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1

Effects of dietary histidine on antioxidant capacity in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  

PubMed

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary histidine could improve antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1,200 juvenile Jian carp were fed graded levels of histidine at 2.3 (unsupplemented control), 4.4, 6.3, 8.6, 10.8 and 12.7 g/kg diet for 60 days. Results showed that the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) in serum and all tissues apparently decreased with increasing histidine levels up to an optimal level and increased thereafter. Anti-superoxide anion (ASA) capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in serum and all tissues, anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR) capacity, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in serum, muscle and intestine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum and intestine, as well as glutathione reductase (GR) activity in serum, muscle and hepatopancreas were improved by dietary histidine. Fish fed diet with 8.6 g/kg histidine had lower serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity than that fed with control diet, whereas pattern of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity was opposite. The present results suggested that histidine could improve antioxidant capacity and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:23053605

Feng, Lin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

2013-06-01

2

Threonine affects intestinal function, protein synthesis and gene expression of TOR in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4-25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0-275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

2013-01-01

3

Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG.

Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

2013-01-01

4

cDNA sequence and tissues expression analysis of lipoprotein lipase from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio Var. Jian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA coding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was cloned from liver of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio Var. Jian) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The cDNA obtained was 2,411 bp long with a 1,524 bp\\u000a open reading frame (ORF) encoding 507 amino acids. This amino acid sequence contains two structural regions: N-terminus (24–354\\u000a residues) and C-terminus (355–507

Han-liang Cheng; Si-ping Sun; Yong-xing Peng; Xiao-yun Shi; Xin Shen; Xue-ping Meng; Zhi-guo Dong

2010-01-01

5

Dietary glutamine supplementation improves structure and function of intestine of juvenile Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on juvenile Jian carp growth performance, structure and function of intestine. Six experimental diets supplemented 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0% l-glutamine were fed to three-replicate groups of fish (mean weight: 7.78±0.02g) for 80days. Glutamine supplementation improved weight gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, intestinal weight, fold height

Lin Yan; Xiao Qiu-Zhou

2006-01-01

6

Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:24751923

Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

2014-06-01

7

Phenotypic changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian introduced by sperm-mediated transgenesis of rearranged homologous DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Common carp, specifically the Jian variety (Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical variations, thus optimizing artificially engineered carp stocks with Jian variety and native stock varieties. Random rearrangement of homologous DNA fragments from parent specimens of C. carpiovar var. Jian were attained by digestion of genomic DNA with MspI followed by religation and redigestion with EcoR I to specifically rearrange homologous DNA fragments of myostatin and microsatellite genes. Based on known characteristics of myostatin gene function, growth pattern changes in resultant carp mutant varieties was expected. DNA fragments were introduced into metaphase-II oocytes, resulting in one to several dozen insertions of homologous fragments into the host genome by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Introduction of rearranged homologous DNA fragments often resulted in phenotypic changes in C. carpiovar var. Jian, including significant phenotypic changes linked to growth rate at 4 months. PMID:23824532

Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao

2013-09-01

8

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

9

Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weight and morphological traits in red common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental genetic analysis was conducted for body weight, total length, standard length and body height in red common carp by a mixed genetic model with additive–dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses made by Xingguo red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis), purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) and Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color). Unconditional

Cheng-hui Wang; Si-fa Li; Zhi-guo Liu; Song-ping Xiang; Jian Wang; Zeng-yun Pang; Jiang-ping Duan

2006-01-01

10

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

F. A. Sibbing

1984-01-01

11

[Sequences analysis of jlFABP2 and the correlation between polymorphisms and body weight gain in Cyprinus carpio var. jian].  

PubMed

Two replicate intestine fatty acid binding protein genes (jlFABP2a and jlFABP2b) were cloned from Cyprinus carpio var. jian using PCR. Both ORFs were 399 bp in length sharing 92.2% similarity with each other, and 88.0% and 90.5% with their counterpart in zebrafish, respectively. The gene structure of jlFABP2s was same as other FABPs, which contained four exons and three introns. Sequences and lengths of introns between 2a and 2b. were obviously different Phylogenetic tree displayed that two jlFABP2s corresponded to one zebrafish FABP2 which matches the fact that the chromosome number of common carp was twice of zebrafish. Real time-PCR showed that jlFABP2 genes mainly expressed in intestine and the expression level was very significantly higher than other tissues such as brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and gonad (P<0.01). The expression level of jlFABP2a was significantly (male, P<0.05) or very significantly (females, P<0.01) higher than 2b in intestine; and 2b was expressed slightly higher than 2a in other tissues. It seemed that 2a expressed specifically in intestine, while 2b expressed ubiquitously. Twelve and four SNP loci were found at jlFABP2a and 2b introns through comparison sequences from 8 individuals, respectively. Genotypes of I1-A15G, I1-A99G, I2-C487T, and I3-A27T on jlFABP2a were detected using PCR-RFLP in selection population of C. carpio var. jian. The SNP genotypes and individual weight gain correlation indicated that four SNPs were significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01) associated with adult weight gain. Diplotype analysis displayed that individuals with genotype AGGGCCXX or AGGGXXAT grew faster than other individuals by 15%. The individuals with these two genotypes only occupied 9% in total selection populations, indicating the presence of large selection space. The 4 SNPs detected in this experiment can be used in C. carpio var. Jian growth selection breeding plan. PMID:23732670

Xia, Zheng-Long; Yu, Ju-Hua; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Jian-Lin; Tang, Yong-Kai; Ren, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Shuang-Ning

2013-05-01

12

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

13

Effects of temperature change on cortisol release by common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Common carp Cyprinus carpio, stressed by fish handling practices, responded with a decrease in cortisol secretion when temperature was lowered from 20 to 14° C within 3·5?h compared to those kept at 20° C. PMID:24665879

Jaxion-Harm, J; Ladich, F

2014-04-01

14

Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  

PubMed

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

2003-09-01

15

Polymorphism of transferrin in carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.): Genetic determination, isolation, and partial characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven transferrin variants (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) have been found in carp sera (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetic analysis involves five variants and agrees with the hypothesis of simple codominant autosomal inheritance at one transferrin (Tf) locus in spite of the fact that the carp is a tetraploid in relation to other species of the same family.

M. Valenta; A. Stratil; V. Slechtovfi; L. Kfilal; V. Šlechta

1976-01-01

16

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

17

Predation on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). We found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of the fish we examined. For all fish examined, common carp contained 118.2 beaks per fish or about 59 zebra

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Dirk W. Soergel; Charles H. Theiling

1996-01-01

18

Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation. PMID:18998229

Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

2009-11-01

19

Hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake, China.  

PubMed

Hybridization with introduced fish species is an important threat to native fish species. Here we investigated hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake in the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau of China. A total of 203 individuals of Cyprinus from Xingyun Lake were studied by combination of morphological and genetic analyses. Most individuals were strictly intermediate between the two parental species in morphology, strongly suggesting that extensive hybridization has occurred. Bayesian model-based clustering of the genetic data suggests that there are two distinct genetic groups corresponding to barbless and common carp respectively. Many individuals in the two genetic groups showed intermediate morphology, suggesting that both groups actually contain massively introgressed genes. Only two individuals were identified as barbless carp both morphologically and genetically, hinting that this native species is at risk of genetic extinction in Xingyun Lake. PMID:22559965

Tang, Weixing; Chen, Yifeng

2012-05-01

20

Characterization of complete genome sequence of the spring viremia of carp virus isolated from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The complete genome of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) strain A-1 isolated from cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in China was sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed\\u000a and the DNA was sequenced. It showed that the entire genome of SVCV A-1 consists of 11,100 nucleotide base pairs, the predicted\\u000a size of the viral

Y. Teng; H. Liu; J. Q. Lv; W. H. Fan; Q. Y. Zhang; Q. W. Qin

2007-01-01

21

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

22

A genetic linkage map of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) And mapping of a locus associated with cold tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map has been constructed for the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The segregation of 272 markers, including 105 gene markers, 110 microsatellites, and 57 RAPD markers was studied in a panel with 46 haploid embryos derived from a single hybrid female. The hybrid was produced by crossing a common carp (C. carpio L.) and a Boshi carp

Xiaowen Sun; Liqun Liang

2004-01-01

23

Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong

2011-01-01

24

Body composition of transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

F1 transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene, pRSVrtGH1 cDNA were compared to non-transgenic full-siblings for body composition. Percent protein was higher (P < 0.05), for transgenic individuals than for controls (19.5 vs. 18.1). Percent fat was lower (P < 0.05) for transgenic common carp (3.3), than for non-transgenic controls, (3.8). Transgenic individuals had lower (P

N. Chatakondi; R. T. Lovell; P. L. Duncan; M. Hayat; T. T. Chen; D. A. Powers; J. D. Weete; K. Cummins; R. A. Dunham

1995-01-01

25

Stimulation of catalase activity in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) ovarian follicles by gonadotropin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in catalase activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovarian follicles at different developmental stages were investigated. The effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on catalase activity and estradiol secretion by carp ovarian follicles was studied to establish a developmental role of catalase in folliculogenesis in fish ovary. The follicular homogenates from large follicles showed higher (9.45  0.64 units\\/mg protein) catalase-specific activity than the

Rahul Behl

2006-01-01

26

Multimarker approach analysis in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three freshwater sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the response of a multimarker approach in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three Tunisian dam lakes selected according to different environmental and ecological characteristics. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed in carp liver and used as a phase II detoxification enzyme, hepatic metallothionein\\u000a content (MTs) was used as a metallic stress indicator,

Sofiene Tlili; Jamel Jebali; Mohamed Banni; Zohra Haouas; Ammar Mlayah; Ahmed Noureddine Helal; Hamadi Boussetta

2010-01-01

27

Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a number of experiments were carried out to 1) investigate the validity of

M. Tanck

2000-01-01

28

Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling

1997-01-01

29

Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging

J. Schwaiger; O. H Spieser; C. Bauer; H. Ferling; U. Mallow; W. Kalbfus; R. D. Negele

2000-01-01

30

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

31

The toxic effects of pyrethroid deltamethrin on the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) embryos and larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a pollutant, was investigated in the present study for toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp, Cyprinus carpio as a model. The control and five test experiments were repeated five times. The water temperature in the experimental units was kept at 24±1°C. The number of dead embryos significantly increased

Kenan Köprücü; Rahmi Ayd?n

2004-01-01

32

Changes of intestinal mucus glycoproteins after peroral application of Aeromonas hydrophila to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucus forms a biofilm that protects the underlying epithelium. Interactions between this mucus layer and bacteria are important in most infectious diseases. Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, is often isolated during disease outbreaks in fish. This study investigates biochemical properties of intestinal mucus glycoproteins of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in response to peroral application of

Verena Schroers; Maria van der Marel; Henner Neuhaus; Dieter Steinhagen

2009-01-01

33

Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng\\/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects

P. T Hoff; W Van Dongen; E. L Esmans; R Blust; W. M De Coen

2003-01-01

34

Development of 10 tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for population studies in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Ten tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to estimate genetic potential. These markers were tested in the samples from two closely related carp populations (Cyprinus carpio var. xingguonensis and Cyprinus carpio var. wananensis). The number of the alleles ranged from three to nine, and observed and expected hererozygosities varied from 0.207 to 1.000 and from 0.499 to 0.900 in each population, respectively. No evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found, indicating that these markers will be useful for population studies. PMID:21586045

Hou, Ning; Li, Da-Yu; Li, Yong; Lu, Cui-Yun; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

2008-11-01

35

CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is an important pest fish species in Australasia and North America. Carp are widely implicated in freshwater aquatic resource degradation and both the resource management and broader communities are currently seeking effective control measures. We developed CARPSIM, a simple age-based model to simulate the effects of a range of management scenarios. The model simulates change

Paul Brown; Terence I Walker

2004-01-01

36

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

37

Toxic Effects of Cobalt Chloride on Hematological Factors of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate the toxic effects of cobalt chloride on some hematological factors of the carp Cyprinus carpio, such as white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular\\u000a hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. At first, LC50 of cobalt in C. carpio was measured during 96 h after exposure. Also, physicochemical parameters

S. S. Saeedi Saravi; S. Karami; B. Karami; M. Shokrzadeh

2009-01-01

38

THE BIOMECHANICS OF FAST-STARTS DURING ONTOGENY IN THE COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp Cyprinus carpio L. were reared a constant temperature of 20 °C from the larval (7 mm total length) to the juvenile (80 mm) stage. Body morphology and white muscle mass distribution were measured. Fast-start escape responses were recorded using high-speed cinematography from which the velocities, accelerations and hydrodynamic power requirements were estimated. All three measures of fast-start performance

JAMES M. WAKELING; KIRSTY M. KEMP; IAN A. JOHNSTON

39

Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio was injected 108 cfu\\/ml with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. After inoculation, the disease signs began on the 7th day as a haemorrhagic spot at the site of injection and the lesion subsequently progressed in size. After this period, the mortality of infected group was 10±5% daily; hence, they were dip treated

R Harikrishnan; M Nisha Rani; C Balasundaram

2003-01-01

40

Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

41

Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

2012-01-01

42

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

43

Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

44

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

2014-01-01

45

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

Bohm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

46

Predictions on the effect of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine the relationship between common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes. Twelve 50-m 2 in situ experimental enclosures were installed in degraded Cootes Paradise Marsh during the carp spawning period in 1995. Enclosures were stocked with two or three carp of similar size, ranging from 13 to 59 cm and

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Barb Crosbie; Patricia Chow-Fraser

1998-01-01

47

Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) to disturbance by Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November–April). The level\\u000a of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators\\u000a of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and

Lukáš Poledník; Ji?í ?ehulka; Andreas Kranz; Kate?ina Poledníková; Václav Hlavá?; Hana Kazihnitková

2008-01-01

48

Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn

1998-01-01

49

Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi) variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp) to 32% (koi) and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication.

David, Lior; Rosenberg, Noah A; Lavi, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W; Hillel, Jossi

2007-01-01

50

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

51

Dietary ascorbic acid needs of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

As some controversy seem to exist regarding the dietary essentiality of ascorbic acid (AA) for larval cyprinids, a study was conducted to determine the dietary AA requirements with first-feeding larvae of common carp. Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0, 10, 30, 90, 270, 810 mg kg?1) of AA supplied as ascorbyl polyphosphate. Triplicate groups of 250

M.-F Gouillou-Coustans; P Bergot; S. J Kaushik

1998-01-01

52

Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Cultured in Earthen Ponds in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative estimation of bacterial flora present in pond water, sediments, gills, and intestine of healthy common carp Cyprinus carpio cultured in Saudi Arabia were performed and identified to species level where possible. Mean total viable bacterial counts in pond water ranged from 1.2?±?2.9?×?10 to 2.5?±?3.5?×?10 cfu\\/mL; in sediments, 9.3?±?2.1?×?10 to 2.7?±?3.5?×?10 cfu\\/g; in gills filaments, 4.3?±?2.9?×?10 to 1.6?±?3.9?×?10

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi; M. Naim Uddin

2008-01-01

53

Detrimental effects of metronidazole on selected innate immunological indicators in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The widely used antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) was investigated for its toxic effects on the innate immunity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were exposed to MTZ at nominal concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg L(-1) in water for 30 days, followed by a 5-days of cleanout period, after which certain innate immunity parameters were measured. The results showed that under the tested concentrations, MTZ-exposed fish exhibited decline in several humoral and cellular parameters, including complement activity, lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, total serum protein levels, total WBC count, and the respiratory burst activity of kidney leukocytes. Except for total serum proteins, all of these parameters showed a significant difference in the 2.5 mg L(-1) MTZ group compared to control group (p < 0.05). The results clearly support the contention that MTZ suppresses the innate immunity of common carp. PMID:24326676

Han, Junyan; Zhang, Lizhu; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

2014-02-01

54

Effects of bifenthrin on some haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bifenthrin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The 96-h LC50 value of Talstar EC 10 (active substance 100 g l(-1) bifenthrin) was found to be 57.5 microg l(-1). Examination of haematological and biochemical profiles and histological tissue examination was performed on common carp after 96 h of exposure to Talstar EC 10 (57.5 microg l(-1)). The experimental group showed significantly higher (P < 0.01) values of plasma glucose, ammonia, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase as well as the relative and absolute monocyte count, compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed teleangioectasiae of secondary gill lamellae and degeneration of hepatocytes. The bifenthrin-based Talstar EC 10 pesticide preparation was classified as a substance strongly toxic for fish. PMID:18766454

Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Machova, J

2009-11-01

55

Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the first i.p. injection (condition 1); another group received two i.p. injections with a 24h of interval between each one and was killed 48h after the first injection (condition 2) and a third group received one i.p. injection and was killed 48h latter (condition 3). Results showed that LA was effective in promoting an increase in GSTs gene transcription in liver only in the condition 2. A second experiment was done, where carp pre-treated with LA (condition 2) were gavaged twice with a 24h interval with 50?g MC/kg. Ninety-six hours after experiment beginning, carp were killed, and organs were dissected. Results of GST activity in liver and brain suggest that LA can be a useful chemoprotection agent against MC induced toxicity, stimulating detoxification through the increment of GST activity (brain) or through reversion of GST inhibition (liver). PMID:21586338

Amado, Lílian L; Garcia, Márcia L; Pereira, Talita C B; Yunes, João S; Bogo, Maurício R; Monserrat, José M

2011-09-01

56

Behavioral response of carp, Cyprinus carpio , and black bullhead, Ictalurus melas , from Italy to gas supersaturated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine chambered circular apparatus (rosette) was used to test the ability of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) from Italy, to detect and avoid lethal concentrations of gas supersaturated water. These species are important food fish and are being considered for mass culture in warm water discharges in Italy. Neither species immediately avoided gas supersaturated water. Although

Robert H. Gray; Thomas L. Page; Marco G. Saroglia

1983-01-01

57

Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel

2003-01-01

58

RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

59

Cytokeratin-filament expression in epithelial and non-epithelial tissues of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokeratin expression in mammals is generally restricted to epithelial cells and has been utilized to differentiate epithelial from nonepithelial tissues in these species. Since cytokeratins have been shown to be highly conserved during vertebrate evolution, the objective of the present study has been to ascertain the expression pattern of cytokeratins in tissues of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). A panel

Joseph M. Groff; Diane K. Naydan; Robert J. Higgins; Joseph G. Zinkl

1997-01-01

60

Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 ?g/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI) and factor condition (K) were determined. The total cytocrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A isoform, and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were determined from the hepatic microsomal fraction as well as the activity of the oxidative stress enzyme system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Among the parameters assessed, EDS at the sublethal concentration in subchronic exposure caused significant changes in liver somatic indices as well as induction of the phase I biotransformation system and oxidative stress in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Thus, it is seen that the use of biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in this study proved to be an extremely important tool for detecting the adverse effects of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment, even at low concentration. PMID:22702825

Salvo, Lígia M; Bainy, Afonso C D; Ventura, Eliana C; Marques, Maria R F; Silva, José Roberto M C; Klemz, Cláudio; Silva de Assis, Helena C

2012-01-01

61

Effects of Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio') on Submerged Macrophytes and Water Quality in a Backwater Lake on the Upper Mississippi River. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Macrophyte populations have recently decreased in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). This decline may be due to abiotic factors, such as a reduction in nutrients; however, biotic factors are also suspect. The common carp Cyprinus carpio has been reported ...

S. J. Bellrichard

1996-01-01

62

A linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important fish for aquaculture, but genomics of this species is still in its infancy. In this study, a linkage map of common carp based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (SSR) markers has been generated using gynogenetic haploids. Of 926 markers genotyped, 151 (149 AFLPs, two SSRs) were distorted and eliminated from the linkage analyses. A total of 699 AFLP and 20 microsatellite (SSR) markers were assigned to the map, which comprised 64 linkage groups and covered 5506.9 cM Kosambi, with an average interval distance of 7.66 cM Kosambi. The normality tests on interval map distances showed a non-normal marker distribution. Visual inspection of the map distance distribution histogram showed a cluster of interval map distances on the left side of the chart, which suggested the occurrence of AFLP marker clusters. On the other hand, the lack of an obvious cluster on the right side showed that there were a few big gaps which need more markers to bridge. The correlation analysis showed a highly significant relatedness between the length of linkage group and the number of markers, indicating that the AFLP markers in this map were randomly distributed among different linkage groups. This study is helpful for research into the common carp genome and for further studies of genetics and marker-assisted breeding in this species. PMID:19917040

Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Wang, D; Tong, J

2010-04-01

63

Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

2012-10-15

64

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

65

Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

66

Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.

2012-01-01

67

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

2012-01-01

68

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g(- 1) dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g(- 1) dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g(- 1) dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?(13)C, ?(15)N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

2012-03-29

69

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) vitellogenin: characterization of yolk proteins, development of immunoassays and use as biomarker of exposure to environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The precursor protein of egg yolk, vitellogenin (Vg), is cleaved into three major components (lipovitellin, phosvitin and beta'-component) at the time of incorporation by growing oocytes. We purified three yolk proteins (YP1, YP2 and YP3) from ovaries of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by a combined method of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. Biochemical analyses of the purified proteins of this species suggest that YP1, YP2 and YP3 are lipovitellin, beta'-component and phosvitin, respectively. A specific antiserum against purified carp YP1 (lipovitellin) was used to develop a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for carp Vg. By SRID and ELISA, we measured the circulating carp Vg level to be in the ranges of 12.5-400 microg/ml and 2.0-1000 ng/ml, respectively, which cover a wide range of Vg levels. From 1997-1998, male and female carp were captured at points of effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant connected to the Tama River, where estrogenic compounds were later detected, and the presence of Vg in their circulation was examined. Vg was detected in both male and female carp at the mg/ml level, suggesting that estrogens such as estrone and estradiol were sufficiently high to induce Vg in male carp inhabiting this area. The result of this study supports the use of carp Vg as a biomarker of fish exposure to environmental estrogens. PMID:17585296

Hara, Akihiko; Hirano, Kaori; Shimizu, Munetaka; Fukada, Haruhisa; Fujita, Toshiaki; Ito, Fuminari; Takada, Hideshige; Nakamura, Masaru; Iguchi, Taisen

2007-01-01

70

Diclofenac-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill and blood of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Due to its analgesic properties, diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While residue from this pharmaceutical agent has been found in diverse water bodies in various countries, there is not enough information of its potential toxicity on aquatic organisms, particularly in species which are economically valuable due to their high consumption by humans, such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This study aimed to evaluate potential DCF-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill and blood of C. carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96h (96-h LC50) was determined and used to establish the concentration equivalent to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Carp specimens were exposed to this concentration for different exposure times (12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h) and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF and 4-hydroxy DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Results show a statistically significant LPX increase (P<0.05) in liver and gill mainly as well as significant changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes evaluated in these organs, with respect to controls (P<0.05). The DCF concentrations decreased in water system and increased in the carp. The DCF biotransformation to 4-hydroxy DCF was observed to 12h. The pharmaceutical agent DCF is concluded to induce oxidative stress on the common carp C. carpio, with the highest incidence of oxidative damage occurring in liver and gill. Furthermore, the biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:23474065

Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Colín-Cruz, Arturo; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; García-Medina, Sandra

2013-06-01

71

Evaluation of the effects induced by dietary diphenyl diselenide on common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Several diets employed in aquaculture are enriched with selenium (Se), as it is a fundamental element to aquatic vertebrates. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)?], which is a synthetic organoselenium compound, has been considered a potential antioxidant agent in different experimental models. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg for 60 days and to determine its optimal supplemental level for carp, Cyprinus carpio. Neither growth retardation nor hepatoxicity was induced by the inclusion of diphenyl diselenide at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mg/kg. In addition, the inclusion of 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide stimulated the weight and length of the carp. The supplementation with 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide did not produce oxidative damage in the tissues, verified by peroxidation lipid and protein carbonyl assays. However, at 5.0 mg/kg, it caused an increase of the lipid peroxidation in the liver, brain, and muscle, and inhibited the cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. An increase of the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and non-protein thiols content in all tissues and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, and brain was verified in carp fed with the diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide. This diet had advantageous effects for the fish used in experiments. Therefore, this compound could be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for carp nutrition. PMID:23877622

Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Santi, Adriana; Dias, Glaecir; Pedron, Fábio Araújo; Neto, João Radünz; Salman, Syed Mahammad; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

2014-02-01

72

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

73

Effects of sub-chronic exposure to terbutryn in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The sub-chronic effects of terbutryn at concentrations 0.02 (reported concentration in Czech rivers), 4, 20, and 40 microg L(-1) were assessed in one-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed for 28 days and compared to a non-treated control group. Its influence on biometric parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histology was investigated. Exposure to terbutryn at 0.02 microg L(-1) showed no observable effect, whereas exposure to 4, 20, and 40 microg L(-1) showed significantly higher erythrocyte counts, ammonia levels, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and lactate, but significantly lower mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and creatine. Cell shape changes and lipid inclusions were found in hepatocytes, and there was destruction of caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish. PMID:19906425

Velisek, J; Sudova, E; Machova, J; Svobodova, Z

2010-03-01

74

Genetic effects and genotype × environment interactions for growth-related traits in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diallel cross was conducted with three variants of red common carp, Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis, C. carpio var. wuyuanensis and C. carpio var. color, raised in two separate experimental stations. Additive effects, dominance effects, additive×environment (A×E) and dominance×environment (D×E) interactions of growth-related traits of 8-month-old fish were estimated by using a mixed genetic model. It was found that the

Cheng-hui Wang; Si-fa Li

2007-01-01

75

Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

Ferdinand A. Sibbing

1988-01-01

76

Subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to Microcystis under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was investigated in this study. The fish (mean body weight of 322±36g, n=10) were orally exposed to Microcystis by feeding with bloom scum at a dose of 50?g microcystins\\/kg body weight under laboratory conditions for 28 days. Growth assay results showed that microcystin could completely inhibit the growth

Xiao-Yu Li; Ik-Kyo Chung; Jung-In Kim; Jin-Ae Lee

2004-01-01

77

Temperature acclimation and the expression of contractile protein isoforms in the skeletal muscles of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were acclimated to either 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, 20, or 23°C for 12 weeks (12 h light: 12 h dark). Fish did not feed after 6 weeks at temperatures below 8°C. Skinned fibres were prepared from fast myotomal muscle by freeze-drying. Measured at 0°C unloaded contraction velocity (Vmax) and maximum isometric tension generation (Po)

Tony Crockford; Ian A. Johnston

1990-01-01

78

The effect of sublethal levels of copper on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of 15–30 g body weight were exposed to copper levels of 0.22 ± 0.07, 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.84 ± 0.35 ?mol · l?1. Oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion were determined repeatedly for up to 2 weeks of exposure to copper. Critical oxygen concentrations for oxygen consumption as well as for ammonia excretion were determined after

Gudrun De Boeck; Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust

1995-01-01

79

Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin. PMID:24271879

Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

2014-06-01

80

Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis. PMID:24326265

Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

2014-03-01

81

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio female x Cyprinus carpio male) fed different carbohydrate diets.  

