypoxia-induced changes in gill morphology resulted in reduced variation in mass-specific gill surface area among species and eliminated the relationship between LOEcrit and mass-specific gill surface area. While behavioral responses to hypoxia differed among the carp groups, there were no significant relationships between hypoxia tolerance and the Po2 at which aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was initiated or the total number of ASR events observed during progressive hypoxia. Our results are the first to show that the extent of gill remodeling in cyprinids is associated with hypoxia tolerance in a phylogenetically independent fashion. PMID:24241069

  15. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

  16. Differential response of two somatolactin genes to zinc or estrogen in pituitary of Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, G E; Perez, A; Navarro, M; Romero, A; Figueroa, J; Kausel, G

    2014-10-01

    Environmental changes affect gene expression that we addressed in the pituitary, a central regulatory organ at the interface between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. With the aim to reveal effects of changes in the aquatic environment on the expression of hypothalamo-hypophyseal factors, we characterized somatolactin (SL) in Cyprinus carpio. SL, a fish specific pituitary hormone belonging to the prolactin (PRL) superfamily, is involved in background adaptation, osmoregulation, reproduction and fatty acid metabolism. Two sl genes, ? and ?, were discovered in carp and transcripts of both were detected in pituitaries. Clearly, expression of sl? and sl? was modulated significantly in pituitary of male adult carp in response to treatment with ZnCl2 (Zn), but only sl? responded to 17?-estrogen (E2), relative to control carp as shown by RT-qPCR analyses. Furthermore, the amount of mRNA of related factors was assessed revealing variable effects on prl, growth hormone (gh), and factors involved in sl regulation: the pituitary transcription factor pit1 and hypothalamic pituitary adenylase cyclase activating peptide (pacap). In parallel, the physiological response of the experimental animals to Zn or E2 was confirmed by showing a significant increase of metallothionein (mt) or vitellogenin (vg) gene expression in liver, classical sentinels for exposure to heavy metal or estrogens. These data suggest that the sl genes seem to be involved in the response to Zn, as well as to estrogen, and could contribute to evaluate biological relevant changes in the aquatic environment. PMID:25281789

  17. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  18. Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

    2015-03-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

  19. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  20. Transcript levels of five enzymes involved in cortisol synthesis and regulation during the stress response in common carp: Relationship with cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Nematollahi; H. van Pelt-Heerschap; J. Komen

    2009-01-01

    In this study the expression of five genes involved in cortisol synthesis and regulation in the head kidneys of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) has been investigated in response to 3h net confinement stress, followed by 22h recovery. Cortisol, glucose, lactate and free fatty acid levels were measured in blood plasma. StAR, P450c17a2, 3?HSD, P450c21 and 11?HSD2 transcript sequences were

  1. Recovery of the energy metabolism after a hypoxic challenge at different temperature conditions: a 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study with common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Borger; Gudrun De Boeck; Johan Van Audekerke; Roger Dommisse; Ronny Blust; Annemie Van der Linden

    1998-01-01

    We determined the effects of a mild hypoxic challenge on the energy metabolism of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, under different temperature conditions, by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR). Fish were acclimated to the optimal temperature of 25°C or the acute sublethal temperature of 33°C. A group of the 25°C acclimated fish was also exposed to a temperature shock of

  2. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; N?mec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  3. Gill infection model for columnaris disease in common carp and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Broeck, W; Dewulf, J; Cornelissen, M; Decostere, A

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Challenge models generating gill lesions typical for columnaris disease were developed for the fry of both Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by means of an immersion challenge and Flavobacterium columnare field isolates were characterized regarding virulence. Carp inoculated with highly virulent isolates revealed diffuse, whitish discoloration of the gills affecting all arches, while in trout mostly unilateral focal lesions, which were restricted to the first two gill arches, occurred. Light microscopic examination of the gills of carp exposed to highly virulent isolates revealed a diffuse loss of branchial structures and desquamation and necrosis of gill epithelium with fusion of filaments and lamellae. In severe cases, large parts of the filaments were replaced with necrotic debris entangled with massive clusters of F. columnare bacterial cells enwrapped in an eosinophilic matrix. In trout, histopathologic lesions were similar but less extensive and much more focal, and well delineated from apparently healthy tissue. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of the affected gills showed long, slender bacterial cells contained in an extracellular matrix and in close contact with the destructed gill tissue. This is the first study to reveal gill lesions typical for columnaris disease at macroscopic, light microscopic, and ultrastructural levels in both Common Carp and Rainbow Trout following a challenge with F. columnare. The results provide a basis for research opportunities to examine pathogen-gill interactions. Received January 10, 2014; accepted July 27, 2014. PMID:25488182

  4. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:24859683

  5. Assessment of pesticide residues and gene expression in common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Wu, Hongda; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Tao; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. PMID:25568939

  6. Oxidative stress in Cyprinus carpio induced by hospital wastewater in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, María; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely

    2015-01-01

    The very wide range of activities performed in hospitals (care, diagnosis, hygiene, maintenance, research) require the use of a large variety of potentially ecotoxic substances such as surfactants, metals, disinfectants and pharmaceuticals. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress in the common carp Cyprinus carpio induced by hospital wastewater (HWW) in Mexico. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed to the latter value (0.5 %) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxide content (HPC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, protein carbonyl content (PCC) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Significant increases in HPC, MDA content and PCC were observed in exposed specimens, particularly in gill, liver and brain. SOD and CAT activity also increased in liver and brain. In conclusion, this particular HWW induces oxidative stress on C. carpio, this damage being most evident in gill, liver and brain. PMID:25336044

  7. High-jumping Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  8. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  9. Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yao, Wei; Liao, Wan-Qin; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2008-03-31

    The cDNAs encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were cloned and sequenced from the liver of three Chinese carps with different tolerance to hepatotoxic microcystins, phytoplanktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Using genome walker method, a 750 bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GPx gene was obtained, and several potential regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the GPx gene. The silver carp GPx gene was widely expressed in all tissues examined. Despite phylogenetic analysis, assigning this newly described carp GPx to the group of mammalian GPx2, the carp GPx seems more similar to GPx1 from a physiological point of view. The constitutive expression pattern of the three carp liver GPx gene, shows a positive relationship with their tolerance to microcystins. PMID:18377723

  10. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  11. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  12. Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

    2014-03-01

    An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (?1 ?m) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

  13. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hongda; Chen, Dechun; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-02-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation. PMID:25460047

  14. Using ecological niche models to predict the abundance and impact of invasive species: application to the common carp.

    PubMed

    Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Leung, Brian; Ricciardi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In order to efficiently manage nonindigenous species (NIS), predictive tools are needed to prioritize locations where they are likely to become established and where their impacts will be most severe. While predicting the impact of a NIS has generally proved challenging, forecasting its abundance patterns across potential recipient locations should serve as a useful surrogate method of estimating the relative severity of the impacts to be expected. Yet such approaches have rarely been applied in invasion biology. We used long-term monitoring data for lakes within the state of Minnesota and artificial neural networks to model both the occurrence as well as the abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the ability of the resulting models to (1) interpolate to new sites within our main study region, (2) extrapolate to lakes in the neighboring state of South Dakota, and (3) assessed the relative contribution of each variable to model predictions. Our models correctly identified over 83% of sites where carp are either present or absent and explained 73% of the variation in carp abundance for validation lakes in Minnesota (i.e., lakes not used to build the model). When extrapolated to South Dakota, our models correctly classified carp occurrence in 79% of lakes and explained 32% of the variation in carp abundance. Variables related to climate and water quality were found to be the most important predictors of carp distribution. These results demonstrate that ecological niche-based modeling techniques can be used to forecast both the occurrence and abundance patterns of invasive species at a regional scale. Models also yielded sensible predictions when extrapolated to neighboring regions. Such predictions, when combined, should provide more useful estimates of the overall risk posed by NIS on potential recipient systems. PMID:21516898

  15. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

  16. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p < 0.05) higher values in fish fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. PMID:25160796

  17. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1?µg?ml(-1) for up to 48?h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. PMID:24477983

  18. Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

    2013-12-01

    In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

  19. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan. 1. Effects on reproduction and survival, and the potential risks to wild mink populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Heaton; S. J. Bursian; J. P. Giesy; D. E. Tillitt; J. A. Render; P. D. Jones; D. A. Verbrugge; T. J. Kubiak; R. J. Aulerich