PubMed

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6±0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ?×Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7±0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each. The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g(?1) (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content to 10.1 and 1.5%, respectively. In black carp, the interactions between the carbohydrate type and level were found in oxygen consumption at 3 and 6 h and in ammonia excretion at 6 h after feeding. At 20% carbohydrate, no significant difference was observed between dextrin and glucose in oxygen consumption. However, at 40% carbohydrate, oxygen consumption in fish fed glucose was significantly higher than that in fish fed dextrin at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Within the dextrin diets, no significant differences in both oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were detected between the two carbohydrate levels. Within the glucose diets, however, fish fed 40% glucose showed significantly higher oxygen consumption than those fed 20% glucose at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Ammonia excretion in black carp fed 40% glucose was higher than that in black carp fed 40% dextrin at 6 h and also found higher than those in the other three treatments at 24 h after feeding. The postprandial oxygen consumption and the ammonia excretion in crucian carp fed 40% glucose were the highest, but no significant differences were observed. Our data indicate that the escalation of glucose to 40% in a fish diet results in high oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in black carp, suggesting that the efficiency of glucose as an energy source for this fish is compromised by the high metabolic expenditure after feeding. Crucian carp, on the other hand, have a better ability to cope with dietary carbohydrates. PMID:20390347

Cai, Chun Fang; Ye, Yuan Tu; Chen, Li Qiao; Qin, Jian Guang; Wang, Yong Ling

2010-12-01

82

A consensus linkage map provides insights on genome character and evolution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is cultured worldwide and is a major contributor to the world's aquaculture production. The common carp has a complex tetraploidized genome, which may historically experience additional whole genome duplication than most other Cyprinids. Fine maps for female and male carp were constructed using a mapping panel containing one F1 family with 190 progeny. A total of 1,025 polymorphic markers were used to construct genetic maps. For the female map, 559 microsatellite markers in 50 linkage groups cover 3,468 cM of the genome. For the male map, 383 markers in 49 linkage groups cover 1,811 cM of the genome. The consensus map was constructed by integrating the new map with two published linkage maps, containing 732 markers and spanning 3,278 cM in 50 linkage groups. The number of consensus linkage groups corresponds to the number of common carp chromosomes. A significant difference on sex recombinant rate was observed that the ratio of female and male recombination rates was 4.2:1. Comparative analysis was performed between linkage map of common carp and genome of zebrafish (Danio rerio), which revealed clear 2:1 relationship of common carp linkage groups and zebrafish chromosomes. The results provided evidence that common carp did experienced a specific whole genome duplication event comparing with most other Cyprinids. The consensus linkage map provides an important tool for genetic and genome study of common carp and facilitates genetic selection and breeding for common carp industry. PMID:23073608

Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Zhao, Zixia; Zhao, Lan; Li, Chao; Jiang, Li; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-06-01

83

Corticosteroid receptors involved in stress regulation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone, teleostean fishes do have an MR with cortisol and possibly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) (as alternative for aldosterone) as predominant ligands. We studied corticoid receptors in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Through homology cloning and bioinformatic analysis, we found duplicated GR genes and a single MR gene. The GR genes likely result from a major genomic duplication event in the teleostean lineage; we propose that the gene for a second MR was lost. Transactivation studies show that the carp GRs and MR have comparable affinity for cortisol; the MR has significantly higher sensitivity to DOC, and this favours a role for DOC as MR ligand in fish physiology. mRNA of the GRs and the MR is expressed in forebrain (in pallial areas homologous to mammalian hippocampus), corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) cells in the pre-optic nucleus (NPO) and pituitary pars distalis ACTH cells, three key neural/endocrine components of the stress axis. After exposure to prolonged and strong (not to mild acute) stressors, mRNA levels of both GRs and MR become down-regulated in the brain, but not in the NPO CRH cells or pituitary ACTH cells. Our data predicts a function in stress physiology for all CRs and suggest telencephalon as a first line cortisol target in stress. PMID:18505847

Stolte, Ellen H; de Mazon, Aurélia F; Leon-Koosterziel, Karen M; Jesiak, Maria; Bury, Nic R; Sturm, Armin; Savelkoul, Huub F J; van Kemenade, B M Lidy Verburg; Flik, Gert

2008-08-01

84

Toxic effects of cobalt chloride on hematological factors of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the toxic effects of cobalt chloride on some hematological factors of the carp Cyprinus carpio, such as white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. At first, LC50 of cobalt in C. carpio was measured during 96 h after exposure. Also, physicochemical parameters of water including pH, dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, and conductivity were monitored, continuously. The results showed that LC50 values of cobalt in C. carpio were 327 and 328 mg/L in two replicates, respectively. Then, the changes in some hematological factors in the five treatment groups placed under concentration of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L cobalt were compared with the control group. Based on hematological tests conducted in this research, exposure of carp to 500- and 300-mg/L concentrations of cobalt in 48 h showed significant difference (p<0.05) in white blood cell count. The concentration of 500 mg/L cobalt in 24 h showed a significant difference in the amount of hemoglobin, number of red blood cells, and hematocrit level as compared with the control group. The concentration of 100 mg/L cobalt in 48 h did not show a significant difference in comparison with the control group (p>0.05). Also, the concentration of 500 mg/L cobalt in 24 h showed a significant difference in the amount of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin as compared with the control group and other treatments. Also, the percentage of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a concentration of 200 mg/L cobalt in 24 h showed a significant difference as compared with the control group and other treatments. PMID:19415186

Saeedi Saravi, S S; Karami, S; Karami, B; Shokrzadeh, M

2009-12-01

85

Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.

1998-01-01

86

The effects of diclofenac on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Diclofenac residues have been found in surface water, and thus could present a potential risk to aquatic species. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diclofenac on the mortality, growth, and development of fish, as well as the impact of the drug on histological changes and selected parameters of oxidative stress in the fish. Subchronic toxic effects of diclofenac at concentrations of 0.015, 0.03, 1, and 3mg/L on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test under experimental conditions. Exposure to diclofenac at 3mg/L was associated with increased mortality, increased activity of glutathione S-transferase, and decreased activity of glutathione reductase. Decreases in the levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were associated with concentrations ? 0.03 mg/L. Based on these results a no observed effect concentration (NOEC)=0.015 mg/L and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC)=0.03 mg/L were generated. PMID:23501605

Stepanova, Stanislava; Praskova, Eva; Chromcova, Lucie; Plhalova, Lucie; Prokes, Miroslav; Blahova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

2013-05-01

87

Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A

2012-09-01

88

[Screening cold-acclimation differential expression candidate genes in the brain of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].  

PubMed

In this study, 26 candidate genes were quantified and normalized in the brain cDNA of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at 23°C and 6°C using double-standard curve method of real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that five candidates up-regulated in the samples at 6°C (P<0.01) and quantified 2.11, 13.9, 2.52, 7.38, and 1.83 times more than in the samples at 23°C, respectively. Gene function searching indicated that the protein products of these five candidates were elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein, Acyl-CoA desaturase, Transcription initiation factor IIB, Myo-inositol- 1-phosphate synthase, and Blood-brain barrier HT7 antigen individually. Moreover, seven down-regulated candidates were also identified in the same samples at 6°C (P>0.05), and their expression levels were decreased by 21.8%, 25.9%, 16.6%, 23.7%, 15.8%, 16.3%, and 42.5%, respectively, in comparison with the samples at 23°C. These seven down-regulated candidates mainly participated in the inhibition of glycolysis, improvement of cell apoptosis, and intervention of synapse remodeling based on the results of function searching. The five cold-induced genes identified in this study will be used as important elements for fish with cold sensitive through transgenic technology in future. PMID:21402535

Xu, Li-Hua; Chang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Chun-Lei; Liang, Li-Qun; Liu, Jin-Liang; Chi, Bing-Jie

2011-03-01

89

Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

2012-01-01

90

Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

2013-01-01

91

In vivo effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on innate immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using three different concentrations of DON (352?gkg(-1), 619?gkg(-1), and 953?gkg(-1) final feed, respectively) which are comparable to levels found in commercial fish feeds. Effects on growth and mass of fish were not observed during this 6weeks lasting experiment. Only marginal DON concentrations were found in muscle and plasma samples. Blood parameters were not influenced although smaller erythrocytes occurred in fish treated with 352?gkg(-1) DON. Analysis of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes showed increased superoxid dismutase and catalase activities in fish fed the low-dose feed. Immunosuppressive effects of DON were confirmed whereby cytotoxic effects on immune cells only partly explained the impairment of innate immune responses. Exact polarization of the immune system into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses due to DON exposure should be clarified in further experiments, especially since the current results raise concern about impaired immune function in fish raised in aquaculture. PMID:24650758

Pietsch, Constanze; Michel, Christian; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-06-01

92

Retroperitoneal hemangiosarcoma in a common carp Cyprinus carpio: a case report.  

PubMed

A 7.5 kg common carp Cyprinus carpio presented with prominent localized swelling in the caudal right coelomic area, identified by ultrasound as a fluid filled mass. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and culture results suggested a sterile seroma. Centesis removed 290 ml of serosanguinous fluid that returned within days. Recheck ultrasonography revealed a solid component within the cavity. Radiography demonstrated irregular lysis and misalignment of vertebrae adjacent to the mass, most suggestive of bacterial osteitis or neoplasia. Treatment with antibiotics followed for 2 mo but failed to resolve the lesion. Repeated radiography and ultrasonography showed progressive enlargement of the mass, with vertebral lysis and invasion characteristic of neoplasia. Ultrasound-guided FNA of the solid component of the mass was non-diagnostic. Euthanasia was elected due to the poor clinical response and primary differential of neoplasia. Post-mortem MRI and CT confirmed a retroperitoneal soft tissue mass, partially surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity, causing vertebral lysis and infiltration of the spinal canal. Expansion of the mass caused severe muscle loss and an associated elevation in creatine kinase (>120000 U l-1). Necropsy results corroborated the MRI and CT findings, revealing a retroperitoneal, multilobular, red and tan mass causing dorsal displacement of the vertebral column, with vertebral lysis, pathologic fracture and invasion of the spinal canal. Histopathologic examination revealed a locally aggressive neoplasm exhibiting multiple patterns of growth, including endothelial lined vascular channels and solid areas formed by more pleomorphic polygonal and spindle cells, consistent with hemangiosarcoma. PMID:24334357

Hyatt, Michael W; Clauss, Tonya M; Dennison, Sophie E; Camus, Alvin C

2013-12-12

93

The ontogeny of mucosal immune cells in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The ontogeny of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune cells was studied in mucosal organs (intestine, gills and skin) using the monoclonal antibodies WCL38 (intraepithelial lymphocytes), WCL15 (monocytes/macrophages) and WCI12 (B cells). In addition, recombination activating gene 1 expression was examined in the intestine with real time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization to investigate extrathymic generation of lymphocytes. WCL38(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes (putative T cells) appeared in the intestine at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf), which is shortly after hatching but before feeding, implying an important function at early age. These lymphoid cells appear in the intestine before the observation of the first thymocytes at 3-4 dpf, and together with the expression of recombination activating gene 1 in the intestine, suggests that similar to mammals at least part of these cells are generated in the intestine. WCL15(+)monocytes/macrophages appeared in the lamina propria of the intestine at 7 dpf, but considerably later in the epithelium, while WCI12(+) (B) cells appeared in intestine and gills at 6-7 weeks. From these results it can be concluded that putative T cells occur much earlier than B cells, and that B cells appear much later in the mucosae than in other internal lymphoid organs (2 wpf). PMID:16328358

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Romano, Nicla; Van Oosterhoud, Carolien N; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Mastrolia, Lucia; Van Muiswinkel, Willem B; Rombout, Jan H W M

2006-01-01

94

Molecular characterization of hepcidin gene in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its expression pattern responding to bacterial challenge.  

PubMed

Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide (AMP), which plays an important role in host innate immune system and iron regulation. A great many of hepcidin genes have been identified from vertebrates, including various fish species. Here we report the cloning and identification of a hepcidin cDNA from the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length cDNA of the common carp hepcidin was 647 bp, which contained an ORF of 276 bp encoding a prepropeptide of 91 amino acid residues. The predicted preprohepcidin consisted of three domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acids, a prodomain of 42 amino acids and a mature peptide of 25 amino acids, which containd eight cysteine residues at the identical conserved position. The genomic organization of common carp hepcidin was identified, which contained three exons and two introns, similarly to corresponding genes in mammals and other fish species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that hepcidins were conserved in different species, and common carp hepcidin was type 1 hepcidin according to the phylogenetic tree, which had the highest identity with mud loach and zebrafish. Real-time PCR assay showed that the hepcidin gene was mostly expressed in liver, and expressed in all the other tested tissues of common carp in different levels. When challenged with pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp hepcidin was quickly up-regulated in liver, spleen, head kidney and hindgut, implying that hepcidin may be an important component of the innate immune system of common carp and involved in mucosal immune response against invading pathogens. PMID:23851290

Li, Hua; Zhang, Fumiao; Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jinduo; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

2013-09-01

95

Dynamics of (Cd,Zn)-metallothioneins in gills, liver and kidney of common carp Cyprinus carpio during cadmium exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium concentrations, (Cd,Zn)-metallothionein (MT) concentrations, MT synthesis and the relative amounts of cadmium bound to (Cd,Zn)-MTs were determined in gills, liver and kidney of common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to 0, 0.5 ?M (0.06 mg.l?1), 2.5 ?M (0.28 mg.l?1) and 7 ?M (0.79 mg.l?1) Cd for up to 29 days. Cadmium accumulation was in the order kidney>liver>gills. Control levels of

Hans De Smet; Bart De Wachter; Richard Lobinski; Ronny Blust

2001-01-01

96

Effect of delayed icing on biogenic amines formation and bacterial contribution of iced common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine) were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05) more than those with 0 and 4 h delay. PMID:24352007

Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hamzeh, Ali; Moslemi, Mehran; Lashkan, Aria Babakhani; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesús

2013-01-01

97

Increased leptin expression in common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation.  

PubMed

Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate leptin genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The unique gene structure, the conservation of both cysteines that form leptin's single disulfide bridge, and stable clustering in phylogenetic analyses substantiate the unambiguous orthology of mammalian and carp leptins, despite low amino acid identity. The liver is a major yet not the only site of leptin expression. However, neither 6 d nor 6 wk of fasting nor subsequent refeeding affected hepatic leptin expression, although the carp predictably shifted from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism. Animals that were fed to satiation grew twice as fast as controls; however, they did not show increased leptin expression at the termination of the study. Hepatic leptin expression did, however, display an acute and transient postprandial increase that follows the postprandial plasma glucose peak. In summary, leptin mRNA expression in carp changes acutely after food intake, but involvement of leptin in the long-term regulation of food intake and energy metabolism was not evident from fasting for days or weeks or long-term feeding to satiation. These are the first data on the regulation of leptin expression in any nonmammalian species. PMID:16935838

Huising, Mark O; Geven, Edwin J W; Kruiswijk, Corine P; Nabuurs, Sander B; Stolte, Ellen H; Spanings, F A Tom; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy; Flik, Gert

2006-12-01

98

Effects of Different Oxygen Saturation on Activity of Complex Biomass and Aqueous Crude Extract of Cyanobacteria During Embryonal Development in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palíková M., R. Krejãí, K. Hilscherová, B. Bur?‰ková, P. Babica, S. Navrátil, R. Kopp, L. Bláha: Effects of Different Oxygen Saturation on Activity of Complex Biomass and Aqueous Crude Extract of Cyanobacteria During Embryonal Development in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 291-299. This study evaluates the effects of different oxygen concentrations on the toxicity of complex

M. Palíková; R. Krej?í; K. Hilscherová; B. Burýšková; P. Babica; S. Navrátil; R. Kopp; L. Bláha

2007-01-01

99

Performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in integrated rice–fish culture in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated rice fields have enormous potential for expanding the aquaculture production in rice producing countries. Two field experiments were carried out at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, to optimize the productivity of integrated rice–fish systems using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Both experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three

M. Frei; M. A. Razzak; M. M. Hossain; M. Oehme; S. Dewan; K. Becker

2007-01-01

100

Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels  

SciTech Connect

The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

2000-03-01

101

High affinity of cadmium and copper to head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate bioaccumulation of metals in various tissues of the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cadmium and copper (a xenobiotic and a microelement). The fish were subjected to short-term (3 h, Cd-S and Cu-S) or long-term (4 weeks, Cd-L and Cu-L) exposures to 100 % 96hLC?? or 10 % 96hLC??, respectively. Blood, gill, liver, head and trunk kidney were isolated weekly from 5 fish of each group for 4 weeks (post-short-term exposure and during long-term exposure). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique was applied to measure concentrations of metals (Cd and Cu) in fish tissues. Initial concentrations of copper in fish tissues were higher than levels of cadmium. Cadmium and copper levels increased in all tissues of metal-exposed fish. After short-term exposures (at higher concentration) and during long-term exposures (at lower concentration), similar changes in metal concentrations were observed. The values of accumulation factor (ratio of final to initial metal concentration) were higher for cadmium as compared to copper. Comparison of metal levels and accumulation factors in various tissues revealed that cadmium and copper showed very high affinity to head kidney of common carp (higher than to other tissues), but accumulation factors for cadmium in trunk, head kidney and liver were much higher than for copper. The concentrations of copper in organs of Cu-exposed fish increased only slightly and quickly returned to the control level, which shows that fish organism easily buffered metal level. On the other hand, concentrations of cadmium considerably increased and remained elevated for a long time which suggests that activation of mechanisms of sequestration and elimination of cadmium required more time. PMID:23756826

Kondera, El?bieta; ?ugowska, Katarzyna; Sarnowski, Piotr

2014-02-01

102

The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, Yeast DNA (containing unmethylated CpG motifs) or high-M alginate (an extract of algae containing poly-mannuronic acid) were used. The effect of this treatment was studied on the kinetics of B cells in head kidney and peripheral blood leucocytes using flow cytometry, on the total plasma IgM level using ELISA, on cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the intestine, and acute phase protein expression in the liver, using real time quantitative PCR, and on exposure to Vibrio anguillarum. Oral administration of immuno-stimulants from 6 wpf resulted in decreased WCI12(+) (B) cell percentages in PBL (only after administration of LPS) and head kidney (all test groups), and a decreased total IgM level in plasma, suggesting that suppressive effects are strongly indicative of oral or juvenile tolerance. After administration from 2 wpf, the effects on WCI12(+) (B) cell percentages were less pronounced: the group fed with Yeast DNA showed higher percentages compared to the control group at 6 wpf, but lower percentages at 8 wpf. No changes were observed in the cytokine or iNOS expression levels in the intestine or acute phase protein expression in the liver. A challenge with V. anguillarum resulted in an initially higher cumulative mortality in the group fed with LPS, but lower mortality in the groups fed with Yeast DNA or high-M alginate compared to the control group, providing a provisional warning especially for the use of pathogen-derived immuno-stimulants, such as A. salmonicida LPS, in larval and juvenile fish. PMID:16476554

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Ribeiro, Ana S P; Bowden, Timothy J; Van Bavel, Casandra; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Rombout, Jan H W M

2006-09-01

103

Characterization and expression pattern of a novel ?-defensin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): implications for its role in mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

?-defensins are a group of cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptides that play antibacterial and antiviral roles in immune systems of vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and identification of a ?-defensin 3 cDNA sequence from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this ?-defensin 3 belonged to the BD-2 group of fish. Real-time PCR showed that the ?-defensin 3 mRNA was expressed in all the tissues of normal common carp that we examined and was highly expressed in the spleen and gills. When challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp ?-defensin 3 mRNA was quickly upregulated in various tissues. Our results indicate that the ?-defensin 3 showed markedly high constitutive expression in the gills, and significantly upregulated expression in the hindgut of the common carp after infection, suggesting it plays an important role in the innate and mucosal immunity of common carp. PMID:25036829

Li, Hua; Guo, Hongyan; Shan, Shijuan; Qi, Chenchen; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

2014-03-01

104

Daily cycles in plasma melatonin levels under long or short photoperiod in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for plasma melatonin (MLT) was simplified for use with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Plasma was partially purified with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge before RIA. The inhibition curves for the Sep-Pak C18 fraction from the plasma of carp, goldfish (Carassius auratus), yellow tail (Seriola quinqueradiata), Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), bora (Mugil cephalus cephalus), kisu (Sillago japonica), ishigarei (Kareius bicoloratus), and shimaisaki (Rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus) were parallel with the MLT standard curve. There was a highly significant correlation between MLT added to carp plasma and that which was recovered (r = 0.997, P less than 0.01). Intraassay coefficients of variation at low, medium, and high levels were 4.7, 5.2, and 6.4, respectively. Interassay coefficients of variation at low, medium, and high levels were 11.8, 8.2, and 24.1%, respectively. The lower limit of detection was 11 pg/tube. Plasma MLT levels were investigated every 2 hr in carp under 16L-8D and 8L-16D at 24 degrees. Under both photoperiods, MLT levels showed marked daily patterns, i.e., the levels were high (220-540 pg/ml) during the dark phase and low (23-104 pg/ml) during the light phase. Tricaine methanesulfonate markedly interfered with the MLT measurements, while ethylcarbamate did not show any significant influence. Sexual difference in plasma MLT levels in carp was not observed. These observations suggest that MLT is an important hormone in photoperiodism and/or a circadian rhythm in fish. PMID:3197949

Kezuka, H; Furukawa, K; Aida, K; Hanyu, I

1988-11-01

105

Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger

1970-01-01

106

Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation) associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature) and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important functions, especially reproduction and fish condition. Host immunity measures were not found to be in a trade-off with the investigated physiological traits or functions, but we confirmed the immunosuppressive role of 11-ketotestosterone on fish immunity measured by complement activity. We suggest that the different parasite life-strategies influence different aspects of host physiology and activate the different immunity pathways.

2011-01-01

107

Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to ?g L(-1). In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4±9.2, 7.3±1.5 and 4.8±0.2 mg L(-1) for embryos (E5-E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 ?g L(-1). Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 ?g L(-1) of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF>500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2±1.6 days and 44.2±8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23727993

Steinbach, Christoph; Fedorova, Ganna; Prokes, Miroslav; Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

2013-09-01

108

Effects of long-term exposure to simazine in real concentrations on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of a 90 day simazine exposure at concentrations of 0.06 (reported concentration in Czech rivers), 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ were assessed in one-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Its influence on biometric parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry, liver biomarkers, and histology was investigated. Biometric parameters of common carp exposed to simazine at 0.06 ?g L?¹ showed no differences from untreated fish. Simazine concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ caused significant (p<0.01) increase of hepatosomatic indices relative to controls. Hematological profiles showed significant (p<0.01) decrease in leukocyte count relative to controls at all concentrations. Biochemical profiles of common carp exposed to simazine at all concentrations showed significant (p<0.01) increase in activity of alkaline phosphatase. In addition, at concentrations of 1 and 2 ?g L?¹, there was a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05), and, at 4 ?g L?¹, a significant increase in total protein (p<0.05), albumins (p<0.05), and alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05) compared with controls. Renal histology revealed severe hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of caudal kidney tubules in fish at all exposure levels compared to controls. Chronic exposure of common carp to simazine caused significant shifts in hematological, biochemical, and biometric profiles, and histopathological changes. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of simazine has altered multiple physiological indices in fish hematology and biochemistry, which potentially may be a biomarker of simazine toxicity; however, before these parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual simazine in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future. PMID:22036208

Velisek, J; Stara, A; Machova, J; Svobodova, Z

2012-02-01

109

Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with ?-glucan supplements.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine the action of ?-glucans as feed additives on the gene expression profile of some inflammatory-related cytokines from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during the early stages of a non-lethal bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. ?-glucan (MacroGard(®)), was administered daily to carp (6 mg per kg body weight) in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets for 14 days prior to infection. Control and treated fish were then intraperitoneally injected with PBS or 4×10(8) bacteria per fish and were sampled at time 0 and 6h, 12h, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days post-injection. Head kidney and gut were collected and the gene expression patterns for tnf?1, tnf?2, il1?, il6 and il10 were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that treatment with ?-glucans generally down-regulated the expression of all measured genes when compared to their corresponding controls. After injection, highest changes in the gene expression levels were obtained at 6h; particularly, in head kidney there was higher up-regulation of tnfa1 and tnfa2 in infected fish fed ?-glucans in comparison to control feed; however, in gut there was a significant down-regulation of tnf?1, tnf?2, il1? and il6 in infected fish fed ?-glucans. Analysis of carp specific antibodies against A. salmonicida 30 days after injection revealed their levels were reduced in the infected ?-glucan group. In conclusion, a diet supplemented with ?-glucan (MacroGard(®)) reduced the gene expression levels of some inflammation-related cytokines in common carp. Such a response appears to be dependent of organ studied and therefore the immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potential dangerous response in gut, whilst enhancing the inflammatory response in head kidney when exposed to A. salmonicida. PMID:22406448

Falco, Alberto; Frost, Patrick; Miest, Joanna; Pionnier, Nicolas; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, David

2012-06-01

110

Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

2007-01-01

111

Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

2013-11-01

112

Regulation of interleukin 1 beta RNA expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intron-exon organisation of the carp IL-1? gene consists of 2455bp and comprises seven exons. Three IL-1? RNA transcripts have been found in carp: (1) a fully spliced product; (2) exon 1–7 with introns 5 and 6; and (3) exon 1–7 with intron 5 only. The intron-containing products probably represent partially spliced transcripts. IL-1? mRNA expression in carp was semi-quantitatively

M. Y. Engelsma; R. J. M. Stet; H. Schipper; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

2001-01-01

113

Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. (Visva-Bharati Univ., Santiniketan (India))

1990-09-01

114

Purification and characterization of ? 1 -proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III: major serpins of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchuss mykiss ) and carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) blood plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main serine proteinase inhibitors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma were isolated and purified. The investigated inhibitors, ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI) and antithrombin III (AT III), act by forming stable complexes with target proteinases. The association rate constants\\u000a k\\u000a on for the interaction of fish plasma inhibitors with several serine proteinases have been determined:

B. Mickowska

2009-01-01

115

Analysis of expressed sequence tags (EST) obtained from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., head kidney cells after stimulation by two mitogens, lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative cDNA library from mRNA obtained from lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-induced head kidney cells of carp, Cyprinus carpio, was constructed. Two hundred single pass and partially sequenced clones (AU183343 to AU183542) were generated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and these were searched for homology in the DDBJ\\/GENBANK with blastN and blastX programs. Clones matching known genes were classified according to

Ram Savan; Masahiro Sakai

2002-01-01

116

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

117

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

118

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

119

Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  

PubMed

In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei

2014-06-25

120

Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production. PMID:20646164

Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

2010-08-01

121

Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16?m in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus

122

Effect of ibuprofen exposure on blood, gill, liver, and brain on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using oxidative stress biomarkers.  