    1995-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, containing 8.4 mg total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)\\/kg and 194 ng of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)\\/kg, were substituted for marine fish at levels of 0, 10, 20, or 40% in the diets of adult ranch mink (Mustela vison). The diets, containing 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg PCBs\\/kg diet, or 1.03, 19.41, 40.02, and

  20. Microcystin-LR Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Cytoskeletal Disruption and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinlin; Shan, Zhengjun; Xu, Weili; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Junying; Kong, Deyang; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) contains Leucine (L) and Arginine (R) in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH) was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12 - 48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity. PMID:24376844

  1. Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Çoban, M Zülfü; Ero?lu, Mücahit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of propolis against the toxic effects of chromium (VI) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defence system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium. Propolis was simultaneously administered to chromium-exposed fish. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, spleen, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. The levels of MDA, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in chromium groups compared to controls. Simultaneous administration of propolis ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of propolis might alleviate chromium-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22052654

  2. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

  3. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

  4. Fisheries Research 125126 (2012) 5768 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    consequences of capture and retention in carp sacks on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), with implications carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) captured by specialised carp anglers are often retained in so-called "carp

  5. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  6. Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

  7. The in vitro interference of synthetic progestogens with carp steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Pujol, Sílvia; Aceña, Jaume; Perez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Porte, Cinta

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spawning processes, this study aimed at assessing the in vitro interference of four currently used progestogens-drospirenone (DRO), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethindrone (NOR) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) - with key enzymatic activities involved in the synthesis of active steroids in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The enzymatic pathways investigated were (a) CYP17 (C17,20-lyase) and CYP11? involved in the synthesis of androgens, (b) CYP19 that catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, and (c) 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) responsible for the synthesis of maturation-inducing hormones. All tested progestogens significantly inhibited the synthesis of androgens: DRO (IC50: 3.8 ?M) was the strongest inhibitor of CYP17 followed by CPA (IC50s: 183 ?M). Moreover, NOR (IC50: 0.4 ?M), DRO (IC50: 1.8 ?M) and CPA (IC50s: 87 ?M) inhibited CYP11?. An inhibition by NOR of ovarian CYP19 activity, and by DRO and CPA of 20?-HSD was also observed, but at rather high concentrations (500 ?M). Overall, this study highlights the potential of synthetic progestogens, and particularly DRO and NOR, to interfere with the biosynthesis of androgens in carp gonads. PMID:25087002

  8. Structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo; Campagnoli, Monica; Sala, Alberto; Visai, Livia; Amoresano, Angela; Pucci, Piero; Casbarra, Annarita; Cauci, Marco; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L

    2003-01-01

    A previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. The protein binds to a Sepharose 4B matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 M N -acetylglucosamine. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 Da. On the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. The sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of its single N-linked carbohydrate chain were determined. The lectin shows a very low agglutinating activity for human A-type erythrocytes and interacts with both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These latter interactions are inhibited by N -acetylglucosamine. A database search shows that its amino acid sequence is similar to that of the members of an invertebrate lectin family that includes tachylectin-1. Tachylectin-1 is present in the amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, and plays a role in the innate defence system of this species. Homologous genes are also present in other fish, having 85% identity with a gene expressed in the oocytes of the crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and 78% identity with a gene in the cDNA library of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). PMID:12956625

  9. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure. PMID:24507130

  10. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  11. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  12. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  13. Sparse Bilinear Logistic Regression Jianing V. Shi1,2

    E-print Network

    Sparse Bilinear Logistic Regression Jianing V. Shi1,2 , Yangyang Xu3 , and Richard G. Baraniuk1 1, we introduce the concept of sparse bilinear logistic regression for decision problems involving demonstrate that sparse bilinear logistic regression outperforms current techniques in several important

  14. Coordinated Dynamic Control of Marketing and Production Jian Yang,1

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian

    . Our computational study identifies conditions under which simple fixed-marketing-effort and fixed-marketing-target response, market structure, and advertising process have been obtained (Feichtinger et al. [11]). The jointCoordinated Dynamic Control of Marketing and Production Jian Yang,1 Xiaolong Zhang2 1 Department

  15. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

  16. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  17. Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

  18. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  19. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  20. Oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in liver of Cyprinus carpio L. induced by intraperitoneal injection of microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Jiang, Jinlin; Shan, Zhengjun; Bu, Yuanqing; Deng, Zhengdong; Cheng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are a group of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystins-LR (MC-LR) can inhibit the activities of protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the detailed toxicological mechanism involving oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) remains largely unclear. In our present study, the effects of sublethal intraperitoneal doses of MC-LR on the oxidative stress and pathological changes in carp liver were investigated. No significant changes of xanthine oxidase were observed, suggesting it might not contribute to over-production of ROS in the liver of fish during 48 h exposure to sublethal intraperitoneal doses of MC-LR. Superoxide dismutase activity in the 50 ?g kg(-1) group was significantly induced at 1-24 h. The strongest inhibition of the catalase activity was shown at 48 h after 120 ?g kg(-1) MC-LR exposure, with an inhibition rate of 33.7 % compared to the control group. In general, a significant depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione was found at 5-12 h after 50 and 120 ?g kg(-1) MC-LR exposure, which was mainly due to the conjugation reaction to MC-LR catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase and its subsequent excretion. Oxidative damages induced by MC-LR were evidenced by the significant elevation in malondialdehyde levels. In addition, a series of histopathological alterations in fish livers were observed, and the most severe hepatic injuries were found at 5-12 h, which could contribute to the efflux of intracellular GSH. Our study further supports the important role of oxidative stress involved in MC-LR induced liver injury in aquatic organisms. PMID:25586193

  1. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    PubMed

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk1. Densitometric analysis of the immunoblot data collected from the melatonin pre-treated MIH incubated oocytes showed that cyclin B level continued to increase even after 4 h of incubation, and reached the peak after 12 h. Moreover, determination of H1 kinase activity as an indicator of MPF activity in oocytes revealed that melatonin pre-incubation considerably increased MIH stimulation of histone H1 phosphorylation as compared to MIH alone. Thus, the present study demonstrates for the first time that prior incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on carp oocyte maturation. PMID:15639142

  2. APPLICATIONS OF FACTOR-CRITERIA SYSTEM RECONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS IN THE REPRODUCTION RESEARCH ON GRASS CARP, BLACK CARP, SILVER CARP AND BIGHEAD IN THE YANGTZE RIVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUOHUA ZHANG; JTANBO CHANG; GUANGFU SHU

    2000-01-01

    The natural reproduction of grass carp, black carp, silver carp, and bighead will be affected adversely by the Three Gorges Project in the Yangtze River. One of the methods to save the fish is to regulate the water levels, keeping them suited for the species to spawn. Nine factors associated with the scale of larvae-flood of the four species are

  3. The effects of temperature on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio and Spinibarbus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2011-07-01

    To test whether the effects of temperature on the metabolic mode changed among different fish species, we investigated the specific dynamic action (SDA) and swimming performance of fasting and fed fish at 15 and 25°C in three juvenile Cyprinidae fish species: goldfish (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis). Both taxon and temperature had significant effects on the resting oxygen consumption rate (M?O(rest)), SDA and swimming performance (p<0.05). In addition, the effect of temperature differed significantly among the different species (interaction effect, p<0.05). Under the low temperature condition, digestion had no effect on either critical swimming speed (U(crit)) or the active MO(2) (MO(active)) for all fish species (additive metabolic mode). When the temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, the metabolic scope (MS) for digestion increased approximately 182, 49 and 17%, and the MS for locomotion increased approximately 129, 58 and 138% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. The total metabolic demands for both digestion and locomotion (i.e., the sum of digestive MS and locomotive MS) increased approximately 143, 56 and 112% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. The total MS for both digestion and locomotion (the difference between MO(active) in fed fish and MO(rest) in fasting fish) increased approximately 106, 58 and 78% in goldfish, common carp and qingbo, respectively. Thus, the MS for locomotion in fed goldfish decreased due to the large increase in digestive function at the high temperature, and the U(crit) of fed goldfish decreased by 11% compared to that of fasting fish (p<0.05) (digestion-priory metabolic mode). The metabolic mode of qingbo changed to locomotion-priority mode, as illustrated by the large increase in locomotive MS in response to the increase in temperature. In the common carp, temperature had no effect on metabolic mode as illustrated by the parallel increases in cardio-respiratory capacity and metabolic capacity of digestive and locomotive organs. A discussion on the changes in metabolic mode in response to temperature and its possible relationship with the metabolic characteristics of a given fish species was also documented in this paper. PMID:21440661