PubMed

Although trace concentrations of ibuprofen (IBP) have been detected in diverse water bodies, there is currently insufficient information on the potentially deleterious effects of this xenobiotic. The present study aimed to determine whether IBP induces oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. To this end, the median lethal concentration at 96 h (96-h LC50) was determined and the lowest observed adverse effect level was established. Carp were exposed to the latter concentration (17.6 mg L(-1)) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Results indicated that LPX and antioxidant enzymes' activity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with respect to the control group in liver, gill, and blood, while no significant differences occurred in brain. In conclusion, IBP induced oxidative stress on C. carpio, the liver being the organ most affected by this damage. PMID:24390115

Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Dublán-García, Octavio

2014-04-01

123

Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected.

Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

124

Effects of subchronic exposure to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide on selected biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

125

Effect of chronic exposure to simazine on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

We investigated the chronic effect of simazine, an s-triazine herbicide commonly present in aquatic environments, on the antioxidant system and oxidative stress indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.06 ?g l(-1) (environmental concentration in Czech rivers), 2 mg l(-1), and 4 mg l(-1) for 14, 28 and 60 days. Indices of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH)] in fish brain, gill, muscle, liver, and intestine were measured. Chronic exposure to simazine showed the impact of the increased production of ROS leading to oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in groups with high concentrations (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) increased at 14 and 28 days, but decreased after 60 days exposure (p<0.01) as compared with the control group. Changes in enzyme activity were mainly in the liver, but also in gills and brain. Prolonged exposure to simazine resulted in excess ROS formation finally resulting in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins and also inhibited antioxidant capacities in common carp tissue. PMID:22301164

Stara, Alzbeta; Machova, Jana; Velisek, Josef

2012-03-01

126

SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping innate immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to develop molecular tools for breeding CyHV-3-resistant carp, we have amplified and sequenced 11 candidate genes for viral disease resistance including TLR2, TLR3, TLR4ba, TLR7, TLR9, TLR21, TLR22, MyD88, TRAF6, type I IFN and IL-1beta. For each gene, we initially cloned and sequenced PCR amplicons from 8 to 12 fish (2-3 fish per strain) from the SNP discovery panel. We then identified and evaluated putative SNPs for their polymorphisms in the SNP discovery panel and validated their usefulness for linkage analysis in a full-sib family using the SNaPshot method. Our sequencing results and phylogenetic analyses suggested that TLR3, TLR7 and MyD88 genes are duplicated in the common carp genome. We, therefore, developed locus-specific PCR primers and SNP genotyping assays for the duplicated loci. A total of 48 SNP markers were developed from PCR fragments of the 13 loci (7 single-locus and 3 duplicated genes). Thirty-nine markers were polymorphic with estimated minor allele frequencies of more than 0.1. The utility of the SNP markers was evaluated in one full-sib family and revealed that 20 markers from 9 loci segregated in a disomic and Mendelian pattern and would be useful for linkage analysis. PMID:20420915

Kongchum, Pawapol; Palti, Yniv; Hallerman, Eric M; Hulata, Gideon; David, Lior

2010-08-01

127

Purification and Characterization of ? 1 Proteinase Inhibitor from Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

?1-Proteinase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from carp serum with an increase in specific inhibitory activity of 17-fold\\u000a and a 3% recovery rate. The inhibitor was estimated to have molecular weight of 55,000 under reducing and nonreducing conditions,\\u000a indicating its composition of a single polypeptide. The inhibitor immunologically crossreacted faintly with carp muscular\\u000a serine proteinase inhibitor but had no crossreactivity

Futoshi Aranishi

1999-01-01

128

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

129

Rheological Characteristics and Microstructure of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Surimi and Kamaboko Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is cheap and prolific in Australian waters and is regarded as an aquatic environmental pest. In order to add value\\u000a to this fish species, surimi and kamaboko was prepared from common carp and its rheological and microstructure characteristics\\u000a were compared with those produced from Alaska pollock and threadfin bream. Temperature sweep tests were run under 100-Pa stress\\u000a and

Ali Jafarpour; Elisabeth M. Gorczyca

2009-01-01

130

Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed Central

Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B

Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

1996-01-01

131

Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Pati?o, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

132

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Oujiang color carp, Cyprinus carpio var. color (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp was determined to be 16,581 bp in length accurately using the next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp shows typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate's mitochondrial genome, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.89% A, 27.53% C, 15.76% G, and 24.82% T with A/T bias of 56.71%. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp provides the basis for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:22920435

Wang, Baosen; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jinsheng; Wang, Chenghui; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-02-01

133

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

134

Effect of different cyanobacterial biomasses and their fractions with variable microcystin content on embryonal development of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

While numerous studies focused on the effects of microcystins, the role of other components of complex cyanobacterial water blooms in toxicity is poorly understood. In this study we have evaluated effects of various fractions of cyanobacterial biomass with different composition and microcystin content on embryolarval development of carp (Cyprinus carpio). The following samples (fractions) of four natural water blooms were prepared and tested: complex cyanobacterial biomass, crude aqueous extract of biomass, cellular pellet remaining from aqueous extract, permeate (i.e. microcystin-free fraction prepared during C-18 solid-phase extraction; SPE), and eluate (i.e. fraction prepared by SPE containing mostly microcystins). Complex biomass and the crude aqueous extract (regardless of microcystin content and/or microcystin variants present) in the sample were the most toxic. On the other hand, eluate fractions of all samples containing microcystins in concentrations 8-255 microgL(-1) induced no or only weak toxic effects. Exposures of fish to permeate fractions (with removed microcystins) of two samples dominated by Aphanizomenon sp. and Planktothrix sp. resulted in significant mortality, while other two samples dominated by Microcystis spp. induced minor effects. We have also observed significant inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GST) at most fractions of the Aphanizomenon sp. and Planktothrix sp. dominated samples. Our data indicate that cyanobacterial water blooms as well complex biomass extracts induce significant embryolarval toxicity in common carp. However, these effects were independent of microcystin content, and the most pronounced effects were observed with the non-Microcystis dominated samples. Therefore, a critical examination of microcystin role in overall ecotoxicology of complex cyanobacterial blooms is needed. PMID:17280727

Palíková, Miroslava; Krejcí, Roman; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Navrátil, Stanislav; Kopp, Radovan; Bláha, Ludek

2007-03-10

135

Etiology and pathology of epidermal papillomas in allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male).  

PubMed

Allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male) is one of the main freshwater aquaculture species in China. In recent years, epidermal papillomas have been observed on the scales, fins and opercula of adult fish in many fish farms in the Chongming county of Shanghai, China. The disease appears in the late autumn of the first year and becomes more severe in winter. It gradually regresses in the late spring or summer of the second year, as water temperature increases. Our study revealed that the disease pathogen was likely to be a herpes-like virus, as indicated by enveloped viral particles in the cytoplasm, empty capsids in the nucleus and a virus-like morphology of the pathogen. The size of the enveloped herpes-like virus was 118.18 +/- 10.53 (SD) nm (n = 22) and its nucleocapsid was 78.64 +/- 7.74 nm (n = 22) in diameter. Histopathological examination of tumours revealed that both epithelial and stromal cells proliferated to form papillomas. The nuclei of epithelial tumour cells were irregular in shape and in size. Most of the mucous cells were located in clusters near the middle of each papilloma. Cytoplasmic organelles were sparse in tumour cells. Numerous granulocytes and lymphocytes infiltrated into the tumour tissue. There were no inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tumour cells. The lesions only occurred in adult allogynogenetic crucian carp, even though they were cultured together with other fish species. There was marked variation in incidence: in some ponds, only a few fish were affected, while the incidence was up to 90% in other ponds. PMID:19301639

Lu, Hongda; Zhu, Guanglai; Fan, Liping; Zhang, Lianyi

2009-01-28

136

Genotoxicity assessment of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings by tissue DNA damage and micronucleus test, after environmental exposure to fenitrothion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of sublethal doses of fenitrothion, an organophosphothionate insecticide on brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues as a ratio of 8-OHdG to dG to indicate the DNA damage and erythrocyte micronucleus frequency for genotoxicity of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. In our study, the mean weights and lengths of the fish (n?=?4-12) were 31.13?±?14.24?g and 12.53?±?1.41, respectively. Before the experiment, fish were maintained in aerated dechlorinated tap water at 21.8?±?1 °C and fed daily with commercial feed at a rate of 2% of their body weights. Experiments were conducted under static conditions in the aquaria. Technical grade (95%) fenitrothion was diluted in acetone to give a dosing solution of 10?mg/L. The increased lesions/10? DNA bases (p?carp following the exposure to 48?h fenitrothion (6.43?±?3.89; p<0.05) was observed when compared to control group (1.29?±?1.03). The available data indicate that there is still lack of well-established dose-response relationships between occupational or environmental exposures and the induction of 8-OHdG. Such biomarkers may be used in assessing adverse/toxic effects of pesticides as environmental stressors. PMID:21417631

Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Sahin, Duygu; Karasu Benli, A Caglan; Sarikaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoc, Figen; Altan, Nilgun

2011-06-01

137

Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49 after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7 days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7 days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed in the investigated genes as a result of the wounding. HSP70 was downregulated 1 and 3 days post-wounding in the smallest larvae. However, HSP70 was differentially expressed at different time-points in a similar manner in wounded and mock-wounded groups, thus suggesting a stress effect of the handling, which may have overshadowed some transcriptional effects of the wounding. MMP-9, TGF-?1 and IgZ1 were slightly but significantly upregulated at few time-points, while no effect of wounding was detected on the expression of IgM, C3, IL-1? and IL-6 family member M17. PMID:24064235

Schmidt, Jacob G; Nielsen, Michael E

2014-02-01

138

Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight.  

PubMed

Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection probability, attack rate, and metacercariae burden of FZTs in common carps (Cyprinus carpio) between 1 and 20 g. Fish were either used as controls (n?=?66) or exposed to 250 parapleurolophocercous cercariae (n?=?254). Fish weight was analysed as continuous explanatory variable or classified in four categories with average weights of 0.7 g (n?=?116), 4.0 g (n?=?58), 8.2 g (n?=?57) and 14.2 g (n?=?23). The inverse relation between percentage of fish with metacercariae and fish weight is reflected in lower percentages of infected fish at higher weights [%infected?=?100/(1?+?e([-2.02+0.15 fish weight (g)])); p?carp fingerlings. Reducing transmission to fingerlings might be an effective intervention method to improve food safety, reduce the absolute amount of FZTs in the environment and eventually reduce incidence in humans. PMID:22488202

Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

2012-08-01

139

Effect of cadmium chloride on secretion of 17?-estradiol by the ovarian follicles of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a common environmental pollutant present in wastes associated with mining, smelting and electroplating. It is a major constituent of the tobacco smoke. Exposure of this heavy metal has been linked to wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction particularly on ovarian steroidogenesis. Low doses of Cd(2+) are reported to stimulate ovarian luteal progesterone synthesis whereas high doses inhibited it. Cd(2+) exposure is also reported to inhibit gonadal function in fish. In the present study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) on the secretion of gonadotropin-induced 17?-estradiol was examined in female common carp Cyprinus carpio. Vitellogenic stage fish were exposed to physiological safe dose of CdCl(2) for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h and serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels were estimated. In the in vitro experiments, vitellogenic follicles were incubated with CdCl(2) and a dose- and time-dependent effects on steroid production were estimated induced by LH. Exposure of fish with CdCl(2) gradually attenuated serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels with increasing time and maximum inhibition was noticed after 96 h. Administration of CdCl(2) to the incubations significantly inhibited LH-induced release of 17?-estradiol in vitro. To clarify the mechanism of attenuated production of 17?-estradiol, in vitro effects of CdCl(2) on LH induced P450 aromatase activity (conversion of testosterone to 17?-estradiol) and cytochrome P450arom gene expression in carp ovarian follicles were evaluated. Results show that LH-stimulated P450 aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression in ovarian follicles were significantly inhibited by CdCl(2). The present study further demonstrated that LH-induced stimulation of ovarian steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) which activates aromatase enzyme, is strongly inhibited by cadmium chloride treatment. PMID:23146792

Das, Sumana; Mukherjee, Dilip

2013-01-15

140

DNA methylation analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids. PMID:23457564

Xiao, Jun; Song, Can; Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun

2013-01-01

141

Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by oral administration of a mixed microbial culture of Lactobacillus paracasei, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cereviciae.  

PubMed

A microbial culture was prepared by co-cultivation of Lactobacillus paracasei, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cereviciae for 48 hr at 30°C in rice bran extract medium, supplemented with dextrose. Oral administration of the resulting non-viable heat-inactivated microbial culture to common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., delivered in feed for four weeks, induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection which causes "ulcer disease". After challenge of the carp by immersion, fish mortality and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with mixed microbial culture adsorbed on dry pellets relative to carp treated with medium or without extract. Atypical A. salmonicida was re-isolated from ulcerative lesions in parts of dead and surviving fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying microbial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. Among interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-?, as well as CXC-? and CXC-? chemokines, gene expression of IL-1? was up regulated in the spleen and head kidney three weeks after administration of the mixed microbial culture. These results clearly show that this mixed microbial culture, delivered in feed, is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease in carp. PMID:21685718

Kodama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hideaki; Kashima, Minoru; Iwasaki, Tadashi; Togase, Hideo

2011-10-01

142

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

143

Changes in Lipid Composition of Cooked Minced Carp '(Cyprinus carpio)' during Frozen Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minced carp tissue was cooked by baking and deep-fat frying and stored at -18C for periods up to 8 weeks. Phospholipid (PL) levels decreased whereas free fatty acids (FFA) increased during frozen storage of all samples. Samples treated with antioxidants g...

J. Mai J. E. Kinsella

1979-01-01

144

Myxobolus musseliusae (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the gills of common carp Cyprinus carpio and revision of Myxobolus dispar recorded in China.  

PubMed

During a survey of myxozoan parasites of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China, a parasite was collected that was identified as Myxobolus dispar based on an earlier description from China. However, the small subunit ribosomal DNA of this species shared only 90 % similarity with M. dispar, instead matching M. musseliusae with 100 % identity. To resolve this apparent taxonomic conflict, the validity of M. dispar reported from China was investigated. The species encountered here and in the earlier report from China both bear spores that are notably smaller than those of M. dispar in Europe. In the present study, a mucous envelope was adhered to the posterior of many fresh spores and was observed to expand and surround the spore. This structure has never been reported from fresh spores of M. dispar. Histology showed extravascular plasmodia in the gill filaments in close contact with the cartilaginous ray of the filament, which contrasts with the plasmodia of M. dispar which develop in the arteries of the gill filaments. Phylogenetically, the current species is distinct from M. dispar, instead forming a sister group with M. musseliusae. The data presented here allow us to conclude that the species isolated is M. musseliusae and that prior reports of M. dispar in China are unsubstantiated. PMID:23052768

Liu, Y; Whipps, C M; Gu, Z M; Huang, M J; He, C; Yang, H L; Molnár, K

2013-01-01

145

Molecular characterization of Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa), the agent of gill sphaerosporosis in common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio.  

PubMed

Sphaerospora molnari Lom, Dyková, Pavlásková and Grupcheva, 1983 often causes severe infections in the gills and skin of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio carpio in Central Europe. Although most Sphaerospora spp. are coelozoic and affect the excretory system of fish, S. molnari develops mature spores in the epithelia of gill filaments, making it a rare representative of histozoic freshwater species within the genus. On the basis of a partial 18S rDNA sequence assigned as belonging to S. molnari, previous phylogenetic studies located the species within the Myxobolus clade. In the present study, S. molnari isolates from Hungary and the Czech Republic were characterized based on morphology, DNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic comparison. The obtained 3714 bp final consensus 18S rDNA sequence of the parasite showed several, sometimes extremely long inserts in the variable regions of the gene and differed considerably from the one published in GenBank in 2002. In situ hybridization confirmed the validity of the obtained DNA sequence and detected pre-sporogonic blood stages in the interstitium and blood vessels of the kidney. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. molnari clusters within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade with a high support, revealing it as the first known histozoic member of the Sphaerospora subclade comprising parasites of freshwater fish. PMID:23670080

Eszterbauer, E; Sipos, D; Forró, B; Ová, P Barto; Holzer, A S

2013-04-29

146

Redescription and molecular analysis of Myxobolus shantungensis Hu, 1965 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus.  

PubMed

Myxobolus shantungensis Hu, 1965 infects gill arches of common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), causing serious pathological effects on host fish. An inadequate original description and absence of molecular data make accurate early diagnosis challenging. To augment the original description, M. shantungensis is redescribed here using morphological and molecular biological methods. Mature spores of M. shantungensis were ellipsoidal or apple shaped in frontal view and lemon shaped in lateral view, averaging 8.2 ?± ?0.3 ?m (8.0-9.0 ?m)?×? 10.1 ±? 0.5 ?m (9.2-11.1 ?m)? ×? 6.9? ± ?0.3 ?m (6.0-7.4 ?m). Some spores had three to four "V"-shaped valve edge markings on the posterior of the spore. The two equal polar capsules were oval, measuring 4.3? ± ?0.3 ?m (3.8-5.0 ?m)? ×? 3.2 ?±? 0.2 ?m (2.8-3.5 ?m), situated at the anterior extremity of the spore. Polar filaments coiled with six to seven turns. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of mature spores of M. shantungensis was generally pitted with a number of irregular ridges in shape. M. shantungensis is also characterized on the molecular level using the sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. A BLAST search revealed that this sequence did not match any available sequences in GenBank. PMID:21614546

Liu, Yang; Gu, Zemao; Zhang, Yunchao; Zeng, Lingbing

2011-12-01

147

Ecotoxicological impacts of clofibric acid and diclofenac in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings: hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological responses.  

PubMed

Investigation on the toxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) were studied in a common carp Cyprinus carpio at different concentrations such as 1, 10 and 100 ?g L(-1) for a short-term period of 96 h under static bioassay method. At all concentrations, red blood cell (RBC), plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) levels were decreased in fish treated with CA and DCF. Contrastingly, white blood cell (WBC), plasma glucose, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase level were increased. However, a mixed trend was observed in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma chloride (Cl(-)), mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. There was a significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05) change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. In summary, the alterations in hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological parameters can be used as biomarkers in monitoring the toxicity of CA and DCF in aquatic environment. However, more detailed studies on using of specific biomarkers to monitor the human pharmaceuticals are needed. PMID:21885190

Saravanan, Manoharan; Karthika, Subramanian; Malarvizhi, Annamalai; Ramesh, Mathan

2011-11-15

148

Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.  

PubMed

The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, phosphorus, sodium, total plasma protein, chloride, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased (p < 0.01). Only plasma calcium and potassium levels decreased in the experimental group. Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism. PMID:22730006

Gül, Ali; Benli, A Ça?lan Karasu; Ayhan, Ay?en; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Selvi, Mahmut; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Cakiro?ullari, Gül Çelik; Erkoç, Figen

2012-09-01

149

Technical note: viability and motility of vitrified/thawed primordial germ cell isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) somite embryos.  

PubMed

The feasibility of cryopreserving common carp (Cyprinus carpio) primordial germ cells (PGC) by vitrification of whole embryos at the 22- to 28-somite stage was investigated. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled PGC were cooled rapidly using liquid nitrogen after exposure to a pretreatment solution containing 1.5 M cryoprotectant (ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulfoxide, 30 or 50 min) and a vitrification solution containing 3 M cryoprotectant and 0.5 M sucrose (5, 10, 20, or 30 min). Embryonic cells that were pretreated for 30 min and vitrified for 20 min with ethylene glycol had the greatest rate of survival of embryonic cells (68.6%; P < 0.01), an optimal highest percentage of viable PGC (73.8 to 74.9%; P < 0.05), and no evidence of ice formation after thawing. The vitrified/thawed PGC were transplanted into blastula-stage embryos from goldfish (Carassius auratus). The PGC maintained their motility and moved to the gonadal ridge of the host embryo. Thus, the combination of vitrification and transplantation to produce germ-line chimeras is a powerful tool for the artificial production of next-generation offspring. PMID:21926320

Kawakami, Y; Saito, T; Fujimoto, T; Goto-Kazeto, R; Takahashi, E; Adachi, S; Arai, K; Yamaha, E

2012-02-01

150

The influence of dietary ?-glucan, PAMP exposure and Aeromonas salmonicida on apoptosis modulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The association between ?-glucan (MacroGard®) supplemented feed and apoptosis in immune-related organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using fluorescence microscopy and real-time PCR. In addition the effect of Aeromonas salmonicida, LPS and Poly(I:C) injections on this relationship was evaluated. Whilst acridine orange staining revealed that apoptosis levels were independent of MacroGard® and LPS/Poly(I:C) administration or their combination, it was shown that injection with A. salmonicida increased the percentage of apoptotic cells irrespective of the feeding regime. It was apparent that in all the treatments gene expression profiles displayed organ and time dependency. For example no effect was observed at 7 days of MacroGard® administration while 25 days of feeding led to increased iNOS expression and differential up-regulation of anti- or pro-apoptotic genes depending on organ. This may indicate differences in NO sensitivity. MacroGard® also led to an elevation of pro- as well as anti-apoptotic genes in LPS or Poly(I:C) injected fish, while LPS/Poly(I:C) alone had little effect. A. salmonicida caused enhanced iNOS expression and it is possible that the type of apoptosis pathway induced is organ dependent as Caspase 9 is induced in mid-gut but not in pronephros. These results indicate that MacroGard® feeding alone or in combination with other pathogenic factors did not induce significant apoptosis in immune organs. PMID:23198291

Miest, J J; Falco, A; Pionnier, N P M; Frost, P; Irnazarow, I; Williams, G T; Hoole, D

2012-10-01

151

Effects of iron sulfate dosage on the water flea (Daphnia magna Straus) and early development of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Adult water fleas, Daphnia magna Straus, and the early life stages of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were exposed to river water near an iron sulfate dosage installation to determine the effects of phosphate precipitation with iron(II)sulfate. Tests were conducted during two consecutive dosage periods of 3,000 and 5,000 kg/day iron sulfate (520 and 620 microg/L total Fe respectively) at the dosage site and at a reference site (60 microg/L total Fe) further downstream. Though survival remained unaffected, the filter-feeding D. magna accumulated iron and other metals at the dosage site. Viability of offspring was strongly reduced at the highest dose of iron sulfate compared to the lower dose and the reference site. Specific staining of microscopic sections revealed a strong accumulation of iron(III) in the digestive tract. The egg membranes of the carp embryos accumulated not only substantial amounts of iron but also other metals, including cadmium and aluminium. Hardly any of the metals passed the egg membranes and reached the embryos. After hatching the accumulation of cadmium by the larvae increased rapidly and iron levels were elevated at the highest dose of iron sulfate, parallel with the onset of exogenous feeding. Iron(III) particles were observed in the intestines at histological examination. In addition, at 620 microg/L total Fe a strong increase in whole-body levels of the stress hormone cortisol was observed in the carp larvae, indicating a physiological response to adverse conditions. The results indicate that the rapid oxidation of free Fe2+ into iron(III) forms and the precipitation of iron(III) into larger particles resulted in a low acute toxicity of the river water directly at the iron sulfate dosage site. The observed chronic and sublethal effects at the dosage site probably resulted from the intestinal uptake of iron(III) and other toxic metals associated with the food particles. However, these effects could no longer be observed at the reference site, 9 km downstream from the dosage site. PMID:11815809

van Anholt, R D; Spanings, F A T; Knol, A H; van der Velden, J A; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

2002-02-01

152

Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker.  

PubMed

To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L(-1), thus the safe concentration (1/10LC(50)) is 1.63 mg L(-1). The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was also measured in the same way. XOD, CAT and MDA had shown an evident change while exposure time and concentration increased, combined exposure can aggravate this change. They might be used as early warning indicators and monitors, and have potentials in the ecological risk assessment. PMID:24468924

Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang

2014-05-01

153

Cortisol effects on the testicular androgen synthesizing capacity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies on the effect of stress on pubertal development in carp have shown that repeated temperature changes\\u000a caused an increase in cortisol levels and a retardation of the first waves of spermatogenesis. Identical effects, accompanied\\u000a by a decrease in 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) plasma levels and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were induced by cortisol administration\\u000a via cortisol containing food pellets.

D. Consten; E. D. Keuning; M. Terlou; J. G. D. Lambert; H. J. Th. Goos

2001-01-01

154

Cloning and expression of two proopiomelanocortin mRNAs in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor for a number of biologically active peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and ?-endorphin. It is well known that these peptides are involved in the stress response in fish as well as in mammals. We have cloned two different carp POMC cDNAs called, POMC-I and POMC-II. The nucleotide sequences of 955 bp

R. J Arends; H Vermeer; G. J. M Martens; J. A. M Leunissen; S. E Wendelaar Bonga; G Flik

1998-01-01

155

Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 years, this would last some 15-30 years. Nowadays experimental fishes are usually obtained from

J. Komen

1990-01-01

156

Analyses of impact of metal ion contamination on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) gill cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in fish population because of water contamination is problem. As a result of direct exposure in water, it has\\u000a been readily accepted that the gills are the main site of water contamination and toxicity (e.g., metal ions). In the present\\u000a study, we investigated metal ion contamination on the functional capacity of carp gill cells with antioxidant interactions\\u000a in

M. Arabi

2004-01-01

157

Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

2003-01-01

158

The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171%) and volume (106%) of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volume. PMID:17357409

González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

2004-03-01

159

Classical crosses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show co-segregation of antibody response with major histocompatibility class II B genes.  

PubMed

In cyprinids, two paralogous groups of major histocompatibility (MH) class II B genes, DAB1 and DAB3, have been reported but have not been studied in detail. In our study on MH association with immune responsiveness in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) we have taken a long-term approach using divergent selection for antibody production. We report the co-segregation of Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like genes with antibody response, in backcrosses to high- and low-responsive parental carp lines. We show that the presence of Cyca-DAB1-like, but not Cyca-DAB3-like genes, preferentially leads to a high DNP-specific antibody response in carp. Background genes other than Cyca-DAB genes also influenced the level of antibody response. Our data support the hypothesis of a genetic control by Cyca-DAB genes on the antibody response measured. We could not detect an association of the Cyca-DAB genes with disease resistance to the parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Sequence information, constitutive transcription levels and our co-segregation data indicate that both paralogous Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like groups represent functional MH class II B genes. Previously defined differences in allelic diversity between Cyca-DAB1-like genes, especially, identify Cyca-DAB1 as the most interesting DAB gene for further study in common carp. PMID:18817879

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Forlenza, Maria; Stet, René J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

2009-03-01

160

C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response. PMID:24991845

Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Miko?aj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave

2014-07-01

161

Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Ellersieck, M. R.; Tillitt, D. E.