  4. Responses of the hepatic glutathione antioxidant defense system and related gene expression in juvenile common carp after chronic treatment with tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-04-01

    Recently, residual organotin compounds have generally been recognised as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the effects of these contaminants on the glutathione (GSH)-antioxidant system of fishes have not been adequately studied. In the current study, the chronic effects of tributyltin (TBT) found within antifouling paints for ships, on the GSH antioxidant system and related gene expression in the liver of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30 and 60 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzymes activities, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were quantified in the fish liver. The levels of malondialdehyde were also measured as a marker of oxidative damage. In addition, the expression levels of gstp1, gr and gpx1 in common carp chronically exposed to TBT were determined. The results of the current study indicate that chronic exposure of TBT results in reactive oxygen species stress in the liver of common carp, and mRNA expression levels are more sensitive than related enzyme levels. In short, the measured GSH-related indices could potentially be used as molecular indicators for monitoring organotin compounds in the aquatic environment. PMID:25582114

  5. First evidence of comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) to relatively resistant and susceptible Indian farmed carps to Argulus siamensis infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Chakrapani, V; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis. PMID:24998226

  6. The mystery of the curious Crucian carp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-10-01

    Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

  7. Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide in Cyprinus carpio: assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity, hematological responses and serum biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity effects of acute and sublethal of Roundup® as a glyphosate-based herbicide on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and several hematological and biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio. The LC??-96 h of Roundup® to C. carpio was found to be 22.19 ppm. Common carp was subjected to Roundup® at 0 (control), 3.5, 7 and 14 ppm for 16 days, and the AChE activity is verified in tissues of gill, muscle, brain and liver. After 5 days, a significant decrease was observed in the AChE activity of muscle, brain and liver tissues. Besides, a time- and dose-dependent increase in mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) was observed. In contrast, a significant decrease was found in the quantities of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and, red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cell count. Also, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Roundup® treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods. However, the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had a significant reduction behavior during the sampling days. It seems that the changes in hematological and biochemical parameters as well as AChE activity could be used as efficient biomarkers in order to determine Roundup® toxicity in aquatic environment. PMID:24075644

  8. Susceptibility, metacercarial burden, and mortality of juvenile silver barb, common carp, mrigal, and tilapia following exposure to Haplorchis taichui.

    PubMed

    Kopolrat, Kulthida; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H; Petney, Trevor N

    2015-04-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) including heterophyids and opisthorchiids are prevalent in native and aquaculture fish in Southeast Asia. FZT are reported highly prevalent in juvenile aquaculture fish that belonged to the family Heterophyidae, particularly Haplorchis taichui. Aquaculture fish are reported to have varying levels of natural infection with H. taichui, but data for their susceptibility as well as resistance to infection are not available. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of five aquaculture fish to H. taichui. Experimental infections were performed by exposing fish individually to 0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 H. taichui cercariae for 12 h. Metacercarial burden was measured at 45 days postinfection. Three out of five fish species, silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), were highly susceptible to H. taichui infection with percentage ranging from 93.33 to 100 %. The Nile and red tilapia were not susceptible to infection. Among the susceptible fish species, silver barb had higher intensity of H. taichui metacercariae than common carp and mrigal (P?

  9. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp. PMID:25525591

  10. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  11. A mathematical model of the carp heart ventricle during the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Kochová, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Štengl, Milan; Oš?ádal, Bohuslav; Tonar, Zbyn?k

    2015-05-21

    The poikilothermic heart has been suggested as a model for studying some of the mechanisms of early postnatal mammalian heart adaptations. We assessed morphological parameters of the carp heart (Cyprinus carpio L.) with diastolic dimensions: heart radius (5.73mm), thickness of the compact (0.50mm) and spongy myocardium (4.34mm), in two conditions (systole, diastole): volume fraction of the compact myocardium (20.7% systole, 19.6% diastole), spongy myocardium (58.9% systole, 62.8% diastole), trabeculae (37.8% systole, 28.6% diastole), and cavities (41.5% systole, 51.9% diastole) within the ventricle; volume fraction of the trabeculae (64.1% systole, 45.5% diastole) and sinuses (35.9% systole, 54.5% diastole) within the spongy myocardium; ratio between the volume of compact and spongy myocardium (0.35 systole, 0.31 diastole); ratio between compact myocardium and trabeculae (0.55 systole, 0.69 diastole); and surface density of the trabeculae (0.095?m(-1) systole, 0.147?m(-1) diastole). We created a mathematical model of the carp heart based on actual morphometric data to simulate how the compact/spongy myocardium ratio, the permeability of the spongy myocardium, and sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium influence stroke volume, stroke work, ejection fraction and p-V diagram. Increasing permeability led to increasing and then decreasing stroke volume and work, and increasing ejection fraction. An increased amount of spongy myocardium led to an increased stroke volume, work, and ejection fraction. Varying sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium showed that an increased sinus volume fraction led to an increased stroke volume and work, and a decreased ejection fraction. PMID:25797310

  12. Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  13. ?-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage.

    PubMed

    Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J

    2015-02-01

    This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary ?-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism. PMID:25549626

  14. Water-Quality Assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Common Carp and Walleye Fillets, 1975-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at those stream segments upstream or outside the TCMA were generally lower than those in UMR segments within the TCMA. The spatial distribution of PCB and LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye correspond with historical point- and non point-source PCB inputs in the densely populated TCMA, and concentrations in fish were greater in areas that historically had elevated PCB concentrations in bed sediment. Median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at individual sites were greatest during 1975-79 and 1980-87, and least during 1988-95 at most sites. Most of the river segments exhibited over 80 percent decline in median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye between the 1975-79 and 1988-95 time periods. The results from these temporal analyses were similar to those of other studies in the United States and in Minnesota and Wisconsin that reported a significant downward trend in PCB concentrations in fish. Although, PCB concentrations have decreased during 1975-95, low concentrations of PCBs still remain in the aquatic environment despite the fact that PCBs were banned nearly 20 years ago.

  15. Metal bioaccumulation in common carp and rudd from the Topolnitsa reservoir, Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yancheva, Vesela; Stoyanova, Stela; Velcheva, Iliana; Petrova, Slaveya; Georgieva, Elenka

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water samples and five fish organs (gills, liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from the Topolnitsa reservoir (Bulgaria) in three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn). This water ecosystem is located in a copper mining and metallurgical region. Water metal concentrations were significantly higher in the summer than in the spring (p<0.05). Moreover, As, Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were higher than the national limits. Qualitative factors "element" and "fish organ" had a stronger influence on metal bioaccumulation than the factors "season" and "fish species". In fish, the highest metal levels were detected in the liver, spleen, kidney and gills, and the lowest in the dorsal muscle. Tissue levels were higher in the summer, but in general they were similar between the two Cyprinid fish. Fish muscles had the lowest metal levels at all times, but As and Pb exceeded the national and international standards. Therefore, we would not recommend fish consumption from Topolnitsa, as continuous metal contamination of the reservoir may seem to present human health risk. PMID:24620011

  16. Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

  17. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  19. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  20. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catarina I. M. Martins; Marco G. Pistrin; Stephan S. W. Ende; Ep H. Eding; Johan A. J. Verreth

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high accumulation of substances (water exchange rate 30 L\\/kg feed\\/day) and one RAS with a low accumulation

  1. Astroglial architecture of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) brain as revealed by immunohistochemical staining against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kálmán

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is the first comprehensive study on the astroglia of a teleost fish that is based on the immunohistochemical\\u000a staining of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, an immunohistochemical marker of astroglia). The ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii)\\u000a and their largest group, the Teleostei, represent a separate pathway of vertebrate evolution. Their brain has a very complex\\u000a macroscopic structure; several parts

  2. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates are known endocrine disrupting compounds that commonly occur in polluted waters. Convincing evidence is still meager to show a causality link between the presence of these heavily-used surfactants and endocrine activity in fish. The Environmental Protection ...

  3. Feminisation of young males of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during sexual differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Anton G. M. Gerritsen; Tim Bowmer

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a hierarchy of techniques has become available for detecting chemicals which may cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. The molecular structure of a chemical provides a first indication about estrogenic activity, i.e. their likelihood of interfering with the female hormone receptor. In vitro competitive binding assays for this receptor and specific cell cultures are also used

  4. Responses of antioxidant systems in the hepatocytes of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) to the toxicity of microcystin-LR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyu Li; Yongding Liu; Lirong Song; Jiantong Liu

    2003-01-01

    The freshwater, bloom-forming cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa produces a peptide hepatotoxin, which causes the damage of animal liver. Recently, toxic Microcystis blooms frequently occur in the eutrophic Dianchi Lake (300 km2 and located in the South-Western of China). Microcystin-LR from Microcystis in Dianchi was isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its toxicity to mouse and

  5. Engineered water level management facilitates recruitment of non-native common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a regulated lowland river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Bice; Brenton P. Zampatti

    2011-01-01

    River regulation can advantage non-native aquatic biota at the expense of native species. Nevertheless, flow regulating structures are sometimes used with the aim of achieving positive environmental outcomes in aquatic ecosystems. In the lower River Murray, Australia, drought-induced water level recession and acid sulfate soil exposure prompted the construction of an earthen levee, isolating a section of river channel (the

  6. Contaminants-Induced Oxidative Damage on the Carp Cyprinus carpio Collected from the Upper Yellow River, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Huang; Y. M. Zhang; G. Song; J. H. Liu; W. H. Ji

    2007-01-01

    The Yellow River, the second largest river in China, is the most important resource of water supply in North China. In the\\u000a last 40 years, even in the upper Yellow River, with the development of industry and agriculture, more and more contaminants\\u000a have been discharged into this river and greatly polluted the water. Although a routine chemical component analysis has

  7. Rapid growth and sterility of growth hormone gene transgenic triploid carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Yu; Jun Xiao; XiangYang Liang; ShaoJun Liu; GongJian Zhou; KaiKun Luo; Yun Liu; Wei Hu; YaPing Wang; ZuoYan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Triploid carp (100%) with 150 (3n=150) chromosomes were obtained by crossing the females of improved tetraploid hybrids (?,\\u000a 4n=200) of red crucian carp (?)×common carp (?) with the males of diploid yellow river carp (?, 2n=100). The crosses yielded\\u000a transgenic triploid carp (positive triploid fish, 44.2% of the progeny) and non-transgenic triploid carp (negative triploid\\u000a fish). Histological examination of the

  8. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  9. Virus isolate from carp: genetic characterization reveals a novel picornavirus with two aphthovirus 2A-like sequences.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jeannette; Groth, Marco; Fichtner, Dieter; Granzow, Harald; Keller, Barbara; Walther, Mario; Platzer, Matthias; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Picornaviruses have been isolated from a variety of hosts, mainly mammals and birds. Here, we describe the sequence analysis of carp picornavirus 1 (CPV-1) F37/06 that was isolated from an organ pool (heart, brain, liver) of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This carp perished after an accidental discharge of liquid manure into a fish pond and presented without obvious clinical symptoms. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of young carp with CPV-1 revealed no clinical signs, but the virus was re-isolated from various organs. Sequence analysis of almost the complete genome (7632 nt excluding the poly-A tract) revealed a novel picornavirus clade. In phylogenetic trees, the polymerase sequence clusters with parechoviruses, duck hepatitis A virus, eel picornavirus and aquamavirus A. The ORF includes 6807 nt and encodes a polyprotein of 2269 amino acids. CPV-1 has a genome layout like that of picornaviruses except for the presence of two aphthovirus 2A-like NPGP sequence motifs: VPg+5'UTR[1AB-1C-1D-2A1(npgp)/2A2(npgp)-2B-2C(ATPase)/3A-3B(VPg)-3C(pro)-3D(pol)]3'UTR-poly-A. 2A1(npgp) and 2A2(npgp) are separated by 133 amino acids. The proteins 2A2(npgp), 2B, 3A and 3B(VPg) have no significant similarity to the corresponding proteins of other picornaviruses. Amino acid identities of the orthologous proteins P1, 2C, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) range from 16.4 to 40.8?% in the eel picornavirus/CPV-1 comparison. 3D(pol) shows the closest similarity to eel picornavirus, with an amino acid identity of 40.8?%, followed by human parechovirus (36.5?%), duck hepatitis A virus (32.7?%) and swine pasivirus (29.3?%). Both the unique genome organization and low sequence similarity support the assignment of CPV-1 to a novel picornavirus species within a novel genus. PMID:24337965

  10. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  11. A new lignan from the Jian-er syrup and its content determination by RP-HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meihua Yang; Jun Wu; Xudong Xu; Yue Jin; Yi Guo; Jianmin Chen

    2006-01-01

    The Jian-er syrup is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal preparation refined from two herbs, Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino and Justicia procumbens L. A new lignan, named 6?-hydroxy-Justicidin B, was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the Jian-er syrup and its structure was established on the basis of spectral analysis. The content of 6?-hydroxy-Justicidin B in the Jian-er syrup

  12. Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.

    PubMed

    Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zi?ba, G; Wesley, K J

    2011-12-01

    The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species. PMID:22136242

  13. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Abtahi, Mohammad; Zeraati, Hojjatollah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2?000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels. PMID:23569972

  14. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellites in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and cross-amplification in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Tong, J

    2008-05-01

    A (GT)(n) enriched partial genomic library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was constructed by employing the (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) FIASCO protocol. Sixteen loci exhibited polymorphism with two to seven alleles/locus (mean 3.263) in a test population and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.100 to 0.690 (mean 0.392). Eleven of the 16 bighead carp microsatellites were found to be also polymorphic in silver carp. These polymorphic loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate population structure of bighead carp. PMID:21585862

  15. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1). PMID:21699134

  16. Assessment of bioavailable PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in water, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), sediments and caged carp.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Frank; Booij, Kees; Satumalay, Karel; van der Molen, Natascha; van der Oost, Ron

    2004-03-01

    Bioavailable water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed at several freshwater sites in and around the city of Amsterdam. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were caged for 4 weeks at 10 sites, together with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). In addition, sediment samples were taken at each site. SPMDs and sediments were analysed for PAHs, PCBs and OCPs. Carp muscle tissues were analysed for PCBs and OCP, while PAH metabolites were assessed in fish bile. Contaminant concentrations in the water phase were estimated using three different methods: 1. Using fish tissue concentrations and literature bioconcentration factors (BCFs), 2. Using SPMD levels and a kinetic SPMD uptake model, and 3. Using sediment levels and literature sorption coefficients (K(oc)s). Since PAH accumulation in fish is not considered an accurate indicator of PAH exposure, calculated aqueous PAH concentrations from SPMD data were compared with semiquantitatively determined biliary PAH metabolite levels. Contaminant concentrations in the water phase estimated with fish data (Cw(fish)) and SPMD data (Cw(spmd)) were more in line for compounds with lower K(ow) than for compounds with higher K(ow) values. This indicates that the assumption of fish-water sorption equilibrium was not valid. At most sites, sediment-based water levels (Cw(sed)) were comparable with the Cw(spmd), although large differences were observed at certain sites. A significant correlation was observed between biliary PAH metabolite levels in fish and aqueous PAH concentrations estimated with SPMD data, suggesting that both methods may be accurate indicators of PAH exposure in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:14675846

  17. Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin Hoan Ho, En Yang, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    , David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu Citation: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 112411 (2013); doi: 10. Laughlin,1,2,3 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,2,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh

  18. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Tone Mapping for HDR Image using Optimization A New Closed Form Solution Guoping Qiu, Jian Guan, Jian Duan and Min Chen

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Tone Mapping for HDR Image using Optimization ­ A New Closed Form Solution Guoping Qiu, Jian Guan) based tone mapping operators for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) images in low dynamic range contrast through adaptation. High dynamic range (HDR) imaging technologies are designed to produce images

  20. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish--molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Bartošová, P; Pecková, H; Tyml, T; Atkinson, S; Bartholomew, J; Sipos, D; Eszterbauer, E; Dyková, I

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoans are a group of diverse, spore-forming metazoan microparasites bound to aquatic environments. Sphaerospora dykovae (previously S. renicola) causes renal sphaerosporosis and acute swim bladder inflammation (SBI) in juvenile Cyprinus carpio carpio, in central Europe. A morphologically similar species with comparably low pathogenicity, S. angulata has been described from C. c. carpio, Carassius auratus auratus and Carassius gibelio. To clarify uncertainties and ambiguities in taxon identification in these hosts we decided to re-investigate differences in spore morphology using a statistical approach, in combination with SSU and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. We found that developing spores of S. angulata and S. dykovae cannot be distinguished morphologically and designed a duplex PCR assay for the cryptic species that demonstrated S. dykovae is specific to C. c. carpio, whereas S. angulata infects C. a. auratus and C. gibelio. The molecular identification of myxozoan blood stages in common carp and goldfish, which had previously been ascribed to Sphaerospora spp. showed that approximately 75% of blood stages were from non-sphaerosporid coelozoic species infecting these cyprinids and more than 10% were from an alien species, Myxobilatus gasterostei, developing in sticklebacks. We hereby report non-selective myxozoan host invasion and multi-species infections, whose role in SBI still requires clarification. PMID:22917178

  1. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  2. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.