2008-01-01

162

Immunology-related perturbations induced by copper and chitosan in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Copper is used in treatment mixtures to control fungal diseases in vineyards. Its concentrations are relatively high in some aquatic ecosystems, and the main problem observed in this study was the antioxidant stress induced by this heavy metal. Copper toxicologic effects in aquatic organisms have prompted the demand for alternative use of low-toxicity molecules in culture treatments. Chitosan is a polymer with antifungal property similar to copper and may be an interesting biopesticide. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health, either alone or in conjunction with copper. In this study, carp were exposed to two sublethal chitosan concentrations (75 and 150 mg/L) or to two sublethal copper concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 mg/L) or to a mixture of chitosan plus copper (75 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively). The results of the present study show that exposure to copper at environmentally realistic levels or to chitosan at sublethal concentrations may significantly stimulate various aspects of immune functions in carp such as nonspecific cellular immunity, represented by total immunoglobulin level, ceruloplasmin activity, and oxidative activity of phagocytes. This acute-phase inflammatory response induced separately by the two treatments was not observed, especially on phagocyte oxidative activity, when carp were exposed to the copper-chitosan mixture. This fact could be explained by a possible chelation of copper by chitosan decreasing the biodisponibility of the two products for immune cells. Thus, the immunotoxicologic impact of copper and chitosan on fish immune response would be less pronounced with the combined treatments than with separate treatments in an aquatic environment. PMID:15386131

Dautremepuits, C; Betoulle, S; Paris-Palacios, S; Vernet, G

2004-10-01

163

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

2014-02-01

164

Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

1987-03-01

165

Characterization and ion channel activities of novel antibacterial proteins from the skin mucosa of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

A detergent-solubilized fraction of skin mucus of carp (Cyprinus carpio) induced ion channels after reconstitution into planar lipid bilayers. A differential extraction using a non-ionic detergent followed by electrophoretic separation led to the isolation of two hydrophobic 31-kDa and 27-kDa proteins. In contrast to the 27-kDa protein, which was glycosylated, the 31-kDa did not bind to concanavalin A. The reconstitution of these proteins into a planar lipid bilayer restored the ionophore behavior already observed with the crude mucus. The main unit conductance levels were about 900 pS for the 27-kDa protein and 500 pS for the 31-kDa protein, and selectivity measurements gave Pcl/Pk ratios of 0.6 and 1.0, respectively. These proteins had large potent microbicidal activities (0.018-0.18 microM) against different strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This behavior can be compared with insect defensins that are known to form large ion channels in the bacterial membrane. To exclude the eventuality of bacterial origin, the bacterial flora of the crude mucus were analysed and the following were identified: Pseudomonas cepacia; Micrococcus luteus; Micrococcus roseus; Flavobacterium sp.; Aeromonas hydrophila. Antibacterial assays with both proteins were performed against these specific strains and revealed good growth inhibition activities. Furthermore, microsequencing analysis showed that the 31-kDa protein was protected on its N-terminal extremity in contrast to the 27-kDa protein, which had a 19-amino-acid sequence. This last sequence, when compared with sequences in protein data banks, did not reveal any significant similarities to other proteins. These results suggest that these novel proteins could be involved in antibacterial defense processes in fish. PMID:8797847

Lemaître, C; Orange, N; Saglio, P; Saint, N; Gagnon, J; Molle, G

1996-08-15

166

Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine's herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5?mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029?mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07?mg/L, 1.4?mg/L, and 3.5?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) = 0.002?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC) = 0.0001?mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5?mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

2014-01-01

167

Expression and characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its activity against type I collagen.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential roles in the metabolism of animal collagen while few reports are available for MMPs in aquatic animals. In this study, we report the complete sequence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) skeletal muscle. The full-length cDNA of MMP-2 was 2792bp which contains an open reading frame of 1974bp, corresponding to a protein of 657 amino acid residues. Based on the structural feature of MMP-2, the gene of the catalytic domain containing 351 amino acid residues was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE showed that the truncated recombinant MMP-2 (trMMP-2) with molecular mass of approximately 38kDa was in the form of inclusion body. The trMMP-2 was further purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. After renaturation, similar to native MMP-2, the trMMP-2 exhibited high hydrolyzing activity toward gelatin as appeared on gelatin zymography and optimal activity was at pH 8.0 and 40°C. The activity of the trMMP-2 was completely suppressed by metalloproteinase inhibitors, including EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was necessary for the gelatinolytic activity, suggesting it is a calcium-dependent metalloproteinase. Moreover, the trMMP-2 effectively hydrolyzed native type I collagen at 37°C and even at 4°C, implying its potential application value as a collagenase for preparation of biologically active oligopeptides. PMID:24613299

Wang, Ci; Zhan, Chun-Lan; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

2014-05-10

168

The effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of prolonged exercise training on swimming performance and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we measured the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), the activity of red and white muscle enzymes [pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and citrate synthase (CS)], the tissue substrates (glycogen and glucose content of muscle and liver) and metabolite (the lactate content of plasma and muscle) content of exercise-trained (60% Ucrit for 4 weeks) and non-trained fish. We also measured the biochemical indices of both trained and non-trained fish immediately after Ucrit, after exhaustive exercise and 1h after exhaustive exercise. The aerobic swimming performance, as indicated by Ucrit, increased significantly after exercise training, most likely because of the higher tissue metabolic capacity, as suggested by the higher CS activity in the red muscle tissue, and the higher energy store and more efficient substrate utilization, as suggested by higher liver and muscle glycogen contents at rest but lower tissue glycogen contents after Ucrit. The lower lactate content after Ucrit is most likely because of higher aerobic metabolic capacity, and (or) the clearance rate of lactate in trained fish may also contribute to improved aerobic swimming performance. Compared to Ucrit, exhaustive exercise elicited higher plasma and muscle lactate contents. The anaerobic metabolic performance is not affected by the exercise training, as suggested by the EPOC. However, trained fish did show higher lactate clearance rates, as suggested by lower muscle lactate content after a 1h recovery period following exhaustive exercise compared to non-trained fish. Furthermore, trained fish decreased their liver and muscle glycogen contents more profoundly after exhaustive exercise, suggesting that training can improve the substrate utilization during anaerobic exercise. PMID:23838144

He, Wei; Xia, Wei; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-10-01

169

Vitellogenesis in Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), an intestinal parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Vitellogenesis in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878, from carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Slovakia, has been examined using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) for glycogen. Vitelline follicles extend in two lateral bands in the medullary parenchyma along both sides of the monozoic body. They are surrounded by an external basal lamina and contain vitellocytes and an interstitial tissue. The general pattern of vitellogenesis is essentially like that of other caryophyllideans. It involves four stages: immature, early maturing, advanced maturing cells and mature vitellocytes. During vitellogenesis, a continuous increase in cell volume is accompanied by an extensive development of cell components engaged in shell globule formation, e.g. granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Shell globule clusters are membrane-bound. Nuclear and nucleolar transformation are associated with formation and storage of large amounts of intranuclear glycogen, a very specific feature of the Caryophyllidea. For the first time, (a) additional vitelline material in Archigetes is represented by lamellar bodies and (b) lipid droplets are described in the mature vitellocytes from vitelline follicles and vitelloduct of the Caryophyllidea. Our results indicate that there may be a double origin of lamellar bodies: either from the endoplasmic reticulum or through transformation of shell globule/shell globule clusters. Lamellar body clusters and some single lamellar bodies appear to have a membrane. Other ultrastructural features of vitellogenesis and/or vitellocyte in A. sieboldi from its vertebrate (fish) and invertebrate (oligochaete) hosts are briefly compared and contrasted with those in other caryophyllideans and/or Neodermata. PMID:23059891

Brunanská, M; Mackiewicz, J S; Nebesárová, J

2012-12-01

170

Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

2012-12-01

171

Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp.

Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

2012-01-01

172

Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

2014-01-01

173

Estimation of the genetic variation in complement activity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The complement status of hybrid, laboratory raised carp was determined by an in vitro approach of the alternate complement activity (ACH50) and total haemolytic activity (CH50), and by measurement of serum C3 levels. The lysis of target sheep red blood cells (RBC) in the haemolytic assay for CH50 activity depended, amongst others, on the haemolysin concentration in the assay. Rocket electrophoresis showed a mean serum C3 concentration of 0.95 mg ml-1. The variation for both ACH50 and CH50 haemolytic activity was approximately 30%. The degree of genetic determination of the parameters was investigated by estimation of their repeatabilities, which were relatively high for CH50 (0.71) and ACH50 activity (0.72), but lower for C3 levels (0.54). Correlations between ACH50 values and C3 levels were significant, but moderate (0.54-0.58). PMID:8236805

Wiegertjes, G F; Yano, T; van Muiswinkel, W B

1993-08-01

174

Tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin are utilized more efficiently than tricaprylin by carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of chain length of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on growth performance and fatty acid composition of first-feeding carp larvae. In a first trial, five semi-purified isolipidic (23-24 g/100 g of dry matter) diets were formulated to contain either 10 g/100 g triolein (control diet) or 5 g/100 g triolein and 5 g/100 g medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) supplied as tricaproin, tricaprylin, tricaprin or trilaurin. After 21 d, survival and growth rates were significantly greater in larvae fed diets containing triolein, tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin (final survival: 92 +/- 7% and mean larval weight: 42 +/- 15 mg) than in larvae fed tricaprylin (final survival: 56 +/- 12% and mean larval weight: 15 +/- 1 mg). The recovered levels of the fed MCFA in larval total lipids were respectively 0, 1.3, 7.3 and 8.1 g/100 g of total fatty acids. In a second trial, two isolipidic (18 g/100 g) diets containing 10 g/100 g triolein or tricaprylin were tested. High amounts of capric acid (up to 25 g/100 g of total fatty acids) were found in neutral lipids of carp larvae fed tricaprylin for 11 d, suggesting an unusual elongation of caprylic acid. This study underlines the peculiarity of tricaprylin among other MCT which seem well utilized up to 20-30 g/100 g of total dietary fatty acids. The exception of tricaprylin raises the question of the metabolic pathways followed by this MCT, especially for the suggested direct elongation of caprylic acid into capric acid. PMID:10917917

Fontagné, S; Corraze, G; Bergot, P

2000-08-01

175

The Effect of Low Concentrations of Phenol on Antibody Formation in Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L (Vliyanie Malykh Kontsentratsii Fenola na Antiteloobrazovanie u Karpov 'Cyprinus carpio' L).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of investigations of the effect of low concentrations of phenol on antibody formation in carp in a chronic experiment show that in holding carp in a 12.5 mg/l phenol solution the formation of immunoglobulins decreases and the amount of total p...

G. D. Goncharov V. R. Mikryakov

1971-01-01

176

Protective effects of propolis on cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of sperm is common procedures in aquaculture, particularly used for routine in artificial insemination. However, these application cause damages and adversely affected sperm motility, viability and consequently lower hatching rates. The objective of this study is to determine whether propolis has an effect on cryopreservation and fertilization ability and to investigate the potential protective effect of propolis on spermatozoa of Cyprinus carpio. Many studies have been done in cryopreservation offish spermatozoa, but none of them contain propolis in extender composition. The extenders were prepared by using modified Kurokura Solution to which 10% Me(2)SO added with different levels of propolis (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mgml(-1)) and 10% egg yolk (as a control without propolis). The pooled semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:9 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of motility and fertilization tests of cryopreserved sperm samples have been done immediately after thawing and compared with control and fresh semen. The extenders containing propolis exhibited higher percentage motility and motility duration than control group (P < 0.05). Especially the group IV (0.8 mgml(-1) propolis) and the group V (1 mgml(-1) propolis) showed significant positive effects on both post thaw motility and hatching ability. The propolis maintained the integrity of the spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process. Evaluating with its contents, it has been shown that propolis is an appropriate cryoprotective agent in fish semen. PMID:24440871

Ö?retmen, Fatih; Inanan, Burak E; Öztürk, Mehmet

2014-02-01

177

Cadmium-induced changes in the histology of kidneys in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (cyprinidae)  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals pose a wide variety of challenges to aquatic organisms, especially to fish. These pollutants are uncommon, but are a major problem because of their toxicity, persistence and tendency for bio-accumulation in food chains. Cadmium is important because of its use in various industrial processes, and as a by product of zinc mining, fossil fuel, base metal smelting, combustion and atmospheric transport. Since this biologically non-essential element is highly toxic to aquatic organisms and is a known renal toxicant, there is a need to understand its effects on the kidneys of an edible fish Cyprinus carpio communis. This fish offers some unique experimental advantages for the study of cadmium renal toxicity due to its tolerance to temperature variations, toughness and biennial breeding. The natural level of cadmium - a stable non-volatile element, varies from 0.1 to 10 {mu}g/l in freshwater. However, anthropogenic processes discharge can increase this level from 50 {mu}g/1 to 10,00,000 {mu}g/1. 11 refs., 8 figs.

Singhal, R.N.; Jain, M. [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)] [Kurukshetra Univ. (India)

1997-03-01

178

Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for any application in aquaculture and ecological research and management where the tracking of high numbers of offspring is needed.

Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

2013-04-01

179

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

180

DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E. J.; Kurath, G.

2008-01-01

181

Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 is influenced by major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism.  

PubMed

The role of MH class II B (Cyca-DAB1-like) genes in resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV) was analysed. The material consisted of 934 fish from six carp crosses. Fish were challenged with CyHV-3 at an age of 7 and 10 months. During challenge experiments the peak of mortality caused by CyHV-3 was observed at days 8-12 p.i. and the overall cumulative mortality reached 79.9%. Among six Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes, revealed by PCR-RF-SSCP analysis, one genotype (E) was found associated with higher resistance to CyHV-3. Three other genotypes (B, H and J) could be linked to higher susceptibility to CyHV-3. Analysis of the alleles that compose the Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes linked one particular allele (Cyca-DAB1*05) to significantly increased, and two alleles (Cyca-DAB1*02 and Cyca-DAB1*06) to significantly decreased resistance to CyHV-3. Our data indicate that MH class II B genes could be used as potential genetic markers in breeding of common carp for resistance to this virus. PMID:19328856

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Adamek, Miko?aj; Siwicki, Andrzej K; Lepa, Agnieszka; Irnazarow, Ilgiz

2009-05-01

182

Purification and characterization of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III: major serpins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma.  

PubMed

The main serine proteinase inhibitors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma were isolated and purified. The investigated inhibitors, alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)-PI) and antithrombin III (AT III), act by forming stable complexes with target proteinases. The association rate constants k (on) for the interaction of fish plasma inhibitors with several serine proteinases have been determined: k (on) for both carp and rainbow trout alpha(1)-PI were >10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for human neutrophil elastase, and in the case of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin k (on) values were 2.0-5.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Association rate constants k (on) for the interaction of carp and rainbow trout AT III with bovine trypsin and thrombin were about 1.3 x 10(4)-7.9 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) without and >10(7) M(-1) s(-1) in presence of heparin; so antithrombins require the presence of heparin to become effective proteinase inhibitors. The high degree of homology of the estimated amino acid sequences of fish inhibitors reactive site loops confirms their similarity with other proteinase inhibitors from the serpin family. PMID:19343519

Mickowska, B

2009-06-01

183

Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

Waller, D. L.; Mitchell, L. G.

1989-01-01

184

Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

Leiker, T. J.; Abney, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Rosen, M. R.

2009-01-01

185

Alternative techniques for producing a quality surimi and kamaboko from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol-gel transition stage (at 75 degrees C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G' for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. PMID:19021796

Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

2008-11-01

186

Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

A one-month chronic exposure of common carp larvae and embryos to nitrite revealed significant (p < 0.01) differences in total accumulated mortality in fish exposed to 33, 67, and 330 mg/L NO(2)(-) compared with controls. At the highest concentration, all fish died within 8 d of exposure. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of nitrite were estimated at 29 d LC50 = 88 mg/L NO(2)(-); lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) = 28 mg/L NO(2)(-); and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) = 7 mg/L NO(2)(-). Fulton's condition factor values were significantly lower in fish from all experimental groups compared with controls. By day 12, fish exposed to 33 and 67 mg/L NO(2)(-) had significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. No significant negative effects of nitrite at the concentrations tested (0.7-330 mg/L NO(2)(-), at 10 mg/L Cl(-)) on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from all the concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and body shortening were observed at all concentrations and in controls, as was yolk sac deformation and edema, eye deformation, and cardiac edema. The incidence of these malformations was positively correlated with nitrite concentration. Histopathology revealed epidermal spongiosis; edema and hyperplasia of the gill epithelium, including hypertrophy and hyperplasia of eosinophilic granular cells (chloride cells); and interstitial edema of skeletal muscle in fish exposed to 67 mg/L NO(2)(-). Similar, but milder, changes were observed at lower nitrite concentrations. PMID:20821475

Kroupova, Hana; Prokes, Miroslav; Macova, Stanislava; Penaz, Milan; Barus, Vlastimil; Novotny, Ladislav; Machova, Jana

2010-03-01

187

Bioavailability of the imidazole antifungal agent clotrimazole and its effects on key biotransformation genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Clotrimazole (CTZ) is a persistent imidazole antifungal agent which is frequently detected in the aquatic environment and predicted to bio-concentrate in fish. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to mean measured concentrations of either 1.02 or 14.63?gl(-1) CTZ for 4 and 10 days, followed by a depuration period of 4 days in a further group of animals. Following each exposure regimen, plasma and liver CTZ concentrations were measured. Mean measured plasma concentrations of CTZ in animals exposed to the lower concentration of CTZ were 30 and 44?gl(-1) on days 4 and 10, respectively, and in the higher concentration were 318 and 336?gl(-1). Mean measured liver levels in the same animals were 514, 1725, 2111 and 7017?gl(-1) suggesting progressive hepatic accumulation. Measurement of CTZ in plasma after depuration suggested efficient elimination within 4 days, but appreciable levels of CTZ remained in the liver after depuration suggesting a degree of persistence in this tissue. In addition we measured responses of a number of key hepatic detoxification gene targets in the liver associated with the transcription factor pregnane X receptor (PXR); namely cyp450s 2k and 3a, glutathione-S-transferases a and p (gsta and p), and drug transporters multidrug resistance protein1 (mdr1), and MDR-related protein2 (mrp2). CTZ is a potent ligand of the PXR in humans and there is some evidence of PXR activation following exposure to CTZ in fish. The highest concentration of CTZ was adopted to explore the potential for alterations to detoxification gene expression in fish at a pharmacologically relevant dose level, and the lower concentration is within the range reported in effluents from waste water treatment works (WWTW). The genes for all biotransformation enzymes were up-regulated after exposure to the higher concentration of CTZ for 10 days, and alterations in expression occurred for the drug transporter genes mdr1 and mrp2 following exposure to the lower concentration of 1.02?gl(-1) CTZ (mean measured concentration). These data support the potential for CTZ to induce alterations in biotransformation and drug transporter genes associated with PXR in fish at concentrations measured in some WWTW effluents. PMID:24727216

Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob I; Owen, Stewart F; Ball, Jonathan S; Tyler, Charles R; Winter, Matthew J

2014-07-01

188

Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. (Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani (India))

1992-06-01

189

Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

2011-01-01

190

Effects of sodium alginate on the non-specific defence system of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp which receive intraperitoneal injections of sodium alginate show a high survival rate after being challenged withEdwardsiella tarda. In order to elucidate the immunoenhancement by sodium alginate, its effects on the non-specific defence system of carp were investigated. Sodium alginate had little influence either on the activity of the alternative complement pathway or on the phagocytic and respiratory burst activities

KAZUHIRO FUJIKI; TOMOKI YANO

1997-01-01

191

Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is one of the leading species in world aquaculture, but selective breeding for growth rate has not been actively pursued in this species after unsuccessful selection experiments. We estimated heritability for growth-related traits at 8 weeks of age in Hungarian Synthetic Mirror carp at Vodnany (Czech Republic). Parentage assignment with eight microsatellite markers was used in a full

Marc Vandeputte; Martin Kocour; Stéphane Mauger; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Daphné De Guerry; Marek Rodina; David Gela; Dominique Vallod; Bernard Chevassus; Otomar Linhart

2004-01-01

192

Organ damage and hepatic lipid accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after feed-borne exposure to the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON).  

PubMed

Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 ?g DON kg(-1) feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-02-01

193

Metals and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Pharmaceuticals Drugs Present in Water from Madín Reservoir (Mexico) Induce Oxidative Stress in Gill, Blood, and Muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Many toxic xenobiotics that enter the aquatic environment exert their effects through redox cycling. Oxidative stress, which incorporates both oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses, is a common effect induced in organisms exposed to xenobiotics in their environment. The results of the present study aimed to determine the oxidative stress induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by contaminants [metals and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] present in Madín Reservoir. Five sampling stations (SSs), considered to have the most problems due to discharges, were selected. Carp were exposed to water from each SS for 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, blood, and muscle: hydroperoxide content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results show that contaminants (metals and NSAIDs) present in water from the different SSs induce oxidative stress. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that are hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population. PMID:24916851

González-González, Edgar David; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Islas-Flores, Hariz; García-Medina, Sandra; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel; Razo-Estrada, Celene; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo

2014-08-01

194

Biologic responses of bacteria communities living at the mucus secretion of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposure to the carbon nanomaterial fullerene (C60).  

PubMed

Bacteria communities living in mucus secretions of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed to the organic nanomaterial fullerene (C(60)) to evaluate its potential bactericidal effects. End points analyzed were viability, growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and total antioxidant competence against peroxyl radicals. Viability was not affected (p > 0.05), whereas growth was arrested (p < 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure to the three concentration of C(60) assayed (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L). Levels of RO measured at different C(60) concentration showed that some colonies were reactive (significant dose-response relation, p < 0.05) to C(60), whereas others were not. The nonreactive colonies to C(60) presented higher antioxidant competence to peroxyl radicals compared with the reactive colonies (p < 0.05). The strains isolated and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of 16S rRNA showed a predominance of Aeromonas genus between all the isolated Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the present results indicate that C(60) affects bacterial communities that live in mucus secretions of common carp. PMID:21072630

Letts, Rafaela Elias; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Monserrat, José M

2011-08-01

195

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the autophagic gene Beclin 1 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium.  

PubMed

Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg6, has a central role in autophagy, which has been linked to diverse biological processes including immunity, development, tumor suppression, lifespan extension, etc. However, the relevant study about Beclin 1 is rare in fish compared with mammals. In this study, we isolated Beclin 1 gene from the kidney tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of cloned Beclin 1 comprised 447 amino acids, which showed approximately 80.7% identity and 88.9% similarity to human Beclin 1. It possessed a typical Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) and an evolutionarily conserved domain (ECD). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp Beclin 1 formed a clade with zebrafish Beclin 1. To explore the relationship between Beclin 1 and cadmium (Cd)-induced injury, a Cd exposure experiment was conducted. The result showed that Cd content was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in kidney after Cd exposure. Swelling and vacuolation of renal tubular epithelial cells, and glomerular hyalinization were observed. Renal leukocyte infiltration was diffusely distributed in the interstitial tissue. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of Beclin 1 was markedly up-regulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after exposure to Cd. Similarly, Western blot analysis indicated that its protein level was significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner after Cd treatment. All the results indicate that the common carp Beclin 1 gene may play a regulatory role against Cd toxicity. PMID:24291087

Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen'e; Kuang, Xiaodong; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Jadwiga, Wirnkar S; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

2014-03-01

196

Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with ?-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.  

PubMed

The effect of ?-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with ?-glucan (MacroGard(®)) with a daily ?-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of ?-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the ?-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed ?-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of ?-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard(®) stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial ?-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

2014-08-01

197

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

198

Temperature effect on antibody production and immunological memory, in carp (Cyprinus carpio) immunized against bovine serum albumin (BSA)  

PubMed Central

A group of carp were immunized with bovine serum albumin. The fish, kept at low temperature (12°) after initially being kept at high temperature (25°) for a short period following the first antigen stimulation, showed a rising titre of antibody. In contrast no circulating antibody was found in carp kept at 12°. This rising titre occurred whether they were transferred to low temperature before or after appearance of first circulating antibodies. The anamnestic response which occurred in carp kept at high temperature may also take place, under certain conditions, at low temperature.

Avtalion, R. R.

1969-01-01

199

Brain growth patterns in four European cyprinid fish species (Cyprinidae, Teleostei): roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream (Abramis brama), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and sabre carp (Pelecus cultratus).  

PubMed

This study compares brain growth in 4 species of cyprinids, each distinctly different in adult brain morphology: roach have generalized brains; bream are characterized by well-developed visual, octavolateralis and gustatory brain regions; common carp show chemosensory (gustatory)-dominated brains, and sabre carp octavolateralis-dominated brains. The growth patterns of 16 regions relative to total brain volume were investigated by computer-aided quantitative histology to illustrate internal brain allometries. In all species the tectum opticum decreases in relative size during growth, whereas the corpus cerebelli increases. In bream and common carp, primary taste centers steadily increase in relative size during growth. In most if not all fish, the brain attains no definite final morphology. Lifelong, growth-related shifts in relative sizes of primary sensory regions may reflect lifelong shifting sensory capabilities. PMID:2379081

Brandstätter, R; Kotrschal, K

1990-01-01

200

Use of Biological Characteristics of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Indicate Exposure to Hormonally Active Agents in Selected Minnesota Streams, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The presence of hormonally active agents (HAAs) was determined in selected Minnesota streams using biological characteristics (measures of endocrine disruption) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and runoff from agricultural and forested land. Four biological characteristics of common carp were used as indicators of HAAs in the streams selected for this study: (1) high concentrations of vitellogenin in male fish and low concentrations in female fish, (2) high or low plasma concentrations of the sex steroid hormones (17?-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone), (3) low gonado-somatic index (GSI) (gonad weight divided by total body weight multiplied by 100) values, and (4) abnormal gonad histopathology (high percent of atretic oocytes in female ovaries and high percent ceroid/lipofuscin tissue in male or female gonads). The study design was a paired site approach targeting sites downstream and upstream of WWTP discharges on different streams. Male (221 individuals) and female (201 individuals) common carp were collected using electrofishing techniques from seven streams with sites at two locations (upstream and downstream of WWTPs), and eight sites located downstream of WWTPs with no upstream-paired sites. Samples were collected between August 3 and September 13, 1999. The presence of HAAs in selected Minnesota streams was indicated by biological characteristics in common carp. Biological characteristics used in this study identified WWTP effluent as a potential source of HAAs. Additionally, fish located at sites upstream of WWTP effluent primarily draining agricultural land show indications of HAAs, which may be the result of agricultural runoff or other sources of HAAs. There was variability among all sites and among sites within each site group. Differences among sites may be due to differences in water chemistry or fish exposure time. Natural variation in the biological characteristics may account for some of the differences observed in this study. This study and others indicate the presence of HAAs in surface water and the potential signs of endocrine disruption in resident fish populations. Detailed controlled studies could confirm the effects of particular chemicals such as pesticides or components of WWTPs on fish reproduction and population structure.