  3. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

    2012-10-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

  4. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  5. [Genetic variation analysis of two silver carp populations in the middle and upper Yangtze River by microsatellite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei; Luo, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Zhong; Tian, Hua1; Hu, Guang-Fu

    2008-10-01

    Thirty nine microsatellite markers were applied to analyze the genetic diversity of two silver carp populations in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River. The following parameters were calculated: average observed number of alleles, average effective number of alleles, genetic heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), genetic similarity coefficient, genetic distance, Hardy-Weinberg balance deflection index. These results indicated that the average observed number of alleles in each microsatellite locus of the Wanzhou population and Jianli populations is 6.128 and 4.974, respectively; the average effective number of alleles is 4.107 and 3.395, respectively; and the number of total alleles of these 39 microsatellite loci is 259. The PIC of polymorphic loci varies between 0.077-0.865, and the average PIC is 0.617. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of two populations is 0.834 and 0.775, respectively, and the average expective heterzygosity (He) is 0.713 and 0.623, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient of two populations is 0.618 and the genetic distance of these populations is 0.482. These results indicated that the two populations belong to different popula-tions for the obvious genetic differentiation. PMID:18930896

  6. 12 February, 2002 Report on the fishes of lower Olentangy River 5th Ave. dam to confluence with the Scioto River

    E-print Network

    Kubatko, Laura S.

    steelcolor shiner Cyprinus carpio common carp Nocomis micropogon river chub Notemigonus crysoleucas golden minnow Semotilus atromaculatus creek chub #12;Carpiodes cyprinus quillback carpsucker Hypentelium

  7. Effects of predator species, vegetation and prey assemblage on prey preferences of predators with

    E-print Network

    and community dynamics. For example, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., is an invasive species that can become, Cyprinus carpio, fathead minnow, foraging, prey selection, yellow perch. Introduction Predation

  8. Short communication The application of image cytometry to viability assessment

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    on four fish species (Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; tench, Tinca fluorescent staining; Fish spermatozoa; Acipenser baerii; Cyprinus carpio; Tinca tinca; Silurus glanis; Phase

  9. Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier

    E-print Network

    Mencer, Oskar

    Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier Department Sciences Center Bell Labs, Lucent Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 Abstract Floating point units form an important component of many reconfigurable computing applications. The creation of floating point units under

  10. Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier

    E-print Network

    Tessier, Russell

    Floating Point Unit Generation and Evaluation for FPGAs Jian Liang and Russell Tessier Department@doc.ic.ac.uk Abstract Most commercial and academic floating point libraries for FPGAs provide only a small fraction of all possible floating point units. In contrast, the floating point unit gen- eration approach outlined

  11. Simultaneously Inpainting in Image and Transformed Domains Jian-Feng Cai

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    Simultaneously Inpainting in Image and Transformed Domains Jian-Feng Cai Raymond H. Chan Lixin Shen, unifies, and simplifies the inpainting algorithm in image domains given in [8] and the inpainting Zuowei Shen§ Abstract In this paper, we focus on the restoration of images that have incomplete data

  12. Design of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster Jian F. Li, Class of 2006

    E-print Network

    Choueiri, Edgar

    Design of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster (MiPPT) Jian F. Li, Class of 2006 Submitted of a Microwave-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster (MiPPT) i ABSTRACT The performance of gas-fed pulsed plasma a microwave-initiated pulsed plasma thruster (MiPPT) and perform all detailed simulations, prototyping

  13. High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1

    E-print Network

    Shearer, Peter

    High-frequency P-wave seismic noise driven by ocean winds Jian Zhang,1 Peter Gerstoft,1 and Peter M] Earth's background vibrations at frequencies below about 0.5 Hz have been attributed to ocean-wave of continuous P-waves originating offshore, and (2) the power of the P-wave noise is highly correlated

  14. Performance Issue Diagnosis for Online Service Systems , Jian-Guang Lou1

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Performance Issue Diagnosis for Online Service Systems Qiang Fu1 , Jian-Guang Lou1 , Qing-Wei Lin1 performance issues of an online service system are critical to assure satisfactory per- formance of the system. Given a detected performance issue and collected system metrics for an online service system, en

  15. Display HDR Image using a Gain Map Jian Guan and Guoping Qiu

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Display HDR Image using a Gain Map Jian Guan and Guoping Qiu School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham Fig. 1. Direct display of an HDR map in the logarithmic scale (left); the gain map image of the HDR map (middle); the sum of the left and middle images (right). Note the gain map image is only

  16. Acrolein induces oxidative stress in brain mitochondria Jian Luo, Riyi Shi*

    E-print Network

    Shi, Riyi

    Acrolein induces oxidative stress in brain mitochondria Jian Luo, Riyi Shi* Department of Basic of purified brain mitochondria to acrolein resulted in a dose- dependent increase of ROS and decreases-induced ROS increase in mitochondria. # 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: 2-Propenal; Lipid

  17. Business Trend Analysis by Simulation Helen Schonenberg, Jingxian Jian, Natalia Sidorova, and Wil van der Aalst

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Business Trend Analysis by Simulation Helen Schonenberg, Jingxian Jian, Natalia Sidorova, and Wil. The environment can change due to sea- sonal and financial trends. For organisations it is crucial to understand their processes and to be able to estimate the effects of these trends on the processes. Business process

  18. Fuzzy QoS Management in Diff-Serv Networks Runtong Zhang and Jian Ma

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Runtong

    Fuzzy QoS Management in Diff-Serv Networks Runtong Zhang and Jian Ma Nokia (China) R&D Center improved, and a feasible charging scheme must be introduced, which falls into the QoS management domain. According to Diff- Serv concept, it is not necessary to perform a unique QoS reservation for each flow

  19. Fitness Inheritance in MultiObjective Optimization JianHung Chen

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Fitness Inheritance in Multi­Objective Optimization Jian­Hung Chen Dept. of Information Engineering­objective problems. This paper investi­ gates fitness inheritance way speed multi­objective genetic evolutionary algo­ rithms. Convergence population­sizing mod­ derived compared with experimental results in cases: fitness

  20. Collaborative Inductive Logic Programming for Path Planning Jian Huang and Adrian R. Pearce

    E-print Network

    Pearce, Adrian

    Collaborative Inductive Logic Programming for Path Planning Jian Huang and Adrian R. Pearce NICTA together. In prior work published by the authors [Huang and Pearce, 2006a], the possible synergy between) problem of collaborative inductive logic programming (C- ILP) [Huang and Pearce, 2006b]. In this paper, we

  1. Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1

    E-print Network

    Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1 A. K. McMahan,2 M. D a systematic analysis of the spectral properties of -plutonium with varying 5f occupancy. The LDA Hamiltonian properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, plutonium is probably the most complicated element

  2. SOLVING PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON POINT JIAN LIANG AND HONGKAI ZHAO

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    SOLVING PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON POINT CLOUDS JIAN LIANG AND HONGKAI ZHAO Abstract. In this paper we present a general framework for solving partial differential equations on manifolds represented framework for solving partial differential equations (PDE) on manifolds represented by point clouds

  3. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  4. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  5. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  6. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  7. Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.

    PubMed

    Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D

    2007-08-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

  8. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

  9. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...

  10. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...

  11. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...

  12. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...