Lee, Kathy E.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Talmage, Philip J.

2000-01-01

201

Dietary ?-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.  

PubMed

The effect of ?-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with ?-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily ?-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10? bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of ?-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a ?-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the ?-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the ?-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. PMID:23291104

Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

2013-03-01

202

Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of teleost fish.

Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2011-01-01

203

Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).  

PubMed

Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

2014-08-01

204

Novel Positive-Sense, Single-Stranded RNA (+ssRNA) Virus with Di-Cistronic Genome from Intestinal Content of Freshwater Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

A novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus (Halastavi árva RNA virus, HalV; JN000306) with di-cistronic genome organization was serendipitously identified in intestinal contents of freshwater carps (Cyprinus carpio) fished by line-fishing from fishpond “L?rinte halastó” located in Veszprém County, Hungary. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of the genomic RNA is 9565 nt in length and contains two long - non-in-frame - open reading frames (ORFs), which are separated by an intergenic region. The ORF1 (replicase) is preceded by an untranslated sequence of 827 nt, while an untranslated region of 139 nt follows the ORF2 (capsid proteins). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the ORFs showed only low (less than 32%) and partial similarity to the non-structural (2C-like helicase, 3C-like cystein protease and 3D-like RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and structural proteins (VP2/VP4/VP3) of virus families in Picornavirales especially to members of the viruses with dicistronic genome. Halastavi árva RNA virus is present in intestinal contents of omnivorous freshwater carps but the origin and the host species of this virus remains unknown. The unique viral sequence and the actual position indicate that Halastavi árva RNA virus seems to be the first member of a new di-cistronic ssRNA virus. Further studies are required to investigate the specific host species (and spectrum), ecology and role of Halastavi árva RNA virus in the nature.

Pankovics, Peter; Simmonds, Peter

2011-01-01

205

Effects of pimozide and LHRH-Aa on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) oocyte maturation and ovulation in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of pimozide (Pim) and [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) LHRH] (LRH-Aa) on common carp oocytes maturation and ovulationin vivo under laboratory and commercial fisheries farm conditions were investigated.Although injections of Pim and LRH-Aa at the doses of 10 mg and 50 µg\\/kg body weight respectively, did not increase mGtH levels (66.7–155.8 mg\\/ml) as much as injections of carp pituitary extract (chh) (382.1

K. Bieniarz; P. Epler; W. Popek; R. Billard; M. Soko?owska

1986-01-01

206

Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele

1985-01-01

207

Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot

1998-01-01

208

Effects of dietary tannic acid and quebracho tannin on growth performance and metabolic rates of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tannic acid (a hydrolysable tannin) and quebracho tannin (a condensed tannin) on common carp at a level of 2% in a soybean and fish meal-based diet containing about 40% crude protein have been studied. Quebracho tannin did not affect feed intake, body weight gain, average metabolic growth rate and oxygen consumption during the experimental period (84 days).

Klaus Becker; H. P. S Makkar

1999-01-01

209

Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp \\/Cyprinus carpio L. larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin . of the phospholipid PL requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or . . without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine PC or phosphatidylinositol PI .

Stephanie Fontagne; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot

210

Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.

1999-10-01

211

Transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is independent of density of fish and trematodes.  

PubMed

Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause major human health problems. The aim of this study was to quantify the transmission of parapleurolophocercous cercariae to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and to study the effect of the density of cercariae and the density of fish on transmission with respect to the volume of water and surface area of the bottom. Fish were kept individually either as controls (n= 91) or were exposed to 250 cercariae in tubes with a volume of 25, 50, 100, 250 or 500 ml water (n= 190) with a surface area of 4, 12, 21, 30 or 49 cm2 (n= 195). The dose to which the fish were exposed was kept constant. Infection occurred in 94-100% of fish, with a mean of 15-18 metacercariae per fish and the proportion of FZTs established at 0.06-0.07 metacercariae per cercariae per fish. Neither the prevalence of infection with FZTs nor the number of metacercariae per fish nor the proportion of FZTs established were significantly associated with differences in the density of cercariae or the density of fish per ml water or per cm2 surface area. Thus, it was concluded that the transmission of cercariae to fish is independent of density. PMID:23339771

Boerlage, A S; Graat, E A M; Verreth, J A; de Jong, M C M

2014-06-01

212

Validating and corroborating the deposition of two annual growth zones in asteriscus otoliths of common carp Cyprinus carpio from South Africa's largest impoundment.  

PubMed

A total of 816 common carp Cyprinus carpio asteriscus otolith pairs were collected from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Otoliths were interpreted whole, submerged in methyl salicylate and viewed under transmitted light. The precision of growth zone counts of the primary reader was estimated at 5·54 and 7·03% using the average per cent error method and the coefficient of variation, respectively. Age-bias plots indicated no systematic bias between the primary reader and the three secondary readers for up to nine growth zones (95% of the sample). Growth zone deposition rate was validated using a mark-recapture experiment of chemically tagged C. carpio (n = 21) conducted in a large earthen pond under ambient conditions in the vicinity of Lake Gariep. The validation results were corroborated for the wild population by edge analysis and a length-based age-structured model. All three methods suggest that growth zone formation occurred biannually, exemplifying the importance of age validation as a prerequisite for understanding the life history of C. carpio. PMID:21155779

Winker, H; Weyl, O L F; Booth, A J; Ellender, B R

2010-12-01

213

Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.

2008-01-01

214

Copper Speciation and Accumulation in the Gill Microenvironment of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in the Presence of Kaolin Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp were exposed to copper adsorbed on kaolin particles at various concentrations (0–2.4 mg\\/L), and net accumulation due\\u000a to elevated adsorbed copper in the surrounding water was observed. Copper speciation in the water and fish gill microenvironment\\u000a was modeled in the presence and absence of kaolin using a chemical speciation program (MINTEQA2). The adsorption affinity\\u000a constants of kaolin for copper

S. Tao; A. Long; R. W. Dawson; F. Xu; B. Li; J. Cao; J. Fang

2002-01-01

215

Effects of Bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Sex Hormones of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Protection of Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEHP is a priority pollutant and sex hormone endocrine disruptor, which can disturb all physiological processes. In this study, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) toxicities to common carps were investigated using multiple sex hormones, such as testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17? -estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P), and the precursor of sex steroids Chl, aromatase activity, as well as and the protection effects of

Zhao-Xiang Han; Chun-Xia Lv; Huang Li

2009-01-01

216

Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment and fed the same diets as described above. Control fish (negative control) and fish vaccinated only (positive control) were fed basal diets without supplements of herbs. The respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity and circulatory antibody titres in plasma were monitored. Following 5 weeks after feeding, fish were infected with A. hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results of this study showed that feeding non-vaccinated and vaccinated carp with combination of Astragalus and Ganoderma stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme and circulatory antibody titres in plasma in vaccinated carp. Fish challenged with A. hydrophila had variable survival. The best survival (60%) was in vaccinated group fed with both herbs, while almost 90% of control fish (negative control) and 60% of fish vaccinated only (positive control) died. PMID:18817878

Yin, Guojun; Ardó, L; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Jeney, Z; Jeney, G

2009-01-01

217

MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF  

SciTech Connect

European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. (Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. (Environment Protection Authority, Victoria (Australia). Marine Studies Group)

1994-01-01

218

Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.  

PubMed

Accumulation of cadmium in gill, liver, muscle and kidney tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in fish exposed to 0.5 ppm cadmium over 1, 15 and 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Tissue accumulation of the metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, tissues of C. carpio and O. niloticus exposed to metal for 1, 15 and 30 days increased significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.05), except muscle tissue of O. niloticus. A general increase was observed in Cd accumulation with increasing exposure periods. Highest metal accumulation was observed in kidney followed by liver, gill and muscle tissues in both species. Liver accumulation of Cd was higher in C. carpio than O. niloticus, whereas kidney accumulation of the metal was higher in O. niloticus than C. carpio. PMID:24526282

Ye?ilbudak, Burcu; Erdem, Cahit

2014-05-01

219

Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

1998-12-01

220

Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary melanotropes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) during stress responses. However, effects of stressors on plasma concentrations of these hormones are highly inconsistent among fish species. Here, we show that also within a species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), fish sometimes respond with elevated alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end plasma levels, and at other times not. The origin of this variable response was investigated by (1) studying the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release in vitro, (2) establishing where in the second messenger pathway coupled to CRH receptors melanotrope responsiveness is determined, and (3) testing modulatory actions of other hypothalamic factors (here opioid beta-endorphin). Melanotropes were in a high or low responsive state to CRH in vitro, which was especially evident when tissue was tested from fish kept at higher ambient water temperatures, and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release following stimulation with CRH in vitro match plasma level changes in vivo, and this indicates that the CRH pathway does act in vivo. cAMP did not stimulate melanotropes in the low responsive state to release hormones in vitro. Thus, the mechanism that determines the cell status, occurs downstream of cAMP accumulation. Opioid beta-endorphin differentially modulated the actions of CRH, as NAc beta-end, but not alpha-MSH, release was inhibited. This response was not observed in the stress paradigms studied. We conclude that the variation in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end stress responses in vivo correlates with many CRH responses in vitro; whether a cell is in a high or low responsive state to CRH is determined downstream of accumulation of the second messenger. We propose that melanotropes have to be in the high responsive state to be activated by CRH during stress in carp and other teleosts. PMID:15639149

van den Burg, E H; Metz, J R; Spanings, F A T; Wendelaar Bonga, S E; Flik, G

2005-02-01

221

Evaluation of immunostimulatory and growth promoting effect of seed fractions of Achyranthes aspera in common carp Cyprinus carpio and identification of active constituents.  

PubMed

Immunostimulatory and growth promoting properties of Achyranthes aspera seeds were studied with larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Four experimental diets were prepared using raw (D1) and alcohol (D2), petroleum ether (D3) and 50% aqueous alcohol (D4) extracts of A. aspera seeds. Diet without seed served as control (D5). Fish were fed with test/control diet for 30 days and then immunized with 10 ?l of c-RBC. Blood samples were collected 7 days after immunization. Survival (93 ± 3%) of fish was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in D1 diet fed group compared to others. Highest specific growth rate was found in fish fed with diet D2. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of serum protein and albumin were found in D1 and D3 compared to others. Highest serum globulin level was found in D1, which was followed by D3, D2, D4 and D5. Hemagglutination titer level was 5-18 folds higher in diet D3 fed fish compared to others. SGOT and SGPT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control group compared to the treated groups. Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in D1 (2.513 ± 0.27 ? 450 nm) and D3 (2.38 ± 0.07 ? 450 nm) diets fed groups compared to others. The best performance of fish was found in raw A. aspera seeds incorporated diet fed group and the active constituents were identified as ecdysterone and two essential fatty acids linolenic acid and oleic acid. PMID:22348815

Chakrabarti, Rina; Srivastava, Praveen Kumar; Kundu, Kanika; Khare, Rashmi Sahay; Banerjee, Shanta

2012-05-01

222

Determination of hypoxia and dietary copper mediated sub-lethal toxicity in carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different levels of biological organisation.  

PubMed

Hypoxic events frequently occur in the aquatic environment in association with micro pollutants, including heavy metals. Only a few studies are however available on the uptake and biological responses of heavy metals under hypoxic conditions. To elucidate the phenomenon, mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. (16.13-16.22 g) were exposed chronically to dietary copper (Cu; 250 and 500 mg kg dry wt.(-1)) for 30 d under normoxic (8.25 mg O(2) L(-1)) and hypoxic (~3 mg O(2) L(-1)) conditions and adopting an integrated approach, sub-lethal biomarker responses were determined at different levels of biological organisation. Level of oxidative DNA damage (as determined by modified Comet assay) showed strong significant difference following exposure to dietary Cu level under normoxic (1.6-fold) as well as under hypoxic condition at both Cu levels (2.1 and 2.5-folds respectively). Significant difference was also observed for haematological parameters (i.e. increased red and white blood cells, haematocrit value and haemoglobin concentration). Quantitative histology revealed alterations in tissues (i.e. liver and gills) for hypoxic and all dietary Cu treatment groups under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions suggesting a compensatory response to these organs (p<0.05). The order of Cu accumulation in tissues (as determined by ICP-OES) was liver>intestine>kidney>gill. Interestingly, SGR under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions reduced with elevating Cu levels (p=0.019). Overall, the results provide evidence for enhanced toxicological responses in fish following exposure to Cu either alone or in combination with hypoxic condition and lends support to the evolving viewpoint that many water quality guidelines should be revisited in terms of new ecotoxicological criteria. PMID:22239943

Mustafa, Sanaa A; Davies, Simon J; Jha, Awadhesh N

2012-04-01

223

Orally administered LPS enhances head kidney macrophage activation with down-regulation of IL-6 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Immunostimulants represent a promising aquaculture tool for enhancing disease and stress resistance in cultured fish. Moreover, the term and dose for acting immunostimulants is an important thing for fish farmer. This study investigated the immune parameters of common carp after oral administration of LPS (5, 10, 20 ?g/kg/days) for 30 and 60 days, which is considered to be the proper time period for acting in aquaculture. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of head kidney macrophages and serum lysozyme activities were significantly enhanced in LPS-fed carp. Orally administered LPS augmented the expression of interleukin (IL)-1? and TNF-? mRNAs but reduced the expression of IL-6 mRNA in head kidney. Although LPS was detected in the serum and liver after a high-dose (>15 mg/kg) oral administration, it was not detected by administered LPS-specific ELISA after a low-dose (<20 ?g/kg) administration. It is speculated that orally administered LPS enhances the eliminating functions of head kidney macrophages with down-regulation of IL-6. PMID:23567856

Kadowaki, Takeshi; Yasui, Yasumasa; Nishimiya, Osamu; Takahashi, Yukinori; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Inagawa, Hiroyuki

2013-06-01

224

Complementary DNA cloning and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 3A138 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The full-length sequence of a cytochrome P450 3A 138 (CYP3A138) cDNA in common carp was cloned and sequenced. The transcriptional and microsome enzyme activities of CYP3A138 in the fish liver after rifampicin exposure were also determined in this study. The results showed that the full-length CYP3A138 cDNA is 1912 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame of 1551 bp encoding a protein of 517 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that CYP3A138 is highly conserved in fish. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP3A138 in common carp is constitutively expressed in all tissues, but mainly in the liver and intestine. Additionally, rifampicin exposure promoted both the expression of CYP3A138 at the transcriptional level and the activity of the protein, suggesting that CYP3A138 is a member of the CYP3A subfamily. PMID:24623513

Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-06-01

225

Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12 (B cells). Carp rag-1 and rag-2 showed 90 and 89% amino acid identity, respectively, to the corresponding zebrafish sequences. Rag-1 was first expressed in the thymus at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), while both rag-1+/WCL9+ and rag-1-/WCL9- areas were distinguished from 1 week post-fertilization (wpf), suggesting early cortex/medulla differentiation. From 6 dpf, rag-1+ cells were also present cranio-lateral of the head kidney. From 1 wpf, rag-1/rag-2 was expressed in kidney (together with immunoglobulin heavy chain expression) but not in spleen, while WCI12+ cells appeared 1 week later in both organs, suggesting B cell recombination in kidney but not in spleen. Rag-1 expression exceeded rag-2 levels in thymus and in head- and trunk-kidney of juveniles, but this ratio was reversed in head- and trunk-kidney from approximately 16 wpf onwards. Rag-1/rag-2 expression was detected in thymi of animals over 1-year-old, but in kidney only at low levels, indicating life-long new formation of putative T cells but severely reduced formation of B cells in older fish. PMID:15967501

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Huising, Mark O; van der Meulen, Talitha; van Oosterhoud, Carolien N; Sánchez, Nuria Alvarez; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Stroband, Henri W J; Rombout, Jan H W M

2005-01-01

226

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

227

Serum and ultrastructure responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The uptake of nanoparticles by aquatic organisms such as fish has raised concerns about the possible adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects in juvenile common carp exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for 12 weeks. The carp were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1, 0.3, 0.8, and 2.4mg/L of ZnO-NPs under a flow-through exposure system. Fish were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks to test for zinc in the test water and blood, and biochemistry analysis; further, they were sampled at 12 weeks to observe ultrastructural changes in the liver, kidney, and gill. In the organic serum, changes in the glutamic pyruvic transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (GPT/ALT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (GOT/AST) levels were significant, but changes in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were not significantly different across all exposure periods. In the inorganic serum, the magnesium (Mg), inorganic phosphorus (IP), sodium (Na(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) levels were significantly different in the exposure group and across exposure periods. However, calcium (Ca) and potassium (K(+)) levels were not significantly different. In the enzyme serum, the glucose (GLU) level significantly increased for the highest exposure group, but the total cholesterol (TCHO), triglyceride (Tg), and total protein (TP) levels were not significantly different during the exposure period. Ultrastructural changes in the liver induced changes in the black granules (of various sizes) in the lysosomes, indistinct nucleus membrane, and non-spherical nucleus. In the kidney, some mild changes were observed in the size and number of the lysosomes in the renal tubule. Desquamation and hypertrophy of pavement epithelial cells and vacuolation in the cytoplasm of the chloride cells were observed in the gill. Nanoparticles were also observed in the red blood cells, cytoplasm of all tissues, and glomerulus of the kidney. The observed changes in the serum and tissues may provide useful information regarding environmental conditions and risk assessments of aquatic organisms. PMID:24632117

Lee, Jae-woo; Kim, Ji-eun; Shin, Yu-jin; Ryu, Ji-sung; Eom, Ig-chun; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Pil-je; Choi, Kyung-hee; Lee, Byoung-cheun

2014-06-01

228

First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

2004-01-01

229

Major distinctions in the antioxidant responses in liver and kidney of Cd(2+)-treated common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

This study is related to the accumulation of Cd(2+), its effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and its role in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp. We present evidence of an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in both organs after 10 mg/L Cd(2+) exposure, with different underlying biological mechanisms and consequences. In the liver, the expressions and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase increased to cope with the Cd(2+)-generated toxic effects during the first 48 h of treatment. In contrast, none of these selected antioxidant markers was significantly altered in the kidney, whereas the expression of glutathione synthetase was upregulated. These results suggest that the major defense mechanism provoked by Cd(2+) exposure involves the regeneration of GSH in the liver, while its de novo synthesis predominates in the kidney. High levels of accumulation of Cd(2+) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) were detected in the kidney; the major consequences of ONOO(-) toxicity were enhanced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. The accumulation of ONOO(-) in the kidney suggests intensive production of NO and the development of nitrosative stress. In the liver the level of hydrogen peroxide was elevated. PMID:23919949

Dugmonits, Krisztina; Ferencz, Ágnes; Jancsó, Zsanett; Juhász, Renáta; Hermesz, Edit

2013-11-01

230

Physiological, haematological and histopathological responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings fed with differently detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal.  

PubMed

Protein rich Jatropha curcas kernel meal is toxic. It was detoxified using heat treatment and solvent extraction. Two duration of detoxification process were investigated: shorter (30 min) and longer (60 min) and the detoxified meals so obtained were designated as J(a) and J(b) respectively. Common carp fingerlings (252 fish; 3.2+/-0.07 g) were fed with the following diets: Control containing fishmeal (FM); S(50,) J(a50) and J(b50): 50% of FM protein replaced by soybean meal (SBM), detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJ(a)KM and DJ(b)KM); S(75), J(a75) and J(b75): 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM, DJ(a)KM and DJ(b)KM. White blood cells count, mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, calcium and sodium ions and total bilirubin in blood did not differ significantly among the groups. Higher (P>0.05) RBC count was observed in plant protein fed groups compared to control group. Highest alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities in blood were observed in J(a75), which were not different (P>0.05) from those in J(a50) group, but were higher than in the other groups. No adverse histopathological changes in liver and muscle of any group were observed, but intestinal mucosa of J(a75) groups showed severe pathological lesions. The results demonstrate that Jb was completely detoxified. Since the performance of J(b50) group was similar to control group and better than the other groups, optimum inclusion level of J(b) is 50% replacement of FM protein. PMID:20457206

Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Amselgruber, Werner; Becker, Klaus

2010-01-01

231

Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl4 on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in arachis oil (0.5ml/kg body weight). At 72h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl4 at 8mM. The results showed that CCl4 significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-?B/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl4 caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-?/NF-?B and TRL4/NF-?B signaling pathways play important roles in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. PMID:24721155

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jeney, Galina; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guo-Jun

2014-07-01

232

Effects of water pH on copper toxicity to early life stages of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

SciTech Connect

Carp eggs were exposed immediately after fertilization to Cu concentrations of 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L at water pH 7.6 or pH 6.3. Mortality, the incidence of spinal cord deformation, heart rate, tail movements, hatching success, and whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, Ca, and Cu were determined over time. Light microscopical preparations of eggs (48 h after fertilization) and larvae (168 h after fertilization) were studied. At pH 7.6, Cu did not affect egg mortality, heart rate, tail movements, and whole-body K and Mg content. Hatching success increased only in the 0.3 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu increased egg mortality and decreased heart rate and tail movements. Furthermore, premature hatching, a concentration-dependent increase of larval mortality, and larval deformation was observed. Exposure to 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu decreased the whole-body content of K, Na, Mg, and Ca. Uptake of Cu after hatching increased two-fold at pH 6.3 compared to the pH 7.6 groups. At pH 6.3, all Cu-exposed larvae were unable to fill their swim bladder. Also, after 168 h the yolk sac remained largely unabsorbed in the 0.3 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu group. Exposure to 0.8 {micro}mol/L Cu resulted in coagulation of proteins in eggs and yolk sacs. No significant changes in any of the assessed parameters were observed in control groups of pH 6.3 and pH 7.6.

Stouthart, X.J.H.X.; Haans, J.L.M.; Lock, R.A.C.; Bonga, S.E.W. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Animal Physiology

1996-03-01

233

The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0?±?1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish. PMID:23435858

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

2013-03-01

234

Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions on waterfowl habitats (Chamberlain 1948; Robel 1961), game fish habitat (Cahn 1929), and t...

G. A. Wanner M. Lindvall M. A. Kaemingk M. P. Nenneman

2009-01-01

235

Molecular characterization of LEAP-2 cDNA in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the differential expression upon a Vibrio anguillarum stimulus; indications for a significant immune role in skin.  

PubMed

LEAP-2 is a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) playing an important role in host innate immune system. LEAP-2 genes have been identified from higher vertebrates and several fish species. Here we report the cloning and identification of two LEAP-2 cDNA sequences from the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The LEAP-2A cDNA was 1325 bp long and contained an ORF of 279 bp encoding a protein of 92 amino acids. The LEAP-2B cDNA was 608 bp long and contained an ORF of 276 bp encoding a protein of 91 amino acids. Both LEAP-2 proteins consisted of 41 amino acid residues and shared four cysteines at the conserved positions in the predicted mature peptides, highly similar to LEAP-2 of other species. Sequence alignment showed that LEAP-2 amino acid sequences were well conserved in different species, and the phylogenetic relation of LEAP-2 was coincident with evolution of biological species. Expression analysis data revealed that LEAP-2A and LEAP-2B mRNAs were expressed in a wide range of common carp tissues including liver, spleen, head kidney, skin, gills, hindgut and foregut. When injected intraperitoneally with Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp LEAP-2A was quickly up-regulated in liver, spleen, head kidney, skin, gills, foregut and hindgut, however, the expression level of LEAP-2B was similarly up-regulated in spleen, skin, gills and hindgut but not in liver, head kidney and foregut. Our results showed that the LEAP-2A had a markedly high constitutive expression in skin, and the LEAP-2A and the LEAP-2B had a significantly high up-regulated expression after stimulus in skin. This differential expression of LEAP-2 in common carp suggests that it may play a key role in immune responses against invading pathogens and both LEAP-2 molecules may be involved in mucosal immunity. PMID:24418455

Yang, Guiwen; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Hua; Shan, Shijuan; Zhang, Xueqing; Rombout, Jan H W M; An, Liguo

2014-03-01

236

Epigenetic regulation of the ribosomal cistron seasonally modulates enrichment of H2A.Z and H2A.Zub in response to different environmental inputs in carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background The specific deposition of histone variants into chromatin is an important epigenetic mechanism that contributes to gene regulation through chromatin architectural changes. The histone variant H2A.Z is essential in higher eukaryotes, and its incorporation within chromatin is a relevant process for gene expression and genome stability. However, the dual positive and negative roles of H2A.Z in gene regulation still remain unclear. We previously reported that acclimatization in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) involves cyclical seasonal gene reprogramming as an adaptation response to its natural environment, when rRNA synthesis and processing are profoundly affected. Epigenetic mechanisms primarily contribute to the transcriptional modulation of ribosomal genes concomitant with the acclimatization process, thus significantly regulating this process. The aim of this study was to describe the presence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp, and assess the role of H2A.Z on the ribosomal cistron in summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Results This paper reports for the first time about the transcriptional expression of four different H2A.Z subtypes belonging to the same organism. Remarkably, a novel H2A.Z.7 was found, which corresponds to a tissue-specific histone subtype that contains seven amino acid residues longer than the canonical H2A.Z. Moreover, H2A.Z enrichment through the ribosomal cistron was significantly higher during summer, when rRNA transcription and processing are highly active, than it was in winter. Similar patterns of H2A.Z enrichment are found in two seasonally active promoters for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, the L41 and ?9-desaturase genes. Interestingly, ubiquitylated-H2A.Z (H2A.Zub) was strongly enriched on regulatory regions of the ribosomal cistron in summer-acclimatized carp. Additionally, H2A.Z was present in both heterochromatin and euchromatin states on ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters. Conclusions Our study revealed seasonally-dependent H2A.Z enrichment for active ribosomal cistron and RNA polymerase II promoters during the carp environmental adaptation. Moreover, seasonal H2A.Zub enrichment appears as a specific mechanism contributing to the regulation of chromatin architecture under natural conditions. The existence of several H2A.Z subtypes in carp suggests that the epigenetic regulation in this species constitutes a complex and finely tuned mechanism developed to cope with seasonal environmental changes that occur in its habitat.

2013-01-01

237

A simple von Bertalanffy model for density-dependent growth in extensive aquaculture, with an application to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model for density-dependent growth is described, and applied to the analysis of carp growth in extensive aquaculture. The model is based on a von Bertalanffy growth function, with the asymptotic length a linear declining function of population biomass. The model provides a good description of carp growth both in mixed-age populations and in single cohorts, and the model

Kai Lorenzen

1996-01-01

238

Adrenalin and Noradrenalin in the Organs of the Carp Normally and with Functional Stresses (Adrenalin I Noradrenalin V Organakh Karpa Cyprinus Carpio V Norme I Pri Funktsionalnykh Nagruzkakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The predominant catecholamine in the organs of the carp is noradrenalin. The greatest amount of noradrenalin and adrenalin is contained in the pronephros of the carp. Asphyxiation for 1 hour causes decrease in the amount of adrenalin in the pronephros and...

E. M. Stabrovskii

1970-01-01

239

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

240

Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary sustained-release microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) products (0 (non-supplement), 1·5 and 3·0 h) for a control or oxidised soyabean oil (SBO) diet on fish production, intestinal mucosal condition, immunity and intestinal bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Dietary MSB increased weight gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio within the control and oxidised SBO groups. Gut mucosa was damaged in the oxidised SBO group fed without MSB, in contrast to a normal appearance found in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group. Microvillus density increased in fish fed the MSB1·5 and MSB3·0 diets in the oxidised SBO group (P< 0·001); however, microvillus density was affected by the different pre-fed diets in the midgut (P< 0·001) and by the different sustained-release times of MSB in the distal gut (DG) (P= 0·003). The interaction between the pre-fed diets and the sustained-release times of dietary MSB was significant for the relative gene expression levels of gut heat shock protein-70 (HSP70), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-?) within each gut segment, except for HSP70 in the DG and IL-1? in the foregut. Modulation of adherent bacterial communities within each gut segment investigated was not obvious when the common carp were fed the diets with MSB, as similarity coefficients of >0·79 were observed. These results indicated that MSB can be used as a dietary supplement to repair or prevent intestinal damage in carp fed oxidised SBO. PMID:24774835

Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yanou; Zhang, Jianli; Gatlin, Delbert M; Ringø, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang

2014-07-14

241

Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , L.) and common carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (at 20C) and rainbow trout (at 15C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were\\u000a exposed to a controlled decline of waterpO2 followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored in both\\u000a species for 48 h. At regular intervals blood samples were

M. T. M. Van Raaij; G. E. E. J. M. Van den Thillart; G. J. Vianen; D. S. S. Pit; P. H. M. Balm; A. B. Steffens

1996-01-01

242

The effect of plant protein-based diet supplemented with dipeptide or free amino acids on digestive tract morphology and PepT1 and PepT2 expressions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of average body mass 0.07+/-0.02 g were fed three formulated diets: wheat gluten protein-based diet supplemented with Lys-Gly dipeptide (PP), wheat gluten protein-based diet supplemented with free lysine and glycine (AA), and a wheat gluten protein-based control diet without lysine supplementation (CON), frozen zooplankton (Z) (restricted diet), and a commercial starter food Aglo Norse (AN). After 4 weeks of experimental feeding, fish fed AN diet showed the highest body mass and length. Significantly lower mass occurred in groups fed PP, AA, CON, and Z. Fish fed CON diet showed the lowest intestinal folds and the highest number of mucous cells. Fish fed PP diet showed a significantly higher number of gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK) positive cells. The diameter of lipid vacuoles in hepatocyte cytoplasm of fish fed formulated diets (PP, AA and CON) was significantly higher than in fish fed zooplankton (Z) and the commercial diet (AN). Hepatocytes of fish fed AA and CON showed a higher nucleus proliferation rate than in the other experimental groups. The quantitative analysis of the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and caspase-3(rabbit polyclonal antibody CPP-32)-positive cells showed that the highest proliferation rate was accompanied by the high apoptosis in the intestine of fish fed AA and CON. After 4 weeks of experimental feeding the highest relative expression of PepT1 gene was observed in fish fed PP diet, while the lowest expression occurred in fish fed CON. Feeding carp plant protein-based diet supplemented with Lys-Gly dipeptide (PP) had a beneficial influence on fish growth and metabolism in the digestive tract as compared to fish fed control diet without lysine supplementation (CON). PMID:20542130

Ostaszewska, Teresa; Dabrowski, Konrad; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Grochowski, Piotr; Verri, Tiziano; Rzepkowska, Ma?gorzata; Wolnicki, Jacek

2010-10-01

243

Gene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the etiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis underlying the common carp immune response to the CyHV-3 virus. Two common carp lines (R3 and K) were infected with CyHV-3 by immersion. The R3 line presented a 20% higher survival rate compared to the K line and significantly lower viral loads as measured at day 3 post infection (p.i.). Microarray analysis using a common carp slides containing a number of 10,822 60-mer probes, revealed that 581 genes in line K (330 up-regulated, 251 down-regulated) and 107 genes in line R3 (77 up-regulated, 30 down-regulated), showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression at day 3 p.i. compared to day 0. Genes which showed at least a 4-fold difference in expression in both lines were selected as potential markers of a CyHV-3 infection in common carp. Additionally, 76 genes showed at least 2-fold differentially expression between K and R3 lines at day 3 p.i. Significantly higher expression of several immune-related genes including number of those which are involve in pathogen recognition, complement activation, MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and development of adaptive mucosal immunity was noted in more resistant R3 line. Further real-time PCR based analysis provided evidence for higher activation of CD8(+) T cells in R3 line. This study uncovered wide array of immune-related genes involved into antiviral response of common carp toward CyHV-3. It is also demonstrated that the outcome of this severe disease in large extent could be controlled by genetic factors of the host. PMID:22212509

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Adamek, Miko?aj; Palmeira, Leonor; Kawana, Yuriko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Matras, Marek; Steinhagen, Dieter; Flasz, Barbara; Brogden, Graham; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Aoki, Takashi

2012-05-01

244

The effect of oyster mushroom ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% ?-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% ?-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% ?-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% ?-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0.05) as well as the catalytic activity of ALP (P < 0.05) were altered in common carp. A significant change in induced (opsonizedzymosan particles, OZP) chemiluminescence (P < 0.05) in sampling 3 and no shifts in serum immunoglobulins concentration were found in the immunological analysis. Histopathological examination of skin, gills, liver, spleen, and cranial and caudal kidneys revealed no obvious specific changes in any tissue analysed. The use of ?-glucans in clinically healthy aquaculture remains an issue. Nevertheless, their use in breeding endangered by stress stimuli, infectious disease, or adverse environmental factors is defensible. PMID:24041844

Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Skori?, Mišo; Jarkovský, Ji?í; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof

2013-12-01

245

Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....

246

Gynogenesis in carp, Cyprinus Carpio L. and tench, Tinca Tinca L. induced by 60Co radiation in highly homogeneous radiating field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a method of fertility inactivation of fish spermatozoa by gamma radiation. Spermatozoa motility remained unchanged after irradiation. Irradiated sperm has been utilized to induced gynogenesis by means of retention of the second polar body and of mitotic gynogenesis, realized in carp for the first time. Homogeneity of gamma-rays field was + - 1 %.

Pipota, J.; Linhart, O.

247

Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish.  

PubMed

Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

Jagoda, S S S De S; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi

2014-01-01

248

Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia.

Jagoda, S. S. S. De S.; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo

2014-01-01

249

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) interleukin-1?, high affinity immunoglobulin E Fc receptor ? subunit and serum amyloid A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) is a powerful means to identify genes of cytokines and other genes that express small amount of mRNA. In this study, cDNA of normal fish (carp) head kidney cells (HKC) was subtracted from pooled cDNA of HKC and peritoneal cell (PC) obtained from fish which had been injected with sodium alginate (SA) and scleroglucan (SG) 3–48h

Kazuhiro Fujiki; Dong-Ho Shin; Miki Nakao; Tomoki Yano

2000-01-01

250

Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.  

PubMed

The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

2012-06-15

251

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on the production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the brain of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the effects of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and the mixture of them on nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain of common carp. The triazine herbicide ATR and the organophosphorus insecticide CPF are frequently and extensively applied in agriculture all over the world. 220 Carps were averagely divided into eleven groups according to the different treatments and concentration, including the exposure and recovery experiments. In the present study, we investigated production of NO, iNOS activity and iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the common carp after a 40d exposure to ATR, CPF, alone or in combination, and a 40d recovery treatment. The results showed that the activity of iNOS and production of NO were significantly higher in all groups of fish exposed to high doses ATR, CPF and their mixture compared to control fish. After a 40d recovery treatment, iNOS activity and production of NO were lower than in the corresponding exposure groups in all the recovery groups. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS were significantly higher in the high-dose group of ATR and CPF compared to control group, but were significantly lower in the group of the mixture of ATR and CPF compared to control group. Results indicated that NO and iNOS were involved in oxidative stress and brain tissue damage induced by ATR, CPF, and their mixture. Thus, the information presented in this study is helpful to understand the mechanism of ATR-, CPF- and ATR/CPF-mixture-induced neurotoxicity in fish. PMID:23602412

Wang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Tao; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Fu-Qing; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Yao, Hai-Dong; Xing, Hou-Juan; Xu, Shi-Wen

2013-07-01

252

Genetic variability and structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) populations throughout the distribution range inferred from allozyme, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild\\/feral populations of common carp from Europe, Central Asia and East\\/South-East Asia were examined for allozyme (23 populations), microsatellite (11 populations) and mitochondrial DNA (21 populations) variation. Allozyme variability (1.06–1.81 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.006–0.136 at 16 loci) was much lower than microsatellite variability (2.5–14.0 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity 0.426–0.887 at four loci). Differences in variability between domesticated\\/captive stocks and wild-caught ones were

Klaus Kohlmann; Riho Gross; Asiya Murakaeva; Petra Kersten

2003-01-01

253

Molecular characterization of CART, AgRP, and MC4R genes and their expression with fasting and re-feeding in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), agouti-related proteins (AgRP) and Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) involves\\u000a in the control of appetite. The genes were cloned and characterized, and their regulation was studied in common carp. The\\u000a CARTI and CARTII genes encode 117- and 120-amino acids, respectively. The AgRP-1 and AgRP-2 genes encode 128- and 136-amino\\u000a acids, respectively. CARTI was principally expressed in

Yumei WanYan; Yan Zhang; Peifeng Ji; Yan Li; Peng Xu; Xiaowen Sun

254

3-Methylcholanthrene increases phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced respiratory burst activity and intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) macrophages.  

PubMed

Phagocytic cells play a key role in the fish immune system. They secrete reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in their bactericidal activity. These cells are highly sensitive to pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic pollutants. We have investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) increased bactericidal activity of carp phagocytes. Macrophages isolated from head kidney (pronephros) and incubated 1 h with 3-MC enhanced their production of ROS when they were stimulated 1.25 h with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a direct activator of protein kinase C (PKC). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, alpha-naphtoflavone (alpha-NF), inhibited the potentiation of PMA-induced ROS production, suggesting 3-MC metabolic activation. Moreover, alpha-NF increased [Ca(2+)](i) without macrophage ROS production, suggesting that some mechanism other than calcium release is playing a role in the stimulation of the macrophages by 3-MC. The rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. And treating the cells with 3-MC decreased the calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp phagocytes. PMID:11509021

Reynaud, S; Duchiron, C; Deschaux, P

2001-08-15

255

Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide  

PubMed Central

The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30?mg·L?1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96?h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30?mg·L?1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15?mg·L?1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15?mg·L?1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp.

Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

256

Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide.  

PubMed

The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30?mg·L(-1)) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96?h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L(-1). Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30?mg·L(-1). Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15?mg·L(-1)) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L(-1). Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15?mg·L(-1). Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

257

In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Astragalus polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in common carp in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, APS (200, 400 and 800 ?g/ml) was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium. APS at concentrations of 200, 400 and 800 ?g/ml significantly improved cell viability and inhibited the elevation of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly increased the reduced level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In vivo administration of APS at the doses of 1.5 and 3 g/kg in the diet for 60 days prior to CCl(4) intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of GPT, GOT and LDH and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum; meanwhile, the reduced levels of SOD, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were markedly increased and the MDA formation was significantly inhibited in liver tissue. Overall results proved the hepatoprotective action of APS, which is likely related to its antioxidant activity. The results support the use of APS as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish. PMID:22089693

Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

2012-06-01

258

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment (5 ?g/ml) and pre- and post-treatment (5 and 10 ?g/ml) of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT and MDA and increased the reduced levels of SOD and GSH-Px by CCl(4); post-treatment of the hepatocytes with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract at 5 ?g/ml reduced the GPT and GOT levels and increased the GSH-Px level, but had no effect on the other parameters at all the studied concentrations. The results support the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in fish. PMID:20865324

Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki; Lu, Chengping

2011-03-01

259

Comparative study on effects of dietary with diphenyl diselenide on oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia sp.) exposed to herbicide clomazone.  

PubMed

The study investigated the capacity of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (3.0mg/kg), on reduce the oxidative damage in liver, gills and muscle of carp and silver catfish exposed to clomazone (192h). Silver catfish exposed to clomazone showed increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver and muscle and protein carbonyl in liver and gills. Furthermore, clomazone in silver catfish decrease non-protein thiols (NPSH) in liver and gills and glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid in liver. (PhSe)2 reversed the effects caused by clomazone in silver catfish, preventing increases in TBARS and protein carbonyl. Moreover, NPSH and ascorbic acid were increased by values near control. The results suggest that (PhSe)2 attenuated the oxidative damage induced by clomazone in silver catfish. The clomazone no caused an apparent situation of oxidative stress in carp, showing that this species is more resistant to this toxicant. Altogether, the containing (PhSe)2 diet helps fish to increase antioxidants defenses. PMID:23892285

Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Toni, Cândida; Santi, Adriana; Lópes, Thais; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Neto, João Radünz; Loro, Vania Lucia

2013-09-01

260

Jian Receives 2009 F. L. Scarf Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lan Jian has been awarded the AGU F. L. Scarf Award, given annually to recent Ph.D recipients for outstanding dissertation research that contributes directly to solar planetary sciences. Jian's thesis is entitled “Radial evolution of large-scale solar wind structures.” She was formally presented with the award at the Space Physics and Aeronomy section dinner during the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14-18 December in San Francisco, Calif. Lan Jian received her B.S. in geophysics from University of Science and Technology of China in 2003. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in geophysics and space physics, under the supervision of Christopher T. Russell, at University of California, Los Angeles in 2006 and 2008, respectively. Her research interests include various structures in the solar wind, their origin and evolution, and their effect on the space environment of planets.

2010-03-01

261

Comparative study of ?-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by ?-glucans in head kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS on a real-time scale at frequent and continual time intervals for time course experiments, providing more detailed information on the respiratory burst response. The real-time chemiluminescence assay was used to measure respiratory burst activity in macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched head kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by ?-glucans. PMID:23454430

Vera-Jimenez, N I; Pietretti, D; Wiegertjes, G F; Nielsen, M E

2013-05-01

262

Description of an as Yet Unclassified DNA Virus from Diseased Cyprinus carpio Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous deaths of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were observed on many farms throughout Israel, resulting in severe financial losses. The lethal viral disease observed is highly contagious and extremely virulent, but morbidity and mortality are restricted to koi and common carp populations. Diseased fish exhibit fatigue and gasping movements in shallow water. Infected fish had interstitial nephritis and

Marina Hutoran; Ariel Ronen; Ayana Perelberg; Maya Ilouze; Arnon Dishon; Izhak Bejerano; Nissim Chen; Moshe Kotler

2005-01-01

263

Cove culture of marble goby ( Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) and carps in Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the 5.24-ha Truong Dang Cove of Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam during June 2002–May 2003 to describe cove culture of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at 960, 470, 470, 470 and 170 fish\\/ha, respectively. After about

Vu Cam Luong; Yang Yi; Chang Kwei Lin

2005-01-01

264

In vivo response of melatonin, gonadal activity and biochemical changes during CYP19 inhibited sex reversal in common carp Cyprinus carpio (L).  

PubMed

CYP19 aromatase is the key enzyme in vertebrate steroidogenesis, catalyzing the conversion of C19 androgens to 17?-estradiol (E(2)). The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the CYP19 inhibitors (AIs) fadrozole and anastrozole on gonadal development and sex differentiation in Cyprinus carpio and investigate the possible involvement of in vivo melatonin (MLT) production during sex differentiation. The CYP19 activity in 30 day-post fertilized (30 dpf) fingerlings was inhibited by treating with fadrozole and anastrozole in doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg of feed. Gonado-somatic-index (GSI) of fish decreased (P<0.005) and the changes in GSI was dose dependent. Serum testosterone (T) concentration increased (P<0.001) after AI treatments and was negatively correlated with serum E(2) concentration which decreased (P<0.005). Morning serum MLT concentration decreased during the period of inhibited CYP19 activity with a positive correlation with E(2) concentration. Sex-ratio in anastrazole (200mg/kg) treated fish were 98.1% males while with fadrozole treatment at the same dose resulted in a 97.1% masculinization. Histological examination of fadrozole-treated fish gonads resulted in detection of atretic follicles and intensified spermiation. The protein and lipid production was depressed in AIs-treated fish. The results suggested that fadrozole and anastrozole both effectively inhibited oogenesis and ovarian development in C. carpio accelerating testicular formation. There was a physiological correlation between CYP19 activity, E(2) and MLT synthesis during gonadal development and sex differentiation. PMID:23218911

Singh, Atul K; Singh, Ruchi

2013-01-30

265

Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2 6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

2006-01-01

266

Existence of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) available in GenBank dbEST database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common carp expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed for the existence of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). In the NCBI dbEST database, a total of 10612 sequences were registered before December 31, 2004. A complete search of 2-6 nucleotide microsatellites resulted in the identification of 513 SSR-containing ESTs, accounting for 4.8% of the total. Cluster analysis indicated that 73 sequences of SSR-containing ESTs fell into 27 groups and the remaining 440 ESTs were indenpendent. A total of 467 unique SSR-containing ESTs were identified. These EST-SSRs contained a variety of simple sequence types, and di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, accounting for 42.1% and 27.9% of the whole, respectively. Of the dinucleotide repeats, CA/TG was the most abundant, followed by GA/TC. BLASTx search showed that 38.1% of the SSR loci could be associated with genes or proteins of known or unknown function. BLASTx searches of SSR-containing ESTs also showed high frequencies (98/179) of hits on zebrafish sequences.

Jingjie, Hu; Xiaolong, Wang; Xiaoli, Hu; Zhenmin, Bao

2006-01-01

267

Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time  

SciTech Connect

Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

1985-04-01

268

Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100 {mu}M, none of the diphenylalkanes directly inhibited aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R cells. Environmental exposure of fish to BPA and related diphenylalkanes, depending on the structure, may pose anti-estrogenic, and to a lesser extent estrogenic, risks to development and reproduction.

Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada) and Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bokkers, Abraham [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Giesy, John P. [Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2005-12-01

269

Induced interspecific androgenesis using diploid sperm from allotetraploid hybrids of common carp×red crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, viable diploid androgenetic individuals (AT-ag) (2n=100) have been developed in UV-radiated eggs of goldfish (GF) (Carassius auratus) following fertilization with diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrid (AT) F13 (4n=200) of red crucian carp (C. auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?). In the experimental groups, eggs were inactivated by UV-rays, the range of UV-radiation

Yuandong Sun; Chun Zhang; Shaojun Liu; Wei Duan; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

270

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?) ? common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0

Wei Duan; QinBo Qin; Song Chen; ShaoJun Liu; Jing Wang; Chun Zhang; YuanDong Sun; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

271

Microsatellites within genes and ESTs of common carp and their applicability in silver crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six new microsatellites were identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by screening through genes found in GenBank, EST sequences from a testis cDNA library and a genomic DNA library enriched for CA repeats. Eleven of the twenty-eight microsatellites identified from genes and ESTs were AT repeats, suggesting their high abundance in the genome of common carp. Characterization of the

Gen Hua Yue; Mei Yin Ho; Laszlo Orban; Johannes Komen

2004-01-01

272

Expression pattern of potential biomarker genes related to growth, ion regulation and stress in response to ammonia exposure, food deprivation and exercise in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Waterborne ammonia has become a persistent pollutant of aquatic habitats. During certain periods (e.g. winter), food deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural water. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by their genes. In this present study, toxicogenomic analyses using real time PCR was used to characterize expression patterns of potential biomarker genes controlling growth, ion regulation and stress responses in common carp subjected to elevated ammonia (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and fasting (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Both feeding groups of fish were exposed to high environment ammonia (HEA) for 0 h (control), 3h, 12h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days, and were sampled after performing swimming at different speeds (routine versus exhaustive). Results show that the activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an important branchial ion regulatory enzyme, was increased after 4-10 days of exposure. Effect of HEA was also evident on expression patterns of other ion-regulatory hormone and receptor genes; prolactin and cortisol receptor mRNA level(s) were down-regulated and up-regulated respectively after 4, 10 and 21 days. Starvation and exhaustive swimming, the additional challenges in present study significantly further enhanced the HEA effect on the expression of these two genes. mRNA transcript of growth regulating hormone and receptor genes such as Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone receptor, and the thyroid hormone receptor were reduced in response to HEA and the effect of ammonia was exacerbated in starved fish, with levels that were remarkably reduced compared to fed exposed fish. However, the expression of the growth hormone gene itself was up-regulated under the same conditions. Expression of somatolactin remained unaltered. Stress representative genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 showed an up-regulation in response to HEA and starvation while the mRNA level of heat shock protein 70 was increased in response to all the three stressors. The expression kinetics of the studied genes could permit to develop a "molecular biomarker system" to identify the underlying physiological processes and impact of these stressors before effects at population level occur. PMID:22750116

Sinha, Amit Kumar; Diricx, Marjan; Chan, Lai Pong; Liew, Hon Jung; Kumar, Vikas; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

2012-10-15

273

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

274

First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte

2004-01-01

275

Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2001-01-01

276

Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.  

PubMed

Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks. PMID:24102339

Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

2013-12-01

277

The formation of tetraploid stocks of red crucian carp×common carp hybrids as an effect of interspecific hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

F3–F8 hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were found to be allotetraploids by examining the numbers and karyotypes of chromosomes, the DNA content of red blood cells, and the mean nuclear erythrocyte volumes. The chromosome numbers of F3–F8 were 4n=200. The chromosome numbers of two types of triploids produced by mating

Shaojun Liu; Yun Liu; Gongjiang Zhou; Xuanjie Zhang; Chen Luo; Hao Feng; Xiaoxiao He; Guihua Zhu; Hui Yang

2001-01-01

278

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

279

Biology of sperm and artificial reproduction in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, has been cultivated for several thousand years and is produced in large quantities, research on reproduction has been very limited. Traditionally, spawning occurred naturally in situ in rearing ponds. In slightly improved methods large breeding ponds stocked with brood fish were devoted to reproduction with fry collection in autumn, or in small spawning ponds

R. Billard; J. Cosson; G. Perchec; O. Linhart

1995-01-01

280

Toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, the contents of complement C3 and IgM, and IgM and complement C3 expressions in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is one of the organophosphate pesticides widely used in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. In the present study, toxic effects of chlorpyrifos on lysozyme activities, contents of IgM and complement C3, and the expressions of IgM and complement C3 at mRNA level in common carp were evaluated by acute exposure of 15 (1/10 LC50) or 75?gL(-1) (1/2 LC50) of chlorpyrifos for 7d. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96h-LC50 of chlorpyrifos for common carp was determined to be 149?gL(-1). We also found that chlorpyrifos promoted lysozyme activities at the earlier stages of exposure but inhibited it at the late stages in the serum, hepatopancreas, and spleen of common carp. Furthermore, it was observed that chlorpyrifos-exposure decreased IgM contents in fish serum and spleen while increased it in kidney. No obvious change was found in the contents of complement C3 in fish spleen, while a slight increase of complement C3 was observed in fish serum and kidney after 1d of chlorpyrifos-exposure. In addition, the results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that IgM and complement C3 expressions were up-regulated at the earlier stage of exposure but down-regulated at later stage. Our results indicate that chlorpyrifos causes immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:23769463

Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yaning; Fang, Qian; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuanlong

2013-09-01

281

Differences in the antibody response and survival of genetically different varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) vaccinated with a commercial Aeromonas salmonicida/A. hydrophila vaccine and challenged with A. hydrophila.  

PubMed

Males of two strains of carp, wild Duna (D), and inbred Szarvas 22 (22), were selected for high and low stress response. Two purebreds of D and 22, from randomly chosen parents and four crosses, 22 x 22-L (low stress response), 22 x 22-H (high stress response), 22 x D-L (low stress response) and 22 x D-H (high stress response) from selected stress response parents were produced and vaccinated with a commercial Aeromonas salmonicida/Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine and their circulating antibody response evaluated 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks post-vaccination by ELISA. Significantly higher titres of circulatory antibodies against A. hydrophila were found in the families 22 and cross 22 x 22-L compared to other groups. The development of circulatory antibodies against A. hydrophila in all crosses having at least one D parent was low and remained low throughout the experiment. The level of circulatory antibodies against atypical A. salmonicida in the inbred strain increased following a booster vaccination with the highest values measured in inbred strain 22 and cross 22 x 22 L. The different varieties of carp had different levels of survival against experimental challenge with A. hydrophila. The greatest survival was obtained in strain 22 and cross 22 x 22-L, while ~90% of D wild carp and cross 22 x D (independent of their stress response) died. Survival results correlated well with the antibody response of the different groups: 22 and 22 x 22-L had the highest antibody titres against A. hydrophila and the greatest level of survival. PMID:19449165

Jeney, Zsigmond; Rácz, Tímea; Thompson, Kim D; Poobalane, Saravanane; Ardó, László; Adams, Alexandra; Jeney, Galina

2009-11-01

282

THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MUSCLE VELOCITY AND SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate how fish locomote at different muscle temperatures. Sarcomere length excursion and muscle shortening velocity, V, were determined from high-speed motion pictures of carp, Cyprinus carpio (11-14cm), swimming steadily at various sustained speeds at 10, 15 and 20°C. In the middle and posterior regions of the carp, sarcomeres of the lateral red

LAWRENCE C. ROME; ROEL P. FUNKE

1990-01-01

283

Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (2'-OH-BDE68 and 4-OH-BDE90) and their distribution pattern in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have attracted wide concerns due to their toxicities and universal presence in wildlife and humans. The relatively high Kow values of OH-PBDEs imply these compounds may have a significant bioaccumulation potential, but so far, the existing data provide little information regarding the kinetics of uptake and depuration in any organisms. Here we exposed common carps separately to two OH-PBDEs, 2'-OH-BDE68 and 4-OH-BDE90, for 30 days (d) in a flow-through system, followed by a 60-d depuration period in clean water to investigate compound-specific bioaccumulation and tissue distribution. Two OH-PBDEs could accumulate in common carp, and the high concentration was observed in liver or kidney. The uptake rates (k1) of two OH-PBDEs ranged from 0.15 to 21.3 d(-1) in fish, and the elimination rates (k2) ranged from 0.027 to 0.075 d(-1), which leaded to their BCF values in 4.8-299.2 ranges. Half-lives ranged from 9.2 d to 25.6 d. The exposure concentration significantly affected BCF values but didn't change their relative compositions in liver, kidney and muscle after a long exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically assess uptake, depuration kinetics and tissue distribution for OH-PBDEs via a controlled experimental animal model. PMID:24759434

Zhao, Hongxia; Zhang, Guolong; Liu, Sisi; Qu, Baocheng; Wang, Yanli; Hu, Dingfei; Jiang, Jingqiu; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

2014-06-15

284

Viability of Male Gametes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

2005-01-01

285

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp x common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp.