  13. Development of Standard Weight (Ws) Equations and Standard Length Categories

    E-print Network

    : longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus, spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, river carpsucker Carplodes carpIO, shorthead redhorse Moxostoma oculatus, common carp Cypnnus carpIO, blgmouth buffalo Ictlobus cypnnellus, nver carpsucker Carpt

  14. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...species, in addition to some other cyprinid and ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species . Common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ), bighead carp...

  15. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  16. Theohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of Koi cyprinus carpio in the Eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a single pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring 16....

  17. Thelohanellus toyamai infecting the gills of koi Cyprinus carpio in the eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A myxozoan resembling species of Thelohanellus was isolated from the gills of koi (Cyprinus carpio) cultured in North Carolina. Plasmodia measuring ~ 200µm in diameter contained tear-shaped myxospores containing a singly pyriform polar capsule. The spore body was concave on one side, measuring, 1...

  18. A Tale of Four ``Carp'': Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon C. Devaney; Kristina M. McNyset; Justin B. Williams; A. Townsend Peterson; Edward O. Wiley; Ross Thompson

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundInvasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological

  19. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  20. Uptake, metaolism, and elimination of /sup 14/C-labelled 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in rainbow trout and carp

    SciTech Connect

    Melancon, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1980-05-01

    Fingerling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) for 8 h in a static exposure (0.018 mg/l) or for 35 d in a continuous-flow exposure (0.020 mg/l) followed by a subsequent elimination period. For the 2 d after the 8-h exposure, the half-time (t/sub 1/2) of elimination of /sup 14/C from muscle and liver was 0.4 d, while after the 35-d exposure an early rapid elimination of /sup 14/C from these tissues (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.4 d) was followed by a slower elimination (t/sub 1/2/ = 50 d) during d 4 to 36. The maximum bioconcentration factors for /sup 14/C in muscle and liver were 51 and 102 after the 8-h exposure and 89 and 389 during the 35-d exposure. The values for bile were much greater, reaching 240 after the 8-h exposure and 1400 during the 35-d exposure. When larger trout and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to (/sup 14/C)TCB (0.2 to 0.4 mg/l) the bioconcentration factor for bile /sup 14/C to water /sup 14/C was less than 100. Pretreatment of trout with BETA-naphthoflavone, an inducer of hepatic mixed-function oxidase, increased this bioconcentration factor for bile to several hundred. Solvent partitioning and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) indicated that about 60% of the /sup 14/C in bile of control trout or carp was present as highly polar biotransformation products, while for induced trout the value was more than 90%. TLC in two solvent systems suggested that at least two such products were present in bile from control fish and at least three in bile from induced fish. About half of the /sup 14/C in bile from induced trout was more polar than the /sup 14/C in bile from normal trout.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  2. LEFT CELLS IN THE AFFINE WEYL GROUP OF TYPE F4 Jian-yi Shi

    E-print Network

    Shi, Jian Yi

    LEFT CELLS IN THE AFFINE WEYL GROUP OF TYPE F4 Jian-yi Shi Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik.R.C. Abstract. By applying an algorithm designed before, we complete the description for all the left cells of the affine Weyl group Wa of type F4 by finding a representative set of its left cells together with all its

  3. QoS in Mobile IPv6 Zhigang KAN, Dongmei ZHANG, Runtong ZHANG, Jian MA

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Runtong

    QoS in Mobile IPv6 Zhigang KAN, Dongmei ZHANG, Runtong ZHANG, Jian MA Nokia China R&D Center, NokiaWords:Quality of Service (QoS), Mobile IPv6, QoS Architecture, QoS negotiation, End-to-end QoS 1 Introduction The main. There are several issues about QoS in Mobile IPv6: Handover and roaming in heterogeneous QoS domains, Roaming

  4. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  5. The Effect of Denil Fishway Length on Passage of Some Nonsalmonid Fishes

    E-print Network

    /osa sapidissima; common carp, Cyprinus carpio; chiselmouth, Acrochei/us a/utaceus; northern squawfish, Ptychochei; common carp, Cyprinus car- pio; chiselmouth, Acrocheilus aJutaceus; northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus

  6. Is invasion history a useful tool for predicting the impacts of the world's worst aquatic1 invasive species?2

    E-print Network

    Leung, Brian

    that relate the severity of the impacts of a well-documented invader,37 common carp (Cyprinus carpio), to two Keywords: impact, invasive species, meta-analysis, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, predictive47 model, risk

  7. N(trth American Jnurnal nf h'tshehcx Management 15:137-141. 1995 American Fisheries Society

    E-print Network

    57007. USA Abstract.--An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo /ctiobus populations. Controlling the dispersal and abundance of com- mon carp Cyprinus carpio has challenged fisheries

  8. The effects of reserpine and LHRH or salmon GnRH analogues on gonadotropin release, ovulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and spermiation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) M. SOKO&jadnr;OWSKA, T. MIKOLAJCZYK, P. EPLER, R. E. PETER W carried out on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in 1985 and 1986. Groups and experimental treatments

  9. Decreases in Condition and Fecundity of Freshwater Fishes in a Highly Polluted Reservoir

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    . The responses to the pollutants were species-specific, and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was the species to pollution. Keywords Heavy metals . Organochlorides . Common carp . Cyprinus carpio . Flix reservoir 1

  10. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 9: 2134, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    Abstract Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) were excluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh) reduction in sediment resuspension by removal of benthivorous fish such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio

  11. Effects of sublethal copper exposure on muscle energy metabolism of common carp, measured by {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, G. De; Borger, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Blust, R. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The effects of shock and subchronic exposure of copper on the energy metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied by means of in vivo {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-NMRS). During the experiments, fish were submitted to an additional hypoxic challenge and recovery from this challenge was followed for 6 hs. During all experiments adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels remained stable. Under control conditions, levels of phosphocreatine (P{sub Cr}) and inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) recovered rapidly after the hypoxic challenge; however, full recovery was not observed after shock copper exposure. Also, intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) did not recover from the hypoxic challenge after shock exposure. After 1 week of exposure the fish had clearly developed an increased tolerance to copper. At both copper concentrations, P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} levels returned to resting levels after the hypoxic challenge, but at the highest copper concentration P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios were significantly lower than P{sub Cr} to P{sub i} ratios in the control group and levels of P{sub Cr} and P{sub i} were very unstable. At the high copper concentration, pH{sub i} was clearly decreased compared to the control group even before the hypoxic challenge.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp, and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Lei, La-Mei; Han, Bo-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) were cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of planktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The silver carp and bighead carp GST cDNA were 920 and 978 bp in length, respectively, and both contained an open reading frame that encoding 223 amino acids. Partial GST cDNA sequences were also obtained from the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratu), mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), and tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). All these GSTs could be classified as alpha-class GSTs on the basis of their amino acid sequence identity with other species. The three-dimensional structure of the silver carp GST was predicted using a computer program, and was found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Using the genome walker method, a 875-bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GST gene was obtained, and several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response elements were identified in the promoter region of the phytoplanktivorous fish GST gene, indicating that the GST gene expression of this fish might be regulated by LPS, released from the toxic blue-green algae producing microcystins. To compare the constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene among the six freshwater fishes with completely different tolerance to microcystins, beta-actin was used as control and the ratio GST/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined as 130.7 +/- 6.6 (grass carp), 103.1 +/- 8.9 (bighead carp), 92.6 +/- 15.0 (crucian carp), 72.3 +/- 7.8 (mud carp), 58.8 +/- 11.5 (silver carp), and 33.6 +/- 13.7 (tilapia). The constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene clearly shows that all the six freshwater fishes had a negative relationship with their tolerance to microcystins: high-resistant fishes (phytoplanktivorous silver carp and tilapia) had the lowest tolerance to microcystins and the high-sensitive fish (herbivorous grass carp) had the highest tolerance to microcystins. Taken together with the reciprocal relationship of constitutive and inducible liver GST expression level in some of the tested fish species to microcystin exposure, a molecular mechanism for different microcystin detoxification abilities of the warm freshwater fishes was discussed. PMID:16788955

  14. Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

  15. Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

  16. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(<20 ?m) in Donghu Lake, studies on phytoplankton in their gut contents and feces were made in 1990. The fish were cultured in both net cage in Donghu Lake and aquaria with the lake water. Past the intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 ?m, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  17. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang Zhu

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films En Yang, Hoan Ho, David E. Laughlin, and Jian-Gang,2 and Jian-Gang Zhu1,3 1 Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