2014-01-01

286

Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in a Chronic Bacterial Infection of Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty bacterial isolates were obtained from 20 common carp Cyprinus carpio of the strain known as koi during a 2-month disease outbreak. Thirteen were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, 11 as A. sobria, 2 as A. caviae, 2 as Shewanella putrifaciens, and 1 each as Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas spp. Each isolate was tested for resistance to 13 antimicrobial compounds using

P. W. Taylor

2003-01-01

287

EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli could reset the respiratory rhythm by modifying the existing breathing cycle. An increase of stimulus intensity evoked a

B. L. ROBERTS

1991-01-01

288

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

289

Artificial Diets for Common Carp: Effect of the Addition of Enzyme Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment on feeding the larvae of carp (Cyprinus carpio) with an artificial diet is described, and 3 previous years of study are briefly summarized. When extracts offish digestive enzymes from hepatopancreas and intestine were added to the diet processed by freeze-drying, growth and survival of the larvae were better than in our previous experiments, but not as good as

Henryka Dabrowska; Czeslaw Grudniewski; Konrad Dabrowski

1979-01-01

290

First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 °C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot

1997-01-01

291

COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

292

Influences of incorporating detoxified Jatropha curcas kernel meal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) diet on the expression of growth hormone- and insulin-like growth factor-1-encoding genes.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub or small tree widespread all over the tropics and subtropics. The use of J. curcas (L) kernel meal in fish feed is limited owing to the presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents. In this study, it was detoxified using heat treatment and organic solvent extraction method. The detoxification process was carried out for 60?min to obtain the detoxified meal. Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings (n?=?180; avg. wt. 3.2?±?0.07?g) were randomly distributed in five treatment groups with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%) for 8?weeks. The inclusion levels of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) and soybean meal (SBM) were as follows: control diet was prepared with fish meal (FM) and wheat meal, without any DJKM and SBM; diets S(50) and J(50) : 50% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively; diets S(75) and J(75) : 75% of FM protein replaced by SBM and DJKM respectively. Highest body mass gain and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in brain, liver and muscle were observed for the control group, which were statistically similar to those for J(50) group and significantly (p?

Kumar, V; Khalil, W K B; Weiler, U; Becker, K

2013-02-01

293

Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea  

SciTech Connect

There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

Not Available

1986-09-01

294

Endocrine disruption and metabolic changes following exposure of Cyprinus carpio to diethyl phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) enter into aquatic environment from industries manufacturing cosmetics, plastic and many commercial products and can pose potential fish and human health hazard. This experiment evaluated effects of DEP in adult male (89g) common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposing them to fractions of LC50 (1\\/500–1\\/2.5) doses with every change of water for 28 days. Vitellogenin induction metabolic enzymes,

A. V. Barse; T. Chakrabarti; T. K. Ghosh; A. K. Pal; S. B. Jadhao

2007-01-01

295

Differential in Vitro Suppressive Effects of Steroids on Leukocyte Phagocytosis in Two Teleosts, Tilapia and Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential roles of cortisol and gonadal steroids in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in two teleosts, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). An in vitro microtiter plate assay, measuring incorporation of FITC-latex beads into peripheral blood leukocytes, was developed for the first time in

Wan-Yu Law; Wen-Hsiung Chen; Yen-Lin Song; Sylive Dufour; Ching-Fong Chang

2001-01-01

296

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

297

Massive production of all-female diploids and triploids in the crucian carp.  

PubMed

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

298

Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

299

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.  

PubMed Central

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

1986-01-01

300

Parental genetic effects evaluation of growth-related traits of red common carp in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal differences have been observed widely for given traits in fish breeding programs, but maternal and paternal effects\\u000a and heritable extranuclear genetic effects have often been omitted in the evaluation of genetic variance. In this study, we\\u000a have applied a mixed genetic model to conduct a complete diallel cross using three varieties of red common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), namely,

Cheng-Hui Wang; Jun Wang; Song-Ping Xiang; Yao-Ping Lv; Jian Wang; Xiao-Zhen He

2009-01-01

301

REGULATORY EFFECT OF DOPAMINE ON SPATIAL PROPERTIES OF HORIZONTAL CELLS IN CARP RETINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of light-induced response (L-, RG-, and YRB-type S-potentials) recorded from isolated retinas of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were identified by their spectral response and later by morphological localization of the recording sites marked with an intracellular Lucifer Yellow (LY). Horizontal cells in a given layer, generating one of the above response types, are electrically coupled via gap junctions,

TSUNENOBU TERANISHI; KOROKU NEGISHI; SATORU KATO

302

Genome Sequences of Three Koi Herpesvirus Isolates Representing the Expanding Distribution of an Emerging Disease Threatening Koi and Common Carp Worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1990s, lethal infections of koi herpesvirus (KHV) have been spreading, threatening the worldwide production of common carp and koi (both Cyprinus carpio). The complete genome sequences of three KHV strains from Japan, the United States, and Israel revealed a 295-kbp genome containing a 22-kbp terminal direct repeat. The finding that 15 KHV genes have clear homologs in the

Takashi Aoki; Ikuo Hirono; Ken Kurokawa; Hideo Fukuda; Ronen Nahary; Avi Eldar; Andrew J. Davison; Thomas B. Waltzek; Herve Bercovier; Ronald P. Hedrick

2007-01-01

303

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

304

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

305

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

306

Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.  

PubMed

With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs), major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:24558380

Jiang, Jinlin; Wang, Xiaorong; Shan, Zhengjun; Yang, Liuyan; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqin

2014-01-01

307

Quinalphos induced alteration in respiratory rate and food consumption of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Acute toxicity of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide, quinalphos (25% emulsified concentration) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was tested through bioassay. The acute toxicity of quinalphos to the fingerlings exposed for 96 hr was found to be 2.75 ppm. For sub lethal toxicity study, the fish were exposed to two concentration viz., 1/10th of LC50 (0.275 ppm) and 1/5th of LC50 (0.55 ppm) along with lethal concentration (2.75 ppm) as reference for 48 hr. The carps were under stress and mortality was insignificant in both sub lethal and lethal concentrations. However, considerable variation in respiration rate and food consumption rate was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations. The alteration observed in the physiological condition may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological stress by fish against quinalphos. PMID:24665768

Muttappa, K; Reddy, H R V; Rajesh, Mridula; Padmanabha, A

2014-03-01

308

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.

1994-01-01

309

Carpe Noctem 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carpe Noctem is a Mid-Size League RoboCup team at the University of Kassel. It is part of the Distributed Autonomous Systems Laboratory of the Distributed Systems Group which is well known for its research contributions on middleware platforms, distributed system management, and software technologies for distributed systems. Carpe Noctem is a team of researchers, students, and robots that collectively aim

P. A. Baer; R. Reichle; K. Baumgart; T. Kleppe; C. Hoppe; S. Triller; D. Saur; J. Wollenhaupt; T. Amma; M. Blumenstein; F. Seute; A. Witsch; K. Geihs

310

Comparative susceptibility of carp fingerlings to Lernaea cyprinacea infection.  

PubMed

Study was conducted to find out the comparative susceptibility of fingerlings of seven species of carps (Labeo fimbriatus, L. rohita, L. calbasu, Catla catla, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthamichthys molitrix) grown under both mono and polyculture to Lernaea cyprinacea infection. Under monoculture, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu, did not acquire Lernaea infection and were thus considered resistant, whereas C. idella, H. molitrix, C. catla and L. fimbriatus were susceptible. Even challenge with higher infective doses of copepodids under monoculture did not result in infection in the resistant fish species. The resistance of L. rohita and C. carpio to Lernaea infection under monoculture was not sustained when these two fish species were maintained in polyculture along with susceptible fish species. Labeo calbasu, even under polyculture, however, did not acquire Lernaea infection indicating that this fish species is the most resistant and least preferred host for this parasite. Similarly, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu when grown together in polyculture and exposed to a higher infective dose (120 copepodids/fish) also did not develop the infection. The possible reasons for differences in susceptibility shown by these carp species in monoculture and the loss of resistance by rohu and common carp while in polyculture with susceptible species are discussed. The ability of resistant fish species to prevent establishment of anchor worms on them under monoculture can be utilized to control this parasitic infection commonly encountered in culture ponds. PMID:21255932

Hemaprasanth; Singh, Ravinder; Raghavendra, A; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R; Eknath, A E

2011-05-31

311

Susceptibility of koi x crucian carp and koi x goldfish hybrids to koi herpesvirus (KHV) and the development of KHV disease (KHVD).  

PubMed

Hybrids of koi, Cyprinus carpio x crucian carp, Carassius carassius and koi x goldfish, Carassius auratus, proved to be susceptible to koi herpesvirus (KHV, syn. CyHV-3) and developed KHV disease (KHVD). While hybrids of koi x goldfish were partly resistant to mortality following infection by immersion, most koi x crucian carp hybrids died after bath infection. KHV DNA was detected in dead fish but also in all surviving animals by different polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). According to these results, hybrid crossbreeding does not seem to prevent severe losses associated with KHV in terms of inducing KHVD. The present study showed severe losses after a waterborne KHV infection of between 35% and 100% in koi x goldfish and koi x crucian carp hybrids as well as in SPF carp. PMID:20102462

Bergmann, S M; Sadowski, J; Kie?pi?ski, M; Bart?omiejczyk, M; Fichtner, D; Riebe, R; Lenk, M; Kempter, J

2010-03-01

312

Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.  

PubMed

This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

2014-04-01

313

Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).  

PubMed

In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

2007-03-01

314

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

315

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

316

Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market  

PubMed Central

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

Hart, Vlastimil; Kusta, Tomas; Nemec, Pavel; Blahova, Veronika; Jezek, Milos; Novakova, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimir; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stipek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

2012-01-01

317

Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.  

PubMed

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; N?mec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

2012-01-01

318

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

319

Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Penne, C. R.; Pierce, C. L.

2008-01-01

320

County town -- jian-zhi town differentials and migration to towns in China.  

PubMed

China's urbanization process is unique in having been due to economic systems and migration policies. Towns and townships in rural areas are different from cities in their social and economic characteristics and their structure and function. The urban system in China is initially described with the distinction drawn between cities, "jian-zhi towns", (organic town) which are officially recognized, and rural areas. Analysis is provided f the economic and residential registration status of town residents and migration in northern China. Data were obtained from a 1987 survey of 1314 households in Wongnioute Banner in Inner Mongolia, and a 1985 migration survey of 2089 rural households in 41 villages. The study area was selected because jian-zhi town status was easily obtained and the are needed more towns for local administration and trade; the area was similar in geographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics to other northern and northwestern regions. The Wongnioute Banner comprises 5 towns (Qiaotou, Wufendi, Hairesu, Wuduentaohai, and Wutonghua) and 1 country town (Wudan). All citizens from birth have an agricultural or nonagricultural status, which can be changed by passing national exams or completing a university education, joining the military and becoming an officer, marrying someone with a nonagricultural status, reunifying the family, or holding a special program. Quotas are set annually for status changes, e.g. in Tibet Autonomous Region the annual quota was 3%. Town residents may have either status. In the sample, 56.6% lived in town and had a nonagricultural status; 17.7% of heads of household town residents had an agricultural status and had stronger ties to villages because of family connections. Commuters are a third group and comprise 8.9%. County towns and jian-zhi towns are grouped the same, but are quite different in population size. Wudan had a population of 27,600 spread over an area of 480 hectares. The jian-zhi towns each had an average population of 1570 and an area of about 150 hectares. Facilities are in greater number and diversity in county towns. Geographic mobility is greater in towns. The productive value of rural town industry increased from 9.2% in 1978 to 25% in 1990 of China's total industrial productive value. The social and economic reforms of the 1980s have encouraged the development of cities and towns, and the labor force and residential patterns are changing. PMID:12286536

Ma, R

1993-07-01

321

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

322

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.  

PubMed

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A(1)-4n fish not only had advantages such as fast growth rate and strong resistibility but also showed some new good performances such as high ratio of body width to body length, smaller heads and shorter tails. These results indicated that androgenesis could produce bisexual fertile tetraploids and improve the shape of allotetraploid hybrids as well, which will be of great significance in both the cell genetics research and fish breeding. PMID:17901933

Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

2007-12-01

323

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

324

Reconstructing social relationships in post-earthquake community: social work intervention in Qin Jian Ren Jia, Dujiangyan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of Qin Jian Ren Jia, a community consisting of mainly temporary dwellings in Dujiangyan, this paper illustrates how social work services should be carried out to assist the rebuilding of the community after it was devastated by an earthquake. It describes first the backdrop for social work intervention, the nature of the projects delivered, and the

Meiping Fei; Eliza K. P. Ip

2009-01-01

325

Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.  

PubMed

An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (?1 ?m) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

2014-03-01

326

Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.  

PubMed

Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11? and 11?-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11? activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 ?M for CYP17 and CYP11?, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 ?M). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

2013-03-01

327

Using ecological niche models to predict the abundance and impact of invasive species: application to the common carp.  

PubMed

In order to efficiently manage nonindigenous species (NIS), predictive tools are needed to prioritize locations where they are likely to become established and where their impacts will be most severe. While predicting the impact of a NIS has generally proved challenging, forecasting its abundance patterns across potential recipient locations should serve as a useful surrogate method of estimating the relative severity of the impacts to be expected. Yet such approaches have rarely been applied in invasion biology. We used long-term monitoring data for lakes within the state of Minnesota and artificial neural networks to model both the occurrence as well as the abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the ability of the resulting models to (1) interpolate to new sites within our main study region, (2) extrapolate to lakes in the neighboring state of South Dakota, and (3) assessed the relative contribution of each variable to model predictions. Our models correctly identified over 83% of sites where carp are either present or absent and explained 73% of the variation in carp abundance for validation lakes in Minnesota (i.e., lakes not used to build the model). When extrapolated to South Dakota, our models correctly classified carp occurrence in 79% of lakes and explained 32% of the variation in carp abundance. Variables related to climate and water quality were found to be the most important predictors of carp distribution. These results demonstrate that ecological niche-based modeling techniques can be used to forecast both the occurrence and abundance patterns of invasive species at a regional scale. Models also yielded sensible predictions when extrapolated to neighboring regions. Such predictions, when combined, should provide more useful estimates of the overall risk posed by NIS on potential recipient systems. PMID:21516898

Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Leung, Brian; Ricciardi, Anthony

2011-01-01

328

Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  

PubMed

The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

2009-08-01

329

Isolation of carp genes encoding major histocompatibility complex antigens.  

PubMed Central

In the evolution of the adaptive immune system unique to vertebrates, teleost fish occupy the critical position. This is the most primitive class of lower vertebrates in which the capacity for acute allograft rejections can be demonstrated, thus suggesting the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and, therefore, T cells. Here, we report the identification of two putative MHC-antigen-encoding sequences in the carp Cyprinus carpio. One, identified as TLAI alpha-1, had reasonable homology to MHC class I heavy chains of mammalian and avian species, while the other, identified as TLAII beta-1, was homologous to MHC class II beta chain of the aforementioned higher vertebrates. For these isolations of fish MHC genes, we have identified two highly conserved amino acid sequence blocks surrounding two cysteine residues in the second domain of MHC class II beta chains as well as the third domain of class I heavy chains of humans, mice, and chickens. Two kinds of mixed oligonucleotide probes corresponding to these two regions were synthesized. The carp genomic DNA was subjected to amplification by polymerase chain reaction using the above two synthetic DNA fragments as primers. Subsequently, two different DNA sequences sandwiched by these primers were isolated from the amplified products. Their use as secondary probes led to the identification of TLAI alpha-1 and TLAII beta-1. We also discuss the applicability of the above approach for isolation from lower vertebrates of other genes belonging to the immunoglobulin super-family as well as the evolutionary origin of vertebrate MHC antigens. Images

Hashimoto, K; Nakanishi, T; Kurosawa, Y

1990-01-01

330

Asian Carp in the Missouri River: Analysis from Multiple Missouri River Habitat and Fisheries Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, collectively referred to as Asian carps, are invasive species that were either accidentally or intentionally intro...

G. A. Wanner R. A. Klumb

2009-01-01

331

Serum proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic profiles in myasthenia gravis patients during treatment with Qiangji Jianli Fang  

PubMed Central

Background Qiangji Jianli Fang (QJF) has been used for treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) in China. However, our understanding of the effects of QJF against MG at the molecular level is limited. This study aims to investigate the effects of QJF treatment of MG patients on the protein, peptide and metabolite levels in serum. Methods High-throughput proteomic, peptidomic and metabolomic techniques were applied to investigate serum samples from 21 healthy individuals and 47 MG patients before and after QJF treatment via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry, respectively. Results After QJF treatment, the expression levels of peptides m/z 1865.019, 2021.128 and 1211.668 of complement C3f increased (P?=?0.004, P?=?0.001 and P?=?0.043, respectively), while that of peptide m/z 1739.931 of component C4b decreased (P?=?0.043), in the serum of MG patients. The levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (P?=?0.000) and coenzyme Q4 (P?=?0.000) resumed their normal states. Conclusion QJF could inhibit the activity of the complement system and restore the normal levels of metabolites.

2012-01-01

332

Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

2013-12-01

333

Development of MHC class I and II B primers in common carp and its molecular characterization.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has an important role in immune response and is known as the most polymorphic locus in vertebrates. We developed three pairs of polymerase chain reaction primers of the alpha-2 domain (exon 3) of MHC class I and the beta-2 (exon 3) and beta-3 domains (exon 4) of MHC class II B gene in the German mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We analyzed the three loci in a population of 65 individuals that had suffered the serious disease of gill rot. Five to six variable nucleotide sites and two to six variable amino acid sites (71.43%) were detected in the exon sequence of the sampled populations, indicating that many of them corresponded to amino acids involved in antigen recognition. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were differentially found in some loci, which will be important for further study of disease resistance/susceptibility and population evolution. PMID:20524055

Jia, Zhiying; Chi, Xifeng; Li, Chitao; Shi, Lianyu

2010-08-01

334

Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

Goldstein, R. M.; DeWeese, L. R.

1999-01-01

335

Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Penne, C. R.; Ahrens, N. L.; Summerfelt, R. C.; Pierce, C. L.

2007-01-01

336

Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan. 1. Effects on reproduction and survival, and the potential risks to wild mink populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, containing 8.4 mg total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)\\/kg and 194 ng of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)\\/kg, were substituted for marine fish at levels of 0, 10, 20, or 40% in the diets of adult ranch mink (Mustela vison). The diets, containing 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg PCBs\\/kg diet, or 1.03, 19.41, 40.02, and

S. N. Heaton; S. J. Bursian; J. P. Giesy; D. E. Tillitt; J. A. Render; P. D. Jones; D. A. Verbrugge; T. J. Kubiak; R. J. Aulerich

1995-01-01

337

Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak

1980-01-01

338

Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.  

PubMed

Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 950-960, 2014. PMID:23125150

Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

2014-08-01

339

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

340

Administration of a herbal immunoregulation mixture enhances some immune parameters in carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal immunoregulation mixture (HIRM) were extracts of several traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs): Astragalus membranaceus (from the root and stem), Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (from the root), Isatis tinctoria L. (from the root), Glycyrrhiza glabra (from the stem). Immune parameters, which included macrophage phagocytic activity, macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a activity of serum lysozyme, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase

Chuntao Yuan; Dongmei Li; Wei Chen; Fangfang Sun; Guanghong Wu; Yi Gong; Jianqing Tang; Meifang Shen; Xiaodong Han

2007-01-01

341

Toxicity evaluation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been manufactured for over 50 years in increasing quantities and has been used for several industrial and commercial aims. Due to persistence and bioaccumulation of this pollutant, it can be found worldwide in wildlife and humans. Biochemical effects of PFOS exposure are mainly studied in mammalian model species and information about effects on fish species remain

A. Hagenaars; D. Knapen; I. J. Meyer; K. van der Ven; P. Hoff; W. De Coen

2008-01-01

342

„Germanofilia” lui P. P. Carp - P. P. Carp’s „Germanophilia” (Romanian version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the public conscience as well as in specialized literature, P.P. Carp, the conservative political man, appears as one of the most vehement „Germanophiles” in modern Romania, an attitudinal immobility which had supposedly ruined his perception on the course of history. According to the perspective-oriented interpretation, the “Germanophilia” of the Romanian conservative was not based on love but on Calculus.

Silvia BOCANCEA

2011-01-01

343

High Throughput Mining and Characterization of Microsatellites from Common Carp Genome  

PubMed Central

In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827 distinct contig sequences. These microsatellites were characterized in the common carp genome. Information of all microsatellites, including previously published BAC-based microsatellites, was then stored in a MySQL database, and a web-based database interface (http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/ssrdb) was built for public access and download. A total of 3,110 microsatellites, including 1,845 from WGS and 1,265 from BAC end sequences (BES), were tested and genotyped on a mapping family with 192 individuals. A total of 963 microsatellites markers were validated with polymorphism in the mapping family. They will soon be used for high-density linkage mapping with a vast number of polymorphic SNP markers.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chao; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

344

Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations  

PubMed Central

The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-01-01

345

Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure. PMID:24507130

Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

2014-03-01

346

The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

Stepanova, Stanislava; Plhalova, Lucie; Dolezelova, Petra; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

2012-01-01

347

Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.  

PubMed

A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115?125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. PMID:22889892

Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

2012-11-01

348

Oxidative stress in Cyprinus carpio to analyze microcystin impact in eutrophic shallow lakes: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Microcystins (MCYSTs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria in aquatic environment and are of high potential risk to aquatic organisms. The physiological responses and pathobiological developments that they elicit in fish have been extensively studied, mainly through acute toxicity experiments. This study was designed to examine the seasonal fluctuation of biochemical markers of oxidative stress in different tissues of a natural population of Cyprinus carpio inhabiting a shallow Mediterranean lake, along with the respective MCYSTs concentrations in blood and tissues at environmentally relevant MCYSTs values. MCYSTs content was assessed in liver, kidney, intestine, brain and muscle along with the MCYSTs in lake water and scum applying ELISA technique. Catalase activity, GSH/GSSH relative concentrations and lipid peroxidation were used as biochemical markers. Our results suggest that common carp of Lake Pamvotis exposed to naturally fluctuating concentrations of MCYST in water and scum contained stably high MCYST concentrations in all tissues that might pose a threat to public health. Liver and kidney were the primary target organs. Tissue concentrations did not correlate with the response of any of the elements of the antioxidant defence system. Hepatic catalase, GSH content and TBARS in all tissues tested followed the fluctuations of major limnological parameters, i.e. water temperature and oxygen concentration, chlorophyll-a, MCYST in water and scum, suggesting that they should be cautiously used to monitor exposure to MCYSTS in natural freshwater ecosystems. PMID:22766939

Moutou, Katerina A; Tsikogias, Stamatis; Papadimitriou, Theodoti; Kagalou, Ifigenia

2012-08-01

349

Monitoring trace metals in different tissues of Cyprinus carpio from the Indus River in Pakistan.  

PubMed

This replicated 4×2 factorial study investigated the bioaccumulation of selected metals (Mn, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cr) in four tissues (gills, liver, muscle and skin) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) domiciled in two sites (upstream and downstream) of Indus River in Mianwali district of Pakistan. The data were statistically compared for the main effects of the site and fish organs and their interaction on the bioaccumulation pattern of these metals in fish organs at P<0.05. It appeared that the fish sampled from downstream had higher trace metals than the fish from upstream. Significant differences between fish organs were observed for these trace metals (P<0.001). The fish showed higher bioaccumulation of vital metals like Zn and lower bioaccumulation for the toxic metals like Pb. The gills had the highest metal load followed by liver, skin and muscles. High concentrations of Mn, Hg and Cr were observed in different fish organs as compared to the WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards for food fish. However, the mean concentration of Pb and Zn were under the permissible limits of food fish. It implies that higher levels of Mn, Hg and Cr in fish muscles would have detrimental effects on the health of fish consumers such as pregnant women, children and elderly people of this study area. PMID:20033282

Jabeen, Farhat; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

2010-11-01

350

Protective effect of lycopene on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Cyprinus carpio during cypermethrin exposure.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative properties of lycopene against the toxic effects of cypermethrin (CYP) by examining oxidative damage markers such as lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system components in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish were divided into seven groups of 10 fish each and received the following treatments: group 1, no treatment; group 2, orally administered corn oil; group 3, oral lycopene (10 mg/kg body weight); group 4, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP; group 5, exposure to 0.202 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene; group 6, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP; and group 7, exposure to 0.404 ?g/L CYP plus oral administration of 10 mg/kg lycopene. Treatment was continued for 28 days, and at the end of this period, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in blood and tissues for measurement of oxidant-antioxidant status. MDA level, as an index of lipid peroxidation, increased in blood and tissues. Antioxidant enzyme activities in blood and tissues were modified in CYP groups compared with controls. Administration of lycopene ameliorated these parameters. The present results suggest that administration of lycopene might alleviate CYP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24150867

Yonar, M Enis

2013-11-01

351

Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay

2005-01-01

352

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

353

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

354

Learning from the past: Rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored ``Hare's Fur'' (HF) strips and the silvery ``Oil Spot'' (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis.

Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

2014-05-01

355

Learning from the past: Rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares  

PubMed Central

Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored “Hare's Fur” (HF) strips and the silvery “Oil Spot” (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis.

Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noe, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

356

Learning from the past: Rare ?-Fe2O3 in the ancient black-glazed Jian (Tenmoku) wares.  

PubMed

Ancient Jian wares are famous for their lustrous black glaze that exhibits unique colored patterns. Some striking examples include the brownish colored "Hare's Fur" (HF) strips and the silvery "Oil Spot" (OS) patterns. Herein, we investigated the glaze surface of HF and OS samples using a variety of characterization methods. Contrary to the commonly accepted theory, we identified the presence of ?-Fe2O3, a rare metastable polymorph of Fe2O3 with unique magnetic properties, in both HF and OS samples. We found that surface crystals of OS samples are up to several micrometers in size and exclusively made of ?-Fe2O3. Interestingly, these ?-Fe2O3 crystals on the OS sample surface are organized in a periodic two dimensional fashion. These results shed new lights on the actual mechanisms and kinetics of polymorphous transitions of Fe2O3. Deciphering technologies behind the fabrication of ancient Jian wares can thus potentially help researchers improve the ?-Fe2O3 synthesis. PMID:24820819

Dejoie, Catherine; Sciau, Philippe; Li, Weidong; Noé, Laure; Mehta, Apurva; Chen, Kai; Luo, Hongjie; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

357

CULTURAL PROSPECTS OF CHINESE CARPS IN TAMILNADU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Chinese carps was studied in the plains and uplands of Tamilnadu. Grass carp, when less than I 50 mm, feed on plankton and chopped vegetation. Larger fish feed on sub- merged weeds, but they are of doubtful utility against emergent and marginal plants. Terrestrial shrubs like Tridux can also be fed. Preference for softer varieties was noted.