  18. Optimization of demineralization on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus scale by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao; Wenxue, Zhu; Yuanyuan, Qiu; Huaibin, Kang

    2015-03-01

    Fish scale, separated during fish mechanical processing, can serve as an additional source of proteins, especially of collagen proteins. To obtain high purity native collagen, it is required to carry out deproteinization and demineralization of fish scales. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for demineralization of Cyprinus carpio haematopterus scale without loss of collagen content in HCl solution. Here, the demineralization of Cyprinus carpio haematopterus scale was optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were as follows: extraction time of 95 min, concentration of HCl of 1.0 M, and ratio of material to solution of 1:11. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of demineralization of scales was 92.7?±?1.32 %, which was well consistent with the value predicted by the model. PMID:25745241

  19. Winter residency and activity patterns of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    ), and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in a thermal discharge canal S . J . C O O K E & R . S . M c K I N L E Y underwater antennas continuously monitored the movements of 10 common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and 10 to continuously monitor movements of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

  20. Etude de l'utilisation digestive d'une cellulose purifie chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gairdneri) et la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio) Françoise BERGOT Jeannine BREQUE Laboratoire de Nutrition cellulose by the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). A semi-purified diet-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri) espèce carnivore et la carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio), espèce omnivore à tube digestif

  1. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [South Dakota State University

    E-print Network

    ://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t925992003 Comparison of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) age estimates derived from dorsal fin spines this Article Weber, Michael J. and Brown, Michael L.(2011) 'Comparison of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) age from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a widespread invasive species that imposes deleterious ecosystem

  2. Factors that regulate the zooplankton community structure of a turbid,

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    . If the forthcoming carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion from Cootes Paradise Marsh results in increased macrophyte growth degré de dégradation du site. Si l'élimination prochaine de la carpe (Cyprinus carpio) du marais Cootes, fluctuating water levels, as well as the activities of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (Whillans 1996

  3. Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?

    PubMed

    Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D

    2013-05-01

    The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms. PMID:23121232

  4. GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES: 1963 TO THE PRESENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On November 16, 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weed...

  5. A Robotic System for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    in Minnesota's 10,000+ lakes. These lakes vary in size and some are interconnected, forming complexA Robotic System for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Pratap Tokekar Department of Computer transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design and architecture of the robotic raft

  6. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  7. Some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with wide environmental distribution inhibit TCDD-induced EROD activity in primary cultured carp ( Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V Kuiper; Å Bergman; J. G Vos; M van den Berg

    2004-01-01

    Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a catalytic function of the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) microsomal oxygenase subfamily, is a popular biomarker for exposure to xenobiotics, polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in particular. It has found wide use in aquatic pollution assessment both in vivo and in vitro. In such studies, subjects are often exposed to complex mixtures where various constituents can interfere with

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  9. VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND REDUCED SERUM TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN FERAL MALE CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) CAPTURED NEAR A MAJOR METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. (R824760)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Temporal induction of cytochrome P450 1A in the mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) after administration of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Weiden, M.E.J. Van Der; Hanegraaf, F.H.M.; Seinen, W.; Berg, M. Van Den (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology); Eggens, M.L. (Ministry of Transport and Public Works, Haren (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecotoxicology); Celander, M. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology)

    1994-05-01

    High inductions of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities, cytochrome P450 1A protein levels (P4501A), and total cytochrome P450 content (P450) were observed 1, 2, 5, and 14 d after a single i.p. injection of 99.5 [mu]mol/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and chrysene (Chrys). The highest inductions in EROD activities and P450 1A protein levels were seen 2 d after treatment, approximately 35- and 11-fold relative to the controls. Less pronounced increase of EROD activities and P4501A protein levels, approximately 3- to 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, were observed after treatments with equimolar concentrations of fluoranthenes (Fluor) and pyrene (Pyr). Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) and the carrier dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) did not affect these parameters. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the liver, equivalent to 2 to 25% of the dose, were found 1 or 2 d after treatment. The highest percentage of the dose in the liver was observed for Chrys, followed by BghiP, BaP, Fluor, and Pyr. Poor correlations were found between hepatic concentrations of PAHs and P450 1A increases, which might be attributed to the rapid metabolism of these compounds.

  11. Effects of Natural and Synthetic Estrogens and Various Environmental Contaminants on Vitellogenesis in Fish Primary Hepatocytes: Comparison of Bream (Abramis brama) and Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rouhani Rankouhi; J. T. Sanderson; I. van Holsteijn; C. van Leeuwen; A. D. Vethaak; M. van den Berg

    2004-01-01

    Interactionofenvironmentalestrogenswiththeestrogenreceptor (ER) has been shown in various fish species. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of bream (Abramis brama) to (xeno-)estro- genswiththatofthecarp(Cyprinuscarpio),bymeasuringtheeffects of 17b-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphe- nol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), methoxychlor (MXCL), and halo- genated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB126, PCB118), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) on vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes.

  12. Breeding value and variance component estimation from data containing inbred individuals: application to gynogenetic families in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bijma; Arendonk van J. A. M; H. Bovenhuis

    1997-01-01

    Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general

  13. Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.

    1997-01-01

    Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design. PMID:9093872

  14. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; M?ocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Nebesá?ová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed. PMID:21894510

  15. Evaluation of Electrofishing and Fyke Netting for Collecting Black Carp in Small Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Basler; Harold L. Schramm Jr

    2006-01-01

    The introduced black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus has the potential of depredating many imperiled native mussel and snail populations in U.S. waterways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for detecting and assessing the abundance of black carp in warmwater systems. We electrofished and fyke-netted 0.1- and 0.3-ha aquaculture ponds stocked with triploid black carp at densities of 39–373

  16. Optimalisering van de groei bij de karper (Cyprinus carpio L.) : een op de visteelt gericht onderzoek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Huisman

    1974-01-01

    In course of time carp culture - in Europe already practiced since the Middle Ages - has been subjected to different patterns of intensification e.g. fertilization of ponds and supplementary feeding. Mechanisation in pond farm management has also proved to be important.The aim of these measures has always been to increase the ratio of fish production to financial and\\/or labour

  17. Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    (Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

  18. Perturbation of cytochrome P450, generation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage in Cyprinus carpio exposed in situ to potable surface water.

    PubMed

    Sapone, Andrea; Gustavino, Bianca; Monfrinotti, Monica; Canistro, Donatella; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Affatato, Alessandra; Valgimigli, Luca; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Paolini, Moreno

    2007-01-10

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various cancers. Chlorination of water rich in organic chemicals produces carcinogenic organochlorine by-products (OBPs) such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Since the discovery of the first OBP in the 1970s, there have been several investigations designed to determine the biological effects of single chemicals or small artificial OBP combinations. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the general biological response to these compounds, and further studies are still needed to evaluate their potential genotoxic effects. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of three drinking water disinfectants on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked metabolizing enzymes and on the generation of oxidative stress in the livers of male and female Cyprinus carpio fish (carp). The fish were exposed in situ for up 20 days to surface water obtained from the Trasmene lake in Italy. The water was treated with 1-2 mg/L of either sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as traditional disinfectants or with a relatively new disinfectant product, peracetic acid (PAA). Micronucleus (MN) frequencies in circulating erythrocytes from the fish were also analysed as a biomarker of genotoxic effect. In the CYP-linked enzyme assays, a significant induction (up to a 57-fold increase in the deethylation of ethoxyresorufin with PAA treatment) and a notable inactivation (up to almost a 90% loss in hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol with all disinfectants, and of testosterone 2beta-hydroxylation with NaClO) was observed in subcellular liver preparations from exposed fish. Using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy radical-probe technique, we also observed that CYP-modulation was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, we found a significant increase in MN frequency in circulating erythrocytes after 10 days of exposure of fish to water treated with ClO2, while a non-significant six-fold increase in MN frequency was observed with NaClO, but not with PAA. Our data suggest that the use of ClO2 and NaClO to disinfect drinking water could generate harmful OBP mixtures that are able to perturb CYP-mediated reactions, generate oxidative stress and induce genetic damage. These data may provide a mechanistic explanation for epidemiological studies linking consumption of chlorinated drinking water to increased risk of urinary, gastrointestinal and bladder cancers. PMID:17141554

  19. Direct nanoimprint of submicron organic light-emitting structures Jian Wang, Xiaoyun Sun, Lei Chen, and Stephen Y. Choua)

    E-print Network

    the temperature and pressure environment in nanoim- print degrade the optical property of the organic materialsDirect nanoimprint of submicron organic light-emitting structures Jian Wang, Xiaoyun Sun, Lei Chen demonstrated a method to directly pattern organic light-emitting structures with a submicron resolution without

  20. Kinetic Origin of Divergent Decompression Pathways in Silicon and Germanium Jian-Tao Wang,1,2,* Changfeng Chen,2

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Kinetic Origin of Divergent Decompression Pathways in Silicon and Germanium Jian-Tao Wang,1, but upon decompression they turn into metastable BC8 Si and ST12 Ge phases, respectively, instead-rotation mechanism with a low kinetic barrier. Kinetics also play a central role in selecting the decompression

  1. A FRAMELET-BASED IMAGE INPAINTING ALGORITHM JIAN-FENG CAI, RAYMOND H. CHAN, AND ZUOWEI SHEN

    E-print Network

    Chan, Raymond

    A FRAMELET-BASED IMAGE INPAINTING ALGORITHM JIAN-FENG CAI, RAYMOND H. CHAN, AND ZUOWEI SHEN Abstract. Image inpainting is a fundamental problem in image processing and has many applications domain, we propose an iterative tight frame algorithm for image inpainting. We consider the convergence

  2. Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia,

    E-print Network

    Xie, Tao

    Software Analytics in Practice Dongmei Zhang, Shi Han, Yingnong Dang, Jian-Guang Lou, Haidong Zhang, Microsoft Research Asia, China Tao Xie, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Abstract: Software analytics is to utilize data-driven approaches to enable software practitioners to perform data exploration

  3. Storage-aware Smartphone Energy Savings David T. Nguyen , Gang Zhou , Xin Qi , Ge Peng , Jianing Zhao , Tommy Nguyen

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Gang

    Storage-aware Smartphone Energy Savings David T. Nguyen , Gang Zhou , Xin Qi , Ge Peng , Jianing are first to pro- vide an experimental study on how storage techniques affect power levels in smartphones sav- ings named SmartStorage. The system tracks the run-time I/O pattern of a smartphone

  4. A Large-Scale Distributed Traffic Matrix Estimation Algorithm Jian Ni, Sekhar Tatikonda, Edmund M. Yeh1

    E-print Network

    Tatikonda, Sekhar

    A Large-Scale Distributed Traffic Matrix Estimation Algorithm Jian Ni, Sekhar Tatikonda, Edmund M) grow in size and diversity, accurate, large-scale, and distrib- uted traffic matrix estimation to date only considers centralized traffic ma- trix estimation algorithms, where a central machine

  5. The pitch of a mistuned harmonic: Evidence for a template Jian-Yu Lin and William M. Hartmann

    E-print Network

    The pitch of a mistuned harmonic: Evidence for a template model Jian-Yu Lin and William M. Hartmann as a separate entity if the harmonic is slightly mistuned from its correct frequency. Pitch matching experiments show that the pitch of such a mistuned harmonic differs systematically from its frequency. The shift

  6. PVDF microbelts for harvesting energy from respiration Chengliang Sun, Jian Shi, Dylan J. Bayerl and Xudong Wang*

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xudong

    PVDF microbelts for harvesting energy from respiration Chengliang Sun, Jian Shi, Dylan J. Bayerl operation of small elec- tronic devices. Their capability for harvesting energy from simulated respiration with comparable size to that of the device itself. Compared to the above biological energy sources, respiration

  7. Pentafluorophenylimido Alkylidene Complexes of Molybdenum and Jian Yuan, Richard R. Schrock,* Peter Muller, Jonathan C. Axtell, and Graham E. Dobereiner

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    Pentafluorophenylimido Alkylidene Complexes of Molybdenum and Tungsten Jian Yuan, Richard R ABSTRACT: Pentafluorophenylimido alkylidene complexes of molybdenum and tungsten have been prepared in good)(ODFT)2 initiators to give cis,isotactic-poly(DCMNBD). The efficiencies of molybdenum and tungsten imido

  8. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Rosen, M.R.; Orsak, E.L.; Goodbred, S.L.; May, T.W.; Alvarez, D.; Echols, K.R.; Wieser, C.M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are influenced by levels of certain metals in the Lake Mead environment. ?? 2011.

  9. Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen

    2009-05-01

    The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

  10. Effects of Introduced Common Carp and Invading Zebra Mussels on Water Quality and the Native Biological Community of Clear Lake,

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Effects of Introduced Common Carp and Invading Zebra Mussels on Water Quality and the Native success evaluating the impacts of ongoing lake restoration and invasive common carp and zebra mussels and effects of introduced common carp, invading zebra mussels, and the native biological community on water

  11. A Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler, Andrew Studenski and Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    . These lakes vary in size and some are interconnected, forming complex interactions. The common carpA Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler to monitor common carp tagged with radio transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design

  12. Purification and characterization of grass carp mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing-Ping Fong; Ka-Fai Choy

    2001-01-01

    The molecular biology and enzymology of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) have been extensively investigated. However, most of the studies have been confined to the mammalian forms, while the sub-mammalian vertebrate ALDHs are relatively unexplored. In the present investigation, an ALDH was purified from the hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharygodon idellus) by affinity chromatographies on ?-cyanocinnamate-Sepharose and Affi-gel Blue agarose. The 800-fold

  13. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars B. Pettersson; Christer Brönmark

    1999-01-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence\\u000a against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with\\u000a shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism\\u000a underlying this effect, high drag caused by

  14. HIRA is essential for the development of gibel carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Du, Xin-Zheng; Zhou, Li; Luo, Qian; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zhao, Hao-Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-02-01

    HIRA is one of the chaperones of histone H3.3. Mutation of Hira results in embryonic lethality in mice, suggesting a critical role in embryogenesis. However, Hira-mutated Drosophila may survive to adults, indicating that it is dispensable in Drosophila development. The role of Hira in fish development is unknown. In this study we first investigated the expression of Hira during embryogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that Hira signal appeared ubiquitously in the early embryos. After gastrulation, it appeared mainly along the anterior-posterior axis, including the tail bud. In hatching period, the signal was detected in head, heart, and the endoderm region on the back of yolk. Then by microinjection with morpholino-HIRA at the beginning of development, we observed delayed gastrulation and abnormal somitogenesis in gibel carp embryos. The HIRA morphants exhibited short trunk, limited yolk extension, and twisted tail. Most of the mutants died during embryogenesis or shortly after hatching. The rest of the HIRA morphants could survive to larvae but with severe defects in organogenesis. These data suggest that HIRA may be essential for the development of gibel carp, and this function is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23912483

  15. Identification and characterization of MAVS from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Jujun; Lv, Ying; Qu, Yixiao; Chi, Mengdie; Li, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    MAVS (mitochondria antiviral signaling protein) plays an important role in the host cellular innate immune response against microbial pathogens. In this study, MAVS has been cloned and characterized from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) consists of 2352 nucleotides and the predicted bcMAVS protein contains 579 amino acids. Structural analysis showed that bcMAVS is composed of functional domains including an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal TM domain, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. bcMAVS is constitutively transcribed in all the selected tissues including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; bcMAVS mRNA level in intestine, liver, muscle increased but decreased in spleen right after GCRV or SVCV infection. Multiple bands of bcMAVS were detected in western blot when it was expressed in tissue culture, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. Immunofluorescence assay determined that bcMAVS is a mitochondria protein and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that bcMAVS could induce zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN expression in tissue culture. Data generated in this manuscript has built a solid foundation for further elucidating the function of bcMAVS in the innate immune system of black carp. PMID:25655327

  16. Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebra¢sh, ectothermic vertebrates J on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic% identical to mammalian UCP1s. Carp and zebrafish are ectotherms ^ they do not raise their body temperatures

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  18. Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

  19. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

    1990-01-01

    Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

  20. Temperature acclimation in crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., morphometric analyses of muscle fibre ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Johnston; B. Maitland

    1980-01-01

    Carp show a partial compensation in metabolic rate and activity following temperature acclimation. In the present study crucian carp, Carassius carassius, were acclimated for eight weeks to either 2. Cor 28. C. The effects of temperature acclimation on muscle fibre ultrastructure has been investigated. The fractional volume (%) of each fibre type occupied by mitochondria and myofibrils was determined using