G. Prabhavathy; A. Sreenivasan

358

Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

Patino, R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C. E.; Scott, Foott, J.; Wainscott, M. R.; Gross, T. S.; Covay, K. J.

2003-01-01

359

Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

1990-04-01

360

Efficacy of Jian'ganle () versus Hugan Pian (), glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione in prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine is advocated by WHO and adopted by developed countries for many years. In China, however, the selection of essential medicine and various medical insurance reimbursement schemes medicine is usually based on experts' experience of prescription practice which is under heavy critics resulting from the lack of related comparative efficacy and evidence-based research. The efficacy of Jian'ganle in prevention of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by antituberculotics was evaluated in this study by comparison with Hugan Pian, glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione. Evidence was provided for relevant sectors such as Ministry for Human Resources and Social Security of the People's Republic of China and National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China to select and renew the Essential Medicine List (EML), the new rural cooperative medical scheme in China (NRCMS) list or the reimbursement list of industrial injury insurance. A total of 189 patients with initial pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into four groups who took antituberculotics combined with Jian'ganle, Hugan Pian, glucuronolactone and reduced glutathione respectively. Their liver function profile including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), total protein (TP), albumin (A) and globulin (G) were detected at admission as baseline and after treatment. The Jian'ganle group was compared with the three others by chi-square tests. In an aspect of maintaining bilirubin indexes normal, Jian'ganle was more efficacious than glucuronolactone. And Jian'ganle had a little more efficacy than reduced glutathione to maintain protein indexes normal as well. And the therapeutic regimen of antituberculotics combined with Jian'ganle was the best in treating tuberculosis and preventing DILI at the same time. The study showed that among the four hepatinicas which demonstrated similar prevention of DILI caused by antituberculotics, Jian'ganle has more advantages over the three others to some extent, which provides a reliable basis for health sectors to select and renew the EML, NRCMS List or the reimbursement list of industrial injury insurance. PMID:24939315

Zhang, Quan; Zhong, Fang-Ying; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Xin-Ping

2014-06-01

361

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

362

The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-10-01

363

Utilization of dipeptide/protein based diets in larval and juvenile Koi carp--post-prandial free amino acid levels.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that diets in which the nitrogen portion is based on synthetic dipeptides (PP) resulted in weight gain by rainbow trout alevins when free amino acid (FAA) based diets did not. However, the protein-based diet used as a control in the previous study resulted in a significantly better performance of fish than peptide- or FAA based diet fed fish. Therefore, the objectives of our study were (i) to test how stomachless fish respond to peptide-based diets, (ii) to evaluate PP and protein-PP mixture diets and (iii) to examine if post-prandial response to FAA concentrations in the fish body can be used as an indicator of the availability of dietary amino acid sources. The first experiment was conducted with a 4-day old Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and included groups fed a casein-gelatin (CG) based diet, a commercial diet and live Artemia nauplii. In the second experiment, fish fed live Artemia for 3 weeks (69 +/- 12 mg) were placed in glass aquaria in triplicate per dietary treatment. Four diets provided equivalent amounts of nitrogen in the form of a CG, a PP, a 50% PP and 50% CG (PP50) mix and as FAA. Fish were fed at 1 and 3 h intervals, and the survival and growth were monitored during the second and third weeks of experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Following the completion of feeding, juvenile carp were sampled prior to feeding and 3 h after a meal. Whole body FAA analyses were carried out. We observed marginal suitability of the CG diet for larval Koi carp, as earlier indicated in common carp. Juvenile Koi carp fed the CG diet achieved 236 +/- 19 mg, whereas PP50, PP and FAA diet fed fish grew to 140 +/- 37, 70 +/- 8 and 73 +/- 5 mg respectively. Free amino acids in the fish body, and in particular indispensable amino acids (IDAA), were excellent indicators of dietary availability. The present experiment shows that a dietary 1:1 ratio of protein to synthetic PPs results in better growth, survival and whole body IDAA concentrations in relation to FAA- and PP-based diets confirming earlier reports on the use of synthetic PP-based diets, although this diet does not match the performance of complete protein, CG-based diet. PMID:19906146

Kwasek, K; Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K

2010-02-01

364

The effects of dietary thiamin on oxidative damage and antioxidant defence of juvenile fish.  

PubMed

The present study explored the effects of thiamin on antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In a 60-day feeding trial, a total of 1,050 juvenile Jian carp (8.20 ± 0.02 g) were fed graded levels of thiamin at 0.25, 0.48, 0.79, 1.06, 1.37, 1.63 and 2.65 mg thiamin kg(-1) diets. The results showed that malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were significantly decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, the anti-superoxide anion capacity and anti-hydroxyl radical capacity in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were the lowest in fish fed the thiamin-unsupplemented diet. Meanwhile, the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the contents of glutathione in serum, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle were enhanced with increasing dietary thiamin levels (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum, hepatopancreas and intestine followed a similar trend as CAT (P < 0.05). However, SOD activity in muscle was not affected by dietary thiamin level (P > 0.05). The results indicated that thiamin could improve antioxidant defence and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:24178923

Li, Xue-Yin; Huang, Hui-Hua; Hu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

2014-06-01

365

Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide in Cyprinus carpio: assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity, hematological responses and serum biochemical parameters.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity effects of acute and sublethal of Roundup® as a glyphosate-based herbicide on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and several hematological and biochemical parameters of Cyprinus carpio. The LC??-96 h of Roundup® to C. carpio was found to be 22.19 ppm. Common carp was subjected to Roundup® at 0 (control), 3.5, 7 and 14 ppm for 16 days, and the AChE activity is verified in tissues of gill, muscle, brain and liver. After 5 days, a significant decrease was observed in the AChE activity of muscle, brain and liver tissues. Besides, a time- and dose-dependent increase in mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) was observed. In contrast, a significant decrease was found in the quantities of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and, red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cell count. Also, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in Roundup® treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods. However, the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had a significant reduction behavior during the sampling days. It seems that the changes in hematological and biochemical parameters as well as AChE activity could be used as efficient biomarkers in order to determine Roundup® toxicity in aquatic environment. PMID:24075644

Gholami-Seyedkolaei, Seyed Jalil; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Kosari, Ali Asghar

2013-12-01

366

Modulation of antioxidant and detoxifying capacity in fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) after treatment with nanocapsules containing lipoic acid.  

PubMed

Lipoic acid (LA) is a water- and lipid-soluble molecule with capacity to pass through cell membranes and with several antioxidant properties. Previous studies have shown that polymeric nanocapsules with LA favor the protection of this antioxidant, increasing their physical and chemical stability compared to formulations containing free LA. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of free LA and LA-nanocapsules on antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and a by-product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), as well as the expression of gene coding for different forms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in model fish. For this, carp Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) were exposed (i.p.) to different forms of LA (free and in nanocapsules) for different times (48h, 96h and 1week) and the brain, liver and muscle were analyzed. Results indicated that the organs respond differently depending on the time and form in which LA was delivered. After 96h and 1week, a better antioxidant response was found generally in the formulation with nanocapsules. The nanocapsule composition showed to be a factor to be considered in future studies, because in some organs and exposure times empty nanocapsules promoted an antioxidant effect and in others a pro-oxidant effect. PMID:23402748

Longaray-Garcia, Márcia; Flores, Juliana Artigas; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Monserrat, José Maria

2013-08-01

367

Water-Quality Assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Common Carp and Walleye Fillets, 1975-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at those stream segments upstream or outside the TCMA were generally lower than those in UMR segments within the TCMA. The spatial distribution of PCB and LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye correspond with historical point- and non point-source PCB inputs in the densely populated TCMA, and concentrations in fish were greater in areas that historically had elevated PCB concentrations in bed sediment. Median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at individual sites were greatest during 1975-79 and 1980-87, and least during 1988-95 at most sites. Most of the river segments exhibited over 80 percent decline in median PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye between the 1975-79 and 1988-95 time periods. The results from these temporal analyses were similar to those of other studies in the United States and in Minnesota and Wisconsin that reported a significant downward trend in PCB concentrations in fish. Although, PCB concentrations have decreased during 1975-95, low concentrations of PCBs still remain in the aquatic environment despite the fact that PCBs were banned nearly 20 years ago.

Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

1998-01-01

368

Effect of "jian-pi-zhi-dong decoction" on gamma-aminobutyric Acid in a mouse model of tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each); control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism. PMID:24812567

Zhang, Wen; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Daohan; Wei, Li; Lee, Minkyoung; Wang, Sumei

2014-01-01

369

Effect of "Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction" on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in a Mouse Model of Tourette Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3?-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each); control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism.

Zhang, Wen; Yu, Wenjing; Wei, Li; Lee, Minkyoung; Wang, Sumei

2014-01-01

370

Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun

2006-01-01

371

Characterization of a Novel Virus Causing a Lethal Disease in Carp and Koi  

PubMed Central

Since 1998 a lethal disease of carp and ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio) has afflicted fisheries in North America, Europe, and Asia, causing severe economic losses to the fish farming industry. This review summarizes the isolation and identification of the disease-causing agent and describes the currently known molecular characteristics of this newly isolated virus, distinguishing it from other known large DNA viruses. In addition, we summarize the clinical and histopathological manifestations of the disease. Providing information on the immune response to this virus and evaluating the available means of diagnosis and protection should help to reduce the damage induced by this disease. This review does not discuss the economic aspects of the disease or the debate on whether the disease should be registered; both of these issues were recently reviewed in detail (O. L. M. Haenen, K. Way, S. M. Bergmann, and E. Ariel, Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol. 24:293-307, 2004; D. Pokorova, T. Vesely, V. Piackova, S. Reschova, and J. Hulova, Vet. Med. Czech. 50:139-147, 2005).

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

2006-01-01

372

Electrophysiological responses of three chemosensory systems in the carp to pesticides.  

PubMed

Responses of three chemical senses, olfaction, taste, and pit organ sense, to three pesticides were studied electrophysiologically in carp, Cyprinus carpio. Only olfaction was responsive to the three pesticides at behavioral avoidance levels, which were determined in a previous study. The olfactory thresholds for benthiocarb, isoprothiolane, and fenitrothion were 1.7 x 10(-1) micrograms/l (4 log units lower concentration than 48-h LC50), 6.7 x 10(-3) micrograms/l (6 log units lower than 48-h LC50), and 4.9 x 10(2) micrograms/l (1 log unit lower than 48-h LC50), respectively. There were two distinctive features in the olfactory response to pesticides. One is that these pesticides barely indicated the concentration dependency that is usually recognized in the olfactory response to a typical stimulant such as L-alanine or NaCl. Another is that these pesticides indicated a power spectrum with an overall increase in frequency ranges of less than 10.0 Hz, unlike L-alanine or NaCl, which show a marked peak ranging from 8.0 to 12.0 Hz. These findings suggest that there is a specific mechanism in the chemoreception for these pesticides. PMID:8840928

Ishida, Y; Yoshikawa, H; Kobayashi, H

1996-08-01

373

Oxidative stress in carp exposed to quinclorac herbicide under rice field condition.  

PubMed

This study evaluated parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant profile in fish after herbicide exposure. Cyprinus carpio were exposed to quinclorac (initial concentration 344.60?g/L) for 7, 30, and 90 days under rice field condition. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated in brain, liver and muscle tissues, and protein carbonyl in liver. Enzymatic parameters such as catalase (CAT) and gluthatione S-transferase (GST) activities also were studied in liver. TBARS levels fluctuated in the brain showing increase in 7 days and decrease in 30 days, while in liver it was observed increase in 7 and 30 days, as well as in muscle after 30 and 90 days. The protein carbonyl was also increased after 30 and 90 days of herbicide exposure. CAT and GST activities were decreased after 30 and 90 days, respectively. The alterations observed suggest that a commercial formulation containing quinclorac causes oxidative damage in different tissues of carp after a long time of exposure. This study pointed out the importance of quinclorac toxicity considering the concentration used in rice fields. PMID:23474064

Toni, Cândida; Menezes, Charlene; Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Pretto, Alexandra; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Leonardo Martins, Manoel; Zanella, Renato; Lucia Loro, Vania

2013-06-01

374

Metal bioaccumulation in common carp and rudd from the Topolnitsa reservoir, Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in water samples and five fish organs (gills, liver, kidney, spleen, and muscle) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and common rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from the Topolnitsa reservoir (Bulgaria) in three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn). This water ecosystem is located in a copper mining and metallurgical region. Water metal concentrations were significantly higher in the summer than in the spring (p<0.05). Moreover, As, Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were higher than the national limits. Qualitative factors "element" and "fish organ" had a stronger influence on metal bioaccumulation than the factors "season" and "fish species". In fish, the highest metal levels were detected in the liver, spleen, kidney and gills, and the lowest in the dorsal muscle. Tissue levels were higher in the summer, but in general they were similar between the two Cyprinid fish. Fish muscles had the lowest metal levels at all times, but As and Pb exceeded the national and international standards. Therefore, we would not recommend fish consumption from Topolnitsa, as continuous metal contamination of the reservoir may seem to present human health risk. PMID:24620011

Yancheva, Vesela; Stoyanova, Stela; Velcheva, Iliana; Petrova, Slaveya; Georgieva, Elenka

2014-03-01

375

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

376

Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A. [Univ. of Kalyani, West Bengal (India)

1994-10-01

377

Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison

1978-01-01

378

Evaluating Asian Carp Colonization Potential and Impact in the Great Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Filter-feeding Asian carp (bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) threaten to invade Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes through the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and through introductions via bait use or...

W. Hill

2008-01-01

379

Biomarkers assessment in juvenile Cyprinus carpio exposed to waterborne cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of long-term exposure to waterborne cadmium (Cd) on Cyprinus carpio was evaluated through changes of selected parameters considered as biomarkers of toxicity. Fish were exposed to 1.6 mg l?1 Cd for 14 days and then transferred to Cd-free water for 19 days. The measured parameters were gill ATPases, brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE), liver glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate

F. R de la Torre; A Salibián; L Ferrari

2000-01-01

380

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus.

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

381

Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.  

PubMed

Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process. PMID:24433788

Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-02-01

382

Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein (CRF-BP) inhibits CRF- and urotensin-I-mediated activation of CRF receptor-1 and -2 in common carp.  

PubMed

Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein (CRF-BP) is considered a key determinant for CRF receptor (CRF-R) activation by CRF and several related peptides. Earlier studies have shown that the CRF system is highly conserved in gene structures throughout evolution, yet little is known about the evolutionary conservation of its biological functions. Therefore, we address the functional properties of CRF-BP and CRF-Rs in a teleost fish (common carp; Cyprinus carpio L.). We report the finding of two similar, yet distinct, genes for both CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 in this species. The four receptors are differentially responsive to CRF, urotensin-I (UI), sauvagine, and urocortin-2 (Ucn-2) and -3 (Ucn-3) as shown by luciferase assays. In vitro, carp CRF-BP inhibits CRF- and UI-mediated activation of the newfound CRF-Rs, but its potency to do so varies between receptor and peptide ligand. This is the first paper to establish the functionality and physiological interplay between CRF-BP, CRF-Rs and CRF-family peptides in a teleostean species. PMID:24769042

Manuel, Remy; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Vale, Wylie W; Huising, Mark O

2014-06-01

383

Are all koi ulcer cases associated with infection by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida? Polymerase chain reaction assays of koi carp skin swabs submitted by hobbyists.  

PubMed

Infection by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida is regarded as the cause of ulcer disease (KUD) in koi carp Cyprinus carpio and goldfish Carassius auratus. However, other causes--including parasites, viral infection, and fungi--have been proposed. In our diagnostic work, we often fail to isolate A. salmonicida even when clear clinical signs of KUD are present. This failure may be because these fastidious and slow-growing bacteria are difficult to isolate in culture or because the bacteria are not actually present in the lesions. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect A. salmonicida in DNA samples swabbed from koi carp ulcers. These alcohol-preserved samples were collected and submitted by hobbyists and included 40 separate cases from 12 different states. We identified atypical A. salmonicida by PCR in 52 of 62 samples submitted and in 33 of 40 unique cases. The negative findings for A. salmonicida by PCR could all be attributed to high water temperatures, prior antibiotic use, poor sample quality, or misdiagnosis of columnaris disease as KUD. Tests for Aphanomyces invadans by PCR were negative in every case. This work confirms that A. salmonicda is still the predominant cause of KUD and that our negative culture results were most likely due to technical failures rather than an absence of A. salmonicda in the ulcer lesions. PMID:19873831

Goodwin, Andrew E; Merry, Gwenn E

2009-06-01

384

Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of Xinxiang, China.  

PubMed

Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong

2013-11-01

385

Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.

2003-01-01

386

ACTH, alpha-MSH, and control of cortisol release: cloning, sequencing, and functional expression of the melanocortin-2 and melanocortin-5 receptor in Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cortisol release from fish head kidney during the acute phase of the stress response is controlled by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary pars distalis (PD). Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and beta-endorphin, from the pars intermedia (PI), have been implicated in cortisol release during the chronic phase. The present study addresses the regulation of cortisol release by ACTH and alpha-MSH in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and includes characterization of their receptors, namely, the melanocortin-2 and melanocortin-5 receptors (MC2R and MC5R). We could not demonstrate corticotropic activity of alpha-MSH, beta-endorphin, and combinations of these. We do show a corticotrope in the PI, but its identity is as yet uncertain. Carp restrained for 1 and 7 days showed elevated plasma cortisol and alpha-MSH levels; cortisol is still elevated but lower at day 7 than day 1 of restraint. Interrenal response capacity is unaffected, as estimated by stimulation with a maximum dose ACTH in a superfusion setup. MC2R and MC5R appear phylogenetically well conserved. MC2R is predominantly expressed in head kidney; a low abundance was found in spleen and kidney. MC5R is expressed in brain, pituitary PD, kidney, and skin. Quantitative PCR analysis of MC2R and MC5R expression in the head kidney of restrained fish reveals MC2R mRNA downregulation after 7 days restraint, in line with lower plasma cortisol levels seen. We discuss regulation of corticosteroid production from a phylogenetic perspective. We propose that increased levels of alpha-MSH exert a positive feedback on hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone release to sustain a mild stress axis activity. PMID:15890786

Metz, Juriaan R; Geven, Edwin J W; van den Burg, Erwin H; Flik, Gert

2005-09-01

387

Biochemical and morphological changes in carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) liver following exposure to copper sulfate and tannic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a consequence of human activity various toxicants reach the aquatic ecosystems; humics may interact with them and may change their toxicity. Many fish are exposed to a considerable concentration of humics and pollutants. Because of paucity of data on the biochemical action of tannins in the presence of the fungicide CuSO4 a comparative study was undertaken. The alterations of

Zsolt Varanka; Imre Rojik; István Varanka; János Nemcsók; Magdolna Ábrahám

2001-01-01

388

Characterisation of cDNAs of key genes involved in apoptosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a morphologically and biochemically distinct form of eukaryotic cell death that occurs under a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Many of the cell deaths that occur during normal embryological development and during normal tissue turnover display the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis. In the last 20 or so years a better biochemical picture of how the process occurs

M. Cols Vidal; D. Hoole; G. T. Williams

2008-01-01

389

Responses of antioxidant systems in the hepatocytes of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) to the toxicity of microcystin-LR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater, bloom-forming cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa produces a peptide hepatotoxin, which causes the damage of animal liver. Recently, toxic Microcystis blooms frequently occur in the eutrophic Dianchi Lake (300 km2 and located in the South-Western of China). Microcystin-LR from Microcystis in Dianchi was isolated and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its toxicity to mouse and

Xiaoyu Li; Yongding Liu; Lirong Song; Jiantong Liu

2003-01-01

390

Feminisation of young males of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during sexual differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a hierarchy of techniques has become available for detecting chemicals which may cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. The molecular structure of a chemical provides a first indication about estrogenic activity, i.e. their likelihood of interfering with the female hormone receptor. In vitro competitive binding assays for this receptor and specific cell cultures are also used

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Anton G. M. Gerritsen; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

391

Prediction of the bioconcentration factor in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using data from the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test.  

PubMed

An approach to predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCFpre ) from the predicted uptake rate constant (k1?pre ) and the depuration rate constant measured in the dietary exposure bioaccumulation fish test (k2?dietary ) [BCFpre ?=?k1?pre /k2?dietary ] is proposed in test guideline 305 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Data were collected on the BCFs of 197 test chemicals from Japan's Chemical Substances Control Law database. To demonstrate how the BCFpre compares with experimentally derived BCF under optimum conditions, 48 of 197 test chemicals, including a number of studies that could be considered problematic, were excluded from the analysis. The k1?pre was calculated by using 22 published prediction methods: the correlations between experimental uptake rate constants (k1?aqueous ) and k1?pre for all prediction methods were very low and were statistically nonsignificant (p?>?0.05). Three prediction methods were also selected that gave relatively good values for the geometric mean of k1?pre /k1?aqueous and calculated values of BCFpre for 12 test chemicals. Linear relationships (p?

Hashizume, Naoki; Tanabe, Aiko; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Sawada, Takashi; Murakami, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Sumi, Shinichiro; Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Ajimi, Shozo; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Kotaro

2014-06-01

392

Cortisol induces apoptosis in activated B cells, not in other lymphoid cells of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian T and B cells glucocorticoids (GS) regulate development and selection through induction of apoptosis; more recently GS-induced apoptosis has also been implicated in the removal of circulating, activated T and B cells following an immune response. In an earlier report we have given the first evidence for cortisol-induced apoptosis as an immune regulator in an aquatic vertebrate, the

F. A. A. Weyts; G. Flik; J. H. W. M. Rombout; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

1998-01-01

393

Effects on Carp Embryos (Cyprinus Carpio) and Daphnia Pulex of Chlorinated Organic Compounds Produced During Control of Fouling Organisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorinated organic compounds have been identified in cooling, waste treatment, and drinking waters after application of chlorine. The advisability of chlorination for some purposes and the suitability of present chlorination technology for others have be...

J. R. Trabalka S. C. Tsai J. S. Mattice M. B. Burch

1979-01-01

394

Variations in physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water during breeding of Cyprinus carpio in a closed hatchery system.  

PubMed

Physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of culture water were examined during the induced breeding of Cyprinus carpio in a controlled environmental system. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, pH, ammonia nitrogen, total bacterial count, hardness, salinity, carbonate and bicarbonate were estimated before and after spawning and hatching. Average alteration in water pH before and after spawning was 7.91-7.57 and 7.86-7.58 respectively. Total hardness, carbonate and bicarbonate showed insignificant variations. Nitrate, ammonia nitrogen and phosphate contents significantly increased after spawning and hatching p < 0.05. The average increase in nitrate was from 2.94 to 8.62 microg l(-1) after spawning and 3.10 to 8.49 microgl(-1) after hatching. Ammonia nitrogen contents were sharply increased from an average of 0.011 to 1.87 mg l(-1) after spawning and 0.013 to 0.56 mg l(-1) after hatching. The average phosphates increased from 2.59 to 4.15 microg l(-1) after spawning and 2.61 to 4.03 microg l(-1) after hatching. Dissolved oxygen was sharply depleted even after a continuous aeration. Temperature played a vital role during breeding. No successful breeding was observed at a temperature of 17 degrees C or below and 31 degrees C or above. There is a significant association between temperature, spawning and hatching (p < 0.05). By optimizing temperature, the breeding success of this carp was achieved with a statistical significance of p < 0.05. Total bacterial count was significantly increased after spawning and hatching. It was related to the amount of discharge and may cause mass mortality of fish embryo and spawn in a closed hatchery system. PMID:21047001

Mohan, Devendra; Choudhary, Devendra

2010-05-01

395

Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink

1977-01-01

396

Slow PIII component of the carp electroretinogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow PIII component of the electroretinogram (ERG) was studied in the isolated, aspartate-treated carp retina. Although the latter is richly populated with cones, flow PIII appeared to reflect almost exclusively the activity of rods; e.g. the spectral sensitivity of the potential paralleled closely the rod pigment curve, its operating range (i.e. the V-log I curve) was limited to 3

PAUL WITKOVSKY; F. E. DUDEK; HARRIS RIPPS

1975-01-01

397

Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

Chapman, Duane C.

2010-01-01

398

Intensive Feeding of Grass Carp in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and feed consumption were determined for yearling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at a rate of 8,000\\/hectare in earthen ponds and fed either a practical-type catfish diet or diets in which dehydrated alfalfa meal comprised either 19 or 38% of the formula. The diets were formulated to be approximately equal in estimated digestible energy (2.9 kcal\\/g) and digestible protein

B. O. Mgbenka; R. T. Lovell

1986-01-01

399

The role of HIRA and maternal histones in sperm nucleus decondensation in the gibel carp and color crucian carp.  

PubMed

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly during male pronucleus formation in Drosophila. However, the role of HIRA during fertilization in vertebrates remains unclear. The gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic crucian carp (gyno-carp). Heterologous sperm nuclei cannot decondense when incorporated in the egg, thus the eggs produce a clonal lineage of all females by typical gynogenesis. In contrast, after entering the egg, homologous sperm can undergo decondensation and sexual reproduction is activated, which may produce both female and male offspring. Therefore, this fish is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of fertilization. Herein, we first compared HIRA expression during embryogenesis between gyno-carp and the gonochoristic color crucian carp (Carassius auratus; gono-carp). In gono-carp, a dramatic reduction of HIRA protein occurs shortly after fertilization, whereas HIRA protein is consistently expressed during embryogenesis of gyno-carp. Next, we used immunodepletion and an in vitro sperm decondensation system, and found that complete removal of HIRA inhibited sperm decondensation in both of the fish. Immunofluorescence localization showed that in the condensed sperm nuclei of gono-carp incubated in gyno-carp egg extracts, HIRA was detected, but neither the histone H2A variant H2af1o nor acetylated histone H4 was observed. These results suggest that HIRA may be a critical factor required for sperm nucleus decondensation, while the defect in deposition of some maternal histones in the sperm nucleus could be one reason why heterologous sperm cannot decondense in the gibel carp egg. PMID:21337451

Zhao, Zhan-Ke; Li, Wei; Wang, Meng-Yu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2011-02-01

400

Competitive Interactions between Age0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout

Sally J. Schrank; Christopher S. Guy; James F. Fairchild

2003-01-01

401

Feeding Rate of Carp Estimated by a Radioisotopic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding rate was estimated for yearling carp living in a small lake contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. The amount of Cs that must be ingested to maintain the equilibrium body burden of the carp was calculated from measured values for body burden, biological elimination rates, and assimilation factors. The radioisotope was ingested by the fish as an integral part

N. R. Kevern

1966-01-01

402

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

403

Relationship between meteorological conditions and natural reproduction behavior of the four famous Chinese carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known as the four famous carps in China, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead