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Sample records for jnk pkc fak

  1. PKC{eta} confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-09-10

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKC{eta}, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKC{eta} in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKC{eta}. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKC{eta} expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKC{eta} is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKC{eta} could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  2. Taurochenodeoxycholic acid induces NR8383 cells apoptosis via PKC/JNK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Ziying; He, Xiuling; Mao, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Li, Peifeng

    2016-09-01

    Our former studies have suggested that taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) as a signaling molecule shows obvious anti-inflammatory and immune regulation properties. In this research, we tentatively explored the potential effects and the possible mechanism that involve in the apoptotic process in NR8383 cells induced by TCDCA. Using flow cytometry analysis, we evaluated the apoptosis rate. Gene expression levels were determined by qPCR. The expressions of protein kinase C (PKC), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and their phosphorylation were measured by Western Blot. We observed the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-8 with Caspase-Glo® regent. The results demonstrated that TCDCA dramatically improved the apoptosis rate of NR8383 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In the meantime, PKC mRNA levels and activities were significantly augmented by TCDCA treatments. In addition, JNK, caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression levels and activities were increased by TCDCA, while they were markedly decreased by specific inhibitors. We conclude that TCDCA contributes to the apoptosis through the activation of the caspase cascade in NR8383 cells, and the PKC/JNK signaling pathway may be involved in this process. These results indicate that TCDCA may be a latent effective pharmaceutical product for apoptosis-related diseases. PMID:27268718

  3. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P < 0.05) and apoptotic cell death rate decreased from 16.4 ± 0.21% (control) to 4.5 ± 0.13% (P < 0.05) applied at 0.1 Hz. Expression of PKC was upregulated with slight increase in JNK and no change in p38MAPK after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.075 ± 0.024, P < 0.05 GF109203X); (1.418 ± 0.021, P > 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs.

  4. Silencing Fibronectin Extra Domain A Enhances Radiosensitivity in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas Involving an FAK/Akt/JNK Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou Juanjuan; Pan Feng; Geng Peiliang; Wei Xing; Xie Ganfeng; Deng Jia; Pang Xueli; Liang Houjie

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Fibronectin extra domain A (EDA) is known to play important roles in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis in malignant tumors. The present study examined the effect of EDA on the radioresistance potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: EDA expression levels in blood samples and tumor tissues of NPC patients were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Radiosensitivity was tested by colony survival assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The expressions of EDA, cleaved caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, and the levels of phosphorylated FAK, Akt, and JNK were measured by Western blot. Xenografts were used to confirm the effect of EDA on radiosensitivity in vivo. Results: EDA levels in blood samples of advanced NPC patients were much higher than those in early-stage patients. In tumor tissues, the positive expressions of EDA in NPC tumor tissues were shown to be correlated with the differentiation degrees of cancer cells and lymph node metastases. Additionally, the expression of EDA is positively correlated with the expression of antiapoptotic gene (Bcl2), but negatively correlated with the expressions of apoptotic genes (cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP). In vitro, EDA-silenced NPC cells CNE-2 shows substantially enhanced radiosensitivity with lower colony survival and more apoptosis in response to radiation. In vivo, EDA-silenced xenografts were more sensitive to radiation. At the molecular level, FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was demonstrated to be inactivated in EDA-silenced CNE-2 cells. Conclusions: EDA strongly affected the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was found to be a potential signaling mediating EDA function.

  5. Ceramides and cell signaling molecules in psoriatic epidermis: reduced levels of ceramides, PKC-alpha, and JNK.

    PubMed

    Lew, Bark-Lynn; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Jungmin; Sim, Woo-Young; Kim, Nack-In

    2006-02-01

    Ceramides are the main lipids in the stratum corneum and are generated during cellular stress and apoptosis by de novo synthesis or by the action of sphingomyelinase. In addition, they are lipid second messengers produced by sphingolipid metabolism and trigger important cell responses, including protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) activation and the stimulation of signal transduction pathways with apoptosis and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK), such as c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Thus, ceramides have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. This study measured the changes in the levels of epidermal ceramides and ceramide-related apoptotic signaling molecules in psoriasis patients. Samples from lesional and non-lesional epidermis were obtained from psoriasis patients. Total ceramides were fractionated using thin-layer chromatography, and the levels of PKC-alpha and JNK expression were measured using Western blot analysis with specific antibodies. The ceramide level was reduced significantly, and this was associated with the downregulation of apoptotic signaling molecules, such as PKC-alpha and JNK, in the lesional epidermis of psoriasis patients. These results suggest that the decreased level of ceramides downregulates the apoptotic pathway, leading to epidermal proliferation in psoriasis. PMID:16479073

  6. Zoledronate blocks geranylgeranylation not farnesylation to suppress human osteosarcoma U2OS cells metastasis by EMT via Rho A activation and FAK-inhibited JNK and p38 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Lin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Jia-Sin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lu, Ko-Hsiu

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronate is a standard treatment for preventing skeletal complications of osteoporosis and some types of cancer associated with bone metastases, but we little know whether the effect of zoledronate on metastasis of osteosarcoma. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of zoledronate on cell viability, motility, migration and invasion of 4 osteosarcoma cell lines (Saos2, MG-63, HOS and U2OS) by affecting cell morphology, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cytoskeletal organization as well as induction of E-cadherin and reduction of N-cadherin with activation of transcription factors Slug and Twist, especially in U2OS cells. Zoledronate decreased JNK and p38 phosphorylation and upper streams of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src to suppress the motility, invasiveness and migration of U2OS cells. In addition to zoledronate-inhibited Rho A and Cdc42 membrane translocation and GTPγS activities, the anti-metastatic effects in U2OS cells including inhibition of adhesion were reversed by geranylgeraniol, but not farnesol. In conclusion, Zoledronate blocks geranylgeranylation not farnesylation to suppress human osteosarcoma U2OS cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, migration potential, the invasive activity, and the adhesive ability by EMT via Rho A activation and FAK-inhibited JNK and p38 pathways. PMID:26848867

  7. Zoledronate blocks geranylgeranylation not farnesylation to suppress human osteosarcoma U2OS cells metastasis by EMT via Rho A activation and FAK-inhibited JNK and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Lin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Yang, Jia-Sin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lu, Ko-Hsiu

    2016-03-01

    Zoledronate is a standard treatment for preventing skeletal complications of osteoporosis and some types of cancer associated with bone metastases, but we little know whether the effect of zoledronate on metastasis of osteosarcoma. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of zoledronate on cell viability, motility, migration and invasion of 4 osteosarcoma cell lines (Saos2, MG-63, HOS and U2OS) by affecting cell morphology, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cytoskeletal organization as well as induction of E-cadherin and reduction of N-cadherin with activation of transcription factors Slug and Twist, especially in U2OS cells. Zoledronate decreased JNK and p38 phosphorylation and upper streams of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src to suppress the motility, invasiveness and migration of U2OS cells. In addition to zoledronate-inhibited Rho A and Cdc42 membrane translocation and GTPγS activities, the anti-metastatic effects in U2OS cells including inhibition of adhesion were reversed by geranylgeraniol, but not farnesol. In conclusion, Zoledronate blocks geranylgeranylation not farnesylation to suppress human osteosarcoma U2OS cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, migration potential, the invasive activity, and the adhesive ability by EMT via Rho A activation and FAK-inhibited JNK and p38 pathways. PMID:26848867

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen-stimulated proliferation and growth of osteoblasts may be mediated through the FGF-2/MEK/ERK 1/2/NF-κB and PKC/JNK pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Pu; Chiou, Ya-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether the hyperbaric oxygen (O₂) could promote the proliferation of growth-arrested osteoblasts in vitro and the mechanisms involved in this process. Osteoblasts were exposed to different combinations of saturation and pressure of O₂ and evaluated at 3 and 7 days. Control cells were cultured under ambient O₂ and normal pressure [1 atmosphere (ATA)]; high-pressure group cells were treated with high pressure (2.5 ATA) twice daily; high-O₂ group cells were treated with a high concentration O₂ (50% O₂) twice daily; and high pressure plus high-O₂ group cells were treated with high pressure (2.5 ATA) and a high concentration O₂ (50% O₂) twice daily. Hyperbaric O₂ significantly promoted osteoblast proliferation and cell cycle progression after 3 days of treatment. Hyperbaric O₂ treatment stimulated significantly increased mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 as well as protein expression levels of Akt, p70(S6K), phosphorylated ERK, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, protein kinase C (PKC)α, and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our findings indicate that high pressure and high O₂ saturation stimulates growth-arrested osteoblasts to proliferate. These findings suggest that the proliferative effects of hyperbaric O₂ on osteoblasts may contribute to the recruitment of osteoblasts at the fracture site. The FGF-2/MEK/ERK 1/2/Akt/p70(S6K)/NF-κB and PKC/JNK pathways may be involved in mediating this process. PMID:20497028

  9. Knockdown of FAK inhibits the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenbo; Jiang, Mingxin; Li, Hongdan; Li, Chunshan; Su, Rongjian; Huang, Keqiang

    2013-08-01

    Tongue cancer originating on the surface of the tongue is most commonly squamous cell carcinoma, which has a higher invasive ability and a lower survival rate compared with other forms of tongue cancer. Notably, tongue squamous cell carcinomas metastasize into lymph nodes at early stages. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an important protein tyrosine kinase involved in invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present study, the role of FAK in the invasion and metastasis of tongue cancer was evaluated and the underlying mechanisms involved in this process were explored. FAK knockdown was performed using shRNA in the tongue cancer cell line, Tca‑8113, and the invasion and metastasis potentials were analyzed using wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Cytoskeletal arrangement was detected by fluorescence using TRITC‑conjugated phalloidin staining. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 was examined by gelatin zymography. Paxillin distribution was observed by immunofluorescence. The levels of E‑cadherin, N‑cadherin, MMP‑2 and ‑9, and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) was detected by western blot analysis. Wound healing and transwell assays demonstrated that FAK knockdown inhibited the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 cells. Further analysis revealed that FAK knockdown caused the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and decreased the activity of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that downregulation of FAK induced the relocalization of paxillin. Paxillin accumulated as dots and patches at the cell membrane in control cells. By contrast, in FAK knockdown cells, paxillin was distributed homogeneously in the cytoplasm. Western blot analysis revealed that FAK knockdown inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9, and p‑JNK. Knockdown of FAK inhibits the invasion and metastasis of Tca‑8113 by decreasing MMP‑2 and ‑9 activities and led to the

  10. Forcing FAK into Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Lietha, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has known signaling roles in cytoplasmic adhesion structures, but was recently shown to act as a transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. In this issue of Structure, Cardoso et al. (2016) report that mechanical forces translocate FAK to the nucleus of cardiomyocytes, and provide structural insights into how FAK interacts with the MEF2 transcription factor to control cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27486913

  11. Apoptosis induced by penta-acetyl geniposide in C6 glioma cells is associated with JNK activation and Fas ligand induction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.-H.; Tseng, T.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Hsu, S.-P.; Wang, C.-J. . E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-01-15

    In our previous study, penta-acetyl geniposide ((AC){sub 5}GP) is suggested to induce tumor cell apoptosis through the specific activation of PKC{delta}. However, the downstream signal pathway of PKC{delta} has not yet been investigated. It was shown that JNK may play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and could be a possible downstream signal of PKC{delta} isoforms. In the present study, we investigate whether JNK is involved in (AC){sub 5}GP induced apoptosis. The result reveals that (AC){sub 5}GP induces JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation thus stimulating the expression of Fas-L and Fas. Using SP600125 to block JNK activation shows that (AC){sub 5}GP-mediated apoptosis and related proteins expression are attenuated. Furthermore, we find that the (AC){sub 5}GP induces apoptosis through the activation of JNK/Jun/Fas L/Fas/caspase 8/caspase 3, a mitochondria-independent pathway. The JNK pathway is suggested to be the downstream signal of PKC{delta}, since rottlerin impedes (AC){sub 5}GP-induced JNK activation. Therefore, (AC){sub 5}GP mediates cell death via activation of PKC{delta}/JNK/FasL cascade signaling.

  12. PKC412 (CGP41251) modulates the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi . E-mail: hinoue@genome.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Takata, Yoichiro; Nakano, Shunji; Yasui, Natsuo; Itakura, Mitsuo

    2007-08-17

    PKC412 (CGP41251) is a multitarget protein kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the effects of PKC412 on macrophages. PKC412 inhibited the proliferation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. At non-toxic drug concentrations, PKC412 significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-{alpha} and nitric oxide, while instead enhancing IL-6 secretion. PKC412 attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylations of MKK4 and JNK, as well as AP-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, PKC412 suppressed LPS-induced Akt and GSK-3{beta} phosphorylations. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of PKC412 are, at least in part, mediated through its interference with the MKK4/JNK/AP-1 and/or Akt/GSK-3{beta} pathways. Since macrophages contribute significantly to the development of both acute and chronic inflammation, PKC412 may have therapeutic potential and applications in treating inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases.

  13. FAK and p53 protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Cance, William G

    2011-09-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase plays a major role in cell adhesion, motility, survival, proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. In 2004, we have cloned the promoter sequence of FAK and found that p53 inhibits its activity (BBA, v. 1678, 2004). In 2005, we were the first group to show that FAK and p53 proteins directly interact in the cells (JBC, v. 280, 2005). We have shown that FAK and p53 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus by immunoprecipitation, pull-down and confocal microscopy assays. We have shown that FAK inhibited activity of p53 with the transcriptional targets: p21, Bax and Mdm-2 through protein-protein interactions. We identified the 7 amino-acid site in p53 that is involved in interaction with FAK protein. The present review will discuss the interaction of FAK and p53 proteins and discuss the mechanism of FAK-p53 loop regulation: inhibition of FAK promoter activity by p53 protein and also inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity by FAK protein. PMID:21355845

  14. Effect of intervention in the diacylglycerol‑protein kinase C signaling pathway on JNK1 expression and its downstream signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoliang; Qi, Fang; Wu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of signaling molecules, such as c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), in the myocardium of diabetic rats following intervention in the diacylglycerol‑protein kinase C (DAG‑PKC) signal transduction pathway. The rats were divided into three groups, the diabetic model, control and breviscapine‑treated diabetes (intervention) group. Following modeling and drug treatment, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining and electron microscopy were used to observe the pathological changes in the rat myocardium. The expression of PKC‑β2, JNK1, and IRS1 was assessed in rat myocardium by immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The expression levels of PKC‑β2, JNK1, phosphorylated JNK (p‑JNK) and IRS1 in the diabetic model group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, compared with the diabetic model group, expression levels of PKC‑β2, JNK1, p‑JNK and IRS1 were significantly reduced following intervention in the DAG‑PKC signal transduction pathway. The DAG‑PKC pathway may affect downstream signaling through JNK1 (the common signal point of the G‑protein receptor pathway and insulin receptor pathway at the cell membrane) to result in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The series of signal points DAG‑PKC‑JNK1‑IRS1‑Akt/PKB‑mTOR‑p70S6K1 is a potential pathway for inducing DCM by DAG‑PKC signal transduction. Enhanced expression of JNK1, p‑JNK and IRS1 may accelerate diabetic myocardial fibrosis. PMID:24435585

  15. JNK Signaling in Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Danny N.; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Jun N-terminal kinases or JNKs play a critical role in death receptor-initiated extrinsic as well as mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathways. JNKs activate apoptotic signaling by the upregulation pro-apoptotic genes via the transactivation of specific transcription factors or by directly modulating the activities of mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins through distinct phosphorylation events. This review analyzes our present understanding of the role of JNK in apoptotic signaling and the various mechanisms by which JNK promotes apoptosis PMID:18931691

  16. Nanog Increases Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Promoter Activity and Expression and Directly Binds to FAK Protein to Be Phosphorylated*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Baotran; Olson, Gretchen; Figel, Sheila; Gelman, Irwin; Cance, William G.; Golubovskaya, Vita M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanog and FAK were shown to be overexpressed in cancer cells. In this report, the Nanog overexpression increased FAK expression in 293, SW480, and SW620 cancer cells. Nanog binds the FAK promoter and up-regulates its activity, whereas Nanog siRNA decreases FAK promoter activity and FAK mRNA. The FAK promoter contains four Nanog-binding sites. The site-directed mutagenesis of these sites significantly decreased up-regulation of FAK promoter activity by Nanog. EMSA showed the specific binding of Nanog to each of the four sites, and binding was confirmed by ChIP assay. Nanog directly binds the FAK protein by pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays, and proteins co-localize by confocal microscopy. Nanog binds the N-terminal domain of FAK. In addition, FAK directly phosphorylates Nanog in a dose-dependent manner by in vitro kinase assay and in cancer cells in vivo. The site-directed mutagenesis of Nanog tyrosines, Y35F and Y174F, blocked phosphorylation and binding by FAK. Moreover, overexpression of wild type Nanog increased filopodia/lamellipodia formation, whereas mutant Y35F and Y174F Nanog did not. The wild type Nanog increased cell invasion that was inhibited by the FAK inhibitor and increased by FAK more significantly than with the mutants Y35F and Y174F Nanog. Down-regulation of Nanog with siRNA decreased cell growth reversed by FAK overexpression. Thus, these data demonstrate the regulation of the FAK promoter by Nanog, the direct binding of the proteins, the phosphorylation of Nanog by FAK, and the effect of FAK and Nanog cross-regulation on cancer cell morphology, invasion, and growth that plays a significant role in carcinogenesis. PMID:22493428

  17. Nanog increases focal adhesion kinase (FAK) promoter activity and expression and directly binds to FAK protein to be phosphorylated.

    PubMed

    Ho, Baotran; Olson, Gretchen; Figel, Sheila; Gelman, Irwin; Cance, William G; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2012-05-25

    Nanog and FAK were shown to be overexpressed in cancer cells. In this report, the Nanog overexpression increased FAK expression in 293, SW480, and SW620 cancer cells. Nanog binds the FAK promoter and up-regulates its activity, whereas Nanog siRNA decreases FAK promoter activity and FAK mRNA. The FAK promoter contains four Nanog-binding sites. The site-directed mutagenesis of these sites significantly decreased up-regulation of FAK promoter activity by Nanog. EMSA showed the specific binding of Nanog to each of the four sites, and binding was confirmed by ChIP assay. Nanog directly binds the FAK protein by pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays, and proteins co-localize by confocal microscopy. Nanog binds the N-terminal domain of FAK. In addition, FAK directly phosphorylates Nanog in a dose-dependent manner by in vitro kinase assay and in cancer cells in vivo. The site-directed mutagenesis of Nanog tyrosines, Y35F and Y174F, blocked phosphorylation and binding by FAK. Moreover, overexpression of wild type Nanog increased filopodia/lamellipodia formation, whereas mutant Y35F and Y174F Nanog did not. The wild type Nanog increased cell invasion that was inhibited by the FAK inhibitor and increased by FAK more significantly than with the mutants Y35F and Y174F Nanog. Down-regulation of Nanog with siRNA decreased cell growth reversed by FAK overexpression. Thus, these data demonstrate the regulation of the FAK promoter by Nanog, the direct binding of the proteins, the phosphorylation of Nanog by FAK, and the effect of FAK and Nanog cross-regulation on cancer cell morphology, invasion, and growth that plays a significant role in carcinogenesis. PMID:22493428

  18. McEliece PKC Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Repka

    2015-01-01

    The original McEliece PKC proposal is interesting thanks to its resistance against all known attacks, even using quantum cryptanalysis, in an IND-CCA2 secure conversion. Here we present a generic implementation of the original McEliece PKC proposal, which provides test vectors (for all important intermediate results), and also in which a measurement tool for side-channel analysis is employed. To our best knowledge, this is the first such an implementation. This Calculator is valuable in implementation optimization, in further McEliece/Niederreiter like PKCs properties investigations, and also in teaching. Thanks to that, one can, for example, examine side-channel vulnerability of a certain implementation, or one can find out and test particular parameters of the cryptosystem in order to make them appropriate for an efficient hardware implementation. This implementation is available [1] in executable binary format, and as a static C++ library, as well as in form of source codes, for Linux and Windows operating systems.

  19. Enhanced PKC beta II translocation and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions in PKC epsilon-induced heart failure: a role for RACK1.

    PubMed

    Pass, J M; Gao, J; Jones, W K; Wead, W B; Wu, X; Zhang, J; Baines, C P; Bolli, R; Zheng, Y T; Joshua, I G; Ping, P

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have established a role for the beta II-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC beta II) in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Although receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) have been shown to direct PKC signal transduction, the mechanism through which RACK1, a selective PKC beta II RACK, participates in PKC beta II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and failure remains undefined. We have previously reported that PKC epsilon activation modulates the expression of RACKs, and that altered epsilon-isoform of PKC (PKC epsilon)-RACK interactions may facilitate the genesis of cardiac phenotypes in mice. Here, we present evidence that high levels of PKC epsilon activity are commensurate with impaired left ventricular function (dP/dt = 6,074 +/- 248 mmHg/s in control vs. 3,784 +/- 269 mmHg/s in transgenic) and significant myocardial hypertrophy. More importantly, we demonstrate that high levels of PKC epsilon activation induce a significant colocalization of PKC beta II with RACK1 (154 +/- 7% of control) and a marked redistribution of PKC beta II to the particulate fraction (17 +/- 2% of total PKC beta II in control mice vs. 49 +/- 5% of total PKC beta II in hypertrophied mice), without compensatory changes of the other eight PKC isoforms present in the mouse heart. This enhanced PKC beta II activation is coupled with increased RACK1 expression and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions, demonstrating PKC epsilon-induced PKC beta II signaling via a RACK1-dependent mechanism. Taken together with our previous findings regarding enhanced RACK1 expression and PKC epsilon-RACK1 interactions in the setting of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, these results suggest that RACK1 serves as a nexus for at least two isoforms of PKC, the epsilon-isoform and the beta II-isoform, thus coordinating PKC-mediated hypertrophic signaling. PMID:11709417

  20. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and PKC messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Maeda, T; Chandler, W F; Lloyd, R V

    1993-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the differentiation and growth regulation of a variety of tissues including anterior pituitary gland cells. To determine the distribution of PKC in different types of adenomas, PKC activity was analyzed in human pituitary tumors and the effects of hypothalamic hormone stimulation on PKC activity were examined in cultured adenoma cells. Gonadotroph (LH/FSH) and null cell adenomas had significantly higher levels of particulate, soluble, and total PKC activity compared with growth hormone (GH) adenomas (P < 0.05). Chronic stimulation of null cell adenomas with gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone or of one GH adenoma with GH-releasing hormone for 7 days did not significantly alter total PKC activity in pituitary cells cultured in serum-free medium. Localization of the calcium-dependent PKC isozymes (alpha, beta and gamma) by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed predominantly PKC alpha in all adenomas and variable expression of PKC beta and gamma in some tumors. When the calcium-independent PKC isozymes (delta, epsilon, and zeta) were localized by in situ hybridization, normal and neoplastic pituitaries expressed abundant mRNA for PKC epsilon, whereas some tumors and one normal pituitary had a few cells positive for PKC zeta mRNA as evaluated by grain density and the number of cells labeled. These results indicate that there is a variable distribution of PKC mRNA isozymes in human pituitary adenomas and that normal pituitaries and pituitary adenoma cells express the mRNA for both the calcium-dependent and some of the calcium-independent PKC isozymes. Chronic treatment with the hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone, which increased LH/FSH and GH secretion, respectively, did not increase PKC activity in cultured adenoma cells. The presence of calcium-dependent and calcium-independent PKC isozymes in normal and neoplastic pituitary cells indicates that PKC probably plays a

  1. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel FAK scaffold inhibitors targeting the FAK-VEGFR3 protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Priyanka N; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Kurenova, Elena V; Magis, Andrew T; Pandey, Ravindra K; Cance, William G

    2014-06-10

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) are tyrosine kinases, which function as key modulators of survival and metastasis signals in cancer cells. Previously, we reported that small molecule chlorpyramine hydrochloride (C4) specifically targets the interaction between FAK and VEGFR3 and exhibits anti-tumor efficacy. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of 1 (C4) analogs on the basis of structure activity relationship and molecular modeling. The resulting new compounds were evaluated for their binding to the FAT domain of FAK and anti-cancer activity. Amongst all tested analogs, compound 29 augmented anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines with stronger binding to the FAT domain of FAK and disrupted the FAK-VEGFR3 interaction. In conclusion, we hope that this work will contribute to further studies of more potent and selective FAK-VEGFR3 protein-protein interaction inhibitors. PMID:24780592

  3. PKC Isoform Expression in Modeled Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that modeled (MMG) and true (USA Space Shuttle Missions STS-54 and STS-56) microgravity (MG) inhibit human lymphocyte locomotion, Modeled MG also suppressed polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Activation of PKC by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) restored the microgravity-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion as well as activation by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), whereas calcium ionophore (ionomycin) was unable to restore these functions. Based on these results we hypothesized that MG-induced changes in lymphocyte functions are caused by a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism. This defect may be localized either at the PKC level or upstream of PKC, most likely, at the cell membrane level. In this study we examined the expression of PKC isoforms alpha, epsilon and delta in PBMC cultured in rotating wall vessel bioreactor, developed at NASA JSC, which models microgravity by sustaining cells in continuous free fall. The assessment of the isoforms was performed by FACS analysis following cell permeabilization. A decrease in the expression of isoforms epsilon and delta, but not isoform a, was observed in PBMC cultured in microgravity conditions. These data suggest that MMG might selectively affect the expression of Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC Molecular analysis confirm selective suppression of Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC.

  4. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation is not required for genistein-induced FAK-beta-1-integrin complex formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Kyle, E; Lieberman, R; Crowell, J; Kellof, G; Bergan, R C

    2000-01-01

    It has previously been shown that changes in the activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and its binding to beta-1-integrin, accompany genistein-induced adhesion of prostate cells. Consumption of genistein world wide is associated with a lower incidence of metastatic prostate cancer. Early human clinical trials of genistein are under way to evaluate genistein's potential causal role in this regard. Though an important cell adhesion-associated signaling molecule, FAK's role in regulating prostate cell adhesion was not clear. Elucidation of this process would provide important information relating to both biology and potential clinical endpoints. It was hypothesized that FAK activation and complex formation are temporally related in prostate cells, and can thus be separated. Significant activation of FAK was demonstrated when cells adhered to fibronectin, as compared to poly-L-lysine, thus demonstrating that beta-1-integrin plays a significant role in activating FAK. Neither FAK activation, nor FAK-integrin complex formation, required beta-1-integrin ligand. However, disruption of the cellular cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D prevented FAK activation, but did not block genistein-induced complex formation. In the face of a disrupted cytoskeleton, signaling through FAK could not be restored through either integrin cross linking, or re-establishment of tensile forces via attachment to solid matrix. These studies demonstrate that FAK-beta-1-integrin complex formation does not require FAK activation, suggesting that it is an early event in prostate cell adhesion. An intact cytoskeleton is necessary for FAK activation. The functional importance of beta-1-integrin in prostate cells is demonstrated. Current findings support plans to test genistein in prostate cancer. PMID:11315093

  5. Altering FAK-Paxillin Interactions Reduces Adhesion, Migration and Invasion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B.; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors. PMID:24642576

  6. Functional in vivo interactions between JNK1 and JNK2 isoforms in obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tuncman, Gürol; Hirosumi, Jiro; Solinas, Giovanni; Chang, Lufen; Karin, Michael; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2006-07-11

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are key regulators of inflammation and interfere with insulin action in cultured cells and whole animals. Obesity increases total JNK activity, and JNK1, but not JNK2, deficiency results in reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, a higher-than-normal level of JNK activation is observed in Jnk2(-/-) mice, particularly in the liver, indicating an interaction between the isoforms that might have masked the metabolic activity of JNK2 in isolated mutant mice. To address the role of the JNK2 isoform in metabolic homeostasis, we intercrossed Jnk1(-/-) and Jnk2(-/-) mice and examined body weight and glucose metabolism in the resulting mutant allele combinations. Among all of the viable genotypes examined, we observed only reduced body weight and increased insulin sensitivity in Jnk1(-/-) and Jnk1(+/-)Jnk2(-/-) mice. These two groups of mice also exhibited reduced total JNK activity and cytokine expression in liver tissue compared with all other genotypes examined. These data indicate that the JNK2 isoform is also involved in metabolic regulation, but its function is not obvious when JNK1 is fully expressed because of regulatory crosstalk between the two isoforms. PMID:16818881

  7. Regulation of osteoclast structure and function by FAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Brianne J.; Thomas, Keena; Huang, Cynthia S.; Gutknecht, Michael F.; Botchwey, Edward A.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that resorb bone and contribute to bone remodeling. Diseases such as osteoporosis and osteolytic bone metastasis occur when osteoclast-mediated bone resorption takes place in the absence of concurrent bone synthesis. Considerable effort has been placed on identifying molecules that regulate the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. To this end, we investigated unique and overlapping functions of members of the FAK family (FAK and Pyk2) in osteoclast functions. With the use of a conditional knockout mouse model, in which FAK is selectively targeted for deletion in osteoclast precursors (FAKΔmyeloid), we found that loss of FAK resulted in reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro, coincident with impaired signaling through the CSF-1R. However, bone architecture appeared normal in FAKΔmyeloid mice, suggesting that Pyk2 might functionally compensate for reduced FAK levels in vivo. This was supported by data showing that podosome adhesion structures, which are essential for bone degradation, were significantly more impaired in osteoclasts when FAK and Pyk2 were reduced than when either molecule was depleted individually. We conclude that FAK contributes to cytokine signaling and bone resorption in osteoclasts and partially compensates for the absence of Pyk2 to maintain proper adhesion structures in these cells. PMID:22941736

  8. Endosomes: Emerging Platforms for Integrin-Mediated FAK Signalling.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Jonna; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-06-01

    Integrins are vital cell adhesion receptors with the ability to transmit extracellular matrix (ECM) cues to intracellular signalling pathways. ECM-integrin signalling regulates various cellular functions such as cell survival and movement. Integrin signalling has been considered to occur exclusively from adhesion sites at the plasma membrane (PM). However, recent data demonstrates integrin signalling also from endosomes. Integrin-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling is strongly dependent on integrin endocytosis, and endosomal FAK signalling facilitates cancer metastasis by supporting anchorage-independent growth and anoikis resistance. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms and functions of endosomal FAK signalling compared with its previously known roles in other cellular locations and discuss the potential of endosomal FAK as novel target for future cancer therapies. PMID:26944773

  9. A new class of simplified phorbol ester analogues: synthesis and binding to PKC and eta PKC-C1B (eta PKC-CRD2).

    PubMed

    Wender, P A; Kirschberg, T A; Williams, P D; Bastiaans, H M; Irie, K

    1999-10-01

    [formula: see text] A unique class of simplified phorbol ester analogues is described for the first time. A highly efficient retro-annelation sequence was developed in order to remove the five-membered ring from the phorbol diterpene core, allowing access to BCD ring analogues of the phorbol esters. The binding of these analogues to protein kinase C (PKC) and the truncated peptide eta PKC-C1B (eta PKC-CRD2) is also reported. PMID:10825954

  10. JNK1, but Not JNK2, Is Required in Two Mechanistically Distinct Models of Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Denninger, Katja; Rasmussen, Susanne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Ørskov, Catrine; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Sørensen, Poul; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Illges, Harald; Ødum, Niels; Labuda, Tord

    2011-01-01

    The roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in inflammatory arthritis have been investigated; however, the roles of each isotype (ie, JNK1 and JNK2) in rheumatoid arthritis and conclusions about whether inhibition of one or both is necessary for amelioration of disease are unclear. By using JNK1- or JNK2-deficient mice in the collagen-induced arthritis and the KRN T-cell receptor transgenic mouse on C57BL/6 nonobese diabetic (K/BxN) serum transfer arthritis models, we demonstrate that JNK1 deficiency results in protection from arthritis, as judged by clinical score and histological evaluation in both models of inflammatory arthritis. In contrast, abrogation of JNK2 exacerbates disease. In collagen-induced arthritis, the distinct roles of the JNK isotypes can, at least in part, be explained by altered regulation of CD86 expression in JNK1- or JNK2-deficient macrophages in response to microbial products, thereby affecting T-cell–mediated immunity. The protection from K/BxN serum–induced arthritis in Jnk1−/− mice can also be explained by inept macrophage function because adoptive transfer of wild-type macrophages to Jnk1−/− mice restored disease susceptibility. Thus, our results provide a possible explanation for the modest therapeutic effects of broad JNK inhibitors and suggest that future therapies should selectively target the JNK1 isoform. PMID:21839715

  11. The Effect of Differentiation Induction on FAK and Src Activity in Live HMSCs Visualized by FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yiqian; Xu, Wenfeng; Zhuo, Yue; Peng, Qin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yingxiao

    2013-01-01

    FAK and Src signaling play important roles in cell differentiation, survival and migration. However, it remains unclear how FAK and Src activities are regulated at the initial stage of stem cell differentiation. We utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based FAK and Src biosensors to visualize these kinase activities at the plasma membrane of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) under the stimulation of osteogenic, myoblastic, or neural induction reagents. Our results indicate that the membrane FAK and Src activities are distinctively regulated by these differentiation induction reagents. FAK and Src activities were both up-regulated with positive feedback upon osteogenic induction, while myoblastic induction only activated Src, but not FAK. Neural induction, however, transiently activated FAK and subsequently Src, which triggered a negative feedback to partially inhibit FAK activity. These results unravel distinct regulation mechanisms of FAK and Src activities during HMSC fate decision, which should advance our understanding of stem cell differentiation in tissue engineering. PMID:24015220

  12. Sequential posttranslational modifications regulate PKC degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Yangbo; Zhang, Huijun; Gao, Yingwei; Huang, Chao; Zhou, Aiwu; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cross-talk among different types of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for protein function. Here we elucidate a mechanism that controls PKCα stability via a sequential cascade of PTMs. We demonstrate that PKCα dephosphorylation decreases its sumoylation, which in turn promotes its ubiquitination and ultimately enhances its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the activation-induced down-regulation of PKC proteins. PMID:26564794

  13. Neuroprotective effects of PKC inhibition against chemical hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pavlaković, G; Eyer, C L; Isom, G E

    1995-04-01

    The effect of potassium cyanide-induced chemical hypoxia on protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and cell injury was studied in differentiated PC12 cells. The cellular distribution of PKC in control cells and cells exposed to 100 microM and 1 mM KCN for 30 min. was visualized by use of an anti-PKC antibody and confocal laser scanning microscope. In control differentiated PC12 cells, PKC was localized perinuclearly, while following 12-phorbol 13-myristate acetate (PMA) or KCN it was translocated to the plasma and organelle membranes. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the translocation. Chemical hypoxia increased the membrane-bound PKC to 210% of control levels, while chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor, and block of calcium influx into the cells (with calcium channel blocker and calcium-free medium) prevented this effect. Cyanide-induced PKC translocation persisted for at least 120 min. Cell injury was monitored by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux from the cells 24 hr after addition of cyanide. PKC activation plays a role in hypoxic damage, since PKC down-regulation (by overnight exposure to PMA) or inhibition (with chelerythrine or staurosporine) conferred protection against KCN-induced cytotoxicity. Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine also protected against chemical hypoxia. None of the pretreatments rendered complete protection against cyanide-induced hypoxia, indicating that PKC-independent mechanism(s) are also activated during chemical hypoxia and contribute to cell injury. PMID:7796171

  14. FAK-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Currey, Jennifer A.; Brunski, John; Helms, Jill A.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of cells are equipped to detect and decipher physical stimuli, and then react to these stimuli in a cell type-specific manner. Ultimately, these cellular behaviors are synchronized to produce a tissue response, but how this is achieved remains enigmatic. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for mechanotransduction using the bone marrow as a model system. We found that physical stimuli produced a pattern of principal strain that precisely corresponded to the site-specific expression of sox9 and runx2, two transcription factors required for the commitment of stem cells to a skeletogenic lineage, and the arrangement and orientation of newly deposited type I collagen fibrils. To gain insights into the genetic basis for skeletal mechanotransduction we conditionally inactivated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an intracellular component of the integrin signaling pathway. By doing so we abolished the mechanically induced osteogenic response and thus identified a critical genetic component of the molecular machinery required for mechanotransduction. Our data provide a new framework in which to consider how physical forces and molecular signals are synchronized during the program of skeletal regeneration. PMID:17460757

  15. FAK is required for c-Met/β-catenin-driven hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Na; Arteaga, Maribel; Zaidi, Ali; Stauffer, Jimmy; Cotler, Scott J.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy; Zhang, Jiwang; Qiu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide and most patients with HCC have limited treatment options. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many HCC specimens, offering a potential target for HCC treatment. However, the role of FAK in hepatocarcinogenesis remains elusive. Establishing whether FAK expression plays a role in HCC development is necessary to determine whether it is a viable therapeutic target. In this study, we generated mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Fak and investigated the role of Fak in an oncogenic (c-MET/β-catenin, MET/CAT)-driven HCC model. We found that deletion of Fak in hepatocytes did not affect morphology, proliferation or apoptosis. However, Fak deficiency significantly repressed MET/CAT-induced tumor development and prolonged survival of animals with MET/CAT-induced HCC. In mouse livers and HCC cell lines, Fak was activated by MET, which induced the activation of Akt/Erk and up-regulated Cyclin D1 and tumor cell proliferation. CAT enhanced MET-stimulated FAK activation and synergistically induced the activation of the AKT/ERK-Cyclin D1 signaling pathway in a FAK kinase-dependent manner. In addition, FAK was required for CAT-induced Cyclin D1 expression in a kinase-independent fashion. Conclusion Fak is required for c-Met/β-catenin-driven hepatocarcinogenesis. Inhibition of FAK provides a potential strategy to treat HCC. PMID:25163657

  16. XIAP is essential for shear stress-enhanced Tyr-576 phosphorylation of FAK

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Park, Heonyong

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Laminar shear stress phosphorylates Tyr-576 in FAK. {yields} XIAP is essential for shear stress-induced phosphorylation of Tyr-576. {yields} XIAP knockdown induces shear stress-triggered translocation of FAK into nucleus. {yields} XIAP regulates ERK activation by maintaining the Src-accessible location of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) regulates cell survival, migration and adhesion. We have recently found that XIAP recruits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) into integrin-associated focal adhesions, controlling cell migration. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms by which FAK modulation is controlled by XIAP. In this study, we show that XIAP modulates FAK activity through the control of FAK phosphorylation. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), phosphorylation of Tyr-576 in FAK is elevated by laminar shear stress. This elevated phosphorylation appears to be responsible for shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. We found that XIAP knockdown reduces shear stress-enhanced phosphorylation of Tyr-576 and induces shear stress-triggered translocation of FAK into nucleus. Nuclear translocation of FAK reduces contact between FAK and Src, a kinase which phosphorylates Tyr-576. This spatial segregation of FAK from Src decreases Tyr-576 phosphorylation and thus shear-stimulated ERK activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that XIAP plays a key role in shear stress-stimulated ERK activation by maintaining the Src-accessible location of FAK.

  17. The FAK scaffold inhibitor C4 disrupts FAK-VEGFR-3 signaling and inhibits pancreatic cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kurenova, Elena; Liao, Jianqun; He, Di-Hua; Hunt, Darrell; Yemma, Michael; Bshara, Wiam; Seshadri, Mukund; Cance, William G

    2013-10-01

    Even with successful surgical resection and perioperative chemotherapy and radiation, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a high incidence of recurrence. Tumor cell survival depends on activation of signaling pathways that suppress the apoptotic stimuli of invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical signaling molecule that has been implicated in tumor cell survival, invasion and metastasis. We have previously shown that FAK and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) are overexpressed in cancer cells and physically interact to confer a significant survival advantage. We subsequently identified a novel small molecule inhibitor C4 that targeted the VEGFR-3-FAK site of interaction. In this study, we have shown that C4 disrupted the FAK-VEGFR-3 complexes in PDA cells. C4 treatment caused dose-dependent dephosphorylation and inactivation of the VEGFR-3 and FAK, reduction in cell viability and proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PDA cells. C4 increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to gemcitabine chemotherapy in vitro that lead to apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations of both drugs. C4 reduced tumor growth in vivo in subcutaneous and orthotopic murine models of PDA. The drug alone at low dose, decreased tumor growth; however, concomitant administration with low dose of gemcitabine had significant synergistic effect and led to 70% tumor reduction. Combination of C4 with gemcitabine had a prolonged cytostatic effect on tumor growth after treatment withdrawal. Finally, we report an anecdotal case of stage IV pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine in combination with C4 that showed a significant clinical response in primary tumor and complete clinical response in liver metastasis over an eight month period. Taken together, these results demonstrate that targeting the scaffolding function of FAK with a small-molecule FAK-VEGFR-3 inhibitor can be an effective therapeutic strategy against PDA. PMID:24142503

  18. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration. PMID:27130522

  19. FAK and p53 Synergistically Decrease Neuroblastoma Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Gillory, Lauren A.; Stewart, Jerry E.; Megison, Michael L.; Waters, Alicia M.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is important in many facets of neuroblastoma tumor development and progression. The p53 oncogene, although wild type in most neuroblastomas, lacks significant function as a tumor suppressor in these tumors. Recent reports have found that FAK and p53 interact in some tumor types. We have hypothesized FAK and p53 coordinately control each other’s expression and also interact in neuroblastoma. In the current study, we showed that not only do FAK and p53 interact but each one controls the expression of the other. In addition, we also examined the effects of FAK inhibition combined with p53 activation in neuroblastoma and showed that these two, in combination, had a synergistic effect upon neuroblastoma cell survival. The findings from this current study help to further our understanding of the regulation of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, and may provide novel therapeutic strategies and targets for neuroblastoma and other pediatric solid tumors. PMID:25862488

  20. Diverse Roles of JNK and MKK Pathways in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays important roles in a broad range of physiological processes. JNK is controlled by two upstream regulators, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) 4 and MKK7, which are activated by various MAPKKKs. Studies employing knockout mice have demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway is involved in diverse phenomena in the brain, regulating brain development and maintenance as well as animal metabolism and behavior. Furthermore, examination of single or combined knockout mice of Jnk1, Jnk2, and Jnk3 has revealed both functional differences and redundancy among JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3. Phenotypic differences between knockouts of MKK4 and MKK7 have also been observed, suggesting that the JNK signaling pathway in the brain has a complex nature and is intricately regulated. This paper summarizes the functional properties of the major JNK signaling components in the developing and adult brain. PMID:22496975

  1. Simultaneous deactivation of FAK and Src improves the pathology of hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Su, Linlin; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Xue; Hui, Bo; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Li, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Zhu, Huayu; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition with currently no satisfactory therapy due to undefined molecular mechanism. FAK and Src are two important non-receptor tyrosine kinases that have been indicated in HS pathogenesis. Here we found both FAK and Src were activated in HS vs. normal skin (NS), NS fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 also exhibited FAK/Src activation. Co-immunoprecipitation and dual-labelled immunofluorescence revealed an enhanced FAK-Src association and co-localization in HS vs. NS. To examine effects of FAK/Src activation and their interplay on HS pathogenesis, site-directed mutagenesis followed by gene overexpression was conducted. Results showed only simultaneous overexpression of non-phosphorylatable mutant FAK Y407F and phosphomimetic mutant Src Y529E remarkably down-regulated the expression of Col I, Col III and α-SMA in cultured HS fibroblasts, alleviated extracellular matrix deposition and made collagen fibers more orderly in HS tissue vs. the effect from single transfection with wild-type or mutational FAK/Src. Glabridin, a chemical found to block FAK-Src complex formation in cancers, exhibited therapeutic effects on HS pathology probably through co-deactivation of FAK/Src which further resulted in FAK-Src de-association. This study suggests FAK-Src complex could serve as a potential molecular target, and FAK/Src double deactivation might be a novel strategy for HS therapy. PMID:27181267

  2. Simultaneous deactivation of FAK and Src improves the pathology of hypertrophic scar

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Xue; Hui, Bo; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Li, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Zhu, Huayu; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition with currently no satisfactory therapy due to undefined molecular mechanism. FAK and Src are two important non-receptor tyrosine kinases that have been indicated in HS pathogenesis. Here we found both FAK and Src were activated in HS vs. normal skin (NS), NS fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 also exhibited FAK/Src activation. Co-immunoprecipitation and dual-labelled immunofluorescence revealed an enhanced FAK-Src association and co-localization in HS vs. NS. To examine effects of FAK/Src activation and their interplay on HS pathogenesis, site-directed mutagenesis followed by gene overexpression was conducted. Results showed only simultaneous overexpression of non-phosphorylatable mutant FAK Y407F and phosphomimetic mutant Src Y529E remarkably down-regulated the expression of Col I, Col III and α-SMA in cultured HS fibroblasts, alleviated extracellular matrix deposition and made collagen fibers more orderly in HS tissue vs. the effect from single transfection with wild-type or mutational FAK/Src. Glabridin, a chemical found to block FAK-Src complex formation in cancers, exhibited therapeutic effects on HS pathology probably through co-deactivation of FAK/Src which further resulted in FAK-Src de-association. This study suggests FAK-Src complex could serve as a potential molecular target, and FAK/Src double deactivation might be a novel strategy for HS therapy. PMID:27181267

  3. Defective neural tube morphogenesis and altered apoptosis in the absence of both JNK1 and JNK2.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, K; Jochum, W; Hochedlinger, K; Chang, L; Karin, M; Wagner, E F

    1999-12-01

    Mice lacking both c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK1 and JNK2) were generated to define their roles in development. Jnk1/jnk2 double mutant fetuses die around embryonic day 11 (E11) and were found to display an open neural tube (exencephaly) at the hindbrain level with reduced apoptosis in the hindbrain neuroepithelium at E9.25. In contrast, a dramatic increase in cell death was observed one day later at E10.5 in both the hindbrain and forebrain regions. Moreover, about 25% of jnk1-/-jnk2+/- fetuses display exencephaly probably due to reduced levels of JNK proteins, whereas jnk1+/-jnk2-/- mice are viable. These results assign both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions for JNK1 and JNK2 in the development of the fetal brain. PMID:10559486

  4. FAK Forms a Complex with MEF2 to Couple Biomechanical Signaling to Transcription in Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Alisson Campos; Pereira, Ana Helena Macedo; Ambrosio, Andre Luis Berteli; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Rocha de Oliveira, Renata; Bajgelman, Marcio Chain; Dias, Sandra Martha Gomes; Franchini, Kleber Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has emerged as a mediator of mechanotransduction in cardiomyocytes, regulating gene expression during hypertrophic remodeling. However, how FAK signaling is relayed onward to the nucleus is unclear. Here, we show that FAK interacts with and regulates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), a master cardiac transcriptional regulator. In cardiomyocytes exposed to biomechanical stimulation, FAK accumulates in the nucleus, binds to and upregulates the transcriptional activity of MEF2 through an interaction with the FAK focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. In the crystal structure (2.9 Å resolution), FAT binds to a stably folded groove in the MEF2 dimer, known to interact with regulatory cofactors. FAK cooperates with MEF2 to enhance the expression of Jun in cardiomyocytes, an important component of hypertrophic response to mechanical stress. These findings underscore a connection between the mechanotransduction involving FAK and transcriptional regulation by MEF2, with potential relevance to the pathogenesis of cardiac disease. PMID:27427476

  5. Identification of a new JNK inhibitor targeting the JNK-JIP interaction site

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, John L.; De, Surya K.; Machleidt, Thomas; Becattini, Barbara; Vazquez, Jesus; Kuntzen, Christian; Chen, Li-Hsing; Cellitti, Jason F.; Riel-Mehan, Megan; Emdadi, Aras; Solinas, Giovanni; Karin, Michael; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    JNK is a stress-activated protein kinase that modulates pathways implicated in a variety of disease states. JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1) is a scaffolding protein that enhances JNK signaling by creating a proximity effect between JNK and upstream kinases. A minimal peptide region derived from JIP1 is able to inhibit JNK activity both in vitro and in cell. We report here a series of small molecules JIP1 mimics that function as substrate competitive inhibitors of JNK. One such compound, BI-78D3, dose-dependently inhibits the phosphorylation of JNK substrates both in vitro and in cell. In animal studies, BI-78D3 not only blocks JNK dependent Con A-induced liver damage but also restores insulin sensitivity in mouse models of type 2 diabetes. Our findings open the way for the development of protein kinase inhibitors targeting substrate specific docking sites, rather than the highly conserved ATP binding sites. In view of its favorable inhibition profile, selectivity, and ability to function in the cellular milieu and in vivo, BI-78D3 represents not only a JNK inhibitor, but also a promising stepping stone toward the development of an innovative class of therapeutics. PMID:18922779

  6. Ahnak protein activates protein kinase C (PKC) through dissociation of the PKC-protein phosphatase 2A complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hye; Lim, Hee Jung; Yoon, Suhyeon; Seong, Je Kyung; Bae, Duk Soo; Rhee, Sue Goo; Bae, Yun Soo

    2008-03-01

    We have previously reported that central repeated units (CRUs) of Ahnak act as a scaffolding protein networking phospholipase Cgamma and protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we demonstrate that an Ahnak derivative consisting of four central repeated units binds and activates PKC-alpha in a phosphatidylserine/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol-independent manner. Moreover, NIH3T3 cells expressing the 4 CRUs of Ahnak showed enhanced c-Raf, MEK, and Erk phosphorylation in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) compared with parental cells. To evaluate the effect of loss-of-function of Ahnak in cell signaling, we investigated PKC activation and Raf phosphorylation in embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) of the Ahnak knock-out (Ahnak(-/-)) mouse. Membrane translocation of PKC-alpha and phosphorylation of Raf in response to PMA or platelet-derived growth factor were decreased in Ahnak null MEF cells compared with wild type MEFs. Several lines of evidence suggest that PKC-alpha activity is regulated through association with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). A co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the association of PKC-alpha with PP2A was disrupted in NIH3T3 cells expressing 4 CRUs of Ahnak in response to PMA. Consistently, Ahnak null MEF cells stimulated by PMA showed enhanced PKC-PP2A complex formation, and add-back expression of Ahnak into Ahnak null MEF cells abolished the PKC-PP2A complex formation in response to PMA. These data indicate that Ahnak potentiates PKC activation through inhibiting the interaction of PKC with PP2A. PMID:18174170

  7. Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlgans, Stephanie; Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden ; Eke, Iris; Cordes, Nils; Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

  8. Targeting FAK in human cancer: from finding to first clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    It is twenty years since Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) was found to be overexpressed in many types of human cancer. FAK plays an important role in adhesion, spreading, motility, invasion, metastasis, survival, angiogenesis, and recently has been found to play an important role as well in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cells and tumor microenvironment. FAK has kinase-dependent and kinase independent scaffolding, cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. Several years ago FAK was proposed as a potential therapeutic target; the first clinical trials were just reported, and they supported further studies of FAK as a promising therapeutic target. This review discusses the main functions of FAK in cancer, and specifically focuses on recent novel findings on the role of FAK in cancer stem cells, microenvironment, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, metastasis, and also highlight new approaches of targeting FAK and critically discuss challenges that lie ahead for its targeted therapeutics. The review provides a summary of translational approaches of FAK-targeted and combination therapies and outline perspectives and future directions of FAK research. PMID:24389213

  9. CCK causes PKD1 activation in pancreatic acini by signaling through PKC-δ and PKC-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Tapia, Jose A.; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Mantey, Samuel A.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in cellular processes including protein secretion, proliferation and apoptosis. Studies suggest PKD1 is activated by various stimulants including gastrointestinal (GI) hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. However, little is known about the mechanisms of PKD1 activation in physiologic GI tissues. We explored PKD1 activation by GI hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors and the mediators involved in rat pancreatic acini. Only hormones/neurotransmitters activating phospholipase C caused PKD1 phosphorylation (S916, S744/748). CCK activated PKD1 and caused a time- and dose-dependant increase in serine phosphorylation by activation of high- and low-affinity CCKA receptor states. Inhibition of CCK-stimulated increases in phospholipase C, PKC activity or intracellular calcium decreased PKD1 S916 phosphorylation by 56%, 62% and 96%, respectively. PKC inhibitors GF109203X/Go6976/Go6983/PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate caused a 62/43/49/0% inhibition of PKD1 S916 phosphorylation and an 87/13/82/0% inhibition of PKD1 S744/748 phosphorylation. Expression of dominant negative PKC-δ, but not PKC-ε, or treatment with PKC-δ translocation inhibitor caused marked inhibition of PKD phosphorylation. Inhibition of Src/PI3K/MAPK/tyrosine phosphorylation had no effect. In unstimulated cells, PKD1 was mostly located in the cytoplasm. CCK stimulated translocation of total and phosphorylated PKD1 to the membrane. These results demonstrate that CCKA receptor activation leads to PKD activation by signaling through PKC-dependent and PKC-independent pathways. PMID:17306383

  10. Involvement of PKC{alpha} in insulin-induced PKC{delta} expression: Importance of SP-1 and NF{kappa}B transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Sampson, Sanford R. . E-mail: sampsos@mail.biu.ac.il

    2007-01-05

    Protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) is a key molecule in insulin signaling essential for insulin-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that insulin rapidly stimulates PKC{delta} activity and increases PKC{delta} protein and RNA levels, and that the SP-1 transcription factor is involved in insulin-induced transcription of the PKC{delta} gene. Activation of SP-1 involves serine phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. In this study we examined the possibility that PKC{alpha} might be involved in serine phosphorylation and activation of SP-1. We found that insulin rapidly phosphorylates and translocates SP-1. In the cytoplasm, SP-1 was constitutively associated with PKC{alpha}, and insulin stimulation caused these proteins to dissociate. In contrast, in the nucleus insulin induced an increase in association between PKC{alpha} and SP-1. PKC{alpha} inhibition blocked insulin-induced serine phosphorylation of SP-1 and its association with PKC{alpha} in the nucleus. Inhibition of PKC{alpha} also reduced the insulin-induced increase in PKC{delta} RNA and protein in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. We also attempted to determine if another transcription factor might be involved in regulation of PKC{delta} expression. We earlier showed that insulin did not affect nuclear NF{kappa}B levels. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B, however, increased insulin-induced increase in PKC{delta} RNA and protein in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Surprisingly, this inhibition reduced the insulin-induced increase in cytoplasmic and nuclear PKC{alpha} RNA and protein. Inhibition of PKC{delta} reduced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation as well as NF{kappa}B activation. Thus, PKC{alpha} regulates insulin-induced PKC{delta} expression levels and this regulation involves activation of SP-1 and NF{kappa}B.

  11. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  12. FAK competes for Src to promote migration against invasion in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kolli-Bouhafs, K; Sick, E; Noulet, F; Gies, J-P; De Mey, J; Rondé, P

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most deadly cancers because of its high propensity to metastasis, a process that requires migration and invasion of tumor cells driven by the regulated formation of adhesives structures like focal adhesions (FAs) and invasive structures like invadopodia. FAK, the major kinase of FAs, has been implicated in many cellular processes, including migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of FAK in the regulation of invasion. We report that suppression of FAK in B16F10 melanoma cells led to increased invadopodia formation and invasion through Matrigel, but impaired migration. These effects are rescued by FAK WT but not by FAKY397F reexpression. Invadopodia formation requires local Src activation downstream of FAK and in a FAK phosphorylation-dependant manner. FAK deletion correlates with increased phosphorylation of Tks-5 (tyrosine kinase substrate with five SH3 domain) and reactive oxygen species production. In conclusion, our data show that FAK is able to mediate opposite effects on cell migration and invasion. Accordingly, beneficial effects of FAK inhibition are context dependent and may depend on the cell response to environmental cues and/or on the primary or secondary changes that melanoma experienced through the invasion cycle. PMID:25118939

  13. Mitoxantrone targets the ATP-binding site of FAK, binds the FAK kinase domain and decreases FAK, Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R in vitro kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Ho, Baotran; Zheng, Min; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David; Cance, William G

    2013-05-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a key role in cell adhesion, spreading, motility, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Recently, FAK has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy, and we performed computer modeling and screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) small molecule compounds database to target the ATP-binding site of FAK, K454. More than 140,000 small molecule compounds were docked into the crystal structure of the kinase domain of FAK in 100 different orientations using DOCK5.1 that identified small molecule compounds, targeting the K454 site, called A-compounds. To find the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds, we examined the effect of twenty small molecule compounds on cell viability by MTT assays in different cancer cell lines. One compound, A18 (1,4-bis(diethylamino)-5,8- dihydroxy anthraquinon) was a mitoxantrone derivative and significantly decreased viability in most of the cells comparable to the to the level of FAK kinase inhibitors TAE-226 (Novartis, Inc) and PF-573,228 (Pfizer). The A18 compound specifically blocked autophosphorylation of FAK like TAE-226 and PF-228. ForteBio Octet Binding assay demonstrated that mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy- 5,8-bis[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylamino] anthracene-9,10-dione directly binds the FAK-kinase domain. In addition, mitoxantrone significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the kinase activity of FAK and Y56/577 FAK phosphorylation at 10-20 μM. Mitoxantrone did not affect phosphorylation of EGFR, but decreased Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R kinase activities. The data demonstrate that mitoxantrone decreases cancer viability, binds FAK-Kinase domain, inhibits its kinase activity, and also inhibits in vitro kinase activities of Pyk-2 and IGF-1R. Thus, this novel function of the mitoxantrone drug can be critical for future development of anti

  14. Arsenic alters vascular smooth muscle cell focal adhesion complexes leading to activation of FAK-src mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Pysher, Michele D. Chen, Qin M.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been linked to tumorigenesis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological effects remain elusive. In this study, we investigated arsenic-induced alteration of focal adhesion protein complexes in normal, primary vascular smooth muscle cells. We demonstrate that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic (50 ppb As{sup 3+}) can alter focal adhesion protein co-association leading to activation of downstream pathways. Co-associated proteins were identified and quantitated via co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis followed by scanning densitometry. Activation of MAPK pathways in total cell lysates was evaluated using phosphor-specific antibodies. In our model, arsenic treatment caused a sustained increase in FAK-src association and activation, and induced the formation of unique signaling complexes (beginning after 3-hour As{sup 3+} exposure and continuing throughout the 12-hour time course studied). The effects of these alterations were manifested as chronic stimulation of downstream PAK, ERK and JNK pathways. Past studies have demonstrated that these pathways are involved in cellular survival, growth, proliferation, and migration in VSMCs.

  15. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  16. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated inhibition of TNFα-stimulated JNK activation — A novel paradigm for Gq/11 linked GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Kathryn; Cunningham, Margaret R.; Cadalbert, Laurence; Lockhart, John; Boyd, Gary; Ferrell, W.R.; Plevin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the potential for PAR2 and TNFα to synergise at the level of MAP kinase signalling in PAR2 expressing NCTC2544 cells. However, to our surprise we found that activation of PAR2 by trypsin or the specific activating peptide SLIGKV-OH strongly inhibited both the phosphorylation and activity of JNK. In contrast neither p38 MAP kinase nor ERK activation was affected although TNFα stimulated IκBα loss was partially reversed. The inhibitory effect was not observed in parental cells nor in cells expressing PAR4, however inhibition was reversed by pre-incubation with the novel PAR2 antagonist K14585, suggesting that the effect is specific for PAR2 activation. SLIGKV-OH was found to be more potent in inhibiting TNFα-induced JNK activation than in stimulating JNK alone, suggesting agonist-directed signalling. The PKC activator PMA, also mimicked the inhibitory effect of SLIGKV-OH, and the effects of both agents were reversed by pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Furthermore, incubation with the novel Gq/11 inhibitor YM25480 also reversed PAR2 mediated inhibition. Activation of PAR2 was found to disrupt TNFR1 binding to RIP and TRADD and this was reversed by both GF109203X and YM25480. A similar mode of inhibition observed in HUVECs through PAR2 or P2Y2 receptors demonstrates the potential of a novel paradigm for GPCRs linked to Gq/11, in mediating inhibition of TNFα-stimulated JNK activation. This has important implications in assessing the role of GPCRs in inflammation and other conditions. PMID:19781631

  17. Behavioral and physiological characterization of PKC-dependent phosphorylation in the Grin2a∆PKC mouse.

    PubMed

    Balu, Deebika; Larson, John R; Schmidt, Jennifer V; Wirtshafter, David; Yevtodiyenko, Aleksey; Leonard, John P

    2016-09-01

    Activity-dependent plasticity in NMDA receptor-containing synapses can be regulated by phosphorylation of serines and tyrosines in the C-terminal domain of the receptor subunits by various kinases. We have previously identified S1291/S1312 as important sites for PKC phosphorylation; while Y1292/Y1312 are the sites indirectly phosphorylated by PKC via Src kinase. In the oocyte expression system, mutation of those Serine sites to Alanine (that cannot be phosphorylated) in the GluN2A subunit, resulted in a decreased PKC stimulated current enhancement through the receptors compared to wild-type NMDA receptors. To investigate the behavioral and physiological significance of those PKC-mediated phosphorylation sites in vivo, the Grin2a∆PKC mouse expressing GluN2A with four mutated amino acids: S1291A, S1312A, Y1292F and Y1387F was generated using homologous recombination. The Grin2a∆PKC mice exhibit reduced anxiety in the open field test, light dark emergence test, and elevated plus maze. The mutant mice show reduced alternation in a Y maze spontaneous alternation task and a in a non-reinforced T maze alternation task. Interestingly, when the mutant mice were exposed to novel environments, there was no increase in context-induced Fos levels in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 compared to home-cage Fos levels, while the Fos increased in the WT mice in CA1, CA3 and DG. When the SC-CA1 synapses in slices from mutant mice were stimulated using a theta-burst protocol, there was no impairment in LTP. Overall, these results suggest that at least one of those PKC-mediated phosphorylation sites regulates NMDAR-mediated signaling that modulates anxiety. PMID:27317637

  18. Combined PKC and MEK inhibition for treating metastatic uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, M S; Harbour, J W; Stebbing, J; Bowcock, A M

    2014-09-25

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. UM has a strong tendency for metastatic disease, and no effective treatments have yet been identified. Activating oncogenic mutations are commonly found in GNAQ and GNA11 in UM, and inhibiting key downstream effectors of the GNAQ/11 signaling pathway represents a rational therapeutic approach for treating metastatic UM. Chen et al., doi:10.1038/onc.2013.418, now confirm activation of the MAPK and PKC pathways as a result of GNAQ and GNA11 activating mutations in melanocytes, and they demonstrate that MAPK activation occurs downstream of PKC activation. PKC inhibitors disrupt MAPK signaling and block proliferation of GNAQ/11 mutant UM cell lines and slow the in vivo growth of xenografted UM tumors without inducing their shrinkage. However, a combination of PKC and MEK inhibition led to sustained MAPK pathway inhibition and tumor regression in vivo. Hence, the authors concluded that MEK and PKC inhibition is synergistic, with superior efficacy to treatment of GNAQ/GNA11 mutant UMs with either drug alone. PMID:24413085

  19. Combined PKC and MEK inhibition for treating metastatic uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sagoo, MS; Harbour, JW; Stebbing, J; Bowcock, AM

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. UM has a strong tendency for metastatic disease, and no effective treatments have yet been identified. Activating oncogenic mutations are commonly found in GNAQ and GNA11 in UM, and inhibiting key downstream effectors of the GNAQ/11 signaling pathway represents a rational therapeutic approach for treating metastatic UM. Chen et al., doi:10.1038/onc.2013.418, now confirm activation of the MAPK and PKC pathways as a result of GNAQ and GNA11 activating mutations in melanocytes, and they demonstrate that MAPK activation occurs downstream of PKC activation. PKC inhibitors disrupt MAPK signaling and block proliferation of GNAQ/11 mutant UM cell lines and slow the in vivo growth of xenografted UM tumors without inducing their shrinkage. However, a combination of PKC and MEK inhibition led to sustained MAPK pathway inhibition and tumor regression in vivo. Hence, the authors concluded that MEK and PKC inhibition is synergistic, with superior efficacy to treatment of GNAQ/GNA11 mutant UMs with either drug alone. PMID:24413085

  20. Molecular Pathways: Endothelial Cell FAK-A Target for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Roy-Luzarraga, Marina; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2016-08-01

    The nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), is a key mediator of signal transduction downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors in a variety of cells, including endothelial cells. FAK is upregulated in several advanced-stage solid tumors and has been described to promote tumor progression and metastasis through effects on both tumor cells and stromal cells. This observation has led to the development of several FAK inhibitors, some of which have entered clinical trials (GSK2256098, VS-4718, VS-6062, VS-6063, and BI853520). Resistance to chemotherapy is a serious limitation of cancer treatment and, until recently, most studies were restricted to tumor cells, excluding the possible roles performed by the tumor microenvironment. A recent report identified endothelial cell FAK (EC-FAK) as a major regulator of chemosensitivity. By dysregulating endothelial cell-derived paracrine (also known as angiocrine) signals, loss of FAK solely in the endothelial cell compartment is able to induce chemosensitization to DNA-damaging therapies in the malignant cell compartment and thereby reduce tumor growth. Herein, we summarize the roles of EC-FAK in cancer and development and review the status of FAK-targeting anticancer strategies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3718-24. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27262114

  1. Mast cell leukemia with prolonged survival on PKC412/midostaurin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangdong; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L; Hassan, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of systemic mastocytosis. There are approximately 50 reported cases since 1950s. MCL is refractory to cytoreduction chemotherapy and the average survival is only six months. We report a MCL case in a 71 year-old woman with high tumor load at the initial presentation in 2005, who did not respond to either interleukin-2 or dasatinib therapy. After enrolled in a clinical trial of PKC412 (or Midostaurin) with a daily dose of 100 mg, the patient responded well to PKC412 and became transfusion independent in three months. Since then, her disease had been stably controlled. This is the first report of a high-tumor-load MCL case which achieved prolonged survival (101 months) by PKC 412. The 101-month overall survival is the longest among reported MCL cases in the English literature. PMID:25031773

  2. The impact of JNK on neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewska, Justyna; Coffey, Eleanor T

    2014-01-01

    Incorrect placement of nerve cells during brain development leaves us at risk of diseases and conditions ranging from epilepsy and mental retardation to schizophrenia and dyslexia. The developing brain produces cells at an impressive rate, with up to 250,000 new cells generated every minute. These newborn cells migrate long distances in sequential waves to settle in the layers that make up the cerebral cortex. If a nerve cell moves too fast or too slow during this journey, it may not take the correct route or reach its appropriate destination. Much knowledge has been accumulated on molecular cues and transcriptional programs regulating cortical development. More recently, components of the c-Jun N-terminal signaling cascade have been brought to light as important intracellular regulators of nerve cell motility. In this chapter, we focus on this family of protein kinases, their upstream activators and downstream targets in the context of neuronal migration. We first present basic information on these molecules, much of which derives from studies outside the nervous system. We then highlight key findings on JNK signaling in brain where it phosphorylates brain-specific proteins that influence microtubule homeostasis. Finally, we summarize recent findings from transgenic mice on the regulation of neuronal migration by JNK cascade components and by JNK substrates. PMID:24243099

  3. PKC-dependent autoregulation of membrane kainate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Rocío; Rozas, José Luis; Lerma, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Agonists of kainate receptors (KARs) cause both the opening of the associated ion channels and the activation of signalling pathways driven by G-proteins and PKC. Here we report the existence of an unknown mechanism of KAR autoregulation, involving the interplay of this two signalling mechanisms. Repetitive activation of native KARs evoked the rundown of the ionotropic responses in a manner that was dependent on the activation of PKC. Experiments on recombinant GluR5 expressed in neuroblastoma cells indicated that KARs trigger the activation of PKC and induce the internalization of membrane receptors. This phenomenon depends on the PKC-mediated phosphorylation of serines 879 and 885 of the GluR5-2b subunits, since mutation of these two residues abolished internalization. These results reveal that the non-canonical signalling of KARs is associated with a sensitive mechanism that detects afferent activity. Such a mechanism represents an active way to limit overactivation of the KAR system, by regulating the number of KARs in the cell membrane. PMID:17898803

  4. PKC phosphorylates HEXIM1 and regulates P-TEFb activity

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Koh; Barboric, Matjaz; Li, Qintong; Luo, Zeping; Price, David H.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2012-01-01

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) regulates RNA polymerase II elongation. In cells, P-TEFb partitions between small active and larger inactive states. In the latter, HEXIM1 binds to 7SK snRNA and recruits as well as inactivates P-TEFb in the 7SK snRNP. Several stimuli can affect this P-TEFb equilibrium. In this study, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates the serine at position158 (S158) in HEXIM1. This phosphorylated HEXIM1 protein neither binds to 7SK snRNA nor inhibits P-TEFb. Phorbol esters or the engagement of the T cell antigen receptor, which activate PKC and the expression of the constitutively active (CA) PKCθ protein, which is found in T cells, inhibit the formation of the 7SK snRNP. All these stimuli increase P-TEFb-dependent transcription. In contrast, the kinase-negative PKCθ and the mutant HEXIM1 (S158A) proteins block effects of these PKC-activating stimuli. These results indicate that the phosphorylation of HEXIM1 by PKC represents a major regulatory step of P-TEFb activity in cells. PMID:22821562

  5. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK)-related Non-kinase Inhibits Myofibroblast Differentiation through Differential MAPK Activation in a FAK-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qiang; Gladson, Candece L.; Wu, Hongju; Hayasaka, Haurko; Olman, Mitchell A.

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces fibroblast transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts, a process that requires the involvement of integrin-mediated signaling and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK) is known for its role in inhibiting integrin-mediated cell migration; however, its role in myofibroblast differentiation has not been defined. Here, we report that FRNK abrogates TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. TGF-β1 can induce α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the presence or absence of FAK; however, TGF-β1-induced α-SMA expression is reduced (∼73%) in FAK-deficient fibroblasts. Although both ERK and p38 MAPK activation is required for maximal TGF-β1-induced α-SMA expression, ERK is the major signaling intermediate in cells that express FAK. In contrast, p38 MAPK is the dominant mediator of TGF-β1-induced α-SMA expression in FAK-deficient cells. FRNK overexpression blocks TGF-β1-induced ERK or p38 MAPK activation in the presence, and surprisingly, in the absence of FAK. The loss of FRNK was tested in vivo during experimentally induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. FRNK knock-out mice have a greater increase in α-SMA-expressing cells in response to a pulmonary fibrotic stimulus in vivo, as compared with congenic wild type mice. This is the first time that FRNK loss has been shown to modify the pathobiology in any animal disease model. Together, the data demonstrate that FRNK negatively regulates myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. These data further suggest that modulation FRNK expression may be a novel avenue for therapeutic intervention in tissue fibrosis. PMID:18669633

  6. A FAK scaffold inhibitor disrupts FAK and VEGFR-3 signaling and blocks melanoma growth by targeting both tumor and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kurenova, Elena; Ucar, Deniz; Liao, Jianqun; Yemma, Michael; Gogate, Priyanka; Bshara, Wiam; Sunar, Ulas; Seshadri, Mukund; Hochwald, Steven N; Cance, William G

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma has the highest mortality rate of all skin cancers and a major cause of treatment failure is drug resistance. Tumors heterogeneity requires novel therapeutic strategies and new drugs targeting multiple pathways. One of the new approaches is targeting the scaffolding function of tumor related proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK is overexpressed in most solid tumors and is involved in multiple protein-protein interactions critical for tumor cell survival, tumor neovascularization, progression and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of the FAK scaffold inhibitor C4, targeted to the FAK-VEGFR-3 complex, against melanomas. We compared C4 inhibitory effects in BRAF mutant vs BRAF wild type melanomas. C4 effectively caused melanoma tumor regression in vivo, when administered alone and sensitized tumors to chemotherapy. The most dramatic effect of C4 was related to reduction of vasculature of both BRAF wild type and V600E mutant xenograft tumors. The in vivo effects of C4 were assessed in xenograft models using non-invasive multimodality imaging in conjunction with histologic and molecular biology methods. C4 inhibited cell viability, adhesion and motility of melanoma and endothelial cells, specifically blocked phosphorylation of VEGFR-3 and FAK and disrupted their complexes. Specificity of in vivo effects for C4 were confirmed by a decrease in tumor FAK and VEGFR-3 phosphorylation, reduction of vasculogenesis and reduced blood flow. Our collective observations provide evidence that a small molecule inhibitor targeted to the FAK protein-protein interaction site successfully inhibits melanoma growth through dual targeting of tumor and endothelial cells and is effective against both BRAF wild type and mutant melanomas. PMID:25486195

  7. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  8. Peptide mini-scaffold facilitates JNK3 activation in cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xuanzhi; Stoy, Henriette; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Perry, Nicole A.; Chen, Qiuyan; Perez, Alejandro; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Slagis, Jack V.; Iverson, Tina M.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2016-01-01

    Three-kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are present in virtually all eukaryotic cells. MAPK cascades are organized by scaffold proteins, which assemble cognate kinases into productive signaling complexes. Arrestin-3 facilitates JNK activation in cells, and a short 25-residue arrestin-3 peptide was identified as the critical JNK3-binding element. Here we demonstrate that this peptide also binds MKK4, MKK7, and ASK1, which are upstream JNK3-activating kinases. This peptide is sufficient to enhance JNK3 activity in cells. A homologous arrestin-2 peptide, which differs only in four positions, binds MKK4, but not MKK7 or JNK3, and is ineffective in cells at enhancing activation of JNK3. The arrestin-3 peptide is the smallest MAPK scaffold known. This peptide or its mimics can regulate MAPKs, affecting cellular decisions to live or die. PMID:26868142

  9. The 2 Faces of JNK Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was discovered almost 20 years ago as the protein kinase responsible for phosphorylating c-Jun at Ser-63 and Ser-73. These sites had previously been demonstrated to be essential for the stimulation of c-Jun activity and for cooperation with Ha-ras in oncogenic transformation. This led to the idea that JNK was a positive regulator of cellular transformation. However, the analysis of jnk gene deletion in various mouse models of cancer has produced conflicting findings, with some studies supporting the pro-oncogenic function of JNK and others providing evidence that JNK acts as a tumor suppressor. This review will discuss how these unexpected findings have increased our understanding of the role of JNK signaling in cancer and have provided a source of new working hypotheses. PMID:24349637

  10. Evolving Therapies and FAK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelli Bullard; Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in medical and surgical therapy, cancer kills more than half a million people in the United States annually, and the majority of these patients succumb to metastatic disease. The traditional approach to treating systemic disease has been the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy is rarely curative and toxicity is often dose limiting. In addition, the effects of chemotherapy are nonspecific, targeting both malignant and normal tissues. As a result, recent efforts increasingly have focused on developing agents that target specific molecules in tumor cells in order to both improve efficacy and limit toxicity. This review summarizes the history and current use of targeted molecular therapy for cancer, with a special emphasis on recently developed inhibitors of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK). PMID:21291406

  11. JNK phosphorylates β-catenin and regulates adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Horng; Koria, Piyush; Qu, Jun; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2009-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important player in inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. More recently, JNK was found to regulate cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin. Here, we report a novel role of JNK in cell adhesion. Specifically, we provide evidence that JNK binds to E-cadherin/β-catenin complex and phosphorylates β-catenin at serine 37 and threonine 41, the sites also phosphorylated by GSK-3β. Inhibition of JNK kinase activity using dominant-negative constructs reduces phosphorylation of β-catenin and promotes localization of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex to cell-cell contact sites. Conversely, activation of JNK induces β-catenin phosphorylation and disruption of cell contacts, which are prevented by JNK siRNA. We propose that JNK binds to β-catenin and regulates formation of adherens junctions, ultimately controlling cell-to-cell adhesion.—Lee, M.-H., Koria, P., Qu, J., Andreadis, S. T. JNK phosphorylates β-catenin and regulates adherens junctions. PMID:19667122

  12. Requirement of JNK1 for endothelial cell injury in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Narges; Boyle, Joseph J.; Moers, Britta; Warboys, Christina M.; Malik, Talat H.; Zakkar, Mustafa; Francis, Sheila E.; Mason, Justin C.; Haskard, Dorian O.; Evans, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family regulates fundamental physiological processes including apoptosis and metabolism. Although JNK2 is known to promote foam cell formation during atherosclerosis, the potential role of JNK1 is uncertain. We examined the potential influence of JNK1 and its negative regulator, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), on endothelial cell (EC) injury and early lesion formation using hypercholesterolemic LDLR−/− mice. Methods and results To assess the function of JNK1 in early atherogenesis, we measured EC apoptosis and lesion formation in LDLR−/− or LDLR−/−/JNK1−/− mice exposed to a high fat diet for 6 weeks. En face staining using antibodies that recognise active, cleaved caspase-3 (apoptosis) or using Sudan IV (lipid deposition) revealed that genetic deletion of JNK1 reduced EC apoptosis and lesion formation in hypercholesterolemic mice. By contrast, although EC apoptosis was enhanced in LDLR−/−/MKP-1−/− mice compared to LDLR−/− mice, lesion formation was unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that JNK1 is required for EC apoptosis and lipid deposition during early atherogenesis. Thus pharmacological inhibitors of JNK may reduce atherosclerosis by preventing EC injury as well as by influencing foam cell formation. PMID:24956536

  13. JNK does not regulate meiotic progression in Xenopus oocytes: The strange case of pJNK and pERK.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jicheng; López, José M

    2016-08-01

    Xenopus ERK2, also known as Xp42 MAPK, is activated by progesterone and regulates meiotic progression in the oocytes through activation of the phosphatase Cdc25C and inhibition of the protein kinase Myt1, thus promoting dephosphorylation and activation of cyclinB/Cdc2 (MPF). Indeed, it has been reported that stress protein kinases p38 and JNK are activated during meiotic progression and, more specifically, that p38γ regulates meiosis through activation of Cdc25C. However, the role of JNK in meiotic progression is not so clear, and despite a 42kDa protein is detected with pJNK antibodies (XpJNK-p42), the specific isoform activated by progesterone has not been characterized in detail. The serine/threonine kinase MEKK1, an upstream activator of JNK and p38, is activated during stress conditions and regulates apoptosis in different cell types. Here we show that ectopic expression of a constitutively active MEKK1 in Xenopus oocytes induces phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK and accelerates meiotic progression induced by progesterone. Inhibition of each individual pathway reduces the acceleration of meiosis induced by MEKK1. However, constitutively active MEKK1 induces phosphorylation of two JNK isoforms (p40 and p49, corresponding to JNK1-1 and JNK1-2 respectively) distinct to the p42 protein detected with pJNK antibodies during meiotic progression (XpJNK-p42). Moreover, a constitutively active MKK7, which specifically activates the JNK signaling pathway and induces phosphorylation of the p40 and p49 isoforms, does not accelerate meiotic progression. Immunoprecipitation of the p42 protein with pJNK antibodies and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry shows that XpJNK-p42 is, in fact, pERK2. Ectopic expression of ERK2 in oocytes treated with progesterone or hyperosmotic shock indicates that ERK2 is phosphorylated in both conditions but is only detected with pJNK antibodies in progesterone-treated oocytes. In addition, mature oocytes only present a moderate increase

  14. RHOA-FAK is a required signaling axis for the maintenance of KRAS-driven adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Georgia; Ramadori, Giorgio; Torti, Francesca; Kangasniemi, Kim; Ramirez, Rachel E.; Cai, Yiran; Behrens, Carmen; Dellinger, Michael T.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Heguy, Adriana; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often expresses mutant KRAS together with tumor-associated mutations of the CDKN2A locus, which are associated with aggressive, therapy-resistant tumors. Here, we unravel specific requirements for the maintenance of NSCLC that carry this genotype. We establish that the ERK/RHOA/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) network is deregulated in high-grade lung tumors. Suppression of RHOA or FAK induces cell death selectively in mutant KRAS;INK4a/ARF deficient lung cancer cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of FAK caused tumor regression specifically in the high-grade lung cancer that developed in mutant Kras;Cdkn2a-null mice. Our findings provide the rationale for the rapid implementation of genotype-specific targeted therapies utilizing FAK inhibitors in cancer patients. PMID:23358651

  15. Involvement of histamine receptors in SAPK/JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Radhika D; Khan, Manzoor M

    2012-06-01

    Histamine is a mediator of inflammation in allergic disease and asthma. Stress activated protein kinases/c-jun N-terminal kinases (SAPK/JNK) are involved in asthma. This study examined the role of histamine receptors on the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in splenocytes. C57BL/6 mice splenocytes were treated with histamine (10⁻⁴ M to 10⁻¹¹ M), and its selective receptor agonists, phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used as a positive control, and phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK was determined. Histamine (10⁻⁴ M-10⁻⁸ M) inhibited phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK. H1R agonist betahistine (10⁻⁵ M) decreased SAPK/JNK phosphorylation and H2R agonist amthamine (10⁻⁵ M) did not show any significant effect. However, H3R agonist methimepip (10⁻⁶ M) and H4R agonist 4-methyl histamine (10⁻⁶ M), increased SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. We used TNFα knockout mice to determine if histamine regulated SAPK/JNK phosphorylation via TNFα. While the effects of histamine and H1 agonists were similar to that of wild type mice in inhibiting the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK, the effects of H3 and H4 agonists differed in TNFα knockout mice splenocytes. Activation of H3 receptors decreased SAPK/JNK phosphorylation in TNFα knockout mice, as opposed to an increase in wild type mice, whereas H4 agonist did not show any significant effect on the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK. This data showed that histamine acting through H4 receptors caused the phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK via TNFα. The role of H4 receptors in pro-inflammatory response is intriguing. PMID:22487127

  16. PND-1186 FAK inhibitor selectively promotes tumor cell apoptosis in three-dimensional environments

    PubMed Central

    Tanjoni, Isabelle; Walsh, Colin; Uryu, Sean; Tomar, Alok; Nam, Ju-Ock; Mielgo, Ainhoa; Lim, Ssang-Taek; Liang, Congxin; Koenig, Marcel; Patel, Neela; Kwok, Cheni; McMahon, Gerald; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor cells can grow in an anchorage-independent manner. This is mediated in part through survival signals that bypass normal growth restraints controlled by integrin cell surface receptors. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that associates with integrins and modulates various cellular processes including growth, survival, and migration. As increased FAK expression and tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with tumor progression, inhibitors of FAK are being tested for anti-tumor effects. Here, we analyze PND-1186, a substituted pyridine reversible inhibitor of FAK activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.5 nM in vitro. PND-1186 has an IC50 of ~100 nM in breast carcinoma cells as determined by anti-phospho-specific immunoblotting to FAK Tyr-397. PND-1186 did not alter c-Src or p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in adherent cells, yet functioned to restrain cell movement. Whereas 1.0 µM PND-1186 (>5-fold above IC50) had limited effects on cell proliferation, under non-adherent conditions or when grown as spheroids or colonies in soft agar, 0.1 µM PND-1186 blocked FAK and p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation, promoted caspase-3 activation, and triggered cell apoptosis. PND-1186 inhibited 4T1 breast carcinoma subcutaneous tumor growth correlated with elevated tumor cell apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Addition of PND-1186 to the drinking water of mice was well tolerated and inhibited ascites-associated ovarian carcinoma tumor growth associated with the inhibition of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results with low-level PND-1186 treatment support the conclusion that FAK activity selectively promotes tumor cell survival in three-dimensional environments. PMID:20234191

  17. Disruption of the protein interaction between FAK and IGF-1R inhibits melanoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Deniz A; Kurenova, Elena; Garrett, Timothy J; Cance, William G; Nyberg, Carl; Cox, Audrey; Massoll, Nicole; Ostrov, David A; Lawrence, Nicholas; Sebti, Said M; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Hochwald, Steven N

    2012-09-01

    FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor receptor-1) directly interact with each other and thereby activate crucial signaling pathways that benefit cancer cells. Inhibition of FAK and IGF-1R function has been shown to significantly decrease cancer cell proliferation and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. As a novel approach in human melanoma, we evaluated the effect of a small-molecule compound that disrupts the protein interaction of FAK and IGF-1R. Previously, using virtual screening and functional testing, we identified a lead compound (INT2-31) that targets the known FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction site. We studied the ability of this compound to disrupt FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, inhibit downstream signaling, decrease human melanoma cell proliferation, alter cell cycle progression, induce apoptosis and decrease tumor growth in vivo. INT2-31 blocked the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cells and tumor xenografts through precluding the activation of IRS-1, leading to reduced phosphorylation of AKT upon IGF-1 stimulation. As a result, INT2-31 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and viability (range 0.05-10 μM). More importantly, 15 mg/kg of INT2-31 given for 21 d via intraperitoneal injection disrupted the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R and effectively decreased phosphorylation of tumor AKT, resulting in significant melanoma tumor regression in vivo. Our data suggest that the FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction is an important target, and disruption of this interaction with a novel small molecule (INT2-31) has potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic effects in human melanoma. PMID:22894899

  18. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  19. JNK Inhibition Inhibits Lateral Line Neuromast Hair Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chengfu; Lin, Jinchao; Sun, Shaoyang; He, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    JNK signaling is known to play a role in regulating cell behaviors such as cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, and recent studies have suggested important roles for JNK signaling in embryonic development. However, the precise function of JNK signaling in hair cell development remains poorly studied. In this study, we used the small molecule JNK inhibitor SP600125 to examine the effect of JNK signaling abrogation on the development of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line neuromast. Our results showed that SP600125 reduced the numbers of both hair cells and supporting cells in neuromasts during larval development in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, JNK inhibition strongly inhibited the proliferation of neuromast cells, which likely explains the decrease in the number of differentiated hair cells in inhibitor-treated larvae. Furthermore, western blot and in situ analysis showed that JNK inhibition induced cell cycle arrest through induction of p21 expression. We also showed that SP600125 induced cell death in developing neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and this was accompanied with an induction of p53 gene expression. Together these results indicate that JNK might be an important regulator in the development of hair cells in the lateral line in zebrafish by controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:26903805

  20. JNK REGULATION OF HEPATIC MANIFESTATIONS OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as both an important component of the metabolic syndrome and the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. Although the mechanisms for development of steatosis and chronic liver injury in NAFLD remain unclear, recent investigations have indicated that overactivation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is critical to this process. These findings, together with evidence for the involvement of JNK signaling in other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and insulin resistance, have suggested that JNK may be a novel therapeutic target in this disorder. This review details findings that JNK mediates lipid accumulation and cell injury in fatty liver disease and discusses the possible cellular mechanisms of JNK actions. PMID:20888782

  1. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation. PMID:25116170

  2. The role of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lahn, Michael M; Sundell, Karen L

    2004-04-01

    In the 1980s, protein kinase C (PKC) was identified as a contributing factor in skin tumorigenesis. As drugs targeting specifically PKC have become available, the intent of this review was to assess the role of PKC, in particular of PKC-alpha in melanoma or other skin cancers. We reviewed and summarized published studies examining the role of PKC-alpha in the development of melanoma or other skin cancers. Most studies to date have been cell-culture based. In models of melanoma, PKC-alpha activation is typically associated with increased tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and decreased differentiation, suggesting that PKC-alpha inhibitors, such as aprinocarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide directed against PKC-alpha, may be appropriate in the treatment of skin malignancies. Because of the recent developments on selective or specific PKC-alpha inhibitors, including aprinocarsen, there is a growing need to conduct further translational research, especially in melanoma patients, to identify the patient population that might benefit most from PKC-alpha targeted therapy. PMID:15057036

  3. COMP-Ang1 Potentiates EPC Treatment of Ischemic Brain Injury by Enhancing Angiogenesis Through Activating AKT-mTOR Pathway and Promoting Vascular Migration Through Activating Tie2-FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyo Eun; Byun, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung Woo; Kim, Jin Hyun; Hur, Jin; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Paek, Seung Leal; Kim, In Keyoung; Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Dong Gyu; Sung, Young Chul; Koh, Gou-Young; Song, Chang W

    2015-01-01

    Successful recovery from brain ischemia is limited due to poor vascularization surrounding the ischemic zone. Cell therapy with strong angiogenic factors could be an effective strategy to rescue the ischemic brain. We investigated whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1, a soluble, stable and potent Ang1 variant, enhances the angiogenesis of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells (hCB-EPCs) for rescuing brain from ischemic injury. COMP-Ang1 markedly improved the tube formation of capillaries by EPCs and incorporation of EPCs into tube formation with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) upon incubation on matrigel in vitro. COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of EPCs more than HUVECs in a scratch wound migration assay. The transplanted EPCs and COMP-Ang1 were incorporated into the blood vessels and decreased the infarct volume in the rat ischemic brain. Molecular studies revealed that COMP-Ang1 induced an interaction between Tie2 and FAK, but AKT was separated from the Tie2-FAK-AKT complex in the EPC plasma membrane. Tie2-FAK increased pp38, pSAPK/JNK, and pERK-mediated MAPK activation and interacted with integrins ανβ3, α4, β1, finally leading to migration of EPCs. AKT recruited mTOR, SDF-1, and HIF-1α to induce angiogenesis. Taken together, it is concluded that COMP-Ang1 potentiates the angiogenesis of EPCs and enhances the vascular morphogenesis indicating that combination of EPCs with COMP-Ang1 may be a potentially effective regimen for ischemic brain injury salvage therapy. PMID:25792870

  4. Arrestin-3 Binds c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (JNK1) and JNK2 and Facilitates the Activation of These Ubiquitous JNK Isoforms in Cells via Scaffolding*

    PubMed Central

    Kook, Seunghyi; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Gurevich, Eugenia V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-visual arrestins scaffold mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of MAPK family. Arrestin-3 has been shown to enhance the activation of JNK3, which is expressed mainly in neurons, heart, and testes, in contrast to ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2. Although all JNKs are activated by MKK4 and MKK7, both of which bind arrestin-3, the ability of arrestin-3 to facilitate the activation of JNK1 and JNK2 has never been reported. Using purified proteins we found that arrestin-3 directly binds JNK1α1 and JNK2α2, interacting with the latter comparably to JNK3α2. Phosphorylation of purified JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 by MKK4 or MKK7 is increased by arrestin-3. Endogenous arrestin-3 interacted with endogenous JNK1/2 in different cell types. Arrestin-3 also enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous JNK1/2 in intact cells upon expression of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4, or MKK7. We observed a biphasic effect of arrestin-3 concentrations on phosphorylation of JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, arrestin-3 acts as a scaffold, facilitating JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 phosphorylation by MKK4 and MKK7 via bringing JNKs and their activators together. The data suggest that arrestin-3 modulates the activity of ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2 in non-neuronal cells, impacting the signaling pathway that regulates their proliferation and survival. PMID:24257757

  5. Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Hui-fang; Takaoka, Munenori; Bao, Xiao-hong; Wang, Zhi-gang; Tomono, Yasuko; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Ohara, Toshiaki; Fukazawa, Takuya; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Naomoto, Yoshio

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel FAK inhibitor TAE226 suppressed FAK activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 suppressed proliferation and migration, with a modest effect on adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FAK by siRNA made no obvious difference on cancer cell attachment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 treatment suppressed the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral administration of TAE226 prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. -- Abstract: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken

  6. Dual targeting of EphA2 and FAK in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Lu, Chunhua; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L.; Mitra, Rahul; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Lu, Yiling; Baggerly, Keith A.; Danes, Christopher G.; Nick, Alpa M.; Halder, Jyotsnabaran; Kim, Hye-Sun; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Landen, Charles N.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Sood, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    EphA2 gene silencing has been shown to result in anti-tumor efficacy. Here we considered whether silencing additional targets downstream of EphA2 would further enhance the therapeutic effect. EphA2 targeted siRNA was tested in combination with either FAK or Src targeted siRNA using DOPC nanoliposomes in orthotopic models of ovarian carcinoma. The effects of therapy were determined by changes in tumor weight, proliferation (Ki-67), and microvessel density (CD31). In our initial in vivo study, EphA2 plus FAK silencing resulted in the greatest reduction in tumor growth (by 73%, p < 0.005) as compared to control siRNA alone. In the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian cancer models, EphA2 siRNA-DOPC treatment resulted in a 50 to 67% decrease in tumor growth (p < 0.02, for both), and FAK siRNA-DOPC resulted in a 61 to 62% decrease in tumor growth (p < 0.009, p < 0.05, respectively). EphA2 plus FAK siRNA-DOPC treatment resulted in a significant reduction (SKOV3ip1: 76%, p < 0.007, HeyA8: 90%, p < 0.003) in tumor growth compared to control siRNA-DOPC. Combination treatment with EphA2 + FAK siRNA-DOPC resulted in significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.001) and microvessel density compared to control siRNA-DOPC (80%; p < 0.001), or the monotherapy groups (p values <0.001). These data suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of in vivo EphA2 targeting is enhanced in combination with FAK silencing. Dual targeting of EphA2 and FAK may have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:19395869

  7. Localized JNK signaling regulates organ size during development

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Helen Rankin; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Carlos Pastor-Pareja, José; Willsey, A Jeremy; Beachy, Philip A; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question of biology is what determines organ size. Despite demonstrations that factors within organs determine their sizes, intrinsic size control mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Drosophila wing size is regulated by JNK signaling during development. JNK is active in a stripe along the center of developing wings, and modulating JNK signaling within this stripe changes organ size. This JNK stripe influences proliferation in a non-canonical, Jun-independent manner by inhibiting the Hippo pathway. Localized JNK activity is established by Hedgehog signaling, where Ci elevates dTRAF1 expression. As the dTRAF1 homolog, TRAF4, is amplified in numerous cancers, these findings provide a new mechanism for how the Hedgehog pathway could contribute to tumorigenesis, and, more importantly, provides a new strategy for cancer therapies. Finally, modulation of JNK signaling centers in developing antennae and legs changes their sizes, suggesting a more generalizable role for JNK signaling in developmental organ size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11491.001 PMID:26974344

  8. Genetic inhibition of JNK3 ameliorates spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Genabai, Naresh K; Ahmad, Saif; Zhang, Zhanying; Jiang, Xiaoting; Gabaldon, Cynthia A; Gangwani, Laxman

    2015-12-15

    Mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs in early childhood. Degeneration of spinal motor neurons caused by SMN deficiency results in progressive muscle atrophy and death in SMA. The molecular mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in SMA is unknown. No treatment is available to prevent neurodegeneration and reduce the burden of illness in SMA. We report that the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates neurodegeneration in SMA. The neuron-specific isoform JNK3 is required for neuron degeneration caused by SMN deficiency. JNK3 deficiency reduces degeneration of cultured neurons caused by low levels of SMN. Genetic inhibition of JNK pathway in vivo by Jnk3 knockout results in amelioration of SMA phenotype. JNK3 deficiency prevents the loss of spinal cord motor neurons, reduces muscle degeneration, improves muscle fiber thickness and muscle growth, improves motor function and overall growth and increases lifespan of mice with SMA that shows a systemic rescue of phenotype by a SMN-independent mechanism. JNK3 represents a potential (non-SMN) therapeutic target for the treatment of SMA. PMID:26423457

  9. Somatic mutational analysis of FAK in breast cancer: A novel gain-of-function mutation due to deletion of exon 33

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Liu, Xiang-Fan; Yao, Ling; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Gu, Zhi-Dong; Ni, Pei-Hua; Zheng, Xin-Min; Fan, Qi-Shi

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A novel FAK splicing mutation identified in breast tumor. •FAK-Del33 mutation promotes cell migration and invasion. •FAK-Del33 mutation regulates FAK/Src signal pathway. -- Abstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. We identified a novel splicing mutant, FAK-Del33 (exon 33 deletion, KF437463), in both breast and thyroid cancers through colony sequencing. Considering the low proportion of mutant transcripts in samples, this mutation was detected by TaqMan-MGB probes based qPCR. In total, three in 21 paired breast tissues were identified with the FAK-Del33 mutation, and no mutations were found in the corresponding normal tissues. When introduced into a breast cell line through lentivirus infection, FAK-Del33 regulated cell motility and migration based on a wound healing assay. We demonstrated that the expression of Tyr397 (main auto-phosphorylation of FAK) was strongly increased in FAK-Del33 overexpressed breast tumor cells compared to wild-type following FAK/Src RTK signaling activation. These results suggest a novel and unique role of the FAK-Del33 mutation in FAK/Src signaling in breast cancer with significant implications for metastatic potential.

  10. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation. PMID:16520488

  11. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Hansen, Jean M; Dalton, Heather J; Stone, Rebecca L; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M; Nagaraja, Archana S; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Wu, Sherry Y; Pecot, Chad V; Burns, Alan R; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  12. Synergism of FAK and tyrosine kinase inhibition in Ph+ B-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Churchman, Michelle L.; Evans, Kathryn; Richmond, Jennifer; Robbins, Alissa; Jones, Luke; Shapiro, Irina M.; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Weaver, David T.; Houghton, Peter J.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Lock, Richard B.; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL1+ B progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ B-ALL) is an aggressive disease that frequently responds poorly to currently available therapies. Alterations in IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor Ikaros, are present in over 80% of Ph+ ALL and are associated with a stem cell–like phenotype, aberrant adhesion molecule expression and signaling, leukemic cell adhesion to the bone marrow stem cell niche, and poor outcome. Here, we show that FAK1 is upregulated in Ph+ B-ALL with further overexpression in IKZF1-altered cells and that the FAK inhibitor VS-4718 potently inhibits aberrant FAK signaling and leukemic cell adhesion, potentiating responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, inducing cure in vivo. Thus, targeting FAK with VS-4718 is an attractive approach to overcome the deleterious effects of FAK overexpression in Ph+ B-ALL, particularly in abrogating the adhesive phenotype induced by Ikaros alterations, and warrants evaluation in clinical trials for Ph+ B-ALL, regardless of IKZF1 status. PMID:27123491

  13. Class 3 semaphorin mediates dendrite growth in adult newborn neurons through Cdk5/FAK pathway.

    PubMed

    Ng, Teclise; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Sohn, Jae Ho; Tan, Terence; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2013-01-01

    Class 3 semaphorins are well-known axonal guidance cues during the embryonic development of mammalian nervous system. However, their activity on postnatally differentiated neurons in neurogenic regions of adult brains has not been characterized. We found that silencing of semaphorin receptors neuropilins (NRP) 1 or 2 in neural progenitors at the adult mouse dentate gyrus resulted in newly differentiated neurons with shorter dendrites and simpler branching in vivo. Tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr 397) and serine phosphorylation (Ser 732) of FAK were essential for these effects. Semaphorin 3A and 3F mediate serine phosphorylation of FAK through the activation of Cdk5. Silencing of either Cdk5 or FAK in newborn neurons phenocopied the defects in dendritic development seen upon silencing of NRP1 or NRP2. Furthermore, in vivo overexpression of Cdk5 or FAK rescued the dendritic phenotypes seen in NRP1 and NRP2 deficient neurons. These results point to a novel role for class 3 semaphorins in promoting dendritic growth and branching during adult hippocampal neurogenesis through the activation of Cdk5-FAK signaling pathway. PMID:23762397

  14. Modulation of FAK and Src adhesion signaling occurs independently of adhesion complex composition.

    PubMed

    Horton, Edward R; Humphries, Jonathan D; Stutchbury, Ben; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Ballestrem, Christoph; Barry, Simon T; Humphries, Martin J

    2016-02-01

    Integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) form mechanochemical connections between the extracellular matrix and actin cytoskeleton and mediate phenotypic responses via posttranslational modifications. Here, we investigate the modularity and robustness of the IAC network to pharmacological perturbation of the key IAC signaling components focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src. FAK inhibition using AZ13256675 blocked FAK(Y397) phosphorylation but did not alter IAC composition, as reported by mass spectrometry. IAC composition was also insensitive to Src inhibition using AZD0530 alone or in combination with FAK inhibition. In contrast, kinase inhibition substantially reduced phosphorylation within IACs, cell migration and proliferation. Furthermore using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that FAK inhibition increased the exchange rate of a phosphotyrosine (pY) reporter (dSH2) at IACs. These data demonstrate that kinase-dependent signal propagation through IACs is independent of gross changes in IAC composition. Together, these findings demonstrate a general separation between the composition of IACs and their ability to relay pY-dependent signals. PMID:26833789

  15. Inhibition of FAK and VEGFR-3 binding decreases tumorigenicity in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jerry E; Ma, Xiaojie; Megison, Michael; Nabers, Hugh; Cance, William G; Kurenova, Elena V; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is important in many facets of tumor development and progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), another tyrosine kinase, has also been found to be important in the development of many human tumors including neuroblastoma. Recent reports have found that FAK and VEGFR-3 interact, and we have previously shown that both of these kinases interact in neuroblastoma. We have hypothesized that interruption of the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction would lead to decreased neuroblastoma cell survival. In the current study, we examined the effects of a small molecule, chloropyramine hydrochloride (C4), designed to disrupt the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction, upon cellular attachment, migration, and survival in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. We also utilized a murine xenograft model to study the impact of C4 upon tumor growth. In these studies, we showed that disruption of the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction led to decreased cellular attachment, migration, and survival in vitro. In addition, treatment of murine xenografts with chloropyramine hydrochloride decreased neuroblastoma xenograft growth. Further, this molecule acted synergistically with standard chemotherapy to further decrease neuroblastoma xenograft growth. The findings from this current study help to further our understanding of the regulation of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, and may provide novel therapeutic strategies and targets for neuroblastoma and other solid tumors of childhood. PMID:23868727

  16. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L.; Hansen, Jean M.; Dalton, Heather J.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Pecot, Chad V.; Burns, Alan R.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  17. Influence of protein kinase C (PKC) on the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between protein kinase C (PKC) and the prognosis of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: 92 patients with DN who had received treatments with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin-receptor blockade (ARB) were collected. The clinicopathologic characteristics were recorded and a 4-year follow-up with the final result of impaired renal functions (eGFR < 40 mL/min) was conducted. The expression of PKC was detected by immunohistochemical assay. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were performed to estimate the effects of PKC on DN prognosis. Results: According to immunohistochemical analysis, there were 54 cases with positive expression of PKC (positive rate 58.7%). Meanwhile, during the follow-up, the urine protein, mean serum creatinine and eGFR in patients with positive PKC were all higher than those in negative expression group (P < 0.05). The expression of PKC was influenced by age (P < 0.001), course of disease (P < 0.001), blood pressure (P = 0.002), blood glucose (P < 0.001), HbA1c (P = 0.002), renal functions of patients before (P = 0.011) and after (P = 0.041) the biopsy. Besides, the Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that patients with positive PKC expression had shorter survival time than those with negative PKC expression (P < 0.001). Cox regression analysis indicated that HbA1c (P = 0.009), renal functions of patients after the biopsy (P = 0.002) and PKC (P = 0.028) were important factors in the prognosis of DN and they might be independent prognostic markers. Conclusion: The expression of PKC is relatively higher in DN patients than in healthy controls. And PKC may be a valuable prognostic marker for patients with DN. PMID:26823823

  18. PKC-ε pseudosubstrate and catalytic activity are necessary for membrane delivery during IgG-mediated phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Tiffany R.; Chow, Rachel Y.; Hanes, Cheryl M.; Zhang, Xuexin; Kashiwagi, Kaori; Shirai, Yasuhito; Trebak, Mohamed; Loegering, Daniel J.; Saito, Naoaki; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    In RAW 264.7 cells [1], PKC-ε regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. BMDM behave similarly; PKC-ε concentrates at phagosomes and internalization are reduced in PKC-ε−/− cells. Two questions were asked: what is the role of PKC-ε? and what domains are necessary for PKC-ε concentration? Function was studied using BMDM and frustrated phagocytosis. On IgG surfaces, PKC-ε−/− macrophages spread less than WT. Patch-clamping revealed that the spreading defect is a result of the failure of PKC-ε−/− macrophages to add membrane. The defect is specific for FcγR ligation and can be reversed by expression of full-length (but not the isolated RD) PKC-ε in PKC-ε−/− BMDM. Thus, PKC-ε function in phagocytosis requires translocation to phagosomes and the catalytic domain. The expression of chimeric PKC molecules in RAW cells identified the εPS as necessary for PKC-ε targeting. When placed into (nonlocalizing) PKC-δ, εPS was sufficient for concentration, albeit to a lesser degree than intact PKC-ε. In contrast, translocation of δ(εPSC1B) resembled that of WT PKC-ε. Thus, εPS and εC1B cooperate for optimal phagosome targeting. Finally, cells expressing εK437W were significantly less phagocytic than their PKC-ε-expressing counterparts, blocked at the pseudopod-extension phase. In summary, we have shown that εPS and εC1B are necessary and sufficient for targeting PKC-ε to phagosomes, where its catalytic activity is required for membrane delivery and pseudopod extension. PMID:23670290

  19. Autophosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, directs SH2-dependent binding of pp60src.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, M D; Hildebrand, J D; Shannon, J D; Fox, J W; Vines, R R; Parsons, J T

    1994-01-01

    The phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) on tyrosine residues is a critical regulatory event that modulates catalytic activity and triggers the physical association of PTKs with Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing proteins. The integrin-linked focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, exhibits extracellular matrix-dependent phosphorylation on tyrosine and physically associates with two nonreceptor PTKs, pp60src and pp59fyn, via their SH2 domains. Herein, we identify Tyr-397 as the major site of tyrosine phosphorylation on pp125FAK both in vivo and in vitro. Tyrosine 397 is located at the juncture of the N-terminal and catalytic domains, a novel site for PTK autophosphorylation. Mutation of Tyr-397 to a nonphosphorylatable residue dramatically impairs the phosphorylation of pp125FAK on tyrosine in vivo and in vitro. The mutation of Tyr-397 to Phe also inhibits the formation of stable complexes with pp60src in cells expressing Src and FAK397F, suggesting that autophosphorylation of pp125FAK may regulate the association of pp125FAK with Src family kinases in vivo. The identification of Tyr-397 as a major site for FAK autophosphorylation provides one of the first examples of a cellular protein containing a high-affinity binding site for a Src family kinase SH2 domain. This finding has implications for models describing the mechanisms of action of pp125FAK, the regulation of the Src family of PTKs, and signal transduction through the integrins. Images PMID:7509446

  20. An EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex contributes to malignancy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yu-Ling; Chu, Pei-Yu; Lai, I-Rue; Wang, Ming-Yang; Tseng, Hui-Yuan; Guan, Jun-Lin; Liou, Jun-Yang; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    β4 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are often associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients, and their signaling events have recently been linked to malignant outcomes. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, physical and functional interactions between β4 integrin and FAK that influence breast cancer malignancy. An amino-terminal linker within FAK is essential for its binding with the cytodomain of β4 integrin. Moreover, EGFR/Src-signaling triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of β4 integrin, which, in turn, recruits FAK to β4 integrin and leads to FAK activation and signaling. Upon disruption of the β4 integrin/FAK complex, tumorigenesis and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer were markedly reduced. Importantly, the concomitant overexpression of β4 integrin and FAK significantly correlates with malignant potential in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. This study describes a pro-metastatic EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex that is involved in breast cancer malignancy and is a novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26549523

  1. FAK Acts as a Suppressor of RTK-MAP Kinase Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster Epithelia and Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Juan Pablo; Diaz Vera, Jesica; Yu, Yachuan; MacPherson, Iain; Sandilands, Emma; Palmer, Ruth; Norman, Jim C.; Frame, Margaret; Vidal, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) regulate multiple signalling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. FAK interacts with several RTKs but little is known about how FAK regulates their downstream signalling. Here we investigated how FAK regulates signalling resulting from the overexpression of the RTKs RET and EGFR. FAK suppressed RTKs signalling in Drosophila melanogaster epithelia by impairing MAPK pathway. This regulation was also observed in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, suggesting it is a conserved phenomenon in humans. Mechanistically, FAK reduced receptor recycling into the plasma membrane, which resulted in lower MAPK activation. Conversely, increasing the membrane pool of the receptor increased MAPK pathway signalling. FAK is widely considered as a therapeutic target in cancer biology; however, it also has tumour suppressor properties in some contexts. Therefore, the FAK-mediated negative regulation of RTK/MAPK signalling described here may have potential implications in the designing of therapy strategies for RTK-driven tumours. PMID:24676055

  2. 3'3-Diindolylmethane inhibits migration, invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xue; Chen, Li-Ping; Sun, Min-Ying; Li, Jun-Tao; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Zhu, Wei

    2015-09-15

    Late stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually has a low survival rate because it has high potential of metastases and there is no effective cure. 3'3-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is the major product of the acid-catalyzed oligomerization of indole-3-carbinol present in cruciferous vegetables. DIM has been proved to exhibit anticancer properties. In this study, we explored the effects and molecular mechanisms of anti-metastasis of DIM on HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We chose two HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H that have high potential of invasion. The results showed that DIM inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of these two cell lines in vitro. In addition, in vivo study demonstrated that DIM significantly decreased the volumes of SMMC-7721 orthotopic liver tumor and suppressed lung metastasis in nude mice. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is found over activated in HCC cells. We found that DIM decreased the level of phospho-FAK (Tyr397) both in vitro and in vivo. DIM inhibition of phospho-FAK (Tyr397) led to down-regulation of MMP2/9 and decreased potential of metastasis. DIM also repressed the migration and invasion induced by vitronectin through inactivation of FAK pathway and down-regulation of MMP2/9 in vitro. We also found that pTEN plays a role in down-regulation of FAK by DIM. These results demonstrated that DIM blocks HCC cell metastasis by suppressing tumor cell migration and invasion. The anti-metastasis effect of DIM could be explained to be its down-regulated expression and activation of MMP2/9 partly induced by up-regulation of pTEN and inhibition of phospho-FAK (Tyr397). PMID:26068982

  3. Hedgehog-regulated atypical PKC promotes phosphorylation and activation of Smoothened and Cubitus interruptus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Liu, Yajuan; Fan, Junkai; Epperly, Garretson; Gao, Tianyan; Jiang, Jin; Jia, Jianhang

    2014-11-11

    Smoothened (Smo) is essential for transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in both insects and vertebrates. Cell surface/cilium accumulation of Smo is thought to play an important role in Hh signaling, but how the localization of Smo is controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that atypical PKC (aPKC) regulates Smo phosphorylation and basolateral accumulation in Drosophila wings. Inactivation of aPKC by either RNAi or a mutation inhibits Smo basolateral accumulation and attenuates Hh target gene expression. In contrast, expression of constitutively active aPKC elevates basolateral accumulation of Smo and promotes Hh signaling. The aPKC-mediated phosphorylation of Smo at Ser680 promotes Ser683 phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 (CK1), and these phosphorylation events elevate Smo activity in vivo. Moreover, aPKC has an additional positive role in Hh signaling by regulating the activity of Cubitus interruptus (Ci) through phosphorylation of the Zn finger DNA-binding domain. Finally, the expression of aPKC is up-regulated by Hh signaling in a Ci-dependent manner. Our findings indicate a direct involvement of aPKC in Hh signaling beyond its role in cell polarity. PMID:25349414

  4. Hedgehog-regulated atypical PKC promotes phosphorylation and activation of Smoothened and Cubitus interruptus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kai; Liu, Yajuan; Fan, Junkai; Epperly, Garretson; Gao, Tianyan; Jiang, Jin; Jia, Jianhang

    2014-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) is essential for transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in both insects and vertebrates. Cell surface/cilium accumulation of Smo is thought to play an important role in Hh signaling, but how the localization of Smo is controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that atypical PKC (aPKC) regulates Smo phosphorylation and basolateral accumulation in Drosophila wings. Inactivation of aPKC by either RNAi or a mutation inhibits Smo basolateral accumulation and attenuates Hh target gene expression. In contrast, expression of constitutively active aPKC elevates basolateral accumulation of Smo and promotes Hh signaling. The aPKC-mediated phosphorylation of Smo at Ser680 promotes Ser683 phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 (CK1), and these phosphorylation events elevate Smo activity in vivo. Moreover, aPKC has an additional positive role in Hh signaling by regulating the activity of Cubitus interruptus (Ci) through phosphorylation of the Zn finger DNA-binding domain. Finally, the expression of aPKC is up-regulated by Hh signaling in a Ci-dependent manner. Our findings indicate a direct involvement of aPKC in Hh signaling beyond its role in cell polarity. PMID:25349414

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Activates PKC-Alpha to Invade Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Grati, M’hamed; Yan, Denise; Liu, Xue Z.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a group of complex inflammatory disorders affecting the middle ear which can be acute or chronic. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a form of chronic OM characterized by tympanic membrane perforation and discharge. Despite the significant impact of CSOM on human population, it is still an understudied and unexplored research area. CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss and life-threatening central nervous system complications. Bacterial exposure especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of CSOM. Our previous studies have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa invades human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs). However, molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial invasion of HMEECs are not known. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of PKC pathway in the ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize HMEECs. We observed that otopathogenic P. aeruginosa activates the PKC pathway, specifically phosphorylation of PKC-alpha (PKC-α) in HMEECs. The ability of otopathogenic P. aeruginosa to phosphorylate PKC-α depends on bacterial OprF expression. The activation of PKC-α was associated with actin condensation. Blocking the PKC pathway attenuated the ability of bacteria to invade HMEECs and subsequent actin condensation. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the host PKC-α pathway is involved in invasion of HMEECs by P. aeruginosa and subsequently to cause OM. Characterizing the role of the host signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of CSOM will provide novel avenues to design effective treatment modalities against the disease. PMID:26973629

  6. Biochemical and Genetic Evidence for a SAP-PKC-θ Interaction Contributing to IL-4 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cannons, Jennifer L.; Wu, Julie Z.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Zhang, Jinyi; Dong, Baoxia; Liu, Yin; Shaw, Stephen; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    SAP, an adaptor molecule that recruits Fyn to the SLAM-family of immunomodulatory receptors, is mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. CD4+ T cells from SAP-deficient mice have defective TCR-induced IL-4 production and impaired T cell-mediated help for germinal center formation; however, the downstream intermediates contributing to these defects remain unclear. We previously found that SAP-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibit decreased PKC-θ recruitment upon TCR stimulation. We demonstrate here using GST-pulldowns and co-immunoprecipitation studies that SAP constitutively associates with PKC-θ in T cells. SAP-PKC-θ interactions required R78 of SAP, a residue previously implicated in Fyn recruitment, yet SAP’s interactions with PKC-θ occurred independent of phosphotyrosine binding and Fyn. Overexpression of SAP in T cells increased and sustained PKC-θ recruitment to the immune synapse and elevated IL-4 production in response to TCR plus SLAM-mediated stimulation. Moreover, PKC-θ, like SAP, was required for SLAM-mediated increases in IL-4 production and conversely, membrane-targeted PKC-θ mutants rescued IL-4 expression in SAP−/− CD4+ T cells, providing genetic evidence that PKC-θ is a critical component of SLAM/SAP-mediated pathways that influence TCR-driven IL-4 production. PMID:20668219

  7. aPKC Phosphorylation of Bazooka Defines the Apical/Lateral Border in Drosophila Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mirouse, Vincent; St Johnston, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bazooka (PAR-3), PAR-6, and aPKC form a complex that plays a key role in the polarization of many cell types. In epithelial cells, however, Bazooka localizes below PAR-6 and aPKC at the apical/lateral junction. Here, we show that Baz is excluded from the apical aPKC domain in epithelia by aPKC phosphorylation, which disrupts the Baz/aPKC interaction. Removal of Baz from the complex is epithelial-specific because it also requires the Crumbs complex, which prevents the Baz/PAR-6 interaction. In the absence of Crumbs or aPKC phosphorylation of Baz, mislocalized Baz recruits adherens junction components apically, leading to a loss of the apical domain and an expansion of lateral. Thus, apical exclusion of Baz by Crumbs and aPKC defines the apical/lateral border. Although Baz acts as an aPKC targeting and specificity factor in nonepithelial cells, our results reveal that it performs a complementary function in positioning the adherens junction in epithelia. PMID:20434988

  8. Tamoxifen inhibits tumor cell invasion and metastasis in mouse melanoma through suppression of PKC/MEK/ERK and PKC/PI3K/Akt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Ogaki, Mitsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Itoh, Tatsuki; Kusunoki, Takashi; Nishida, Shozo

    2009-07-15

    In melanoma, several signaling pathways are constitutively activated. Among these, the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways are activated through multiple signal transduction molecules and appear to play major roles in melanoma progression. Recently, it has been reported that tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen reagent, inhibits PKC signaling in estrogen-negative and estrogen-independent cancer cell lines. Thus, we investigated whether tamoxifen inhibited tumor cell invasion and metastasis in mouse melanoma cell line B16BL6. Tamoxifen significantly inhibited lung metastasis, cell migration, and invasion at concentrations that did not show anti-proliferative effects on B16BL6 cells. Tamoxifen also inhibited the mRNA expressions and protein activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, tamoxifen suppressed phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt through the inhibition of PKC{alpha} and PKC{delta} phosphorylation. However, other signal transduction factor, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) was unaffected. The results indicate that tamoxifen suppresses the PKC/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK and PKC/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting B16BL6 cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, tamoxifen markedly inhibited not only developing but also clinically evident metastasis. These findings suggest that tamoxifen has potential clinical applications for the treatment of tumor cell metastasis.

  9. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity prevents anchorage-independent ovarian carcinoma cell growth and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Tancioni, Isabelle; Lawson, Christine; Miller, Nichol L.G.; Jean, Christine; Chen, Xiao Lei; Uryu, Sean; Kim, Josephine; Tarin, David; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Plaxe, Steven C.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence and spread of ovarian cancer is the 5th leading cause of death for women in the United States. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase located on chromosome 8q24.3 (gene is Ptk2), a site commonly amplified in serous ovarian cancer. Elevated FAK mRNA levels in serous ovarian carcinoma are associated with decreased (logrank P = 0.0007, hazard ratio 1.43) patient overall survival, but how FAK functions in tumor progression remains undefined. We have isolated aggressive ovarian carcinoma cells termed ID8-IP after intraperitoneal (IP) growth of murine ID8 cells in C57Bl6 mice. Upon orthotopic implantation within the periovarian bursa space, ID8-IP cells exhibit greater tumor growth, local and distant metastasis, and elevated numbers of ascites-associated cells compared to parental ID8 cells. ID8-IP cells exhibit enhanced growth under non-adherent conditions with elevated FAK and c-Src tyrosine kinase activation compared to parental ID8 cells. In vitro, the small molecule FAK inhibitor (Pfizer, PF562,271, PF-271) at 0.1 uM selectively prevented anchorage-independent ID8-IP cell growth with the inhibition of FAK tyrosine (Y)397 but not c-Src Y416 phosphorylation. Oral PF-271 administration (30 mg/kg, twice daily) blocked FAK but not c-Src tyrosine phosphorylation in ID8-IP tumors. This was associated with decreased tumor size, prevention of peritoneal metastasis, reduced tumor-associated endothelial cell number, and increased tumor cell-associated apoptosis. FAK knockdown and re-expression assays showed that FAK activity selectively promoted anchorage-independent ID8-IP cell survival. These results support the continued evaluation of FAK inhibitors as a promising clinical treatment for ovarian cancer. PMID:23275034

  10. εPKC confers acute tolerance to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Rachel; Sun, Guo-Hua; Yenari, Midori A.; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2008-01-01

    In response to mild ischemic stress, the brain elicits endogenous survival mechanisms to protect cells against a subsequent lethal ischemic stress, referred to as ischemic tolerance. The molecular signals that mediate this protection are thought to involve the expression and activation of multiple kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). Here we demonstrate that εPKC mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in vivo. Systemic delivery of ψεRACK, an εPKC-selective peptide activator, confers neuroprotection against a subsequent cerebral ischemic event when delivered immediately prior to stroke. In addition, activation of εPKC by ψεRACK treatment decreases vascular tone in vivo, as demonstrated by a reduction in microvascular cerebral blood flow. Here we demonstrate the role of acute and transient εPKC in early cerebral tolerance in vivo and suggest that extra-parenchymal mechanisms, such as vasoconstriction, may contribute to the conferred protection. PMID:18586397

  11. Differential recruitment of PKC isoforms in HeLa cells during redox stress

    PubMed Central

    Rimessi, Alessandro; Rizzuto, Rosario; Pinton, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family is a major transducer of several intracellular pathways. In confirmation of this important role, PKCs exhibit high molecular heterogeneity, because they occur in at least 10 different isoforms differing in biochemical properties and sensitivity to activators. In this report we focused on the ability of different redox agents to induce modification of intracellular distribution of specific PKC isoforms in HeLa cells. To this end we utilized a panel of green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras and a high-speed digital imaging system. We observed a remarkable complexity of PKC signalling patterns occurring during redox stress with marked differences among PKC isoforms also belonging to the same subgroup. Moreover our results suggest that modifications of the intracellular redox state can modulate the responsiveness of specific PKC isoforms and, in turn, change the sensitivity of the different isoforms to cell stimulation. PMID:18229448

  12. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  13. FAK is required for tension-dependent organization of collective cell movements in Xenopus mesendoderm

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, Maureen A.; Dzamba, Bette; Wang, Chong; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell movements are integral to biological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing and also have a prominent role in some metastatic cancers. In migrating Xenopus mesendoderm, traction forces are generated by cells through integrin-based adhesions and tension transmitted across cadherin adhesions. This is accompanied by assembly of a mechanoresponsive cadherin adhesion complex containing keratin intermediate filaments and the catenin-family member plakoglobin. We demonstrate that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a major component of integrin adhesion complexes, is required for normal morphogenesis at gastrulation, closure of the anterior neural tube, axial elongation and somitogenesis. Depletion of zygotically expressed FAK results in disruption of mesendoderm tissue polarity similar to that observed when expression of keratin or plakoglobin is inhibited. Both individual and collective migrations of mesendoderm cells from FAK depleted embryos are slowed, cell protrusions are disordered, and cell spreading and traction forces are decreased. Additionally, keratin filaments fail to organize at the rear of cells in the tissue and association of plakoglobin with cadherin is diminished. These findings suggest that FAK is required for the tension-dependent assembly of the cadherin adhesion complex that guides collective mesendoderm migration, perhaps by modulating the dynamic balance of substrate traction forces and cell cohesion needed to establish cell polarity. PMID:25127991

  14. Xanthine Oxidase-Derived ROS Display a Biphasic Effect on Endothelial Cells Adhesion and FAK Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mahdi, Meriem H; Dang, Pham My-Chan; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; O'Dowd, Yvonne; El-Benna, Jamel; Pasquier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by different systems which are involved in endothelial cells injury, ultimately leading to severe organ dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of ROS produced by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (Hx-XO) on the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on the signaling pathways involved. Results show that Hx-XO-derived ROS induced an increase in HUVEC adhesion in the early stages of the process (less than 30 min), followed by a decrease in adhesion in the later stages of the process. Interestingly, Hx-XO-derived ROS induced the same biphasic effect on the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase critical for cell adhesion, but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The biphasic effect was not seen with ERK1/2 where a decrease in phosphorylation only was observed. Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited ROS-induced cell adhesion and FAK phosphorylation. Orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and Resveratrol (Resv), an antioxidant agent, protected FAK and ERK1/2 from dephosphorylation and HUVEC from ROS-induced loss of adhesion. This study shows that ROS could have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on HUVEC adhesion and FAK phosphorylation and suggests that PI3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase control these effects. PMID:27528888

  15. Cordycepin suppresses integrin/FAK signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wen-Ling; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-An; Liang, Shu-Man; Liu, Chia-Chia; Lu, Yi-Jhu; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cordycepin, also known as 3-deoxyadenosine, is an analogue of adenosine extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine "Dong Chong Xia Cao". Cordycepin is an active small molecular weight compound and is implicated in modulating multiple physiological functions including immune activation, anti-aging and anti-tumor effects. Several studies have indicated that cordycepin suppresses tumor progression. However, the signaling pathways involved in cordycepin regulating cancer cell motility, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remain unclear. In this study, we found that cordycepin inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and migration/invasion. Treatment of cordycepin results in the increasing expression of epithelial marker, Ecadherin while no significant effect was found on N-cadherin α-catenin and β-catenin. Furthermore, although the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was slightly reduced, the level of phosphorylated FAK was significantly reduced by the treatment of cordycepin. In addition, cordycepin significantly suppresses the expression of integrin α3, integrin α6 and integrin β1 which are crucial interacting partners of FAK in regulating the focal adhesion complex. These results suggest cordycepin may contribute to EMT, antimigration/ invasion and growth inhibitory effects of HCC by suppressing E-cadherin and integrin/FAK signaling. Thus, cordycepin is a potential therapeutic or supplementary agent for preventing HCC tumor progression. PMID:23855336

  16. Xanthine Oxidase-Derived ROS Display a Biphasic Effect on Endothelial Cells Adhesion and FAK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Pham My-Chan; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Pasquier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by different systems which are involved in endothelial cells injury, ultimately leading to severe organ dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of ROS produced by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (Hx-XO) on the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on the signaling pathways involved. Results show that Hx-XO-derived ROS induced an increase in HUVEC adhesion in the early stages of the process (less than 30 min), followed by a decrease in adhesion in the later stages of the process. Interestingly, Hx-XO-derived ROS induced the same biphasic effect on the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase critical for cell adhesion, but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The biphasic effect was not seen with ERK1/2 where a decrease in phosphorylation only was observed. Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited ROS-induced cell adhesion and FAK phosphorylation. Orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and Resveratrol (Resv), an antioxidant agent, protected FAK and ERK1/2 from dephosphorylation and HUVEC from ROS-induced loss of adhesion. This study shows that ROS could have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on HUVEC adhesion and FAK phosphorylation and suggests that PI3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase control these effects. PMID:27528888

  17. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 have similar and stage-dependent roles in regulating T cell apoptosis and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, K; Kallunki, T; David, J P; Graef, I; Karin, M; Wagner, E F

    2001-02-01

    Apoptotic and mitogenic stimuli activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) in T cells. Although T cells express both JNK1 and JNK2 isozymes, the absence of JNK2 alone can result in resistance to anti-CD3-induced thymocyte apoptosis and defective mature T cell proliferation. Similar defects in thymocyte apoptosis and mature T cell proliferation, the latter due to reduced interleukin 2 production, are also caused by JNK1 deficiency. Importantly, T cell function was compromised in Jnk1(+/-)Jnk2(+/-) double heterozygous mice, indicating that JNK1 and JNK2 play similar roles in regulating T cell function. The reduced JNK dose results in defective c-Jun NH2-terminal phosphorylation in thymocytes but not in peripheral T cells, in which nuclear factors of activated T cells (NK-ATs)-DNA binding activity is affected. Thus, JNK1 and JNK2 control similar functions during T cell maturation through differential targeting of distinct substrates. PMID:11157052

  18. JNK-dependent gene regulatory circuitry governs mesenchymal fate

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Neha; Thakurela, Sudhir; Toedling, Joern; Gebhard, Susanne; Ortega, Felipe; Schmarowski, Nikolai; Berninger, Benedikt; Nitsch, Robert; Schmidt, Marcus; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process in which cells lose cell–cell contacts and become motile. EMT is used during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in cancer metastasis. Despite progress, the dynamics of JNK signaling, its role in genomewide transcriptional reprogramming, and involved downstream effectors during EMT remain largely unknown. Here, we show that JNK is not required for initiation, but progression of phenotypic changes associated with EMT. Such dependency resulted from JNK-driven transcriptional reprogramming of critical EMT genes and involved changes in their chromatin state. Furthermore, we identified eight novel JNK-induced transcription factors that were required for proper EMT. Three of these factors were also highly expressed in invasive cancer cells where they function in gene regulation to maintain mesenchymal identity. These factors were also induced during neuronal development and function in neuronal migration in vivo. These comprehensive findings uncovered a kinetically distinct role for the JNK pathway in defining the transcriptome that underlies mesenchymal identity and revealed novel transcription factors that mediate these responses during development and disease. PMID:26157010

  19. PKC{alpha} expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-H.; Wu, T.-T.; Tsai, J.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Liu, J.-Y. . E-mail: jyl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-01-06

    Our previous study found that PKC{alpha} was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKC{alpha} expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKC{alpha} promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKC{alpha} mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKC{alpha} promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKC{alpha} expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKC{alpha} expression regulation in human HCC cells.

  20. Lyn, PKC-δ, SHIP-1 interactions regulate GPVI-mediated platelet-dense granule secretion

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Kim, Soochong; Murugappan, Swaminathan; Sanjay, Archana; Daniel, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) is expressed in platelets and activated downstream of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptors. We have previously shown that PKC-δ positively regulates PAR-mediated dense granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion. We further investigated the mechanism of such differential regulation of dense granule release by PKC-δ in platelets. SH2 domain–containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is phosphorylated on Y1020, a marker for its activation, upon stimulation of human platelets with PAR agonists SFLLRN and AYPGKF or GPVI agonist convulxin. GPVI-mediated SHIP-1 phosphorylation occurred rapidly at 15 seconds, whereas PAR-mediated phosphorylation was delayed, occurring at 1 minute. Lyn and SHIP-1, but not SHIP-2 or Shc, preferentially associated with PKC-δ on stimulation of platelets with a GPVI agonist, but not with a PAR agonist. In PKC-δ–null murine platelets, convulxin-induced SHIP-1 phosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in Lyn null murine platelets, GPVI-mediated phosphorylations on Y-1020 of SHIP-1 and Y311 of PKC-δ were inhibited. In murine platelets lacking Lyn or SHIP-1, GPVI-mediated dense granule secretions are potentiated, whereas PAR-mediated dense granule secretions are inhibited. Therefore, we conclude that Lyn-mediated phosphorylations of PKC-δ and SHIP-1 and their associations negatively regulate GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion in platelets. PMID:19587372

  1. Activation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} is essential for LDL-induced cell proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via Gi-mediated Erk1/2 activation and Egr-1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Lila; Nam, Miyoung; Baek, Seung-Tae; Park, Song-Kyu; Park, Youngwoo; Myung, Chang-Seon; Hwang, Sung-Ook Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2008-03-28

    Native LDL may be a mitogenic stimulus of VSMC proliferation in lesions where endothelial disruption occurs. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mitogenic effects of LDL are accompanied by Erk1/2 activation via an unknown G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this article, we report that LDL translocated PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} from cytosol to plasma membrane, and inhibition of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} decreased LDL effects via the deactivation of Erk1/2. Moreover, pertussis toxin, but not cholera toxin or heparin, inhibited LDL-induced translocation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta}, suggesting that Gi protein plays a role in LDL effects. Of LPA, S1P, and LDL, whose signaling is conveyed via Gi/o proteins, only LDL induced translocation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta}. Inhibition of PKC{beta}{sub II} or PKC{theta}, as well as of Erk1/2 and GPCR, decreases LDL-induced upregulation of Egr-1, which is critical for cell proliferation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that the participation of PKC{theta} in VSMC proliferation is unique.

  2. Pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation decreases human glioblastoma tumor growth and synergizes with temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Yemma, Michael; Morrison, Carl D; Lee, Jisook; Eliceiri, Brian P; Cance, William G

    2013-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by aggressive tumor growth with a mean survival of 15 to 18 months and frequently developed resistance to temozolomide. Therefore, strategies that sensitize glioma cells to temozolomide have a high translational impact. We have studied focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase and emerging therapeutic target that is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma. In this report, we tested the FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15, in DBTRG and U87 glioblastoma cells. Y15 significantly decreased viability and clonogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, increased detachment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, caused apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion in both cell lines. In addition, Y15 treatment decreased autophosphorylation of FAK in a dose-dependent manner and changed cell morphology by causing cell rounding in DBTRG and U87 cells. Administration of Y15 significantly decreased subcutaneous DBTRG tumor growth with decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, activated caspase-3 and PARP. Y15 was administered in an orthotopic glioma model, leading to an increase in mouse survival. The combination of Y15 with temozolomide was more effective than either agent alone in decreasing viability and activating caspase-8 in DBTRG and U87 cells in vitro. In addition, the combination of Y15 and temozolomide synergistically blocked U87 brain tumor growth in vivo. Thus, pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation with the oral administration of a small-molecule inhibitor Y15 has a potential to be an effective therapy approach for glioblastoma either alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide. PMID:23243059

  3. PSD-95 and PKC converge in regulating NMDA receptor trafficking and gating

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Wong, Judy; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal NMDA receptors (NMDARs) colocalize with postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a putative NMDAR anchoring protein and core component of the PSD, at excitatory synapses. PKC activation and PSD-95 expression each enhance NMDAR channel opening rate and number of functional channels at the cell surface. Here we show in Xenopus oocytes that PSD-95 and PKC potentiate NMDA gating and trafficking in a nonadditive manner. PSD-95 and PKC each enhance NMDA channel activity, with no change in single-channel conductance, reversal potential or mean open time. PSD-95 and PKC each potentiate NMDA channel opening rate (kβ) and number of functional channels at the cell surface (N), as indicated by more rapid current decay and enhanced charge transfer in the presence of the open channel blocker MK-801. PSD-95 and PKC each increase NMDAR surface expression, as indicated by immunofluorescence. PKC potentiates NMDA channel function and NMDAR surface expression to the same final absolute values in the absence or presence of PSD-95. Thus, PSD-95 partially occludes PKC potentiation. We further show that Ser-1462, a putative phosphorylation target within the PDZ-binding motif of the NR2A subunit, is required for PSD-95-induced potentiation and partial occlusion of PKC potentiation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with cortical neurons in culture indicate that PKC activation promotes assembly of NR2 with NR1, and that the newly assembled NMDARs are not associated with PSD-95. These findings predict that synaptic scaffolding proteins and protein kinases convergently modulate NMDAR gating and trafficking at synaptic sites. PMID:17179037

  4. Combined PKC and MEK inhibition in uveal melanoma with GNAQ and GNA11 mutations.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wu, Q; Tan, L; Porter, D; Jager, M J; Emery, C; Bastian, B C

    2014-09-25

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is a genetically and biologically distinct type of melanoma, and once metastatic there is no effective treatment currently available. Eighty percent of UMs harbor mutations in the Gαq family members GNAQ and GNA11. Understanding the effector pathways downstream of these oncoproteins is important to identify opportunities for targeted therapy. We report consistent activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) and MAPK pathways as a consequence of GNAQ or GNA11 mutation. PKC inhibition with AEB071 or AHT956 suppressed PKC and MAPK signalling and induced G1 arrest selectively in melanoma cell lines carrying GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. In contrast, treatment with two different MEK inhibitors, PD0325901 and MEK162, inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cell lines irrespective of their mutation status, indicating that in the context of GNAQ or GNA11 mutation MAPK activation can be attributed to activated PKC. AEB071 significantly slowed the growth of tumors in an allograft model of GNAQ(Q209L)-transduced melanocytes, but did not induce tumor shrinkage. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that PKC inhibitors alone were unable to induce sustained suppression of MAP-kinase signaling. However, combinations of PKC and MEK inhibition, using either PD0325901or MEK162, led to sustained MAP-kinase pathway inhibition and showed a strong synergistic effect in halting proliferation and in inducing apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, combining PKC and MEK inhibition was efficacious in vivo, causing marked tumor regression in a UM xenograft model. Our data identify PKC as a rational therapeutic target for melanoma patients with GNAQ or GNA11 mutations and demonstrate that combined MEK and PKC inhibition is synergistic, with superior efficacy compared to treatment with either approach alone. PMID:24141786

  5. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-{kappa}B activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Kee . E-mail: yksnbk@kwandong.ac.kr; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam . E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr

    2006-09-08

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-{kappa}B as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-{kappa}B activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}. TNF-{alpha} expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-{kappa}B activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-{alpha} does not lead to activation of NF-{kappa}B, because disruption of TNF-{alpha} activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-{kappa}B requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-{kappa}B seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-{kappa}B reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin.

  6. A small-molecule inhibitor, 5'-O-tritylthymidine, targets FAK and Mdm-2 interaction, and blocks breast and colon tumorigenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Palma, Nadia L; Zheng, Min; Ho, Baotran; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David; Cance, William G

    2013-05-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays an important role in survival. We developed a novel approach, targeting FAK-protein interactions by computer modeling and screening of NCI small molecule drug database. In this report we targeted FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction to decrease tumor growth. By macromolecular modeling we found a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and performed screening of > 200,000 small molecule compounds from NCI database with drug-like characteristics, targeting the FAK-Mdm-2 interaction. We identified 5';-O-Tritylthymidine, called M13 compound that significantly decreased viability in different cancer cells. M13 was docked into the pocket of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and was directly bound to the FAK-N terminal domain by ForteBio Octet assay. In addition, M13 compound affected FAK and Mdm-2 levels and decreased complex of FAK and Mdm-2 proteins in breast and colon cancer cells. M13 re-activated p53 activity inhibited by FAK with Mdm-2 promoter. M13 decreased viability, clonogenicity, increased detachment and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in BT474 breast and in HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. M13 decreased FAK, activated p53 and caspase-8 in both cell lines. In addition, M13 decreased breast and colon tumor growth in vivo. M13 activated p53 and decreased FAK in tumor samples consistent with decreased tumor growth. The data demonstrate a novel approach for targeting FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction, provide a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction, identify M13 compound targeting this interaction and decreasing tumor growth that is critical for future targeted therapeutics. PMID:22292771

  7. Discovery of Clinical Candidate CEP-37440, a Selective Inhibitor of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK).

    PubMed

    Ott, Gregory R; Cheng, Mangeng; Learn, Keith S; Wagner, Jason; Gingrich, Diane E; Lisko, Joseph G; Curry, Matthew; Mesaros, Eugen F; Ghose, Arup K; Quail, Matthew R; Wan, Weihua; Lu, Lihui; Dobrzanski, Pawel; Albom, Mark S; Angeles, Thelma S; Wells-Knecht, Kevin; Huang, Zeqi; Aimone, Lisa D; Bruckheimer, Elizabeth; Anderson, Nathan; Friedman, Jay; Fernandez, Sandra V; Ator, Mark A; Ruggeri, Bruce A; Dorsey, Bruce D

    2016-08-25

    Analogues structurally related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor 1 were optimized for metabolic stability. The results from this endeavor not only led to improved metabolic stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and in vitro activity against clinically derived resistance mutations but also led to the incorporation of activity for focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK activation, via amplification and/or overexpression, is characteristic of multiple invasive solid tumors and metastasis. The discovery of the clinical stage, dual FAK/ALK inhibitor 27b, including details surrounding SAR, in vitro/in vivo pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics, is reported herein. PMID:27527804

  8. JNK is constitutively active in mantle cell lymphoma: cell cycle deregulation and polyploidy by JNK inhibitor SP600125.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Atayar, Cigdem; Rosati, Stefano; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke; Kluin, Philip; Visser, Lydia

    2009-05-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by genetic instability and a poor prognosis. Many blastoid variants are (hypo)tetraploid and have an even worse prognosis. We investigated the role of signalling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MCL. As compared to normal tonsil B cells, MCL cells showed higher activation of the JNK MAPK in both an MAPK array and a sandwich ELISA assay. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of phospho (p)-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) in 30 of 37 MCL cases. Inhibition of p-JNK with SP600125 resulted in growth arrest in all four MCL cell lines (Jeko-1, HBL-2, UPN-1, Granta-519), which could be partly reversed by the addition of CD40L and IL-4. Furthermore, SP600125 led to G2/M phase arrest on day 1 and a striking increase in endoreduplication on day 2 and day 3, which was confirmed by karyotype analysis. G2/M arrest was associated with down-regulation of EGR1 and p21 protein expression. SP600125-induced polyploidy could be blocked by the BCL-2 inhibitor YC137. These data suggest that constitutive JNK activity is necessary to promote proliferation and maintain diploidy in MCL. JNK inhibition leads to cell cycle deregulation and endoreduplication, mimicking the tetraploid state seen in a subset of MCL cases. Thus, our data also provide an experimental model to study polyploid MCL cells. PMID:19206150

  9. Sialic Acid Rescues Repurified Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure via Inhibiting TLR4/PKC/gp91-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Pyroptosis Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling. PMID:24973090

  10. Novel PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction is necessary for transformation from blebbishields

    PubMed Central

    Jinesh, Goodwin G.; Taoka, Rikiya; Zhang, Qiang; Gorantla, Siddharth; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are capable of transformation after apoptosis through the blebbishield emergency program. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in transformation. Understanding how ROS are linked to blebbishield-mediated transformation is necessary to develop efficient therapeutics that target the resurrection of cancer stem cells. Here we demonstrate that a novel PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction is required for ROS production in cancer cells. The combined use of the S6K inhibitor BI-D1870 with TNF-α inhibited the PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction, inhibited ROS production, degraded PKC-ζ, and activated caspases-3 and -8 to block transformation from blebbishields. BI-D1870 also inhibited transformation from cycloheximide-generated blebbishields. Thus ROS and the PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction are valid therapeutic targets to block transformation from blebbishields. PMID:27040869

  11. Structural Basis and Biological Consequences for JNK2/3 Isoform Selective Aminopyrazoles

    PubMed Central

    Park, HaJeung; Iqbal, Sarah; Hernandez, Pamela; Mora, Rudy; Zheng, Ke; Feng, Yangbo; LoGrasso, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Three JNK isoforms, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3 have been reported and unique biological function has been ascribed to each. It is unknown if selective inhibition of these isoforms would confer therapeutic or safety benefit. To probe JNK isoform function we designed JNK2/3 inhibitors that have >30-fold selectivity over JNK1. Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography we identified L144 in JNK3 as a key residue for selectivity. To test whether JNK2/3 selective inhibitors protect human dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, we monitored reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The results showed that JNK2/3 selective inhibitors protected against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced ROS generation and MMP depolarization. These results suggest that it was possible to develop JNK2/3 selective inhibitors and that residues in hydrophobic pocket I were responsible for selectivity. Moreover, the findings also suggest that inhibition of JNK2/3 likely contributed to protecting mitochondrial function and prevented ultimate cell death. PMID:25623238

  12. FAK is required for Schwann cell spreading on immature basal lamina to coordinate the radial sorting of peripheral axons with myelination.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matthew; Brophy, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  13. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  14. PKC 412 sensitizes U1810 non-small cell lung cancer cells to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hemstroem, Therese H.; Joseph, Bertrand; Schulte, Gunnar; Lewensohn, Rolf; Zhivotovsky, Boris . E-mail: Boris.Zhivotovsky@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-15

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is characterized by resistance to drug-induced apoptosis, which might explain the survival of lung cancer cells following treatment. Recently we have shown that the broad-range kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS) reactivates the apoptotic machinery in U1810 NSCLC cells [Joseph et al., Oncogene 21 (2002) 65]. Lately, several STS analogs that are more specific in kinase inhibition have been suggested for tumor treatment. In this study the apoptosis-inducing ability of the STS analogs PKC 412 and Ro 31-8220 used alone or in combination with DNA-damaging agents in U1810 cells was investigated. In these cells Ro 31-8220 neither induced apoptosis when used alone, nor sensitized cells to etoposide treatment. PKC 412 as a single agent induced death of a small number of U1810 cells, whereas it efficiently triggered a dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in U1285 small cell lung carcinoma cells. In both cell types PKC 412 triggered release of mitochondrial proteins followed by caspase activation. However, concomitant activation of a caspase-independent pathway was essential to kill NSCLC cells. Importantly, PKC 412 was able to sensitize etoposide- and radiation-induced death of U1810 cells. The best sensitization was achieved when PKC 412 was administered 24 h after treatments. In U1810 cells, Ro 31-8220 decreased PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation as efficiently as PKC 412, indicating that the failure of Ro 31-8220 to induce apoptosis was not due to weaker inhibition of conventional and novel PKC isoforms. However, Ro 31-8220 increased the basal level of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in both cell lines, whereas Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in the U1810 cells, which might influence apoptosis. These results suggest that PKC 412 could be a useful tool in increasing the efficiency of therapy of NSCLC.

  15. DNA damage targets PKC{eta} to the nuclear membrane via its C1b domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tamarkin, Ana; Zurgil, Udi; Braiman, Alex; Hai, Naama; Krasnitsky, Ella; Maissel, Adva; Ben-Ari, Assaf; Yankelovich, Liat; Livneh, Etta

    2011-06-10

    Translocation to cellular membranes is one of the hallmarks of PKC activation, occurring as a result of the generation of lipid secondary messengers in target membrane compartments. The activation-induced translocation of PKCs and binding to membranes is largely directed by their regulatory domains. We have previously reported that PKC{eta}, a member of the novel subfamily and an epithelial specific isoform, is localized at the cytoplasm and ER/Golgi and is translocated to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope upon short-term activation by PMA. Here we show that PKC{eta} is shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and that upon etoposide induced DNA damage is tethered at the nuclear envelope. Although PKC{eta} expression and its phosphorylation on the hydrophobic motif (Ser675) are increased by etoposide, this phosphorylation is not required for its accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Moreover, we demonstrate that the C1b domain is sufficient for translocation to the nuclear envelope. We further show that, similar to full-length PKC{eta}, the C1b domain could also confer protection against etoposide-induced cell death. Our studies demonstrate translocation of PKC{eta} to the nuclear envelope, and suggest that its spatial regulation could be important for its cellular functions including effects on cell death.

  16. NOVEL ATYPICAL PKC INHIBITORS PREVENT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Titchenell, Paul M.; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Keil, Jason M.; Sundstrom, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Charles D.; Antonetti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute to the loss of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and subsequent macular edema in various retinal pathologies. VEGF signaling requires conventional PKC (PKCβ) activity; however, PKCβ inhibition only partially prevents VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and does not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced permeability suggesting the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) signaling in VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and identify a novel class of inhibitors of aPKC that prevent BRB breakdown in vivo. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of aPKC isoforms were used to assess their contribution to endothelial permeability in culture. A chemical library was screened using an in vitro kinase assay to identify novel small molecule inhibitors and further medicinal chemistry was performed to delineate a novel pharmacophore. We demonstrate that aPKC isoforms are both sufficient and required for VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Furthermore, these specific, potent, non-competitive, small molecule inhibitors prevented VEGF-induced tight junction internalization and retinal endothelial permeability in response to VEGF in both primary culture and in rodent retina. These data suggest that aPKC inhibition with 2-amino-4-phenyl-thiophene derivatives may be developed to preserve the BRB in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or uveitis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of brain tumors. PMID:22721706

  17. The roles of maternal Vangl2 and aPKC in Xenopus oocyte and embryo patterning.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sang-Wook; Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Wylie, Christopher; Heasman, Janet

    2011-09-01

    The Xenopus oocyte contains components of both the planar cell polarity and apical-basal polarity pathways, but their roles are not known. Here, we examine the distribution, interactions and functions of the maternal planar cell polarity core protein Vangl2 and the apical-basal complex component aPKC. We show that Vangl2 is distributed in animally enriched islands in the subcortical cytoplasm in full-grown oocytes, where it interacts with a post-Golgi v-SNARE protein, VAMP1, and acetylated microtubules. We find that Vangl2 is required for the stability of VAMP1 as well as for the maintenance of the stable microtubule architecture of the oocyte. We show that Vangl2 interacts with atypical PKC, and that both the acetylated microtubule cytoskeleton and the Vangl2-VAMP1 distribution are dependent on the presence of aPKC. We also demonstrate that aPKC and Vangl2 are required for the cell membrane asymmetry that is established during oocyte maturation, and for the asymmetrical distribution of maternal transcripts for the germ layer and dorsal/ventral determinants VegT and Wnt11. This study demonstrates the interaction and interdependence of Vangl2, VAMP1, aPKC and the stable microtubule cytoskeleton in the oocyte, shows that maternal Vangl2 and aPKC are required for specific oocyte asymmetries and vertebrate embryonic patterning, and points to the usefulness of the oocyte as a model to study the polarity problem. PMID:21813572

  18. Absence of catalytic domain in a putative protein kinase C (PkcA) suppresses tip dominance in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Wasima; Ray, Sibnath; Brazill, Derrick; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-09-01

    A number of organisms possess several isoforms of protein kinase C but little is known about the significance of any specific isoform during embryogenesis and development. To address this we characterized a PKC ortholog (PkcA; DDB_G0288147) in Dictyostelium discoideum. pkcA expression switches from prestalk in mound to prespore in slug, indicating a dynamic expression pattern. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of PkcA (pkcA(-)) did not exhibit tip dominance. A striking phenotype of pkcA- was the formation of an aggregate with a central hollow, and aggregates later fragmented to form small mounds, each becoming a fruiting body. Optical density wave patterns of cAMP in the late aggregates showed several cAMP wave generation centers. We attribute these defects in pkcA(-) to impaired cAMP signaling, altered cell motility and decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecules - CadA and CsaA. pkcA(-) slugs showed ectopic expression of ecmA in the prespore region. Further, the use of a PKC-specific inhibitor, GF109203X that inhibits the activity of catalytic domain phenocopied pkcA(-). PMID:26183108

  19. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  20. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    PubMed Central

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK. PMID:27244251

  1. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion.

    PubMed

    Heuslein, Joshua L; Murrell, Kelsey P; Leiphart, Ryan J; Llewellyn, Ryan A; Meisner, Joshua K; Price, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase's (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6C(hi) and Ly6C(lo) blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK. PMID:27244251

  2. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK. PMID:26517117

  3. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is required for coordination of netrin signaling in axon guidance.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chao; Li, Weiquan; Shao, Qiangqiang; Dwyer, Trisha; Huang, Huai; Yang, Tao; Liu, Guofa

    2013-01-18

    The JNK family of MAPKs is involved in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes in brain development, such as neural survival, migration, and polarity as well as axon regeneration. However, whether JNK activation is involved in axon guidance remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence indicating the JNK pathway is required for Netrin signaling in the developing nervous system. Netrin-1 increased JNK1, not JNK2 or JNK3, activity in the presence of deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) or Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM), and expression of both of them further enhanced Netrin-1-induced JNK1 activity in vitro. Inhibition of JNK signaling either by a JNK inhibitor, SP600125, or expression of a dominant negative form of MKK4, a JNK upstream activator, blocked Netrin-1-induced JNK1 activation in HEK293 cells. Netrin-1 increased endogenous JNK activity in primary neurons. Netrin-1-induced JNK activation was inhibited either by the JNK inhibitor or an anti-DCC function-blocking antibody. Combination of the anti-DCC function-blocking antibody with expression of DSCAM shRNA in primary neurons totally abolished Netrin-1-induced JNK activation, whereas knockdown of DSCAM partially inhibited the Netrin-1 effect. In the developing spinal cord, phospho-JNK was strongly expressed in commissural axons before and as they crossed the floor plate, and Netrin-1 stimulation dramatically increased the level of endogenous phospho-JNK in commissural axon growth cones. Inhibition of JNK signaling either by JNK1 RNA interference (RNAi) or the JNK inhibitor suppressed Netrin-1-induced neurite outgrowth and axon attraction. Knockdown of JNK1 in ovo caused defects in spinal cord commissural axon projection and pathfinding. Our study reveals that JNK1 is important in the coordination of DCC and DSCAM in Netrin-mediated attractive signaling. PMID:23223444

  4. Cortical Interneurons Require Jnk1 to Enter and Navigate the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Abigail K.; Meechan, Daniel W.; Adney, Danielle R.

    2014-01-01

    Proper assembly of cortical circuitry relies on the correct migration of cortical interneurons from their place of birth in the ganglionic eminences to their place of terminal differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Although molecular mechanisms mediating cortical interneuron migration have been well studied, intracellular signals directing their migration are largely unknown. Here we illustrate a novel and essential role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in guiding the pioneering population of cortical interneurons into the mouse cerebral cortex. Migrating cortical interneurons express Jnk proteins at the entrance to the cortical rudiment and have enriched expression of Jnk1 relative to noninterneuronal cortical cells. Pharmacological blockade of JNK signaling in ex vivo slice cultures resulted in dose-dependent and highly specific disruption of interneuron migration into the nascent cortex. Time-lapse imaging revealed that JNK-inhibited cortical interneurons advanced slowly and assumed aberrant migratory trajectories while traversing the cortical entry zone. In vivo analyses of JNK-deficient embryos supported our ex vivo pharmacological data. Deficits in interneuron migration were observed in Jnk1 but not Jnk2 single nulls, and those migratory deficits were further exacerbated when homozygous loss of Jnk1 was combined with heterozygous reduction of Jnk2. Finally, genetic ablation of Jnk1 and Jnk2 from cortical interneurons significantly perturbed migration in vivo, but not in vitro, suggesting JNK activity functions to direct their guidance rather than enhance their motility. These data suggest JNK signaling, predominantly mediated by interneuron expressed Jnk1, is required for guiding migration of cortical interneurons into and within the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:24899703

  5. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK. PMID:26614458

  6. CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in gastric cancer via FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mingde; Zhang, Yunqiang; Zhang, Baogui; Hu, Lei; Li, Jianfang; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hexiao; Su, Liping; Zhu, Zhenggang; Li, Chen; Yan, Chao; Gu, Qinlong; Liu, Bingya; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    CEACAM6 is a member of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked immunoglobulin superfamily that is implicated in a variety of human cancers. In our previous study, we reported that CEACAM6 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and promoted cancer metastasis. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of CEACAM6 in tumor angiogenesis and mimicry formation. We found that overexpressed CEACAM6 promoted tubule formation dependent on HUVEC cells and vasculogenic mimicry formation of gastric cancer cells; opposing results were achieved in CEACAM6-silenced groups. Moreover, we found that mosaic vessels formed by HUVEC cells and gastric cancer cells were observed in vitro by 3D-culture assay. Overexpressed CEACAM6 in gastric cancer cells promoted tumor growth, VEGF expression and vasculogenic mimicry structures formation in vivo. In accordance with these observations, we found that phosphorylation of FAK and phosphorylation of paxillin were up-regulated in CEACAM6-overexpressing gastric cancer cells, and FAK inhibitor Y15 could reduce tubule and vasculogenic mimicry formation. These findings suggest that CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation via FAK signaling in gastric cancer and CEACAM6 may be a new target for cancer anti-vascular treatment. PMID:25703140

  7. β1 Integrin-Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Signaling Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) Survival

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Corredor, Raul G.; Obeso, Betty Albo; Trakhtenberg, Ephraim F.; Wang, Ying; Ponmattam, Jamie; Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry; Shestopalov, Valery I.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Fini, Mary Elizabeth; Bajenaru, Michaela Livia

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for neuronal homeostasis. Signals from the ECM are transmitted to neurons through integrins, a family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to ECM. We have previously established a causal link between the activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), degradation of laminin in the ECM of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and RGC death in a mouse model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). Here we investigated the role of laminin-integrin signaling in RGC survival in vitro, and after ischemia in vivo. In purified primary rat RGCs, stimulation of the β1 integrin receptor with laminin, or agonist antibodies enhanced RGC survival in correlation with activation of β1 integrin’s major downstream regulator, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Furthermore, β1 integrin binding and FAK activation were required for RGCs’ survival response to laminin. Finally, in vivo after RIRI, we observed an up-regulation of MMP-9, proteolytic degradation of laminin, decreased RGC expression of β1 integrin, FAK and Akt dephosphorylation, and reduced expression of the pro-survival molecule bcl-xL in the period preceding RGC apoptosis. RGC death was prevented, in the context of laminin degradation, by maintaining β1 integrin activation with agonist antibodies. Thus, disruption of homeostatic RGC-laminin interaction and signaling leads to cell death after retinal ischemia, and maintaining integrin activation may be a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection. PMID:23118988

  8. Downregulation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) by cord blood stem cells inhibits angiogenesis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Dinh, Dzung H; Tsung, Andrew J; Mohanam, Sanjeeva; Rao, Jasti S

    2010-11-01

    Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by rerouting or remodeling existing ones and is believed to be the primary method of vessel formation in gliomas. To study the mechanisms by which angiogenesis of glioma cells can be inhibited by human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSC), we studied two glioma cell lines (SNB19, U251) and a glioma xenograft cell line (5310) alone and in co-culture with hUCBSC. Conditioned media from co-cultures of glioma cells with hUCBSC showed reduced angiogenesis as evaluated by in vitro angiogenesis assay using HMEC cells. Reduction in angiogenesis was associated with downregulation of FAK and integrin αvβ3 in the co-cultures of glioma cells. Downregulation of FAK gene is correlated with downregulation of many angiogenesis-related genes, including Ang1, VEGFA and Akt. Under in vivo conditions, neovascularization by glioma cells was inhibited by hUCBSC. Further, intracranial tumor growth was inhibited by hUCBSC in athymic nude mice. Similar to in vitro results, we observed downregulation of FAK, VEGF and Akt molecules to inhibit angiogenesis in the hUCBSC-treated nude mice brains. Taken together, our results suggest that hUCBSC have the potential to inhibit the angiogenesis of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21068464

  9. Downregulation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) by cord blood stem cells inhibits angiogenesis in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Dinh, Dzung H.; Tsung, Andrew J.; Mohanam, Sanjeeva; Rao, Jasti S.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by rerouting or remodeling existing ones and is believed to be the primary method of vessel formation in gliomas. To study the mechanisms by which angiogenesis of glioma cells can be inhibited by human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSC), we studied two glioma cell lines (SNB19, U251) and a glioma xenograft cell line (5310) alone and in co-culture with hUCBSC. Conditioned media from co-cultures of glioma cells with hUCBSC showed reduced angiogenesis as evaluated by in vitro angiogenesis assay using HMEC cells. Reduction in angiogenesis was associated with downregulation of FAK and integrin αvβ3 in the co-cultures of glioma cells. Downregulation of FAK gene is correlated with downregulation of many angiogenesis-related genes, including Ang1, VEGFA and Akt. Under in vivo conditions, neovascularization by glioma cells was inhibited by hUCBSC. Further, intracranial tumor growth was inhibited by hUCBSC in athymic nude mice. Similar to in vitro results, we observed downregulation of FAK, VEGF and Akt molecules to inhibit angiogenesis in the hUCBSC-treated nude mice brains. Taken together, our results suggest that hUCBSC have the potential to inhibit the angiogenesis of glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21068464

  10. Redox Modulation of FAK Controls Melanoma Survival - Role of NOX4

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Pereira, Cristiane; Moraes, João Alfredo; Souza, Mariele de Jesus; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Arruda, Maria Augusta; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase are essential for melanoma proliferation and survival. However, the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates these effects are still unclear. In this work, we investigate the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in the signaling events that coordinate melanoma cell survival. Using the highly metastatic human melanoma cell line MV3, we observed that pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibition reduced melanoma viability and induced dramatic cellular shape changes. These effects were accompanied by actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, diminished FAKY397 phosphorylation, and decrease of FAK-actin and FAK-cSrc association, indicating disassembly of focal adhesion processes, a phenomenon that often results in anoikis. Accordingly, NADPH oxidase inhibition also enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, and caspase-3 activation, suggesting activation of the apoptotic machinery. NOX4 is likely to be involved in these effects, since silencing of NOX4 significantly inhibited basal ROS production, reduced FAKY397 phosphorylation and decreased tumor cell viability. Altogether, the results suggest that intracellular ROS generated by the NADPH oxidase, most likely NOX4, transmits cell survival signals on melanoma cells through the FAK pathway, maintaining adhesion contacts and cell viability. PMID:24911159

  11. Overcoming EMT-associated resistance to anti-cancer drugs via Src/FAK pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Catherine; Nicholes, Katrina; Bustos, Daisy; Lin, Eva; Song, Qinghua; Stephan, Jean-Philippe; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Settleman, Jeff

    2014-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in embryonic development and has been associated with cancer metastasis and drug resistance. For example, in EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), EMT has been associated with acquired resistance to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. Moreover, "EGFR-addicted" cancer cell lines induced to undergo EMT become erlotinib-resistant in vitro. To identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities specifically within these mesenchymal, erlotinib-resistant cells, we performed a small molecule screen of ~200 established anti-cancer agents using the EGFR mutant NSCLC HCC827 cell line and a corresponding mesenchymal derivative line. The mesenchymal cells were more resistant to most tested agents; however, a small number of agents showed selective growth inhibitory activity against the mesenchymal cells, with the most potent being the Abl/Src inhibitor, dasatinib. Analysis of the tyrosine phospho-proteome revealed several Src/FAK pathway kinases that were differentially phosphorylated in the mesenchymal cells, and RNAi depletion of the core Src/FAK pathway components in these mesenchymal cells caused apoptosis. These findings reveal a novel role for Src/FAK pathway kinases in drug resistance and identify dasatinib as a potential therapeutic for treatment of erlotinib resistance associated with EMT. PMID:25193862

  12. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer. PMID:26772997

  13. The role of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) in malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lahn, M; Paterson, B M; Sundell, K; Ma, D

    2004-01-01

    Drugs specifically designed to block cellular signalling proteins are currently evaluated as a new way to treat gastrointestinal tumours. One such "new targeted agent" is aprinocarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide that specifically blocks the mRNA of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha). Blocking PKC-alpha, an important cellular signalling molecule associated with tumour growth, is anticipated to result in tumour cell arrest and achieve clinical benefits. However, it is not known which patients may benefit most from a specific inhibition of PKC-alpha. Past experience with other novel targeted agents suggests that expression of the target molecule is an important factor for the success of such a specific therapy. Therefore, reviewing the specific role of PKC-alpha in various gastrointestinal tumours may contribute to focus the clinical development of selective or specific PKC-alpha inhibitors, such as aprinocarsen, on those patients with a distinctive PKC-alpha expression pattern. PMID:14687784

  14. The role of PKC signaling in CRF-induced modulation of startle

    PubMed Central

    M, Toth; JE, Gresack; RL, Hauger; AL, Halberstadt; VB, Risbrough

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Hypersignaling of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been implicated in stress disorders, however many of its downstream mechanisms of action remain unclear. In vitro, CRF1 receptor activation initiates multiple cell signaling cascades, including protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MEK1/2 signaling. It is unclear however, which of these signaling cascades mediate CRF-induced behaviors during stress. Objectives We examined the role of PKA, PKC and MEK1/2 signaling pathways in CRF-induced anxiety as measured by startle hyperreactivity. Methods Mice treated with intracerbroventricular (ICV) ovine CRF (oCRF) were pretreated with the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS, PKC inhibitor BIM (bisindolylmaleimide) or MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (ICV) and assessed for acoustic startle reactivity. Results The PKC inhibitor BIM significantly attenuated CRF-induced increases in startle. BIM was also able to block startle increases induced by oCRF when both compounds were infused directly into the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). PKA and MEK1/2 inhibition had no significant effects on CRF-induced changes in startle at the dose ranges tested. CRF-induced disruption of PPI was not significantly reversed by any of the 3 pretreatments at the dose ranges tested. Conclusions PKC signaling is required for CRF-induced increases in startle, and this effect is mediated at least in part at the BNST. These findings suggest PKC signaling cascades: 1) may be important for the acute effects of CRF to induce startle hyperreactivity, and 2) support further research of the role of PKC signaling in startle abnormalities relevant to disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:23722830

  15. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  16. PKC-2 phosphorylation of UNC-18 Ser322 in AFD neurons regulates temperature dependency of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark R; Johnson, James R; Rankin, Kimberley; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Maguire, Carl; Morgan, Alan; Burgoyne, Robert D; Barclay, Jeff W

    2012-05-16

    Diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling plays an integral role in the regulation of neuronal function. This is certainly true in Caenorhabditis elegans and in particular for thermosensory signaling and behavior. Downstream molecular targets for transduction of this signaling cascade remain, however, virtually uncharacterized. We investigated whether PKC phosphorylation of Munc18-1, an essential protein in vesicle trafficking and exocytosis, was the downstream effector for DAG regulation of thermosensory behavior. We demonstrate here that the C. elegans ortholog of Munc18-1, UNC-18, was phosphorylated in vitro at Ser322. Transgenic rescue of unc-18-null worms with Ser322 phosphomutants displayed altered thermosensitivity. C. elegans expresses three DAG-regulated PKCs, and blocking UNC-18 Ser322 phosphorylation was phenocopied only by deletion of calcium-activated PKC-2. Expression of nonphosphorylatable UNC-18 S322A, either pan-neuronally or specifically in AFD thermosensory neurons, converted wild-type worms to a pkc-2-null phenotype. These data demonstrate that an individual DAG-dependent thermosensory behavior of an organism is effected specifically by the downstream PKC-2 phosphorylation of UNC-18 on Ser322 in AFD neurons. PMID:22593072

  17. ETV6-NTRK3 as a therapeutic target of small molecule inhibitor PKC412

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Hoang Thanh; Ly, Bui Thi Kim; Kano, Yasuhiko; Tojo, Arinobu; Sato, Yuko

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETV6-NTRK3 is an oncogene with transformation activity in multiple cell lineages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC412 could block ETV6-NTRK3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ETV6-NTRK3 phosphorylation leads to inactivation of its downstream signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 activation by PKC412 could be a novel strategy for the treatment. -- Abstract: The ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene which encodes a chimeric tyrosine kinase was first identified by cloning of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation in congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS). Since then, EN has been also found in congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Using IMS-M2 and M0-91 cell lines harboring the EN fusion gene, and Ba/F3 cells stably transfected with EN, we demonstrated that PKC412, also known as midostaurin, is an inhibitor of EN. Inhibition of EN activity by PKC412 suppressed the activity of it downstream molecules leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our data for the first time suggested that PKC412 could serve as therapeutic drug for treatment of patients with this fusion.

  18. The PKC-NFκB Signaling Pathway Induces APOBEC3B Expression in Multiple Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Brandon; McCann, Jennifer L.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Kosyakovsky, Leah; Luengas, Elizabeth M.; Molan, Amy M.; Burns, Michael B.; McDougle, Rebecca M.; Parker, Peter J.; Brown, William L.; Harris, Reuben S.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the antiviral DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B has been linked to somatic mutagenesis in many cancers. HPV infection accounts for APOBEC3B upregulation in cervical and head/neck cancers, but the mechanisms underlying non-viral malignancies are unclear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways responsible for APOBEC3B upregulation. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the diacylglycerol (DAG) mimic phorbol-myristic acid (PMA) resulted in specific and dose-responsive increases in APOBEC3B expression and activity, which could then be strongly suppressed by PKC or NFκB inhibition. PKC activation caused the recruitment of RELB, but not RELA, to the APOBEC3B promoter implicating non-canonical NFκB signaling. Notably, PKC was required for APOBEC3B upregulation in cancer cell lines derived from multiple tumor types. By revealing how APOBEC3B is upregulated in many cancers, our findings suggest that PKC and NFκB inhibitors may be repositioned to suppress cancer mutagenesis, dampen tumor evolution, and decrease the probability of adverse outcomes such as drug resistance and metastases. PMID:26420215

  19. PKC-Theta in Regulatory and Effector T-cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Brezar, Vedran; Tu, Wen Juan; Seddiki, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/off of robust and efficient effector (Teffs) or regulatory (Tregs) T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to the immunological synapse (IS) is instrumental for the formation of signaling complexes, which ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the IS where its formation induces altered signaling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-θ, suggesting that PKC-θ inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-θ plays a major role in the regulation of this balance. This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-θ in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs. PMID:26528291

  20. Role of PKC isozymes in low-power light-stimulated proliferation of cultured skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Nili; Kleitman, Vered; Meller, Julia; Kaufmann, Roland; Akgun, Nermin; Ruck, Angelika; Livneh, Etta; Lubart, Rachel

    2000-11-01

    Exposure of cultured skin cells to low power visible light leads to a transiently stimulated proliferation. Facilitation of this response requires the presence of active PKC, elevation of intracellular calcium, and involves reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the role of PKC(alpha) and PCK(eta) was examined using paired murine fibroblasts, differing in the level of these isozymes expression. The ability of the cells to respond to low power UVA light or HeNe laser by stimulated proliferation was correlated with an active state or overexpression of PKC(alpha) , but not PKC(eta) . A parallel response was obtained in cells that were loaded with A1PcS4 before photosensitization. Whenever this latter treatment caused a light-stimulated inhibition, it was accompanied by the intracellular calcium and photosensitizer dynamics typical of the effect of PDT on rate epithelial cells. Accordingly, added antioxidants that suppressed light-stimulated proliferation also suppressed this light-stimulated inhibition. The model systems employed in this study are the first to demonstrate the specific effect of PKC isozymes on light-stimulated proliferation, in relation to oxidative stress, and indicate their dual role in light-tissue interaction.

  1. Basal Cancer Cell Survival Involves JNK2 Suppression of a Novel JNK1/c-Jun/Bcl-3 Apoptotic Network

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shafiq Uddin; Milner, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background The regulation of apoptosis under basal (non-stress) conditions is crucial for normal mammalian development and also for normal cellular turnover in different tissues throughout life. Deficient regulation of basal apoptosis, or its perturbation, can result in impaired development and/or disease states including cancer. In contrast to stress-induced apoptosis the regulation of apoptosis under basal conditions is poorly understood. To address this issue we have compared basal- and stress-induced apoptosis in human epithelial cells of normal and cancerous origins. For this purpose we focussed our study on the opposing pro-apoptotic JNK/anti-apoptotic NFκB pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Combinatorial RNAi plus gene knockout were employed to access and map basal regulatory pathways of apoptosis. Follow-on, in-depth analyses included exogenous expression of phosphorylation mutants and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We demonstrate that basal apoptosis is constitutively suppressed by JNK2 in a range of human cancer cell lines. This effect was not observed in non-cancer cells. Silencing JNK2 by RNAi resulted in JNK1-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells via up-regulation of the AP-1 factor c-Jun. Unexpectedly we discovered that JNK1 and c-Jun promote basal apoptosis in the absence of “activating phosphorylations” typically induced by stress. Hypo-phosphorylated c-Jun accumulated to high levels following JNK2 silencing, auto-regulated its own expression and suppressed expression of Bcl-3, an unusual IκB protein and regulator of NFκB. Basal apoptosis was mediated by components of the TNFα response pathway but was mechanistically distinct from TNFα-induced apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that mechanistically distinct pathways operate to regulate apoptosis in mammalian cells under basal (physiological) versus stress-induced conditions. We also describe a novel apoptotic network which governs the basal survival of cancer

  2. Efficient keratinocyte differentiation strictly depends on JNK-induced soluble factors in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Marion; Schuster, Christian; Rogon, Zbigniew M; Bauer, Tobias; Caushaj, Nevisa; Baars, Sebastian; Szabowski, Sibylle; Bauer, Christine; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Hess, Jochen; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Wagner, Erwin F; Eils, Roland; Angel, Peter; Hartenstein, Bettina

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that fibroblast-derived and JUN-dependent soluble factors have a crucial role on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation during cutaneous wound healing. Furthermore, mice with a deficiency in Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) , JNK1 or JNK2, showed impaired skin development and delayed wound closure. To decipher the role of dermal JNK in keratinocyte behavior during these processes, we used a heterologous coculture model combining primary human keratinocytes and murine fibroblasts. Although cocultured JNK1/JNK2-deficient fibroblasts did not affect keratinocyte proliferation, temporal monitoring of the transcriptome of differentiating keratinocytes revealed that efficient keratinocyte differentiation not only requires the support by fibroblast-derived soluble factors, but is also critically dependent on JNK1 and JNK2 signaling in these cells. Moreover, we showed that the repertoire of fibroblast transcripts encoding secreted proteins is severely disarranged upon loss of JNK under the coculture conditions applied. Finally, our data demonstrate that efficient keratinocyte terminal differentiation requires constant presence of JNK-dependent and fibroblast-derived soluble factors. Taken together, our results imply that mesenchymal JNK has a pivotal role in the paracrine cross talk between dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes during wound healing. PMID:24335928

  3. Structural Mechanisms of Allostery and Autoinhibition in JNK Family Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, J. D.; Nwachukwu, J. C.; Figuera-Losada, M.; Cherry, L.; Nettles, K. W.; LoGrasso, P. V.

    2012-12-05

    c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) family kinases have a common peptide-docking site used by upstream activating kinases, substrates, scaffold proteins, and phosphatases, where the ensemble of bound proteins determines signaling output. Although there are many JNK structures, little is known about mechanisms of allosteric regulation between the catalytic and peptide-binding sites, and the activation loop, whose phosphorylation is required for catalytic activity. Here, we compare three structures of unliganded JNK3 bound to different peptides. These were compared as a class to structures that differ in binding of peptide, small molecule ligand, or conformation of the kinase activation loop. Peptide binding induced an inhibitory interlobe conformer that was reversed by alterations in the activation loop. Structure class analysis revealed the subtle structural mechanisms for allosteric signaling between the peptide-binding site and activation loop. Biochemical data from isothermal calorimetry, fluorescence energy transfer, and enzyme inhibition demonstrated affinity differences among the three peptides that were consistent with structural observations.

  4. MAP-kinase activity necessary for TGFbeta1-stimulated mesangial cell type I collagen expression requires adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Tomoko; Wu, Ming-Hua; Pierce, Amy; Poncelet, Anne-Christine; Varga, John; Schnaper, H William

    2007-12-01

    The signals mediating transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated kidney fibrogenesis are poorly understood. We previously reported TGFbeta-stimulated, Smad-mediated collagen production by human kidney mesangial cells, and that ERK MAP kinase activity optimizes collagen expression and enhances phosphorylation of the Smad3 linker region. Furthermore, we showed that disrupting cytoskeletal integrity decreases type I collagen production. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, PTK2) activity could integrate these findings. Adhesion-dependent FAK Y397 phosphorylation was detected basally, whereas FAK Y925 phosphorylation was TGFbeta1-dependent. By immunocytochemistry, TGFbeta1 stimulated the merging of phosphorylated FAK with the ends of thickening stress fibers. Cells cultured on poly-L-lysine (pLL) to promote integrin-independent attachment spread less than those on control substrate and failed to demonstrate focal adhesion (FA) engagement with F-actin. FAK Y397 phosphorylation and ERK activity were also decreased under these conditions. In cells with decreased FAK Y397 phosphorylation from either plating on pLL or overexpressing a FAK Y397F point mutant, serine phosphorylation of the Smad linker region, but not of the C-terminus, was reduced. Y397F and Y925F FAK point mutants inhibited TGFbeta-induced Elk-Gal activity, but only the Y397F mutant inhibited TGFbeta-stimulated collagen-promoter activity. The inhibition by the Y397F mutant or by culture on pLL was prevented by co-transfection of constitutively active ERK MAP kinase kinase (MEK), suggesting that FAK Y397 phosphorylation promotes collagen expression via ERK MAP kinase activity. Finally, Y397 FAK phosphorylation, and both C-terminal and linker-region Smad3 phosphorylation were detected in murine TGFbeta-dependent kidney fibrosis. Together, these data demonstrate adhesion-dependent FAK phosphorylation promoting TGFbeta-induced responses to regulate collagen production. PMID:18032789

  5. Flotillin-1 is essential for PKC-triggered endocytosis and membrane microdomain localization of DAT

    PubMed Central

    Cremona, M. Laura; Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Pau, Kelvin; Bowton, Erica; Speed, Nicole; Lute, Brandon J.; Anderson, Monique; Sen, Namita; Robertson, Sabrina D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Rothman, James E.; Galli, Aurelio; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Yamamoto, Ai

    2011-01-01

    Plasmalemmal neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) regulate the level of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA) and glutamate, following their release at brain synapses. Stimuli including protein kinase C (PKC) activation can lead to the internalization of some NTTs and a reduction in neurotransmitter clearance capacity. We find that the protein Flotillin-1/Reggie-2 (Flot1) is required for PKC-regulated internalization of members of two different NTT families, the DA transporter (DAT) and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, and we have identified a conserved serine residue in Flot1 that is essential for transporter internalization. Further analysis revealed that Flot1 is also required to localize DAT within plasma membrane microdomains in stable cell lines, and is essential for amphetamine-induced reverse transport of DA in neurons but not for DA uptake. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a critical role of Flot1-enriched membrane microdomains in PKC-triggered DAT endocytosis and the actions of amphetamine. PMID:21399631

  6. Oxidative Stress–Induced JNK1/2 Activation Triggers Proapoptotic Signaling and Apoptosis That Leads to Diabetic Embryopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezheng; Weng, Hongbo; Xu, Cheng; Reece, E. Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic embryopathy. The proapoptotic c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 activation is associated with diabetic embryopathy. We sought to determine whether 1) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for the activation of JNK1/2 signaling, 2) JNK1 contributes to the teratogenicity of hyperglycemia, and 3) both JNK1 and JNK2 activation cause activation of downstream transcription factors, caspase activation, and apoptosis, resulting in neural tube defects (NTDs). Wild-type (WT) embryos from nondiabetic WT dams and WT, superoxide dismutase (SOD)1–overexpressing, jnk1+/−, jnk1−/−, and jnk2−/− embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia were used to assess JNK1/2 activation, NTDs, activation of transcription factors downstream of JNK1/2, caspase cascade, and apoptosis. SOD1 overexpression abolished diabetes-induced activation of JNK1/2 and their downstream effectors: phosphorylation of c-Jun, activating transcription factor 2, and E twenty-six–like transcription factor 1 and dephosphorylation of forkhead box class O3a. jnk1−/− embryos had significantly lower incidences of NTDs than those of WT or jnk1+/− embryos. Either jnk1 or jnk2 gene deletion blocked diabetes-induced activation of JNK1/2 signaling, caspases 3 and 8, and apoptosis in Sox1+ neural progenitors of the developing neural tube. Our results show that JNK1 and JNK2 are equally involved in diabetic embryopathy and that the oxidative stress–JNK1/2–caspase pathway mediates the proapoptotic signals and the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes. PMID:22688338

  7. Increased atypical PKC expression and activity in the phrenic motor nucleus following cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, C.H.; Windelborn, J.A.; Tubon, T.C.; Yin, J.C.P.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms are expressed in phrenic motor neurons, a group of motor neurons critical for breathing. Following C2 cervical hemisection (C2HS), spontaneous plasticity occurs in crossed-spinal synaptic pathways to phrenic motor neurons, at least partially restoring inspiratory phrenic activity below the injury. Since aPKCs are necessary for synaptic plasticity in other systems, we tested the hypothesis that C2HS increases aPKC expression and activity in spinal regions associated with the phrenic motor nucleus. C2 laminectomy (sham) or C2HS was performed on adult, male Lewis rats. Ventral spinal segments C3–5 were harvested 1, 3 or 28 days post-surgery, and prepared for aPKC enzyme activity assays and immunoblots. Ventral cervical aPKC activity was elevated 1 and 28, but not 3, days post-C2HS (1 day: 63% vs sham ipsilateral to injury; p<0.05; 28 day: 426% vs sham; p<0.05; no difference in ipsilateral vs contralateral response). Total PKCζ/ι protein expression was unchanged by C2HS, but total and phosphorylated PKMζ (constitutively active PKCζ isoform) increased ipsilateral to injury 28 days post-C2HS (p<0.05). Ipsilateral aPKC activity and expression were strongly correlated (r2=0.675, p<0.001). In a distinct group of rats, immunohistochemistry confirmed that aPKCs are expressed in neurons 28 days post-C2HS, including large, presumptive phrenic motor neurons; aPKCs were not detected in adjacent microglia (OX-42 positive cells) or astrocytes (GFAP positive cells). Changes in aPKC expression in the phrenic motor nucleus following C2HS suggests that aPKCs may contribute to functional recovery following cervical spinal injury. PMID:22329943

  8. The Dpp/TGFβ-Dependent Corepressor Schnurri Protects Epithelial Cells from JNK-Induced Apoptosis in Drosophila Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Beira, Jorge V.; Springhorn, Alexander; Gunther, Stefan; Hufnagel, Lars; Pyrowolakis, Giorgos; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Summary Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) often mediates apoptosis in response to cellular stress. However, during normal development, JNK signaling controls a variety of live cell behaviors, such as during dorsal closure in Drosophila embryos. During this process, the latent proapoptotic activity of JNK becomes apparent following Dpp signaling suppression, which leads to JNK-dependent transcriptional activation of the proapoptotic gene reaper. Dpp signaling also protects cells from JNK-dependent apoptosis caused by epithelial disruption. We find that repression of reaper transcription by Dpp is mediated by Schnurri. Moreover, reporter gene analysis shows that a transcriptional regulatory module comprising AP-1 and Schnurri binding sites located upstream of reaper integrate the activities of JNK and Dpp. This arrangement allows JNK to control a migratory behavior without triggering apoptosis. Dpp plays a dual role during dorsal closure. It cooperates with JNK in stimulating cell migration and also prevents JNK from inducing apoptosis. PMID:25307481

  9. Osmotic shrinkage elicits FAK- and Src phosphorylation and Src-dependent NKCC1 activation in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Müller, Helene Steenkær Holm; Jørgensen, Bente; Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2015-01-15

    The mechanisms linking cell volume sensing to volume regulation in mammalian cells remain incompletely understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and Janus kinase-2 (Jak2) occurs after osmotic shrinkage of NIH3T3 fibroblasts and contributes to volume regulation by activation of NKCC1. FAK phosphorylation at Tyr397, Tyr576/577, and Tyr861 was increased rapidly after exposure to hypertonic (575 mOsm) saline, peaking after 10 (Tyr397, Tyr576/577) and 10-30 min (Tyr861). Shrinkage-induced Src family kinase autophosphorylation (pTyr416-Src) was induced after 2-10 min, and immunoprecipitation indicated that this reflected phosphorylation of Src itself, rather than Fyn and Yes. Phosphorylated Src and FAK partly colocalized with vinculin, a focal adhesion marker, after hypertonic shrinkage. The Src inhibitor pyrazolopyrimidine-2 (PP2, 10 μM) essentially abolished shrinkage-induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr576/577 and Tyr861, yet not at Tyr397, and inhibited shrinkage-induced NKCC1 activity by ∼50%. The FAK inhibitor PF-573,228 augmented shrinkage-induced Src phosphorylation, and inhibited shrinkage-induced NKCC1 activity by ∼15%. The apparent role of Src in NKCC1 activation did not reflect phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase (MLC), which was unaffected by shrinkage and by PP2, but may involve Jak2, a known target of Src, which was rapidly activated by osmotic shrinkage and inhibited by PP2. Collectively, our findings suggest a major role for Src and possibly the Jak2 axis in shrinkage-activation of NKCC1 in NIH3T3 cells, whereas no evidence was found for major roles for FAK and MLC in this process. PMID:25377086

  10. Development of JNK2-Selective Peptide Inhibitors that Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kaoud, Tamer S.; Mitra, Shreya; Lee, Sunbae; Taliaferro, Juliana; Cantrell, Michael; Linse, Klaus D.; Van Den Berg, Carla L.; Dalby, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their lack of selectivity towards c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) isoforms, peptides derived from the JIP (JNK Interacting Protein) scaffolds linked to the cell-penetrating peptide TAT are widely used to investigate JNK-mediated signaling events. To engineer an isoform-selective peptide inhibitor, several JIP-based peptide sequences were designed and tested. A JIP sequence connected through a flexible linker to either the N-terminus of an inverted TAT sequence (JIP10-Δ-TATi), or to a poly-arginine sequence (JIP10-Δ-R9) enabled the potent inhibition of JNK2 (IC50~90 nM) and exhibited 10-fold selectivity for JNK2 over JNK1 and JNK3. Examination of both peptides in HEK293 cells revealed a potent ability to inhibit the induction of both JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation in cells treated with anisomycin. Notably, Western blot analysis indicates that only a fraction of total JNK must be activated to elicit robust c-Jun phosphorylation. To examine the potential of each peptide to selectively modulate JNK2 signaling in vivo, their ability to inhibit the migration of Polyoma Middle-T Antigen Mammary Tumor (PyVMT) cells was assessed. PyVMTjnk2-/- cells exhibit a lower migration potential compared to PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells, and this migration potential is restored through the over-expression of GFP-JNK2α. Both JIP10-Δ-TATi and JIP10-Δ-R9 inhibit the migration of PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells and PyVMTjnk2-/- cells expressing GFP-JNK2α. However, neither peptide inhibits the migration of PyVMTjnk2-/- cells. A control form of JIP10-Δ-TATi containing a single leucine to arginine mutation lacks ability to inhibit JNK2 in vitro cell-free and cell-based assays and does not inhibit the migration of PyVMTjnk2+/+ cells. Together, these data suggest that JIP10-Δ-TATi and JIP10-Δ-R9 inhibit the migration of PyVMT cells through the selective inhibition of JNK2. Finally, the mechanism of inhibition of a D-retro-inverso JIP peptide, previously reported to inhibit JNK, was examined

  11. Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis via Sp-1, FAK Inhibition, and E-Cadherin Upregulation in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Sureshbabul, Munisamy; Chen, Huei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Lee, Jen-Yi; Hong, Qi-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem that results due to changes of diet and various environmental stress factors in the world. Curcumin is a traditional medicine used for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. However, antimetastasis mechanism of curcumin on CRC has not yet been completely investigated. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. We found that curcumin suppresses Sp-1 transcriptional activity and Sp-1 regulated genes including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in CRC cells. Curcumin inhibits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and enhances the expressions of several extracellular matrix components which play a critical role in invasion and metastasis. Curcumin reduces CD24 expression in a dose-dependent manner in CRC cells. Moreover, E-cadherin expression is upregulated by curcumin and serves as an inhibitor of EMT. These results suggest that curcumin executes its antimetastasis function through downregulation of Sp-1, FAK, and CD24 and by promoting E-cadherin expression in CRC cells. PMID:23970932

  12. Paxillin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Regulate Cardiac Contractility in the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Sofia; Bühler, Anja; Bührdel, John B.; Rudeck, Steven; Dahme, Tillman; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    An orchestrated interplay of adaptor and signaling proteins at mechano-sensitive sites is essential to maintain cardiac contractility and when defective leads to heart failure. We recently showed that Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK), ß-Parvin and PINCH form the IPP-complex to grant tuned Protein Kinase B (PKB) signaling in the heart. Loss of one of the IPP-complex components results in destabilization of the whole complex, defective PKB signaling and finally heart failure. Two components of IPP, ILK and ß-Parvin directly bind to Paxillin; however, the impact of this direct interaction on the maintenance of heart function is not known yet. Here, we show that targeted gene inactivation of Paxillin results in progressive decrease of cardiac contractility and heart failure in zebrafish without affecting IPP-complex stability and PKB phosphorylation. However, we found that Paxillin deficiency leads to the destabilization of its known binding partner Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and vice versa resulting in degradation of Vinculin and thereby heart failure. Our findings highlight an essential role of Paxillin and FAK in controlling cardiac contractility via the recruitment of Vinculin to mechano-sensitive sites in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26954676

  13. SRPX2 promotes cell migration and invasion via FAK dependent pathway in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Bi, Minghong; Han, Xiao; Han, Zhengquan; Wang, Hongya; Ou, Yimei

    2015-01-01

    Sushi repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2, abbreviated as SRPX2, is a candidate downstream target protein for E2A-HLF and involved in disorders of language cortex and cognition. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated SRPX2 exhibits crucial roles in gastric cancer, however, underlying clinical significance and biological function of SRPX2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains unclear. Data from Oncomine database showed that higher SRPX2 expression is more commonly observed in PDAC compared with normal pancreatic duct, similar results were also found in 12 matched PDAC tissue samples, 7 PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 PDAC specimens as demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Besides, higher SRPX2 expression was closely correlated with advanced TNM stage. Silencing of endogenous SRPX2 expression reduced abilities of cell migration and invasion of PDAC cells. Further studies revealed that SRPX2 expression in PDAC tissues significantly correlated with the phosphorylation levels of FAK, indicating that FAK dependent pathway may be account for the effect of SRPX2 on cell migration and invasion in PDAC. Collectively, this study reveals that frequently elevated SRPX2 contributes to cell migration and invasion in PDAC and SRPX2-related pathways might be a potential therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:26191169

  14. A synthetic isoflavone, DCMF, promotes human keratinocyte migration by activating Src/FAK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sophors, Phorl; Kim, Young Mee; Seo, Ga Young; Huh, Jung-Sik; Lim, Yoongho; Koh, Dong Soo; Cho, Moonjae

    2016-04-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary compounds with various pharmacological properties. We previously showed that one flavonoid, trimethoxyisoflavone (TMF), could promote wound healing by inducing keratinocyte migration. Here, we screened TMF derivatives for enhanced activity and identified one compound, 2',6 Dichloro-7-methoxyisoflavone (DCMF), as most effective at promoting migration in a scratch wound assay. Using the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, we found DCMF treatment induced phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, and increased keratinocyte migration. DCMF-induced Src kinase could promote activation of ERK, AKT, and p38 signaling pathways, and DCMF-induced secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas Src inhibition abolished DCMF-induced EMT. Using an in vivo excisional wound model, we observed improved wound closure and re-epithelialization in DCMF-treated mice, as compared to controls. Collectively, our data demonstrate that DCMF induces cell migration and promotes wound healing through activation of Src/FAK, ERK, AKT, and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:26923073

  15. Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis via Sp-1, FAK Inhibition, and E-Cadherin Upregulation in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Sureshbabul, Munisamy; Chen, Huei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Lee, Jen-Yi; Hong, Qi-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Chien; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem that results due to changes of diet and various environmental stress factors in the world. Curcumin is a traditional medicine used for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. However, antimetastasis mechanism of curcumin on CRC has not yet been completely investigated. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. We found that curcumin suppresses Sp-1 transcriptional activity and Sp-1 regulated genes including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in CRC cells. Curcumin inhibits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and enhances the expressions of several extracellular matrix components which play a critical role in invasion and metastasis. Curcumin reduces CD24 expression in a dose-dependent manner in CRC cells. Moreover, E-cadherin expression is upregulated by curcumin and serves as an inhibitor of EMT. These results suggest that curcumin executes its antimetastasis function through downregulation of Sp-1, FAK, and CD24 and by promoting E-cadherin expression in CRC cells. PMID:23970932

  16. Natural Product Vibsanin A Induces Differentiation of Myeloid Leukemia Cells through PKC Activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, He; Wang, Li-Mei; Shen, Xing; Jing, Yu; Wang, Lin; Sun, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Cui, Yu; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Wen-Bing; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Dong, Bo; Feng, Jian-Nan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Luo, Qing-Liang; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based cell differentiation therapy has been successful in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, other subtypes of AML display resistance to ATRA-based treatment. In this study, we screened natural, plant-derived vibsane-type diterpenoids for their ability to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells, discovering that vibsanin A potently induced differentiation of AML cell lines and primary blasts. The differentiation-inducing activity of vibsanin A was mediated through direct interaction with and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Consistent with these findings, pharmacological blockade of PKC activity suppressed vibsanin A-induced differentiation. Mechanistically, vibsanin A-mediated activation of PKC led to induction of the ERK pathway and decreased c-Myc expression. In mouse xenograft models of AML, vibsanin A administration prolonged host survival and inhibited PKC-mediated inflammatory responses correlated with promotion of skin tumors in mice. Collectively, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for vibsanin A as a myeloid differentiation-inducing compound, with potential application as an antileukemic agent. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2698-709. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26984756

  17. Kibra and aPKC regulate starvation-induced autophagy in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ahrum; Neufeld, Thomas P; Choe, Joonho

    Autophagy is a bulk degradation system that functions in response to cellular stresses such as metabolic stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and developmental processes. During autophagy, cytoplasmic components are captured in double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. The autophagosome fuses with the lysosome, producing a vacuole known as an autolysosome. The cellular components are degraded by lysosomal proteases and recycled. Autophagy is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and the process is evolutionarily conserved. Kibra is an upstream regulator of the hippo signaling pathway, which controls organ size by affecting cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Kibra is mainly localized in the apical membrane domain of epithelial cells and acts as a scaffold protein. We found that Kibra is required for autophagy to function properly. The absence of Kibra caused defects in the formation of autophagic vesicles and autophagic degradation. We also found that the well-known cell polarity protein aPKC interacts with Kibra, and its activity affects autophagy upstream of Kibra. Constitutively active aPKC decreased autophagic vesicle formation and autophagic degradation. We confirmed the interaction between aPKC and Kibra in S2 cells and Drosophila larva. Taken together, our data suggest that Kibra and aPKC are essential for regulating starvation-induced autophagy. PMID:26551466

  18. Ceramide-mediated depression in cardiomyocyte contractility through PKC activation and modulation of myofilament protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jillian N.; Chowdhury, Shamim A.K.; Warren, Chad M.; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Wieczorek, David F.; Solaro, R. John; Wolska, Beata M.

    2015-01-01

    Although ceramide accumulation in the heart is considered a major factor in promoting apoptosis and cardiac disorders, including heart failure, lipotoxicity and ischemia-reperfusion injury, little is known about ceramide’s role in mediating changes in contractility. In the present study, we measured the functional consequences of acute exposure of isolated field stimulated adult rat cardiomyocytes to C6-ceramide. Exogenous ceramide treatment depressed the peak amplitude and the maximal velocity of shortening without altering intracellular calcium levels or kinetics. The inactive ceramide analog C6-dihydroceramide had no effect on myocyte shortening or [Ca2+]i transients. Experiments testing a potential role for C6-ceramide-mediated effects on activation of protein kinase C (PKC) demonstrated evidence for signaling through the calcium-independent isoform, PKCε. We employed 2 dimensional electrophoresis and anti-phospho-peptide antibodies to test whether treatment of the cardiomyocytes with C6-ceramide altered myocyte shortening via PKC dependent phosphorylation of myofilament proteins. Compared to controls, myocytes treated with ceramide exhibited increased phosphorylation of myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C), specifically at Ser273 and Ser302, and troponin I (cTnI) at sites apart from Ser23/24, which could be attenuated with PKC inhibition. We conclude that the altered myofilament response to calcium resulting from multiple sites of PKC-dependent phosphorylation contributes to contractile dysfunction that is associated with cardiac diseases in which elevations in ceramides are present. PMID:25280528

  19. Inhibition of ATP release from Erythrocytes: A role for EPACs and PKC

    PubMed Central

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Sridharan, Meera; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Sprague, Randy S.; Ellsworth, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Here we demonstrate that, in human erythrocytes, increases in cAMP that are not localized to a specific receptor-mediated signaling pathway for ATP release can activate effector proteins resulting in inhibition of ATP release. Specifically we sought to establish that exchange proteins activated by cAMP (EPACs) inhibit ATP release via activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Methods ATP release stimulated by iloprost (ILO), or isoproterenol (ISO), was determined in the absence and presence of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors and/or the EPAC activator, 8CPT2OMecAMP (8CPT). To determine whether EPACs inhibit ATP release via activation of PKC, erythrocytes were incubated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) prior to either forskolin or ILO in the absence and presence of a PKC inhibitor, calphostin C (CALC). Results Selective inhibition of PDEs in one pathway inhibited ATP release in response to activation of the other cAMP-dependent pathway. 8CPT and PMA inhibited both ILO- and ISO-induced ATP release. Inhibition of ATP release with 8CPT was rescued by CALC. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that cAMP not localized to a specific signaling pathway can activate EPACs which inhibit ATP release via activation of PKC and suggest a novel role for EPACs in erythrocytes. PMID:21166931

  20. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Michael W. . E-mail: michael.greene@bassett.org; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-10-27

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKC{delta} on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKC{delta} catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1.

  1. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X; Zamponi, Gerald W; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  2. Tyrosinase kinetics in epidermal melanocytes: analysis of DAG-PKC-dependent signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2001-05-01

    Tyrosinase is the key enzyme of melanogenesis with unusual enzyme kinetics. Protein kinase C plays an important role in regulating of tyrosinase activity. In the paper the mathematical model of PKC-DAG-dependent signal transduction pathway for UV-radiation is presented.

  3. Protein kinase C in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica: reassessing the tissue-specific regulation of PKC isozymes during freezing

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, survives whole-body freezing and thawing each winter. The extensive adaptations required at the biochemical level are facilitated by alterations to signaling pathways, including the insulin/Akt and AMPK pathways. Past studies investigating changing tissue-specific patterns of the second messenger IP3 in adapted frogs have suggested important roles for protein kinase C (PKC) in response to stress. In addition to their dependence on second messengers, phosphorylation of three PKC sites by upstream kinases (most notably PDK1) is needed for full PKC activation, according to widely-accepted models. The present study uses phospho-specific immunoblotting to investigate phosphorylation states of PKC—as they relate to distinct tissues, PKC isozymes, and phosphorylation sites—in control and frozen frogs. In contrast to past studies where second messengers of PKC increased during the freezing process, phosphorylation of PKC tended to generally decline in most tissues of frozen frogs. All PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting decreased in phosphorylation levels in hind leg skeletal muscle and hearts of frozen frogs. Most PKC isozymes and specific phosphorylation sites detected in livers and kidneys also declined; the only exceptions were the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641) antibody, which remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. Changes in brains of frozen frogs were unique; no decreases were observed in the phosphorylation levels of any of the PKC isozymes and/or specific phosphorylation sites detected by immunoblotting. Rather, increases were observed for the levels of isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected by the phospho-PKCα/βII (Thr638/641), phospho-PKCδ (Thr505), and phospho-PKCθ (Thr538) antibodies; all other isozymes/phosphorylation sites detected in brain remained unchanged from control to frozen frogs. The results of this study

  4. JNK deficiency enhances fatty acid utilization and diverts glucose from oxidation to glycogen storage in cultured myotubes.

    PubMed

    Vijayvargia, Ravi; Mann, Kara; Weiss, Harvey R; Pownall, Henry J; Ruan, Hong

    2010-09-01

    Although germ-line deletion of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) improves overall insulin sensitivity in mice, those studies could not reveal the underlying molecular mechanism and the tissue site(s) in which reduced JNK activity elicits the observed phenotype. Given its importance in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose utilization, we hypothesized that the insulin-sensitive phenotype associated with Jnk deletion originates from loss of JNK function in skeletal muscle. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing was used to identify the functions of JNK subtypes in regulating energy metabolism and metabolic responses to elevated concentrations of NEFA in C2C12 myotubes, a cellular model of skeletal muscle. We show for the first time that cellular JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency divert glucose from oxidation to glycogenesis due to increased glycogen synthase (GS) activity and induction of Pdk4. We further show that JNK2- and JNK1/JNK2-deficiency profoundly increase cellular NEFA oxidation, and their conversion to phospholipids and triglyceride. The increased NEFA utilization was coupled to increased expressions of selective NEFA handling genes including Cd36, Acsl4, and Chka, and enhanced palmitic acid (PA)-dependent suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc). In JNK-intact cells, PA inhibited insulin signaling and glycogenesis. Although silencing Jnk1 and/or Jnk2 prevented PA-induced inhibition of insulin signaling, it did not completely block decreased insulin-mediated glycogenesis, thus indicating JNK-independent pathways in the suppression of glycogenesis by PA. Muscle-specific inhibition of JNK2 (or total JNK) improves the capacity of NEFA utilization and glycogenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target for improving systemic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:20094041

  5. JNK Signaling in the Control of the Tumor-Initiating Capacity Associated with Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsushi; Okada, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling occurs frequently in a variety of human cancers, yet the exact role(s) of JNK deregulation in cancer cell biology remains to be fully elucidated. Our recent demonstration that the activity of JNK is required not only for self-renewal of glioma stem cells but also for their tumor initiation has, however, identified a new role for JNK in the control of the stemness and tumor-initiating capacity of cancer cells. Significantly, transient JNK inhibition was sufficient to cause sustained loss of the tumor-initiating capacity of glioma stem cells, suggesting that the phenotype of “lost tumor-initiating capacity” may be as stable as the differentiated state and that the tumor-initiating capacity might therefore be under the control of JNK through an epigenetic mechanism that also governs stemness and differentiation. Here, in this article, we review the role and mechanism of JNK in the control of this “stemness-associated tumor-initiating capacity” (STATIC), a new hypothetical concept we introduce in this review article. Since the idea of STATIC is essentially applicable to both cancer types that do and do not follow the cancer stem cell hypothesis, we also give consideration to the possible involvement of JNK-mediated control of STATIC in a wide range of human cancers in which JNK is aberrantly activated. Theoretically, successful targeting of STATIC through JNK could contribute to long-term control of cancer. Issues to be considered before clinical application of therapies targeting this JNK-STATIC axis are also discussed. PMID:24349636

  6. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} regulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of PKC{zeta}

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Glynis Fricke, Alex; Fender, Anne; McClelland, Lindy; Jacobs, Stacey

    2007-11-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid signaling intermediates released by keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in the skin. The main prostaglandin released following UVR is PGE{sub 2}, a ligand for 4 related G-protein-coupled receptors (EP{sub 1}, EP{sub 2}, EP{sub 3} and EP{sub 4}). Our previous work established that PGE{sub 2} stimulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors. The purpose of the present report is to define the signaling intermediates involved in EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in human melanocytes. We recently showed that activation of the atypical PKC{zeta} isoform stimulates melanocyte dendricity in response to treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine. We therefore examined the potential contribution of PKC{zeta} activation on EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in melanocytes. Stimulation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors by selective agonists activated PKC{zeta}, and inhibition of PKC{zeta} activation abrogated EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-receptor-mediated melanocyte dendricity. Because of the importance of Rho-GTP binding proteins in the regulation of melanocyte dendricity, we also examined the effect of EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptor activation on Rac and Rho activity. Neither Rac nor Rho was activated upon treatment with EP{sub 1,3}-receptor agonists. We show that melanocytes express only the EP{sub 3A1} isoform, but not the EP{sub 3B} receptor isoform, previously associated with Rho activation, consistent with a lack of Rho stimulation by EP{sub 3} agonists. Our data suggest that PKC{zeta} activation plays a predominant role in regulation of PGE{sub 2}-dependent melanocyte dendricity.

  7. TCR-induced sumoylation of the kinase PKC-θ controls T cell synapse organization and T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhi-Long; Gong, Bei-Ni; Xie, Ji-Ji; Zhong, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Long; Diao, Liang-Hui; Xu, Anlong; Han, Jiahuai; Altman, Amnon; Li, Yingqiu

    2015-11-01

    Sumoylation regulates many cellular processes, but its role in signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) remains unknown. We found that the kinase PKC-θ was sumoylated upon costimulation with antigen or via the TCR plus the coreceptor CD28, with Lys325 and Lys506 being the main sumoylation sites. We identified the SUMO E3 ligase PIASxβ as a ligase for PKC-θ. Analysis of primary mouse and human T cells revealed that sumoylation of PKC-θ was essential for T cell activation. Desumoylation did not affect the catalytic activity of PKC-θ but inhibited the association of CD28 with PKC-θ and filamin A and impaired the assembly of a mature immunological synapse and central co-accumulation of PKC-θ and CD28. Our findings demonstrate that sumoylation controls TCR-proximal signaling and that sumoylation of PKC-θ is essential for the formation of a mature immunological synapse and T cell activation. PMID:26390157

  8. aPKC Inhibition by Par3 CR3 Flanking Regions Controls Substrate Access and Underpins Apical-Junctional Polarization.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Erika V; Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina; Riou, Philippe; Knowles, Philip P; Barnouin, Karin; Purkiss, Andrew; Kostelecky, Brenda; Saiu, Peter; Linch, Mark; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Kjær, Svend; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Parker, Peter J; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2016-08-22

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component. It is recruited by Par3/Baz (Bazooka in Drosophila) into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction. Paradoxically, aPKC also phosphorylates Par3/Baz, provoking its relocalization to adherens junctions (AJs). We show that Par3 conserved region 3 (CR3) forms a tight inhibitory complex with a primed aPKC kinase domain, blocking substrate access. A CR3 motif flanking its PKC consensus site disrupts the aPKC kinase N lobe, separating P-loop/αB/αC contacts. A second CR3 motif provides a high-affinity anchor. Mutation of either motif switches CR3 to an efficient in vitro substrate by exposing its phospho-acceptor site. In vivo, mutation of either CR3 motif alters Par3/Baz localization from apical to AJs. Our results reveal how Par3/Baz CR3 can antagonize aPKC in stable apical Par complexes and suggests that modulation of CR3 inhibitory arms or opposing aPKC pockets would perturb the interaction, promoting Par3/Baz phosphorylation. PMID:27554858

  9. A cell-death-defying factor, anamorsin mediates cell growth through inactivation of PKC and p38MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yuri; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tanimura, Akira; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Anamorsin (AM) (also called CIAPIN-1) is a cell-death-defying factor. {yields} Biological mechanisms of AM functions have not been elucidated yet. {yields} PKC{theta} , PKC{delta} and p38MAPK were more phosphorylated in AM deficient MEF cells. {yields} AM may negatively regulates PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells. -- Abstract: Anamorsin (AM) plays crucial roles in hematopoiesis and embryogenesis. AM deficient (AM KO) mice die during late gestation; AM KO embryos are anemic and very small compared to wild type (WT) embryos. To determine which signaling pathways AM utilizes for these functions, we used murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells generated from E-14.5 AM KO or WT embryos. Proliferation of AM KO MEF cells was markedly retarded, and PKC{theta}, PKC{delta}, and p38MAPK were more highly phosphorylated in AM KO MEF cells. Expression of cyclinD1, the target molecule of p38MAPK, was down-regulated in AM KO MEF cells. p38MAPK inhibitor as well as PKC inhibitor restored expression of cyclinD1 and cell growth in AM KO MEF cells. These data suggest that PKC{theta}, PKC{delta}, and p38MAPK activation lead to cell cycle retardation in AM KO MEF cells, and that AM may negatively regulate novel PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells.

  10. Imatinib and Nilotinib increase glioblastoma cell invasion via Abl-independent stimulation of p130Cas and FAK signalling.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Antonina; Evans, Ian M; Li, Ningning; Sidlauskas, Kastytis; Paliashvili, Ketevan; Lockwood, Nicola; Barrett, Angela; Brandner, Sebastian; Zachary, Ian C; Frankel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Imatinib was the first targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor to be approved for clinical use, and remains first-line therapy for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+)-positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia. We show that treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumour cells with imatinib and the closely-related drug, nilotinib, strikingly increases tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the downstream adaptor protein paxillin (PXN), resulting in enhanced cell migration and invasion. Imatinib and nilotinib-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was dependent on expression of p130Cas and FAK activity and was independent of known imatinib targets including Abl, platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) and the collagen receptor DDR1. Imatinib and nilotinib treatment increased two dimensional cell migration and three dimensional radial spheroid invasion in collagen. In addition, silencing of p130Cas and inhibition of FAK activity both strongly reduced imatinib and nilotinib stimulated invasion. Importantly, imatinib and nilotinib increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, FAK, PXN and radial spheroid invasion in stem cell lines isolated from human glioma biopsies. These findings identify a novel mechanism of action in GBM cells for two well established front line therapies for cancer resulting in enhanced tumour cell motility. PMID:27293031

  11. Imatinib and Nilotinib increase glioblastoma cell invasion via Abl-independent stimulation of p130Cas and FAK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Frolov, Antonina; Evans, Ian M.; Li, Ningning; Sidlauskas, Kastytis; Paliashvili, Ketevan; Lockwood, Nicola; Barrett, Angela; Brandner, Sebastian; Zachary, Ian C.; Frankel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Imatinib was the first targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor to be approved for clinical use, and remains first-line therapy for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+)-positive chronic myelogenous leukaemia. We show that treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumour cells with imatinib and the closely-related drug, nilotinib, strikingly increases tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the downstream adaptor protein paxillin (PXN), resulting in enhanced cell migration and invasion. Imatinib and nilotinib-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was dependent on expression of p130Cas and FAK activity and was independent of known imatinib targets including Abl, platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) and the collagen receptor DDR1. Imatinib and nilotinib treatment increased two dimensional cell migration and three dimensional radial spheroid invasion in collagen. In addition, silencing of p130Cas and inhibition of FAK activity both strongly reduced imatinib and nilotinib stimulated invasion. Importantly, imatinib and nilotinib increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas, FAK, PXN and radial spheroid invasion in stem cell lines isolated from human glioma biopsies. These findings identify a novel mechanism of action in GBM cells for two well established front line therapies for cancer resulting in enhanced tumour cell motility. PMID:27293031

  12. FAK/PYK2 promotes the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and intestinal tumorigenesis by phosphorylating GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chenxi; Chen, Guangming; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Zhang, Dennis Han; Schlaepfer, David D; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an unequivocal role in colorectal cancer, but identification of effective Wnt inhibitors for use in cancer remains a tremendous challenge. New insights into the regulation of this pathway could reveal new therapeutic point of intervention, therefore are greatly needed. Here we report a novel FAK/PYK2/GSK3βY216/β-catenin regulation axis: FAK and PYK2, elevated in adenomas in APCmin/+ mice and in human colorectal cancer tissues, functioned redundantly to promote the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by phosphorylating GSK3βY216 to reinforce pathway output—β-catenin accumulation and intestinal tumorigenesis. We previously showed that Wnt-induced β-catenin accumulation requires Wnt-induced GSK3β/β-TrCP interaction; the current study revealed that phosphorylation of GSK3βY216 was a molecular determinant of GSK3β recruitment of β-TrCP. Pharmacological inhibition of FAK/PYK2 suppressed adenoma formation in APCmin/+ mice accompanied with reduced intestinal levels of phospho-GSK3βY216 and β-catenin, indicating that FAK/PYK2/GSK3βY216 axis is critical for the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in APC driven intestinal tumorigenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10072.001 PMID:26274564

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53-/- cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach. PMID:24452144

  14. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  15. DLK induces developmental neuronal degeneration via selective regulation of proapoptotic JNK activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Wang, Bei; Pozniak, Christine D; Chen, Mark; Watts, Ryan J; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2011-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential for neuronal degeneration in multiple contexts but also regulates neuronal homeostasis. It remains unclear how neurons are able to dissociate proapoptotic JNK signaling from physiological JNK activity. In this paper, we show that the mixed lineage kinase dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) selectively regulates the JNK-based stress response pathway to mediate axon degeneration and neuronal apoptosis without influencing other aspects of JNK signaling. This specificity is dependent on interaction of DLK with the scaffolding protein JIP3 to form a specialized JNK signaling complex. Local activation of DLK-based signaling in the axon results in phosphorylation of c-Jun and apoptosis after redistribution of JNK to the cell body. In contrast, regulation of axon degeneration by DLK is c-Jun independent and mediated by distinct JNK substrates. DLK-null mice displayed reduced apoptosis in multiple neuronal populations during development, demonstrating that prodegenerative DLK signaling is required in vivo. PMID:21893599

  16. Sorafenib suppresses JNK-dependent apoptosis through inhibition of ZAK.

    PubMed

    Vin, Harina; Ching, Grace; Ojeda, Sandra S; Adelmann, Charles H; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Dwyer, David W; Ma, Haiching; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Curry, Jonathan L; Ciurea, Ana M; Duvic, Madeleine; Busaidy, Naifa L; Tannir, Nizar M; Tsai, Kenneth Y

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib is U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration-approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and has been combined with numerous other targeted therapies and chemotherapies in the treatment of many cancers. Unfortunately, as with other RAF inhibitors, patients treated with sorafenib have a 5% to 10% rate of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC)/keratoacanthomas. Paradoxical activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in BRAF wild-type cells has been implicated in RAF inhibitor-induced cSCC. Here, we report that sorafenib suppresses UV-induced apoptosis specifically by inhibiting c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK) activation through the off-target inhibition of leucine zipper and sterile alpha motif-containing kinase (ZAK). Our results implicate suppression of JNK signaling, independent of the ERK pathway, as an additional mechanism of adverse effects of sorafenib. This has broad implications for combination therapies using sorafenib with other modalities that induce apoptosis. PMID:24170769

  17. TBP Is Differentially Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 (JNK1) and JNK2 through Elk-1, Controlling c-Jun Expression and Cell Proliferation▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping; Fromm, Jody; Johnson, Deborah L.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports the idea that the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) possess overlapping but distinct functions. The potential roles of the ubiquitously expressed JNK1 and JNK2 in regulating expression of the central transcription initiation factor, TATA-binding protein (TBP), were examined. Relative to wild-type fibroblasts, TBP was decreased in Jnk1−/− cells and increased in Jnk2−/− cells. Similarly, reduction of JNK1 in human hepatoma cells decreased TBP expression, whereas reduction of JNK2 enhanced it. JNK-mediated regulation of TBP expression occurs at the transcriptional level through their ability to target Elk-1, which directly regulates the TBP promoter in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. JNK1 increases, whereas JNK2 decreases, the phosphorylation state of Elk-1, which differentially affects Elk-1 occupancy at a defined site within the TBP promoter. These JNK-mediated alterations in TBP expression, alone, serve to regulate c-Jun expression and fibroblast proliferation rates. These studies uncovered several new molecular events that distinguish the functions of JNK1 and JNK2 that are critical for their regulation of cellular proliferation. PMID:17074809

  18. FAK activation is required for IGF1R-mediated regulation of EMT, migration, and invasion in mesenchymal triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taliaferro-Smith, LaTonia; Oberlick, Elaine; Liu, Tongrui; McGlothen, Tanisha; Alcaide, Tiffanie; Tobin, Rachel; Donnelly, Siobhan; Commander, Rachel; Kline, Erik; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Havel, Lauren; Marcus, Adam; Nahta, Rita; O'Regan, Ruth

    2015-03-10

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly metastatic disease that currently lacks effective prevention and treatment strategies. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathways function in numerous developmental processes, and alterations in both are linked with a number of common pathological diseases. Overexpression of IGF1R and FAK are closely associated with metastatic breast tumors. The present study investigated the interrelationship between IGF1R and FAK signaling in regulating the malignant properties of TNBC cells. Using small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated IGF1R silencing methods, we showed that IGF1R is essential for sustaining mesenchymal morphologies of TNBC cells and modulates the expression of EMT-related markers. We further showed that IGF1R overexpression promotes migratory and invasive behaviors of TNBC cell lines. Most importantly, IGF1R-driven migration and invasion is predominantly mediated by FAK activation and can be suppressed using pharmacological inhibitors of FAK. Our findings in TNBC cells demonstrate a novel role of the IGF1R/FAK signaling pathway in regulating critical processes involved in the metastatic cascade. These results may improve the current understanding of the basic molecular mechanisms of TNBC metastasis and provide a strong rationale for co-targeting of IGF1R and FAK as therapy for mesenchymal TNBCs. PMID:25749031

  19. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana; Mehta, Dolly

    2013-08-15

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK-/- ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  20. Src and FAK mediate cell-matrix adhesion-dependent activation of Met during transformation of breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hui, Angela Y; Meens, Jalna A; Schick, Colleen; Organ, Shawna L; Qiao, Hui; Tremblay, Eric A; Schaeffer, Erik; Uniyal, Shashi; Chan, Bosco M C; Elliott, Bruce E

    2009-08-15

    Cell-matrix adhesion has been shown to promote activation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, Met, in a ligand-independent manner. This process has been linked to transformation and tumorigenesis in a variety of cancer types. In the present report, we describe a key role of integrin signaling via the Src/FAK axis in the activation of Met in breast epithelial and carcinoma cells. Expression of an activated Src mutant in non-neoplastic breast epithelial cells or in carcinoma cells was found to increase phosphorylation of Met at regulatory tyrosines in the auto-activation loop domain, correlating with increased cell spreading and filopodia extensions. Furthermore, phosphorylated Met is complexed with beta1 integrins and is co-localized with vinculin and FAK at focal adhesions in epithelial cells expressing activated Src. Conversely, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Src abrogates constitutive Met phosphorylation in carcinoma cells or epithelial cells expressing activated Src, and inhibits filopodia formation. Interestingly, Src-dependent phosphorylation of Met requires cell-matrix adhesion, as well as actin stress fiber assembly. Phosphorylation of FAK by Src is also required for Src-induced Met phosphorylation, emphasizing the importance of the Src/FAK signaling pathway. However, stimulation of Met phosphorylation by addition of exogenous HGF in epithelial cells is refractory to inhibition of Src family kinases, indicating that HGF-dependent and Src/integrin-dependent Met activation occur via distinct mechanisms. Together these findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the Src/FAK axis links signals from the integrin adhesion complex to promote Met activation in breast epithelial cells. PMID:19533669

  1. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li; Jiaojie, Zhou; Xiaoyi, Yan; Xiujun, Cai

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  2. Potential roles of the RGMa-FAK-Ras pathway in hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in the pentylenetetrazole kindling model

    PubMed Central

    SONG, MING-YU; TIAN, FA-FA; WANG, YU-ZHONG; HUANG, XIA; GUO, JIA-LING; DING, DONG-XUE

    2015-01-01

    Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) is a unique feature of chronic epilepsy. However, the molecular signals underlying MFS are still unclear. The repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) appears to contribute to axon growth and axonal guidance, and may exert its biological effects by dephosphorylating focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr397, then regulating the activation of Ras. The objective of this study was to explore the expression patterns of RGMa, FAK (Tyr397) and Ras in epileptogenesis, and their correlation with MFS. The epileptic models were established by intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injection of Sprague-Dawley rats. At 3 days and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the first PTZ injection, Timm staining was scored at different time points in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. The protein levels of RGMa, FAK (Tyr397) and Ras were analyzed at different time points in the CA3 region of the hippocampus using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Compared with the control (saline-injected) group, the expression of RGMa in the CA3 area was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) from 3 days and still maintained the low expression at 6 weeks in the PTZ group. The expression of FAK (Tyr397) and Ras was upregulated (P<0.05) in the PTZ groups. The Timm score in the CA3 region was significantly higher than that in the control group at different time points and reached a peak at 4 weeks. In the CA3 region, no obvious distinction was observed at the different time points in the control group. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results to indicate that the RGMa-FAK-Ras pathway may be involved in MFS and the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25420768

  3. MUC5AC interactions with integrin β4 enhances the migration of lung cancer cells through FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, I; Rachagani, S; Hauke, R; Krishn, S R; Paknikar, S; Seshacharyulu, P; Karmakar, S; Nimmakayala, R K; Kaushik, G; Johansson, S L; Carey, G B; Ponnusamy, M P; Kaur, S; Batra, S K; Ganti, A K

    2016-08-01

    MUC5AC is a secretory mucin aberrantly expressed in various cancers. In lung cancer, MUC5AC is overexpressed in both primary and metastatic lesions; however, its functional role is not well understood. The present study was aimed at evaluating mechanistic role of MUC5AC on metastasis of lung cancer cells. Clinically, the overexpression of MUC5AC was observed in lung cancer patient tissues and was associated with poor survival. In addition, the overexpression of Muc5ac was also observed in genetically engineered mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues (Kras(G12D); Trp53(R172H/+); AdCre) in comparison with normal lung tissues. Our functional studies showed that MUC5AC knockdown resulted in significantly decreased migration in two lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H1437) as compared with scramble cells. Expression of integrins (α5, β1, β3, β4 and β5) was decreased in MUC5AC knockdown cells. As both integrins and MUC5AC have a von Willebrand factor domain, we assessed for possible interaction of MUC5AC and integrins in lung cancer cells. MUC5AC strongly interacted only with integrin β4. The co-localization of MUC5AC and integrin β4 was observed both in A549 lung cancer cells as well as genetically engineered mouse adenocarcinoma tissues. Activated integrins recruit focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that mediates metastatic downstream signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of FAK (Y397) was decreased in MUC5AC knockdown cells. MUC5AC/integrin β4/FAK-mediated lung cancer cell migration was confirmed through experiments utilizing a phosphorylation (Y397)-specific FAK inhibitor. In conclusion, overexpression of MUC5AC is a poor prognostic marker in lung cancer. MUC5AC interacts with integrin β4 that mediates phosphorylation of FAK at Y397 leading to lung cancer cell migration. PMID:26751774

  4. JNK1/2 expression and modulation of STAT3 signaling in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    GKOUVERIS, IOANNIS; NIKITAKIS, NIKOLAOS; KARANIKOU, MARIA; RASSIDAKIS, GEORGE; SKLAVOUNOU, ALEXANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that link extracellular stimuli with intracellular responses and participate in numerous cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and apoptosis. Persistent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is accompanied by increases in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role and significance of the activation of MAPKs, particularly of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), on STAT3 signaling in OSCC have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examines the effects of JNK1/2 modulation on STAT3 signaling and cellular activities in OSCC cells. The expression levels of STAT3 [total, tyrosine phosphorylated (p-Tyr) and serine phosphorylated (p-Ser)], JNK, c-Jun and cyclin D1 were assessed in the OSCC cell lines SCC25 and SCC9. Inhibition of JNK1/2 was achieved by pharmacological agents (SP600125) and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing, while JNK1/2 was induced by active MAPK kinase 7. Cell proliferation and viability rates were also evaluated. Inhibition of JNK1/2 with either SP600125 treatment or specific siRNA silencing resulted in decreased levels of p-Ser STAT3 and increased levels of p-Tyr STAT3 and cyclin D1 in both cell lines. Furthermore, JNK1/2 inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell growth and viability in both cell lines. Opposite results were observed with JNK1/2 induction in both cell lines. The present results are supportive of a potential tumor suppressive role of JNK1/2 signaling in OSCC, which may be mediated through negative crosstalk with the oncogenic STAT3 signaling pathway. The possible therapeutic implications of JNK1/2 inhibition for patients with OSCC require to be investigated. PMID:27347203

  5. A conserved motif in JNK/p38-specific MAPK phosphatases as a determinant for JNK1 recognition and inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chen-Song; Lu, Chang; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), important in a large array of signalling pathways, are tightly controlled by a cascade of protein kinases and by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). MAPK signalling efficiency and specificity is modulated by protein–protein interactions between individual MAPKs and the docking motifs in cognate binding partners. Two types of docking interactions have been identified: D-motif-mediated interaction and FXF-docking interaction. Here we report the crystal structure of JNK1 bound to the catalytic domain of MKP7 at 2.4-Å resolution, providing high-resolution structural insight into the FXF-docking interaction. The 285FNFL288 segment in MKP7 directly binds to a hydrophobic site on JNK1 that is near the MAPK insertion and helix αG. Biochemical studies further reveal that this highly conserved structural motif is present in all members of the MKP family, and the interaction mode is universal and critical for the MKP-MAPK recognition and biological function. PMID:26988444

  6. A small molecule focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor, targeting Y397 site: 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3, 5, 7-triaza-1-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane; bromide effectively inhibits FAK autophosphorylation activity and decreases cancer cell viability, clonogenicity and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Figel, Sheila; Ho, Baotran T; Johnson, Christopher P; Yemma, Michael; Huang, Grace; Zheng, Min; Nyberg, Carl; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David A; Gelman, Irwin H; Cance, William G

    2012-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in most solid types of tumors and plays an important role in the survival signaling. Recently, we have developed a novel computer modeling combined with a functional assay approach to target the main autophosphorylation site of FAK (Y397). Using these approaches, we identified 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3, 5, 7-triaza-1-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane; bromide, called Y11, a small molecule inhibitor targeting Y397 site of FAK. Y11 significantly and specifically decreased FAK autophosphorylation, directly bound to the N-terminal domain of FAK. In addition, Y11 decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, inhibited viability and clonogenicity of colon SW620 and breast BT474 cancer cells and increased detachment and apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, Y11 significantly decreased tumor growth in the colon cancer cell mouse xenograft model. Finally, tumors from the Y11-treated mice demonstrated decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation and activation of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase-3. Thus, targeting the major autophosphorylation site of FAK with Y11 inhibitor is critical for development of cancer therapeutics and carcinogenesis field. PMID:22402131

  7. Corosolic Acid Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Migration by Targeting the VEGFR2/Src/FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chung-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ren; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lu, Shao-Chun; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of VEGFR2 activity has been proposed as an important strategy for the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we identified corosolic acid (CA), which exists in the root of Actinidia chinensis, as having a significant anti-cancer effect on HCC cells. We found that CA inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity by directly interacting with the ATP binding pocket. CA down-regulates the VEGFR2/Src/FAK/cdc42 axis, subsequently decreasing F-actin formation and migratory activity in vitro. In an in vivo model, CA exhibited an effective dose (5 mg/kg/day) on tumor growth. We further demonstrate that CA has a synergistic effect with sorafenib within a wide range of concentrations. In conclusion, this research elucidates the effects and molecular mechanism for CA on HCC cells and suggests that CA could be a therapeutic or adjuvant strategy for patients with aggressive HCC. PMID:25978354

  8. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Petersen, Frederic; MacAulay, Nanna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K+ current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells. By confocal microscopy combined with electrophysiology we demonstrate that PKC activation reduces Kv1.5 current, through a decrease in membrane expressed channels. AMPK activation was found to decrease the membrane expression in MDCK cells, but not in HL-1 cells and was furthermore shown to be dependent on co-expression of Nedd4–2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems. PMID:26043299

  9. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Petersen, Frederic; MacAulay, Nanna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells. By confocal microscopy combined with electrophysiology we demonstrate that PKC activation reduces Kv1.5 current, through a decrease in membrane expressed channels. AMPK activation was found to decrease the membrane expression in MDCK cells, but not in HL-1 cells and was furthermore shown to be dependent on co-expression of Nedd4-2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems. PMID:26043299

  10. A novel and selective inhibitor of PKC ζ potently inhibits human breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Shuye; Fan, Zhijuan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yaqiong; Yang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Cell motility and chemotaxis play pivotal roles in the process of tumor development and metastasis. Protein kinase C ζ (PKC ζ) mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated chemotactic signaling pathway through regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-PKC ζ therapeutics for breast cancer metastasis. In this study, a novel and high-efficient PKC ζ inhibitor named PKCZI195.17 was screened out through a substrate-specific strategy. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells while under PKCZI195.17 treatment. Wound-healing, chemotaxis, and Matrigel invasion assays were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. Adhesion, actin polymerization, and Western blotting were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on cells adhesion and actin polymerization, and explore the downsteam signaling mechanisms involved in PKC ζ inhibition. MDA-MB-231 xenograft was used to measure the in vivo anti-metastasis efficacy of PKCZI195.17. The compound PKCZI195.17 selectively inhibited PKC ζ kinase activity since it failed to inhibit PKC α, PKC β, PKC δ, PKC η, AKT2, as well as FGFR2 activity. PKCZI195.17 significantly impaired spontaneous migration, chemotaxis, and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells, while PKCZI195.17 did not obviously inhibited cells viability. PKCZI195.17 also inhibited cells adhesion and actin polymerization through attenuating the phosphorylations of integrin β1, LIMK, and cofilin, which might be the downstream effectors of PKC ζ-mediated chemotaxis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, PKCZI195.17 suppressed the breast cancer metastasis and increased the survival time of breast tumor-bearing mice. In summary, PKCZI195.17 was a PKC ζ-specific inhibitor which dampened cancer cell migration and metastasis and may serve as a novel

  11. Cooperative control of Drosophila immune responses by the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joseph R; Stöven, Svenja; Uvell, Hanna; Anderson, Kathryn V; Engström, Ylva; Mlodzik, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is a highly conserved pathway that controls both cytoskeletal remodeling and transcriptional regulation in response to a wide variety of signals. Despite the importance of JNK in the mammalian immune response, and various suggestions of its importance in Drosophila immunity, the actual contribution of JNK signaling in the Drosophila immune response has been unclear. Drosophila TAK1 has been implicated in the NF-κB/Relish-mediated activation of antimicrobial peptide genes. However, we demonstrate that Relish activation is intact in dTAK1 mutant animals, and that the immune response in these mutant animals was rescued by overexpression of a downstream JNKK. The expression of a JNK inhibitor and induction of JNK loss-of-function clones in immune responsive tissue revealed a general requirement for JNK signaling in the expression of antimicrobial peptides. Our data indicate that dTAK1 is not required for Relish activation, but instead is required in JNK signaling for antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PMID:16763552

  12. MAVS-MKK7-JNK2 Defines a Novel Apoptotic Signaling Pathway during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Senlin; Tang, Yijun; Wei, Bo; Yu, Huansha; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Viral infection induces innate immunity and apoptosis. Apoptosis is an effective means to sacrifice virus-infected host cells and therefore restrict the spread of pathogens. However, the underlying mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS/VISA/Cardif/IPS-1) is critical for SeV (Sendai virus)-induced apoptosis. MAVS specifically activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) but not other MAP kinases. Jnk2−/− cells, but not Jnk1−/− cells, are unable to initiate virus-induced apoptosis and SeV further fails to trigger apoptosis in MAPK kinase 7 (MKK7) knockout (Mkk7−/−) cells. Mechanistically, MAVS recruits MKK7 onto mitochondria via its 3D domain, which subsequently phosphorylates JNK2 and thus activates the apoptosis pathway. Consistently, Jnk2−/− mice, but not Jnk1−/− mice, display marked inflammatory injury in lung and liver after viral challenge. Collectively, we have identified a novel signaling pathway, involving MAVS-MKK7-JNK2, which mediates virus-induced apoptosis and highlights the indispensable role of mitochondrial outer membrane in host defenses. PMID:24651600

  13. JNK signaling mediates wing form polymorphism in brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinda; Xu, Yili; Yao, Yun; Wang, Bo; Lavine, Mark D; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2016-06-01

    Wing polyphenism is considered to be an adaptive trade-off between migration (long winged forms) and reproduction (short winged forms), determined by various environmental conditions. The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is crucial for the regulation of the activity of a number of transcription factors, and is activated under stress and environmental fluctuations where it functions in maintaining cell viability and proliferation. We used RNA interference and a pharmacological inhibitor of JNK to test the role of JNK signaling in regulating the wing dimorphism of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Silencing NlJNK increased the proportion of short winged female adults, reminiscent of the effect of silencing inhibitory components of the insulin-signaling pathway, such as NlAkt. However, silencing of the JNK-activated transcription factors NlJun and NlFos did not change the wing form ratio significantly, indicating that NlJNK may not act through NlJun and NlFos in mediating this process. In summary, JNK signaling may play a role in determining wing polymorphism in N. lugens females. PMID:27120575

  14. Drosophila DOCK family protein sponge regulates the JNK pathway during thorax development.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Kazushige; Ozasa, Fumito; Eguchi, Koichi; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Yoshida, Hideki; Hiai, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2014-01-01

    The dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family proteins that are conserved in a wide variety of species are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. The Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to the mammalian DOCK3. Specific knockdown of spg by pannir-GAL4 or apterous-GAL4 driver in wing discs induced split thorax phenotype in adults. Reduction of the Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), basket (bsk) gene dose enhanced the spg knockdown-induced phenotype. Conversely, overexpression of bsk suppressed the split thorax phenotype. Monitoring JNK activity in the wing imaginal discs by immunostaining with anti-phosphorylated JNK (anti-pJNK) antibody together with examination of lacZ expression in a puckered-lacZ enhancer trap line revealed the strong reduction of the JNK activity in the spg knockdown clones. This was further confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis of extracts from wing discs of spg knockdown fly with anti-pJNK antibody. Furthermore, the Duolink in situ Proximity Ligation Assay method detected interaction signals between Spg and Rac1 in the wing discs. Taken together, these results indicate Spg positively regulates JNK pathway that is required for thorax development and the regulation is mediated by interaction with Rac1. PMID:25311449

  15. An initial phase of JNK activation inhibits cell death early in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Brown, Max; Strudwick, Natalie; Suwara, Monika; Sutcliffe, Louise K; Mihai, Adina D; Ali, Ahmed A; Watson, Jamie N; Schröder, Martin

    2016-06-15

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In mammalian cells, UPR signals generated by several ER-membrane-resident proteins, including the bifunctional protein kinase endoribonuclease IRE1α, control cell survival and the decision to execute apoptosis. Processing of XBP1 mRNA by the RNase domain of IRE1α promotes survival of ER stress, whereas activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK family by IRE1α late in the ER stress response promotes apoptosis. Here, we show that activation of JNK in the ER stress response precedes activation of XBP1. This activation of JNK is dependent on IRE1α and TRAF2 and coincides with JNK-dependent induction of expression of several antiapoptotic genes, including cIap1 (also known as Birc2), cIap2 (also known as Birc3), Xiap and Birc6 ER-stressed Jnk1(-/-) Jnk2(-/-) (Mapk8(-/-) Mapk9(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display more pronounced mitochondrial permeability transition and increased caspase 3/7 activity compared to wild-type MEFs. Caspase 3/7 activity is also elevated in ER-stressed cIap1(-/-) cIap2(-/-) and Xiap(-/-) MEFs. These observations suggest that JNK-dependent transcriptional induction of several inhibitors of apoptosis contributes to inhibiting apoptosis early in the ER stress response. PMID:27122189

  16. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion by PKC-dependent TRPM4 and TRPM5 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shigeto, Makoto; Ramracheya, Reshma; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Cha, Chae Young; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Hastoy, Benoit; Philippaert, Koenraad; Reinbothe, Thomas; Rorsman, Nils; Salehi, Albert; Sones, William R.; Vergari, Elisa; Weston, Cathryn; Gorelik, Julia; Katsura, Masashi; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Vennekens, Rudi; Zaccolo, Manuela; Galione, Antony; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Kaku, Kohei; Ladds, Graham; Rorsman, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in Trpm4 or Trpm5 KO islets. These data provide important insight into the therapeutic action of GLP-1 and suggest that circulating levels of this hormone directly stimulate insulin secretion by β cells. PMID:26571400

  17. Apoptosis Resistance and PKC Signaling: Distinguishing Features of High and Low Metastatic Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Ren, Ling; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Eleswarapu, Ananth; Khanna, Chand

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the process of metastasis is widely recognized. We report herein on a recurrent feature of high compared to low metastatic cells that is linked to their ability to survive early after their arrival at secondary sites. Using novel fluorescent-based imaging strategies that assess tumor cell interaction with the lung microenvironment, we have determined that most high and low metastatic cells can be distinguished within 6 hours of their arrival in the lung and further that this difference is defined by the ability of high metastatic cells to resist apoptosis at the secondary site. Despite the complexity of the metastatic cascade, the performance of cells during this critical window is highly defining of their metastatic proclivity. To explore mechanisms, we next evaluated biochemical pathways that may be linked to this survival phenotype in highly metastatic cells. Interestingly, we found no association between the Akt survival pathway and this metastatic phenotype. Of all pathways examined, only protein kinase C (PKC) activation was significantly linked to survival of highly metastatic cells. These data provide a conceptual understanding of a defining difference between high and low metastatic cells. The connection to PKC activation may provide a biologic rationale for the use of PKC inhibition in the prevention of metastatic progression. PMID:22496624

  18. Shrinkage activates a nonselective conductance: involvement of a Walker-motif protein and PKC.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D J; Tien, X Y; Xie, W; Brasitus, T A; Kaetzel, M A; Dedman, J R

    1996-01-01

    The ability of all cells to maintain their volume during an osmotic challenge is dependent on the regulated movement of salt and water across the plasma membrane. We demonstrate the phosphorylation-dependent gating of a nonselective conductance in Caco-2 cells during cellular shrinkage. Intracellular application of exogenous purified rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in the activation of a current similar to that activated during shrinkage with a Na(+)-to-Cl- permeability ratio of approximately 1.7:1. To prevent possible PKC- and/or shrinkage-dependent activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which is expressed at high levels in Caco-2 cells, a functional anti-peptide antibody, anti-CFTR505-511, was introduced into the cells via the patch pipette. Anti-CFTR505-511, which is directed against the Walker motif in the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR, prevented the PKC/shrink-age current activation. The peptide CFTR505-511 also induced current inhibition, suggesting the possible involvement of a regulatory element in close proximity to the channel that shares sequence homology with the first nucleotide binding fold of CFTR and whose binding to the channel is required for channel gating. PMID:8772443

  19. Keratins control intercellular adhesion involving PKC-α–mediated desmoplakin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Cornelia; Loschke, Fanny; Schwarz, Nicole; Windoffer, Reinhard; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion is crucial for epidermal morphogenesis and homeostasis and relies predominantly on the interaction of keratins with desmosomes. Although the importance of desmosomes to epidermal coherence and keratin organization is well established, the significance of keratins in desmosome organization has not been fully resolved. Here, we report that keratinocytes lacking all keratins show elevated, PKC-α–mediated desmoplakin phosphorylation and subsequent destabilization of desmosomes. We find that PKC-α activity is regulated by Rack1–keratin interaction. Without keratins, desmosomes assemble but are endocytosed at accelerated rates, rendering epithelial sheets highly susceptible to mechanical stress. Re-expression of the keratin pair K5/14, inhibition of PKC-α activity, or blocking of endocytosis reconstituted both desmosome localization at the plasma membrane and epithelial adhesion. Our findings identify a hitherto unknown mechanism by which keratins control intercellular adhesion, with potential implications for tumor invasion and keratinopathies, settings in which diminished cell adhesion facilitates tissue fragility and neoplastic growth. PMID:23690176

  20. CGX1037 is a novel PKC isoform delta selective inhibitor in platelets

    PubMed Central

    BHAVANASI, DHEERAJ; KOSTYAK, JOHN C.; SWINDLE, JOHN; KILPATRICK, LAURIE E.; KUNAPULI, SATYA P.

    2014-01-01

    Platelets upon activation change their shape, aggregate and secrete alpha and dense granule contents among which ADP acts as a feedback activator. Different Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoforms have specific non-redundant roles in mediating platelet responses including secretion and thrombus formation. Murine platelets lacking specific PKC isoforms have been used to evaluate the isoform specific functions. Novel PKC isoform δ has been shown to play an important role in some pathological processes. Lack of specific inhibitors for PKCδ has restricted analysis of its role in various cells. The current study was carried out to evaluate a novel small molecule PKCδ inhibitor, CGX1037 in platelets. Platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion and western blotting experiments were performed to evaluate CGX1037. In human platelets, CGX1037 inhibited PAR4-mediated phosphorylation on PKD2, a PKCδ-specific substrate. Pretreatment of human or murine platelets with CGX1037 inhibited PAR4-mediated dense granule secretion whereas it potentiated GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion similar to the responses observed in murine platelets lacking PKCδ Furthermore, pre-treatment of platelets from PKCδ−/− mice with CGX1037 had no significant additive effect on platelet responses suggesting the specificity of CGX1037. Hence, we show that CGX1037 is a selective small molecule inhibitor of PKCδ in platelets. PMID:24433221

  1. Polydatin Attenuates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress via PKC Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, which is found to precede the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aim of this study was to observe the protective effects of PD against H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury (OSI) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanism of PD in OSI treatment. HUVECs were subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of PD. It turned out that PD improved cell viability and adhesive and migratory abilities, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated the content of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). TUNEL, fluorometric assays, and Western blotting showed that OSI upregulated the apoptosis ratio, the activity of caspase-3 and the level of proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased the level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, PD treatment partially reversed these damage effects and Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation by thymeleatoxin (THX) in turn eliminated the antiapoptotic effect of PD. Furthermore, PD attenuated the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of PKCs α and δ and increased the phosphorylation of PKC ε. Our results indicated that PD might exert protective effects against OSI through various interactions with PKC pathway. PMID:26881030

  2. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail: sen@unife.it

    2006-11-17

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha} because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.

  3. Involvement of PDK1, PKC and TOR signaling pathways in basal fluconazole tolerance in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeseung; Lamichhane, Ami Khanal; Garraffo, H. Martin; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Chang, Yun C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study shows the importance of PDK1, TOR and PKC signaling pathways to the basal tolerance of Cryptococcus neoformans toward fluconazole, the widely used drug for treatment of cryptococcosis. Mutations in genes integral to these pathway resulted in hypersensitivity to the drug. Upon fluconazole treatment, Mpk1, the downstream target of PKC was phosphorylated and its phosphorylation required Pdk1. We show genetically that the PDK1 and TOR phosphorylation sites in Ypk1 as well as the kinase activity of Ypk1 are required for the fluconazole basal tolerance. The involvement of these pathways in fluconazole basal tolerance was associated with sphingolipid homeostasis. Deletion of PDK1, SIN1, or YPK1 but not MPK1 affected cell viability in the presence of sphingolipid biosynthesis inhibitors. Concurrently, pdk1Δ, sinΔ1, ypk1Δ, and mpk1Δ exhibited altered sphingolipid content and elevated fluconazole accumulation compared with the wild-type. The fluconazole hypersensitivity phenotype of these mutants, therefore, appears to be the result of malfunction of the influx/efflux systems due to modifications of membrane sphingolipid content. Interestingly, the reduced virulence of these strains in mice suggests that the cryptococcal PDK1, PKC, and likely the TOR pathways play an important role in managing stress exerted either by fluconazole or by the host environment. PMID:22339665

  4. mTOR Directs Breast Morphogenesis through the PKC-alpha-Rac1 Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Meghan M.; Young, Christian D.; Wang, Shan; Sobolik, Tammy; Sanchez, Violeta M.; Hicks, Donna J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Akt phosphorylation is a major driver of cell survival, motility, and proliferation in development and disease, causing increased interest in upstream regulators of Akt like mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). We used genetic disruption of Rictor to impair mTORC2 activity in mouse mammary epithelia, which decreased Akt phosphorylation, ductal length, secondary branching, cell motility, and cell survival. These effects were recapitulated with a pharmacological dual inhibitor of mTORC1/mTORC2, but not upon genetic disruption of mTORC1 function via Raptor deletion. Surprisingly, Akt re-activation was not sufficient to rescue cell survival or invasion, and modestly increased branching of mTORC2-impaired mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in culture and in vivo. However, another mTORC2 substrate, protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, fully rescued mTORC2-impaired MEC branching, invasion, and survival, as well as branching morphogenesis in vivo. PKC-alpha-mediated signaling through the small GTPase Rac1 was necessary for mTORC2-dependent mammary epithelial development during puberty, revealing a novel role for Rictor/mTORC2 in MEC survival and motility during branching morphogenesis through a PKC-alpha/Rac1-dependent mechanism. PMID:26132202

  5. Posttetanic potentiation critically depends on an enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion mediated by presynaptic PKC

    PubMed Central

    Korogod, Natalya; Lou, Xuelin; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Activity-dependent enhancement of transmitter release is a common form of presynaptic plasticity, but the underlying signaling mechanisms have remained largely unknown, perhaps because of the inaccessibility of most CNS nerve terminals. Here we investigated the signaling steps that underlie posttetanic potentiation (PTP), a form of presynaptic plasticity found at many CNS synapses. Direct whole-cell recordings from the large calyx of Held nerve terminals with the perforated patch-clamp technique showed that PTP was not mediated by changes in the presynaptic action potential waveform. Ca2+ imaging revealed a slight increase of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient during PTP (≈15%), which, however, was too small to explain a large part of PTP. The presynaptic PKC pathway was critically involved in PTP because (i) PTP was occluded by activation of PKC with phorbol esters, and (ii) PTP was largely (by approximately two-thirds) blocked by the PKC inhibitors, Ro31-8220 or bisindolylmaleimide. Activation of PKC during PTP most likely acts directly on the presynaptic release machinery, because in presynaptic Ca2+ uncaging experiments, activation of PKC by phorbol ester greatly increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion in a Ro31-8220-sensitive manner (≈300% with small Ca2+ uncaging stimuli), but only slightly increased presynaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (≈15%). We conclude that a PKC-dependent increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion is a key step in the enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. PMID:17884983

  6. cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 is linked to JNK-signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, Hironori; Maeda, Masatomo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of a JNK activator anisomycin on the proteolysis was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisomycin stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK activated the CRM1 mediated nuclear export of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK further stimulated slowly the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. -- Abstract: A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 by proteasomes around its IC50. We further examined the effects of SP600125 on the degradation of GATA-6 in detail, since an activator of JNK (anisomycin) is available. Interestingly, anisomycin immediately stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm, and then the cytoplasmic content of GATA-6 decreased slowly through degradation by proteasomes. Such an effect of anisomycin was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that the observed phenomenon might be linked to the JNK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of SP600125 could not be ascribed to the inhibition of PKA, since phosphorylation of CREB occurred in the presence of dbcAMP and SP600125. The nuclear export of GATA-6 was inhibited by leptomycin B, suggesting that CRM1-mediated export could be activated by anisomycin. Furthermore, it seems likely that the JNK activated by anisomycin may stimulate not only the nuclear export of GATA-6 through CRM1 but also the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. In contrast, A-kinase might activate only the latter process through JNK.

  7. Farnesoid X receptor antagonizes JNK signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating SOD3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Li, Cunbao; Guo, Cong; Li, Yanyan; Qi, Hui; Shen, Hailing; Kong, Jing; Long, Xuecheng; Yuan, Frank; Wang, Xichun; Huang, Wendong

    2015-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic and homeostatic regulator in the liver. In the present work, we identify a novel role of FXR in antagonizing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) transcription. Compared with wild-type mouse liver, FXR(-/-) mouse liver showed elevated JNK phosphorylation. JNK1 deletion suppressed the increase of diethylnitrosamine-induced tumor number in FXR(-/-) mice. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in chemical-induced liver carcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice. We found that ligand-activated FXR was able to alleviate H₂O₂or tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced JNK phosphorylation in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells or mouse primary hepatocytes. FXR ligand decreased H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in wild-type but not FXR(-/-) mouse hepatocytes. FXR knockdown abolished the inhibition of 3-[2-[2-chloro-4-[[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]phenyl]ethenyl]-Benzoic acid (GW4064) on JNK phosphorylation and ROS production induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. The gene expression of SOD3, an antioxidant defense enzyme, was increased by FXR activation in vitro and in vivo. An FXR-responsive element, inverted repeat separated by 1 nucleotide in SOD3 promoter, was identified by a combination of transcriptional reporter assays, EMSAs, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, which indicated that SOD3 could be a direct FXR target gene. SOD3 knockdown abolished the inhibition of GW4064 on JNK phosphorylation induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. In summary, FXR may regulate SOD3 expression to suppress ROS production, resulting in decreasing JNK activity. These results suggest that FXR, as a novel JNK suppressor, may be an attractive therapeutic target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:25496033

  8. RhoA-JNK Regulates the E-Cadherin Junctions of Human Gingival Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Kim, H J; Kim, H-M

    2016-03-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is unique with regard to its wide intercellular spaces and sparsely developed intercellular junctions. Thus, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation of the intercellular junctions of the junctional epithelium may be essential to understand the pathophysiology of the JE. HOK-16B cells, a normal human gingival epithelial cell line, were used to identify the molecules involved in the regulation of the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions between human gingival epithelial cells. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) disrupted the intercellular junctions through the dissociation of E-cadherin. The role of JNK in the formation of these E-cadherin junctions was further confirmed by demonstrating that JNK inhibition induced the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions. The upstream signaling of JNK was also examined. Activation of the small GTPase RhoA disrupted the formation of E-cadherin junctions between HOK-16B cells, which was accompanied by JNK activation. Disruption of these intercellular junctions upon RhoA activation was prevented when JNK activity was inhibited. In contrast, RhoA inactivation led to HOK-16B cell aggregation and the formation of intercellular junctions, even under conditions in which the cellular junctions were naturally disrupted by growth on a strongly adhesive surface. Furthermore, the JE of mouse molars had high JNK activity associated with low E-cadherin expression, which was reversed in the other gingival epithelia, including the sulcular epithelium. Interestingly, JNK activity was increased in cells grown on a solid surface, where cells showed higher RhoA activity than those grown on soft surfaces. Together, these results indicate that the decreased formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions within the JE may be coupled to high JNK activity, which is activated by the upregulation of RhoA on solid tooth surfaces. PMID:26635280

  9. Integrin-Dependent Activation of the JNK Signaling Pathway by Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Martin-Blanco, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical force is known to modulate the activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade. However, the effect of mechanical stresses on JNK signaling activation has previously only been analyzed by in vitro detection methods. It still remains unknown how living cells activate the JNK signaling cascade in response to mechanical stress and what its functions are in stretched cells. We assessed in real-time the activity of the JNK pathway in Drosophila cells by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), using an intramolecular phosphorylation-dependent dJun-FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) biosensor. We found that quantitative FRET-FLIM analysis and confocal microscopy revealed sustained dJun-FRET biosensor activation and stable morphology changes in response to mechanical stretch for Drosophila S2R+ cells. Further, these cells plated on different substrates showed distinct levels of JNK activity that associate with differences in cell morphology, integrin expression and focal adhesion organization. These data imply that alterations in the cytoskeleton and matrix attachments may act as regulators of JNK signaling, and that JNK activity might feed back to modulate the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. We found that this dynamic system is highly plastic; at rest, integrins at focal adhesions and talin are key factors suppressing JNK activity, while multidirectional static stretch leads to integrin-dependent, and probably talin-independent, Jun sensor activation. Further, our data suggest that JNK activity has to coordinate with other signaling elements for the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell shape remodeling associated with stretch. PMID:22180774

  10. Design and synthesis of disubstituted thiophene and thiazole based inhibitors of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Hom, Roy K.; Bowers, Simeon; Sealy, Jennifer M.; Truong, Anh P.; Probst, Gary D.; Neitzel, Martin L.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Fang, Larry; Brogley, Louis; Wu, Jing; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergely; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Quinn, Kevin; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene

    2012-02-28

    From high throughput screening, we discovered compound 1, the prototype for a series of disubstituted thiophene inhibitors of JNK which is selective towards closely related MAP kinases p38 and Erk2. Herein we describe the evolution of these compounds to a novel class of thiophene and thiazole JNK inhibitors that retain favorable solubility, permeability, and P-gp properties for development as CNS agents for treatment of neurodegeneration. Compound 61 demonstrated JNK3 IC{sub 50} = 77 nM and retained the excellent broad kinase selectivity observed for the series.

  11. The activation of p38MAPK and JNK pathways in bovine herpesvirus 1 infected MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Yuan, Chen; Huang, Liyuan; Ding, Xiuyan; Wang, Jianye; Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that BHV-1 infection activates Erk1/2 signaling. Here, we show that BHV-1 provoked an early-stage transient and late-stage sustained activation of JNK, p38MAPK and c-Jun signaling in MDBK cells. C-Jun phosphorylation was dependent on JNK. These early events were partially due to the viral entry process. Unexpectedly, reactive oxygen species were not involved in the later activation phase. Interestingly, only activated JNK facilitated the viral multiplication identified through both chemical inhibitor and siRNA. Collectively, this study provides insight into our understanding of early stages of BHV-1 infection. PMID:27590675

  12. Crystal Structures of the FAK Kinase in Complex with TAE226 and Related bis-anilino Pyrimidine Inhibitors Reveal a Helical DFG Conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lietha, D.; Eck, M

    2008-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase required for cell migration, proliferation and survival. FAK overexpression has been documented in diverse human cancers and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Recently, a novel bis-anilino pyrimidine inhibitor, TAE226, was reported to efficiently inhibit FAK signaling, arrest tumor growth and invasion and prolong the life of mice with glioma or ovarian tumor implants. Here we describe the crystal structures of the FAK kinase bound to TAE226 and three related bis-anilino pyrimidine compounds. TAE226 induces a conformation of the N-terminal portion of the kinase activation loop that is only observed in FAK, but is distinct from the conformation in both the active and inactive states of the kinase. This conformation appears to require a glycine immediately N-terminal to the 'DFG motif', which adopts a helical conformation stabilized by interactions with TAE226. The presence of a glycine residue in this position contributes to the specificity of TAE226 and related compounds for FAK. Our work highlights the fact that kinases can access conformational space that is not necessarily utilized for their native catalytic regulation, and that such conformations can explain and be exploited for inhibitor specificity.

  13. Inhibition of STAT3, FAK and Src mediated signaling reduces cancer stem cell load, tumorigenic potential and metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ravi; Trivedi, Rachana; Rastogi, Namrata; Singh, Manisha; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for aggressive tumor growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Shikonin (Shk) on breast cancer and found its anti-CSC potential. Shk treatment decreased the expression of various epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSC associated markers. Kinase profiling array and western blot analysis indicated that Shk inhibits STAT3, FAK and Src activation. Inhibition of these signaling proteins using standard inhibitors revealed that STAT3 inhibition affected CSCs properties more significantly than FAK or Src inhibition. We observed a significant decrease in cell migration upon FAK and Src inhibition and decrease in invasion upon inhibition of STAT3, FAK and Src. Combined inhibition of STAT3 with Src or FAK reduced the mammosphere formation, migration and invasion more significantly than the individual inhibitions. These observations indicated that the anti-breast cancer properties of Shk are due to its potential to inhibit multiple signaling proteins. Shk also reduced the activation and expression of STAT3, FAK and Src in vivo and reduced tumorigenicity, growth and metastasis of 4T1 cells. Collectively, this study underscores the translational relevance of using a single inhibitor (Shk) for compromising multiple tumor-associated signaling pathways to check cancer metastasis and stem cell load. PMID:25973915

  14. Cucurbitacin B inhibits breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis through VEGF-mediated suppression of FAK/MMP-9 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Lakra, Amar Deep; Kumar, Sudhir; Das, Gunjan; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2016-08-01

    Available breast cancer therapeutic strategies largely target the primary tumor but are ineffective against tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. In our current study, we determined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a plant triterpenoid, on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of breast cancer cells. CuB was found to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, CuB-treatment significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant apoptosis was observed. CuB was also found to inhibit migratory, invasive and tube-forming capacities of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, inhibition of pre-existing vasculature in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo further supports the anti-angiogenic effect of CuB. CuB-mediated anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects were associated with the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling, which has been validated by using FAK-inhibitor (FI-14). CuB-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 expressions similar to the action of FI-14. CuB was also found to decrease the micro-vessel density as evidenced by the decreased expression of CD31, a marker for neovasculature. Further, CuB-treatment inhibited tumor growth, lung metastasis and angiogenesis in a highly metastatic 4T1-syngeneic mouse mammary cancer. Collectively, our findings suggest that CuB inhibited breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, at least in part, through the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling. PMID:27210504

  15. PTPN12 controls PTEN and the AKT signalling to FAK and HER2 in migrating ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa-Moruzzi, Emma

    2013-03-01

    Several tyrosine phosphatases control cell motility; understanding their signaling helps to decipher cancer mechanisms. Previously, we found that the negative regulation of migration exerted by PTPN12 in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells involves direct FAK Y397 targeting, in HER2-dependent way. In this study, we describe that PTPN12 silencing depresses also PTEN RNA and protein. This, in turn, contributes to regulate FAK, through the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, resulting in GSK3 inactivation and decreased FAK phosphorylation at the inhibitory and GSK3 target S722. Altogether, in SKOV-3 cells, both PTPN12 and PTEN signaling merge on FAK which is negatively regulated through Y397 dephosphorylation (directly by PTPN12) and S722 phosphorylation (through PTEN/AKT/GSK3). Although HER2 activity sustains SKOV-3 cell motility, the HER2 inhibitor Ag825 impairs migration only in PTPN12 silenced cells, suggesting the ability of PTPN12 to affect HER2. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that, in migrating cells, Ag825 decreases HER2 phosphorylation at Y1248, Y1221/2, and Y877 (i.e., inactivates HER2) only after PTPN12 silencing. Conversely, cell exposure to the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 increases HER2 phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of PI3K/AKT in HER2 regulation. Altogether, the results reveal a new PTEN mechanism in the control cell migration and suggest a complex cross-talk between PTPN12 and HER2. PMID:23212450

  16. Neuregulin Facilitates Nerve Regeneration by Speeding Schwann Cell Migration via ErbB2/3-Dependent FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Shuo; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate migration of Schwann cells (Sc) is crucial for axon-guidance in the regenerative process after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Considering neuregulin-erbB-FAK signaling is an essential pathway participating in the regulation of Sc migration during development, the present study is aimed to examine whether neuregulin would exert its beneficial effects on adult following PNI and further determine the potential changes of downstream pathway engaged in neuro-regeneration by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology and Principal Findings Cultured RSC96 cells treated with neuregulin were processed for erbB2/3 immunofluorescence and FAK immunoblotings. The potential effects of neuregulin on Sc were assessed by cell adherence, spreading, and migration assays. In order to evaluate the functional significance of neuregulin on neuro-regeneration, the in vivo model of PNI was performed by chronic end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN). In vitro studies indicated that after neuregulin incubation, erbB2/3 were not only expressed in cell membranes, but also distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of RSC96 cells. Activation of erbB2/3 was positively correlated with FAK phosphorylation. Neuregulin also increases Sc adherence, spreading, and migration by 127.2±5.0%, 336.8±3.0%, and 80.0±5.7%, respectively. As for in vivo study, neuregulin significantly accelerates the speed of Sc migration and increases Sc expression in the distal stump of injured nerves. Retrograde labeling and compound muscle action potential recordings (CMAP) also showed that neuregulin successfully facilitates nerve regeneration by eliciting noticeably larger CMAP and promoting quick re-innervation of target muscles. Conclusions As neuregulin successfully improves axo-glial interaction by speeding Sc migration via the erbB2/3-FAK pathway, therapeutic use of neuregulin may thus serve as a promising strategy to facilitate the progress of nerve regeneration after PNI. PMID:23301073

  17. Characterization and differential expression of protein kinase C isoforms in PC12 cells. Differentiation parallels an increase in PKC beta II.

    PubMed

    Wooten, M W; Seibenhener, M L; Soh, Y; Ewald, S J; White, K R; Lloyd, E D; Olivier, A; Parker, P J

    1992-02-17

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment of PC12 cells induced a 2.8-fold increase in protein kinase C activity concomitant with differentiation and acquisition of neuritis. PKC protein isoforms were separated by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel/hydroxylapatite. A broad peak of PKC activity eluted which corresponded to the alpha PKC isoform. In control cells, message for all six PKC isoforms was detected and expressed as epsilon greater than zeta = gamma greater than delta greater than beta greater than alpha. Western blot of whole cell lysates revealed a large increase in the beta II, while slight changes were observed for the other five PKC isoforms during treatment (1-14 days) with NGF (50 ng/ml). In parallel, coordinate changes in the expression of the individual transcripts for the six isoforms occurred during NGF treatment. Induction and accumulation of PKC beta II may play a role in maintenance of neuronal morphology. PMID:1544425

  18. JNK activity in somatic stem cells causes loss of tissue homeostasis in the aging Drosophila gut

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Benoît; Hochmuth, Christine E.; Jasper, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Metazoans employ cytoprotective and regenerative strategies to maintain tissue homeostasis. Understanding the coordination of these strategies is critical to develop accurate models for aging and associated diseases. Here we show that cytoprotective Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling influences regeneration in the Drosophila gut by directing proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Interestingly, this function of JNK contributes to the loss of tissue homeostasis in old and stressed intestines by promoting the accumulation of mis-differentiated ISC daughter cells. Ectopic Delta/Notch signaling in these cells causes their abnormal differentiation, but also limits JNK-induced proliferation. Protective JNK signaling, and control of cell proliferation and differentiation by Delta/Notch signaling thus have to be carefully balanced to ensure tissue homeostasis. Our findings suggest that this balance is lost in old animals, increasing the potential for neoplastic transformation. PMID:18940735

  19. Diet-induced obesity mediated by the JNK/DIO2 signal transduction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vernia, Santiago; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Barrett, Tamera; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Davis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a key mediator of metabolic stress responses caused by consuming a high-fat diet, including the development of obesity. To test the role of JNK, we examined diet-induced obesity in mice with targeted ablation of Jnk genes in the anterior pituitary gland. These mice exhibited an increase in the pituitary expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), an increase in the blood concentration of thyroid hormone (T4), increased energy expenditure, and markedly reduced obesity compared with control mice. The increased amount of pituitary TSH was caused by reduced expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2), a gene that is required for T4-mediated negative feedback regulation of TSH expression. These data establish a molecular mechanism that accounts for the regulation of energy expenditure and the development of obesity by the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:24186979

  20. EphrinB2 controls vessel pruning through STAT1-JNK3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Ombretta; Ohnuki, Hidetaka; Maric, Dragan; Hou, Xu; Li, Xuri; Yoon, Sung Ok; Segarra, Marta; Eberhart, Charles G.; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Tosato, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis produces primitive vascular networks that need pruning to yield hierarchically organized and functional vessels. Despite the critical importance of vessel pruning to vessel patterning and function, the mechanisms regulating this process are not clear. Here we show that EphrinB2, a well-known player in angiogenesis, is an essential regulator of endothelial cell death and vessel pruning. This regulation depends upon phosphotyrosine-EphrinB2 signaling repressing JNK3 activity via STAT1. JNK3 activation causes endothelial cell death. In the absence of JNK3, hyaloid vessel physiological pruning is impaired, associated with abnormal persistence of hyaloid vessels, defective retinal vasculature and microphthalmia. This syndrome closely resembles human persistent hyperplastic primary vitreus (PHPV), attributed to failed involution of hyaloid vessels. Our results provide evidence that EphrinB2/STAT1/JNK3 signaling is essential for vessel pruning, and that defects in this pathway may contribute to PHPV. PMID:25807892

  1. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  2. Identification of novel FAK and S6K1 dual inhibitors from natural compounds via ADMET screening and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lin, Shin-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and human p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1) are non-receptor protein tyrosine plays a vital role in cell signaling pathways, such as cell proliferation, survival, and migration. In this study, the 3D structure of FAK (PDB ID: 2AL6) and S6K1 (3A60) were chosen for docking 60 natural compounds attempted to identify novel and specific inhibitors from them. The 30 selected molecules with high scores were further analyzed using DSSTox tools and DS 3.5 ADMET software. Based on a high docking score and energy interaction, 3 of the 9 candidate compounds, neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D, were identified and the inhibitory activity of these compounds were subsequently validated in the C6 glioma cell line. All three selected compounds show potential effects on cell viability by MTT assay. Neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D showed an IC50 value of 10-, 12-, and 16-μM, respectively. Moreover, these compounds decreased the p-FAk and p-S6k1 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The results of best docked neferine B, neferine A, and antroquinonol D have the potential for further development as a supplement to treat tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:27133039

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway. PMID:26932297

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK(397), and -FAK(925). Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway. PMID:26932297

  6. Inhibition of PKC-Induced COX-2 and IL-8 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wan-Yu; Chuang, Kun-Han; Sun, David; Lee, Yu-Hsiu; Kao, Pu-Hong; Lin, Yen-Yu; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is a common cancer leading to many deaths among females. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two highly expressed inflammatory mediators to be induced by the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling via various inflammatory stimuli and both contribute significantly to cancer metastasis/progression. Glucosamine has been shown to act as an anti-inflammation molecule. The aim of this study was to clarify the role and acting mechanism of glucosamine during the PKC-regulation of COX-2/IL-8 expression and the associated impact on breast cancer. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, glucosamine effectively suppresses the PKC induction of COX-2 and IL-8 promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels, as well as the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and IL-8. Glucosamine is able to promote COX-2 protein degradation in a calpain-dependent manner and IL-8 protein degradation in calpain-dependent and proteasome-dependent manners. The MAPK and NF-κB pathways are involved in PKC-induced COX-2 expression, but only the NF-κB pathway is involved in PKC-induced IL-8 expression. Glucosamine attenuates PKC-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear NF-κB translocation, and NF-κB reporter activation. Both PGE(2) and IL-8 promote cell proliferation and IL-8 induces cell migration; thus, glucosamine appears to suppress PKC-induced cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, glucosamine significantly inhibits the growth of breast cancer xenografts and this is accompanied by a reduction in COX-2 and IL-8 expression. In conclusion, glucosamine seems to attenuate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo and this occurs, at least in part by targeting to the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in an inhibition of breast cancer cell growth. PMID:25754990

  7. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. PMID:27113203

  8. Development of indole/indazole-aminopyrimidines as inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK): optimization for JNK potency and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Gong, Leyi; Han, Xiaochun; Silva, Tania; Tan, Yun-Chou; Goyal, Bindu; Tivitmahaisoon, Parch; Trejo, Alejandra; Palmer, Wylie; Hogg, Heather; Jahagir, Alam; Alam, Muzaffar; Wagner, Paul; Stein, Karin; Filonova, Lubov; Loe, Brad; Makra, Ferenc; Rotstein, David; Rapatova, Lubica; Dunn, James; Zuo, Fengrong; Dal Porto, Joseph; Wong, Brian; Jin, Sue; Chang, Alice; Tran, Patricia; Hsieh, Gary; Niu, Linghao; Shao, Ada; Reuter, Deborah; Hermann, Johaness; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Goldstein, David

    2013-06-15

    A novel series of indole/indazole-aminopyrimidines was designed and synthesized with an aim to achieve optimal potency and selectivity for the c-Jun kinase family or JNKs. Structure guided design was used to optimize the series resulting in a significant potency improvement. The best compound (17) has IC50 of 3 nM for JNK1 and 20 nM for JNK2, with greater than 40-fold selectivity against other kinases with good physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23664880

  9. c-Jun localizes to the nucleus independent of its phosphorylation by and interaction with JNK and vice versa promotes nuclear accumulation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Ilona; Al-Rawi, Marco; Mingot, Jose-Manuel; Scholl, Christine; Diefenbacher, Markus Elmar; O'Donnell, Paul; Bohmann, Dirk; Weiss, Carsten

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} HSP70, Ku70 and 80 as well as importin 8 are novel interactors of c-Jun. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require its functions as a transcription factor. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require the interaction with its kinase JNK. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of JNK is regulated by interaction with c-Jun. -- Abstract: In order to activate gene expression, transcription factors such as c-Jun have to reside in the nucleus. The abundance of c-Jun in the nucleus correlates with the activity of its target genes. As a consequence of excessive c-Jun activation, cells undergo apoptosis or changes in differentiation whereas decreased c-Jun function can reduce proliferation. In the present study we addressed how nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor c-Jun is regulated. First, we analyzed which functions of c-Jun are required for efficient nuclear accumulation. Mutants of c-Jun deficient in dimerization or DNA-binding show no defect in nuclear transport. Furthermore, c-Jun import into the nucleus of living cells occurred when the c-Jun phosphorylation sites were mutated as well in cells that lack the major c-Jun kinase, JNK, suggesting that c-Jun transport into the nucleus does not require JNK signaling. Conversely, however, binding of c-Jun seemed to enhance nuclear accumulation of JNK. In order to identify proteins that might be relevant for the nuclear translocation of c-Jun we searched for novel binding partners by a proteomic approach. In addition to the heat shock protein HSP70 and the DNA damage repair factors Ku70 and 80, we isolated human importin 8 as a novel interactor of c-Jun. Interaction of Imp 8 with c-Jun in human cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require its functions as a transcription factor or the interaction with its kinase JNK. Interestingly, nuclear accumulation of JNK is regulated by interaction with c-Jun. Unraveling the

  10. Antioxidant NAC and AMPA/KA receptor antagonist DNQX inhibited JNK3 activation following global ischemia in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Hongchun; Zhang, Quanguang

    2003-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3), the only neural-specific isoform, may play an important role in excitotoxicity and neuronal injury. To analyze the variation of JNK3 activation, levels of phospho-JNK3 were measured at various time points of ischemia and selected time points of reperfusion, respectively. Our study illustrated that JNK3 was rapidly activated and translocated from cytosol to nucleus during ischemia. During reperfusion, two peaks of JNK3 activation occurred at 30 min and 3 days, respectively. To further define the mechanism of JNK3 activation, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (L-VGCC) antagonist nifedipine were given to the rats 20 min prior to ischemia. The results showed that NAC obviously inhibited JNK3 activation during the early reperfusion, whereas DNQX preferably attenuated JNK3 activation during the latter reperfusion. Ketamine and nifedipine had no significant effects on JNK3 activation during reperfusion. Consequently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and AMPA/KA receptor were closely associated with JNK3 activation following global ischemia. PMID:12767482

  11. Elucidating Binding Modes of Zuonin A Enantiomers to JNK1 via in silico methods

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Daniel W.; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ren, Pengyu

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is associated with a number of diseases, including neurological conditions and cancer. Enantiomers of the lignan zuonin A, (−)-zuonin A and (+)-zuonin A bind isoforms of JNK with similar affinity and disrupt protein-protein interactions at JNK’s D-recruitment site. Thus, they are of interest as lead non-ATP competitive inhibitors of the JNKs. While (−)-zuonin A inhibits the activity of JNK towards c-Jun by 80% when saturating, (+)-zuonin A only inhibits by 15%. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to gain a better understanding of how these inhibitors interact with JNK. The results of this study provide new insight into potential binding modes for (−)-zuonin A and suggest that (−)-zuonin A interacts with JNK via an induced fit mechanism near the highly conserved ϕA-X-ϕB recognition site. Binding of (+)-zuonin A to JNK displays no such dynamic feature. The different binding modes may help explain differences in the inhibitory properties of the enantiomers although further experimental work would be necessary to fully confirm this interpretation. PMID:24001752

  12. Ultra Fine Particles from Diesel Engines Induce Vascular Oxidative Stress via JNK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultra fine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be pro-atherogenic in apoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induced vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intra-cellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O2·-) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry (FACS) showed that UFP increased MitoSOX Red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content is increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pre-treatment with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP stimulated O2·- production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation play an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression. PMID:19154785

  13. JNK3 Is Required for the Cytoprotective Effect of Exendin 4

    PubMed Central

    Ezanno, Hélène; Pawlowski, Valérie; Abdelli, Saida; Boutry, Raphael; Gmyr, Valery; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Bonny, Christophe; Pattou, François

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of beta cell against apoptosis is one of the therapeutic benefits of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) antidiabetic mimetics for preserving the functional beta cell mass exposed to diabetogenic condition including proinflammatory cytokines. The mitogen activated protein kinase 10 also called c-jun amino-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) plays a protective role in insulin-secreting cells against death caused by cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether the JNK3 expression is associated with the protective effect elicited by the GLP1 mimetic exendin 4. We found an increase in the abundance of JNK3 in isolated human islets and INS-1E cells cultured with exendin 4. Induction of JNK3 by exendin 4 was associated with an increased survival of INS-1E cells. Silencing of JNK3 prevented the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4 against apoptosis elicited by culture condition and cytokines. These results emphasize the requirement of JNK3 in the antiapoptotic effects of exendin 4. PMID:25025079

  14. JNK3 is required for the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Hélène; Pawlowski, Valérie; Abdelli, Saida; Boutry, Raphael; Gmyr, Valery; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Bonny, Christophe; Pattou, François; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of beta cell against apoptosis is one of the therapeutic benefits of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) antidiabetic mimetics for preserving the functional beta cell mass exposed to diabetogenic condition including proinflammatory cytokines. The mitogen activated protein kinase 10 also called c-jun amino-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) plays a protective role in insulin-secreting cells against death caused by cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether the JNK3 expression is associated with the protective effect elicited by the GLP1 mimetic exendin 4. We found an increase in the abundance of JNK3 in isolated human islets and INS-1E cells cultured with exendin 4. Induction of JNK3 by exendin 4 was associated with an increased survival of INS-1E cells. Silencing of JNK3 prevented the cytoprotective effect of exendin 4 against apoptosis elicited by culture condition and cytokines. These results emphasize the requirement of JNK3 in the antiapoptotic effects of exendin 4. PMID:25025079

  15. [Effects of PTK787 on cell proliferation and expression of fak mRNA in K562].

    PubMed

    Di, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Ri-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Li; Tian, Chuan; Guo, Ya-Nan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787 on cell proliferation, cell cycle and the expression of fak mRNA of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line K562, and to explore the mechanism of PTK787 against acute myeloid leukemia. The MTT method was used to detect the effects of PTK787 in various concentrations and at different time points on proliferation of K562 cells; the flow cytometry was used to determine the effects of PTK787 in different concentrations on cell cycle of K562 cells; the RT-PCR was used to assay the expression of fak mRNA in K562 cells treated with PTK787 for 48 hours. The results showed that along with increasing of the concentration and prolonging of time, the inhibitory rate of PTK787 on K562 proliferation was gradually enhanced. The comparison between various concentration groups at same time or comparison between various time groups in same concentration showed significant differences (p < 0.05), in which the effect of 320 micromol/L PTK787 on cells was strongest, while the continuous increase of PTK787 concentration or prolong of action time did not enhance the inhibitory rate on K562 proliferation. With increasing of drug concentration, the cell proportion in G(1) phase gradually increased, the cell proportion in S phase gradually decreased, the comparison between various groups revealed significant differences (p < 0.05), however the continuous increase of drug concentration from 160 micromol/L did not obviously change the cell proportion in phases of cell cycle. With increasing of drug concentration, the expression of fak mRNA in K562 cells gradually reduced with significant differences between various groups (p < 0.05), but with continuous increase of drug concentration from 160 micromol/L, the effect of PTK787 on the expression of fak mRNA in K562 cells also did not obviously change. It is concluded that the PTK787 shows effect of anti-leukemia cells through inhibiting transformation

  16. USP22 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the FAK pathway in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhen; Wang, Aman; Liang, Jinxiao; Xie, Yunpeng; Liu, Jiwei; Yan, Qiu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the occurrence and development of tumors, particularly to the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis. As a newly discovered ubiquitin hydrolase family member, USP22 plays a key role in the malignant transformation of tumors and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, recent studies on USP22 have primarily focused on its role in cell cycle regulation, and the potential mechanism underlying the promotion of tumor invasion and metastasis by abnormal USP22 expression has not been reported. Our studies revealed that the overexpression of USP22 in PANC-1 cells promoted Ezrin redistribution and phosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling, upregulated expression of the transcription factors Snail and ZEB1 to promote EMT, and increased cellular invasion and migration. In contrast, blockade of USP22 expression resulted in the opposite effects. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway was shown to play a key role in the process of EMT induction in PANC-1 cells by USP22. Thus, the present study suggests that USP22 acts as a regulatory protein for EMT in pancreatic cancer, which may provide a new approach for the targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25070659

  17. Local extracellular matrix alignment directs cellular protrusion dynamics and migration through Rac1 and FAK.

    PubMed

    Carey, Shawn P; Goldblatt, Zachary E; Martin, Karen E; Romero, Bethsabe; Williams, Rebecca M; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-08-01

    Cell migration within 3D interstitial microenvironments is sensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) properties, but the mechanisms that regulate migration guidance by 3D matrix features remain unclear. To examine the mechanisms underlying the cell migration response to aligned ECM, which is prevalent at the tumor-stroma interface, we utilized time-lapse microscopy to compare the behavior of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells within randomly organized and well-aligned 3D collagen ECM. We developed a novel experimental system in which cellular morphodynamics during initial 3D cell spreading served as a reductionist model for the complex process of matrix-directed 3D cell migration. Using this approach, we found that ECM alignment induced spatial anisotropy of cells' matrix probing by promoting protrusion frequency, persistence, and lengthening along the alignment axis and suppressing protrusion dynamics orthogonal to alignment. Preference for on-axis behaviors was dependent upon FAK and Rac1 signaling and translated across length and time scales such that cells within aligned ECM exhibited accelerated elongation, front-rear polarization, and migration relative to cells in random ECM. Together, these findings indicate that adhesive and protrusive signaling allow cells to respond to coordinated physical cues in the ECM, promoting migration efficiency and cell migration guidance by 3D matrix structure. PMID:27384462

  18. PKC-Dependent Signaling Pathways within PAG and Thalamus Contribute to the Nitric Oxide-Induced Nociceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in nociceptive processing in the central nervous system. The release of NO within the spinal cord has long been implicated in the mechanisms underlying exaggerated pain sensitivity, and administration of NO donors can induce hyperalgesia. To elucidate the supraspinal mechanism responsible for NO-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, we investigated the modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream effectors following treatment with the NO donors nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside. Both compounds induced a prolonged cold allodynia and heat hyperalgesia, increased levels of c-Fos and IL-1β, and activated NF-κB within periaqueductal grey matter and thalamus. Simultaneously, an increased expression and phosphorylation of PKC γ and ε were detected. To clarify the cellular mechanism involved in the NO-induced hypernociception, we examined the expression of transcription factors that act as PKC downstream effectors. A dramatic hyperphosphorylation of CREB and STAT1 was observed. The i.c.v. administration of the PKC blocker calphostin C prevented the NO-induced hypernociception, the hyperphosphorylation of CREB and STAT1, and partially reduced NF-κB activation. Conversely, the increase of IL-1β was unmodified by calphostin C. These results suggest the relevance of cerebral PKC-mediated CREB and STAT1 activation in the NO donor-induced nociceptive behavior. PMID:27335876

  19. PKC-Dependent GlyT1 Ubiquitination Occurs Independent of Phosphorylation: Inespecificity in Lysine Selection for Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Susana P.; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Trinidad, Margarita; Robles-Escajeda, Elisa; Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Miranda, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporter ubiquitination is emerging as the main mechanism for endocytosis and sorting of cargo into lysosomes. In this study, we demonstrate PKC-dependent ubiquitination of three different isoforms of the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Incubation of cells expressing transporter with the PKC activator phorbol ester induced a dramatic, time-dependent increase in GlyT1 ubiquitination, followed by accumulation of GlyT1 in EEA1 positive early endosomes. This occurred via a mechanism that was abolished by inhibition of PKC. GlyT1 endocytosis was confirmed in both retinal sections and primary cultures of mouse amacrine neurons. Replacement of only all lysines in the N-and C-termini to arginines prevented ubiquitination and endocytosis, displaying redundancy in the mechanism of ubiquitination. Interestingly, a 40–50% reduction in glycine uptake was detected in phorbol-ester stimulated cells expressing the WT-GlyT1, whereas no significant change was for the mutant protein, demonstrating that endocytosis participates in the reduction of uptake. Consistent with previous findings for the dopamine transporter DAT, ubiquitination of GlyT1 tails functions as sorting signal to deliver transporter into the lysosome and removal of ubiquitination sites dramatically attenuated the rate of GlyT1 degradation. Finally, we showed for the first time that PKC-dependent GlyT1 phosphorylation was not affected by removal of ubiquitination sites, suggesting separate PKC-dependent signaling events for these posttranslational modifications. PMID:26418248

  20. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana

    2013-01-01

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK−/− ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK−/− mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  1. PKC activation sensitizes basal-like breast cancer cell lines to Smac mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Cornmark, L; Holmgren, C; Masoumi, K; Larsson, C

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for novel strategies to initiate cancer cell death. One approach is the use of Smac mimetics, which antagonize inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Recent studies have shown that combinations of Smac mimetics such as LBW242 or LCL161 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents increase cancer cell death. Here we show that the protein kinase C (PKC) activator TPA together with the Smac mimetic LBW242 induces cell death in two basal breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-468 and BT-549) that are resistant to Smac mimetic as single agent. Ten other LBW242-insensitive cancer cell lines were not influenced by the TPA+LBW242 combination. The TPA+LBW242 effect was suppressed by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, indicating dependence on PKC enzymatic activity. The PKC effect was mediated via increased synthesis and release of TNFα, which can induce death in the presence of Smac mimetics. The cell death, coinciding with caspase-3 cleavage, was suppressed by caspase inhibition and preceded by the association of RIP1 with caspase-8, as seen in complex II formation. Smac mimetics, but not TPA, induced the non-canonical NF-κB pathway in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Blocking the canonical NF-κB pathway suppressed TPA induction of TNFα in MDA-MB-468 cells whereas isolated downregulation of either the canonical or non-canonical pathways did not abolish the Smac mimetic induction of the NF-κB driven genes TNFα and BIRC3 in MDA-MB-231 cells although the absolute levels were suppressed. A combined downregulation of the canonical and non-canonical pathways further suppressed TNFα levels and inhibited Smac mimetic-mediated cell death. Our data suggest that in certain basal breast cancer cell lines co-treatment of TPA with a Smac mimetic induces cell death highlighting the potential of using these pathways as molecular targets for basal-like breast cancers. PMID:27551497

  2. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  3. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya; Reményi, Attila; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  4. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo He, Qiaojun

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  5. Inhibition of crosstalk between Bcr-Abl and PKC signaling by PEITC, augments imatinib sensitivity in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhumita; Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Apurba; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2015-12-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a clonal hyperproliferation of immature blood cells accounts for 20% of adult leukemia cases. Reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, results into Bcr-Abl fusion and is responsible for expression of a tyrosine kinase protein p210(bcr/abl), which mediates several survival pathways and confer therapeutic resistance. Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine threonine kinases play an important role in the process of leukemogenesis. A crosstalk between Bcr-Abl and PKC signaling has been documented. Therefore, targeting p210(bcr/abl) and its associated signaling proteins using non-toxic natural means will be an effective strategy for antileukemic therapy. Aim of the present study is to investigate whether PEITC, a natural isothiocyanate in combination with imatinib mesylate (IM), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor could increase the therapeutic efficacy of IM by modulating the expression of p210(bcr/abl). Enhanced cytotoxic efficacy of IM by PEITC was further validated using another myelogenous leukemia cell line, KU812. It was observed that PEITC in combination with IM efficiently downregulated the expression of p210(bcr/abl) in chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines (K-562). PEITC inhibited the expressions of PKCα, PKCβII and PKCζ (both phosphorylated and total form). Expression of Raf1 and ERK1/2, two important target proteins in PKC signaling cascade was diminished. The result indicated that PEITC ultimately reduced expression of Raf1 and ERK1/2 through Bcr-Abl and PKC inhibition. This result was further confirmed by UCN-01, a selective PKC inhibitor and IM; indicating an association between p210(bcr/abl) and PKC with Raf1 and ERK1/2. PEITC thus may have enormous potential in synergistic therapy of leukemia by enhancing drug efficacy. PMID:26456889

  6. Brain GLP-1 Signaling Regulates Femoral Artery Blood Flow and Insulin Sensitivity Through Hypothalamic PKC

    PubMed Central

    Cabou, Cendrine; Vachoux, Christelle; Campistron, Gérard; Drucker, Daniel J.; Burcelin, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-brain hormone that regulates food intake, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular functions. In the brain, through a currently unknown molecular mechanism, it simultaneously reduces femoral artery blood flow and muscle glucose uptake. By analogy to pancreatic β-cells where GLP-1 activates protein kinase C (PKC) to stimulate insulin secretion, we postulated that PKC enzymes would be molecular targets of brain GLP-1 signaling that regulate metabolic and vascular function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used both genetic and pharmacological approaches to investigate the role of PKC isoforms in brain GLP-1 signaling in the conscious, free-moving mouse simultaneous with metabolic and vascular measurements. RESULTS In normal wild-type (WT) mouse brain, the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 selectively promotes translocation of PKC-δ (but not -βII, -α, or -ε) to the plasma membrane. This translocation is blocked in Glp1r−/− mice and in WT mice infused in the brain with exendin-9, an antagonist of the GLP-1R. This mechanism coordinates both blood flow in the femoral artery and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Consequently, in hyperglycemic, high-fat diet–fed diabetic mice, hypothalamic PKC-δ activity was increased and its pharmacological inhibition improved both insulin-sensitive metabolic and vascular phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS Our studies show that brain GLP-1 signaling activates hypothalamic glucose-dependent PKC-δ to regulate femoral artery blood flow and insulin sensitivity. This mechanism is attenuated during the development of experimental hyperglycemia and may contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21810595

  7. A Novel Effect of MARCKS Phosphorylation by Activated PKC: The Dephosphorylation of Its Serine 25 in Chick Neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea; Zolessi, Flavio R.; Arruti, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a peripheral membrane protein, especially abundant in the nervous system, and functionally related to actin organization and Ca-calmodulin regulation depending on its phosphorylation by PKC. However, MARCKS is susceptible to be phosphorylated by several different kinases and the possible interactions between these phosphorylations have not been fully studied in intact cells. In differentiating neuroblasts, as well as some neurons, there is at least one cell-type specific phosphorylation site: serine 25 (S25) in the chick. We demonstrate here that S25 is included in a highly conserved protein sequence which is a Cdk phosphorylatable region, located far away from the PKC phosphorylation domain. S25 phosphorylation was inhibited by olomoucine and roscovitine in neuroblasts undergoing various states of cell differentiation in vitro. These results, considered in the known context of Cdks activity in neuroblasts, suggest that Cdk5 is the enzyme responsible for this phosphorylation. We find that the phosphorylation by PKC at the effector domain does not occur in the same molecules that are phosphorylated at serine 25. The in situ analysis of the subcellular distribution of these two phosphorylated MARCKS variants revealed that they are also segregated in different protein clusters. In addition, we find that a sustained stimulation of PKC by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) provokes the progressive disappearance of phosphorylation at serine 25. Cells treated with PMA, but in the presence of several Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP1, PP2A and PP2B) inhibitors indicated that this dephosphorylation is achieved via a phosphatase 2A (PP2A) form. These results provide new evidence regarding the existence of a novel consequence of PKC stimulation upon the phosphorylated state of MARCKS in neural cells, and propose a link between PKC and PP2A activity on MARCKS. PMID:23634231

  8. A novel effect of MARCKS phosphorylation by activated PKC: the dephosphorylation of its serine 25 in chick neuroblasts.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea; Zolessi, Flavio R; Arruti, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a peripheral membrane protein, especially abundant in the nervous system, and functionally related to actin organization and Ca-calmodulin regulation depending on its phosphorylation by PKC. However, MARCKS is susceptible to be phosphorylated by several different kinases and the possible interactions between these phosphorylations have not been fully studied in intact cells. In differentiating neuroblasts, as well as some neurons, there is at least one cell-type specific phosphorylation site: serine 25 (S25) in the chick. We demonstrate here that S25 is included in a highly conserved protein sequence which is a Cdk phosphorylatable region, located far away from the PKC phosphorylation domain. S25 phosphorylation was inhibited by olomoucine and roscovitine in neuroblasts undergoing various states of cell differentiation in vitro. These results, considered in the known context of Cdks activity in neuroblasts, suggest that Cdk5 is the enzyme responsible for this phosphorylation. We find that the phosphorylation by PKC at the effector domain does not occur in the same molecules that are phosphorylated at serine 25. The in situ analysis of the subcellular distribution of these two phosphorylated MARCKS variants revealed that they are also segregated in different protein clusters. In addition, we find that a sustained stimulation of PKC by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) provokes the progressive disappearance of phosphorylation at serine 25. Cells treated with PMA, but in the presence of several Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP1, PP2A and PP2B) inhibitors indicated that this dephosphorylation is achieved via a phosphatase 2A (PP2A) form. These results provide new evidence regarding the existence of a novel consequence of PKC stimulation upon the phosphorylated state of MARCKS in neural cells, and propose a link between PKC and PP2A activity on MARCKS. PMID:23634231

  9. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

    PubMed

    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. PMID:24648036

  10. Effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} inhibitor, on TLR-4-dependent activation of murine microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jeong, Min-Woo; Baek, Nam-in; Kim, Kyong-Tai . E-mail: ktk@postech.ac.kr

    2005-11-11

    In microglia, Toll-like receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiate innate immune responses upon interaction with infectious agents. The effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} specific inhibitor, on TLR-4-mediated signaling was investigated in murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and taxol. Pretreatment of microglia cells with rottlerin decreased LPS- and taxol-induced nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 99.1 {+-} 1.5 nM). Through MTT and FACS analysis, we found that the inhibition effect of rottlerin was not due to microglial cell death. Rottlerin pretreatment also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and expression of type II nitric oxide synthase. In addition, microglial phagocytosis in response to TLR-4 activation was diminished in which rottlerin was pretreated. Together, these data raise the possibility that certain PKC-{delta} specific inhibitors can modulate TLR-4-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and can alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases in central nervous system.

  11. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Colomb, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment), one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning), may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity. PMID:27168980

  12. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKC{zeta} in neuronal survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, Insil . E-mail: ijoung@hanseo.ac.kr; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim . E-mail: kimyh@khu.ac.kr

    2005-08-26

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but also to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKC{zeta} by association of p62 and PKC{zeta}, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation.

  13. Amarogentin, a Secoiridoid Glycoside, Abrogates Platelet Activation through PLCγ2-PKC and MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Lu, Wan-Jung; Lien, Li-Ming; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders. PMID:24868545

  14. PKC-alpha mediated alterations of indoleamine contents in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, R; Sheeladevi, R; Suthanthirarajan, N

    2004-08-30

    We previously have reported that acute or chronic diabetes in animals resulted in altered neurotransmitter levels. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in discrete areas of brain viz. striatum (ST), hippocampus (HC), hypothalamus (HT), midbrain (MB), pons medulla (PM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebral cortex (CCX) of control, untreated diabetic and insulin treated diabetic rats after 30 days. Alloxan (45 mg/kg) diabetic untreated rats, which showed hyperglycemia (>250 mg%), revealed significant increases of 5-HT level in ST, MB, PM, CB and CCX and the 5-HIAA level found to be increased significantly in ST, HC and MB. Whereas the insulin treated rats, which was maintained under normal glucose level (80-110 mg%), showed no significant changes in any of the areas studied. The expressions of PKC-alpha studied by immunoblotting also showed significant changes in ST, HC, MB, PM, CB and CCX that is identical to the changes of both 5-HT and 5-HIAA under similar condition, suggesting that the PKC-alpha may regulate the synthesis and release of indoleamines in diabetic animals. PMID:15342107

  15. Various Molecular Species of Diacylglycerol Hydroperoxide Activate Human Neutrophils via PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Takekoshi, Susumu; Tanino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Keiichi; Nakano, Minoru; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that diacylglycerol hydroperoxide-induced unregulated signal transduction causes oxidative stress-related diseases. In this study, we investigated which molecular species of diacylglycerol hydroperoxide activated human peripheral neutrophils. All diacylglycerol hydroperoxides, diacylglycerol hydroxides, and diacyglycerols tested in the present study induced superoxide production by neutrophils. The ability to activate neutrophils among molecular species containing the same fatty acid composition was as follows; diacylglycerol hydroperoxide>diacylglycerol hydroxide≥diacylglycerol. The diacylglycerol hydroperoxide composed of linoleate was a stronger activator for neutrophils than that composed of arachidonate. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylglycerol hydroperoxide (PLG-OOH) was the strongest stimulator for neutrophils. We reconfirmed that PLG-OOH activated protein kinase C (PKC) in neutrophils. PLG-OOH induced the phosphorylation of p47phox, a substrate of PKC and a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase, in neutrophils, as did N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate. Moreover, the time course of p47phox phosphorylation was comparable to that of superoxide production. These results suggest that PLG-OOH activated intracellular protein kinase C. PLG-OOH, produced via an uncontrolled process, can act as a biological second messenger to cause inflammatory disease from oxidative stress. PMID:18392102

  16. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo de; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Lara, Lucienne Silva; Pinheiro, Carla Mônica; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify the presence of protein kinase C-like (PKC-like) in Leishmania amazonensis and to elucidate its possible role in the modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity. Immunoblotting experiments using antibody against a consensus sequence (Ac 543-549) of rabbit protein kinase C (PKC) revealed the presence of a protein kinase of 80 kDa in L. amazonensis. Measurements of protein kinase activity showed the presence of both (Ca(2+)-dependent) and (Ca(2+)-independent) protein kinase activity in plasma membrane and cytosol. Phorbol ester (PMA) activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase stimulated the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity, while activation of the Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase was inhibitory. Both effects of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase of the plasma membrane were lower than that observed in intact cells. PMA induced the translocation of protein kinase from cytosol to plasma membrane, indicating that the maximal effect of protein kinase on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity depends on the synergistic action of protein kinases from both plasma membrane and cytosol. This is the first demonstration of a protein kinase activated by PMA in L. amazonensis and the first evidence for a possible role in the regulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity in this trypanosomatid. Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite. PMID:17475255

  17. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Colomb, Julien; Brembs, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment), one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning), may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity. PMID:27168980

  18. Primary breast cancer induces pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and promotes metastasis via the VEGF-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Man; Qin, Chengyong; Han, Mingyong

    2016-06-01

    The lung is one of the most frequent target organs for breast cancer metastasis. When breast cancer cells from a primary tumor do not colonize the lung, which we named the premetastatic phase, the microenvironment of the lung has already been influenced by the primary tumor. However, little is known about the exact premetastatic alteration and regulatory mechanisms of the lung. Here, we used 4T1 cells (a mouse breast cancer cell line which can specifically metastasize to the lung) to build a mouse breast cancer model. We found that primary breast tumor induced increased pulmonary vascular permeability in the premetastatic phase, which facilitated the leakage of rhodamine-dextran and the extravasation of intravenous therapy injected cancer cells. Furthermore, tight junctions (TJs) were disrupted, and the expression of zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), one of the most important components of tight junctions, was decreased in the premetastatic lung. In addition, elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was involved in the destabilization of tight junctions and the VEGF antagonist bevacizumab reversed the primary tumor-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Moreover, activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway disrupted the integrity of TJs and accordingly, the disruption could be alleviated by blocking VEGF. Taken together, these data demonstrate that primary breast cancer may induce tight junction disruptions in the premetastatic lung via the VEGF-PKC pathway and promote pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability before metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152457

  19. The Interaction between Cancer Stem Cell Marker CD133 and Src Protein Promotes Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Phosphorylation and Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chanjuan; Li, Yinan; Xing, Yang; Cao, Benjin; Yang, Fan; Yang, Tianxiao; Ai, Zhilong; Wei, Yuanyan; Jiang, Jianhai

    2016-07-22

    CD133, a widely known cancer stem cell marker, has been proved to promote tumor metastasis. However, the mechanism by which CD133 regulates metastasis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that CD133 knockdown inhibits cancer cell migration, and CD133 overexpression promotes cell migration. CD133 expression is beneficial to activate the Src-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. Further studies show that CD133 could interact with Src, and the region between amino acids 845 and 857 in the CD133 C-terminal domain is indispensable for its interaction with Src. The interaction activates Src to phosphorylate its substrate FAK and to promote cell migration. Likewise, a Src binding-deficient CD133 mutant loses the abilities to increase Src and FAK phosphorylation and to promote cell migration. Inhibition of Src activity by PP2, a known Src activity inhibitor, could block the activation of FAK phosphorylation and cell migration induced by CD133. In summary, our data suggest that activation of FAK by the interaction between CD133 and Src promotes cell migration, providing clues to understand the migratory mechanism of CD133(+) tumor cells. PMID:27226554

  20. The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramón; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernández-Muáoz, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgfβ-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

  1. Small molecule inhibitors of the Pyk2 and FAK kinases modulate chemoattractant-induced migration, adhesion and Akt activation in follicular and marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kathy W K; Lin, Kevin B L; Dang-Lawson, May; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Aspnes, Gary E; Buckbinder, Leonard; Gold, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    B-lymphocytes produce protective antibodies but also contribute to autoimmunity. In particular, marginal zone (MZ) B cells recognize both microbial components and self-antigens. B cell trafficking is critical for B cell activation and is controlled by chemoattactants such as CXCL13 and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). The related tyrosine kinases focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) regulate cell migration and adhesion but their roles in B cells are not fully understood. Using a novel Pyk2-selective inhibitor described herein (PF-719), as well as a FAK-selective inhibitor, we show that both Pyk2 and FAK are important for CXCL13- and S1P-induced migration of B-2 cells and MZ B cells. In contrast, LFA-1-mediated adhesion required only Pyk2 whereas activation of the Akt pro-survival kinase required FAK but not Pyk2. Thus Pyk2 and FAK mediate critical processes in B cells and these inhibitors can be used to further elucidate their functions in B cells. PMID:22507871

  2. FAK tyrosine 407 organized with integrin αVβ5 in Hs578Ts(i)8 advanced triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Payan, Iliet; McDonnell, Susan; Torres, Haydee M; Steelant, Wim F A; Van Slambrouck, Séverine

    2016-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase known to promote cell migration and invasiveness. Overexpression and increased activity of FAK are closely associated with metastatic breast tumors and are linked to poor prognosis. This study discovered an inverse correlation between FAK activity and migratory and invasive behavior. We show decreased phosphorylation levels of FAK at tyrosine residues 397 and 861, and most prominently at Y407, in the more invasive Hs578Ts(i)8 subclone of the Hs578T breast cancer progression model. There is limited information available on FAK Y407, and here we demonstrate its presence in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Furthermore, our studies propose that localization of FAK Y407, rather than FAK expression and overall FAK Y407 phosphorylation levels, is crucial for the control of cell motility. FAK Y407 is found extensively at the cell periphery in focal adhesion-like structures at each end of actin stress fibers and organized with integrin αVβ5 receptors, linking the αVβ5 integrin-mediated migratory behavior of Hs578Ts(i)8 cells to FAK Y407. These data suggest that subcellular localization, next to expression and activity levels, are important for understanding TNBC progression. Such an approach opens new avenues for further studies and may provide novel insight for the classification of TNBC and facilitate the discovery of effective biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of TNBC. PMID:26984508

  3. MicroRNA-379-5p inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting FAK/AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Song; Li, Hua-Shu; Huang, Jiong-Qiang; Dong, Shi-Hao; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Yi, Wei; Zhan, Gao-Fang; Feng, Ju-Tao; Sun, Jian-Cong; Huang, Xiao-Hui

    2016-05-28

    Some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, the roles and mechanisms of several miRNAs in HCC remain poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-379-5p, which is down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, is associated with advanced TNM stage and metastasis in HCC. The ectopic overexpression of miR-379-5p inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, miR-379 knockdown increased migration, invasion and EMT in HCC cells. Moreover, miR-379-5p exerted this function by directly targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) 3'-UTR and repressing FAK expression, thus leading to suppression of AKT signaling. Furthermore, the tumor suppressive effects of miR-379-5p in HCC cells were reversed by activating AKT signaling or restoring FAK expression. In clinical samples of HCC, miR-379-5p negatively correlated with FAK, which was up-regulated in HCC. Taken together, our findings highlight the important role of miR-379-5p in regulating the EMT and metastasis of HCC by targeting FAK/AKT signaling, suggesting that miR-379-5p may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for HCC. PMID:26944318

  4. Surface wettability of plasma SiOx:H nanocoating-induced endothelial cells' migration and the associated FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xianliang; Zhang, Qin; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Chaojun; Yu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-02-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials. There is no clear relationship and mechanism between EC adhesion and migration behaviour on surfaces with varying wettabilities. As model substrates, plasma SiO(x):H nanocoatings with well-controlled surface wettability (with water contact angles in the range of 98.5 ± 2.3° to 26.3 ± 4.0°) were used in this study to investigate the effects of surface wettability on cell adhesion/migration and associated protein expressions in FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways. It was found that EC adhesion/migration showed opposite behaviour on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces promoted EC migration but were anti-adhesions). The number of adherent ECs showed a maximum on hydrophilic surfaces, while cells adhered to hydrophobic surfaces exhibited a tendency for cell migration. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor targeting the Y-397 site of FAK could significantly inhibit cell adhesion/migration, suggesting that EC adhesion and migration on surfaces with different wettabilities involve (p)FAK and its downstream signalling pathways. Western blot results suggested that the FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways were correlative to EC migration on hydrophobic plasma SiO(x):H surfaces, but uncertain to hydrophilic surfaces. This work demonstrated that surface wettability could induce cellular behaviours that were associated with different cellular signalling events. PMID:21715399

  5. Hypotonicity stimulates renal epithelial sodium transport by activating JNK via receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Taruno, Akiyuki; Niisato, Naomi; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We previously reported that hypotonic stress stimulated transepithelial Na(+) transport via a pathway dependent on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK; Niisato N, Van Driessche W, Liu M, Marunaka Y. J Membr Biol 175: 63-77, 2000). However, it is still unknown what type of PTK mediates this stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the role of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the hypotonic stimulation of Na(+) transport. In renal epithelial A6 cells, we observed inhibitory effects of AG1478 [an inhibitor of the EGF receptor (EGFR)] and AG1296 [an inhibitor of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR)] on both the hypotonic stress-induced stimulation of Na(+) transport and the hypotonic stress-induced ligand-independent activation of EGFR. We further studied whether hypotonic stress activates members of the MAP kinase family, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK/SAPK, via an RTK-dependent pathway. The present study indicates that hypotonic stress induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK, but not p38 MAPK, that the hypotonic stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK was diminished by coapplication of AG1478 and AG1296, and that only JNK/SAPK was involved in the hypotonic stimulation of Na(+) transport. A further study using cyclohexamide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) suggests that both RTK and JNK/SAPK contributed to the protein synthesis-independent early phase in hypotonic stress-induced Na(+) transport, but not to the protein synthesis-dependent late phase. The present study also suggests involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade-mediated Na(+) transport. These observations indicate that 1) hypotonic stress activates JNK/SAPK via RTKs in a ligand-independent pathway, 2) the RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade acts as a mediator of hypotonic stress for stimulation of Na(+) transport, and 3) PI3-kinase is involved in the RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade for the hypotonic stress-induced stimulation of Na(+) transport. PMID:17344192

  6. Pyridopyrimidinone Derivatives as Potent and Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2-aminopyridopyrimidinone based JNK (c-jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors were discovered and developed. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were systematically developed utilizing biochemical and cell based assays and in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies. Through the optimization of lead compound 1, several potent and selective JNK inhibitors with high oral bioavailability were developed. Inhibitor 13 was a potent JNK3 inhibitor (IC50 = 15 nM), had high selectivity against p38 (IC50 > 10 μM), had high potency in functional cell based assays, and had high stability in human liver microsome (t1/2 = 76 min), a clean CYP-450 inhibition profile, and excellent oral bioavailability (%F = 87). Moreover, cocrystal structures of compounds 13 and 22 in JNK3 were solved at 2.0 Å. These structures elucidated the binding mode (Type-I binding) and can pave the way for further inhibitor design of this pyridopyrimidinone scaffold for JNK inhibition. PMID:25893042

  7. Hyperglycemia induces iNOS gene expression and consequent nitrosative stress via JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Peixin; CAO, Yuanning; LI, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Objective Maternal diabetes adversely impacts embryonic development. We test the hypothesis that hyperglycemia-induced JNK1/2 activation mediates iNOS induction. Study Design Levels of iNOS mRNA and nitrosylated protein were determined in cultured C57BL/6J conceptuses exposed to hyperglycemia (300 mg/dl glucose) and C57BL/6J embryos exposed to streptozotocin-induced diabetes. iNOS-luciferase activity and endogenous reactive nitrogen species were determined in transfected PYS-2 (mouse teratocarcinoma) cells exposed to hyperglycemia (450 mg/dl glucose). Results Hyperglycemia increased iNOS mRNA and SP600125, a potent JNK1/2 inhibitor, abolished this effect. Hyperglycemia increased iNOS-luciferase activities and SP600125 blocked this effect. Diabetes increased iNOS mRNA and jnk2 gene deletion abrogated this effect. Correlated with iNOS gene induction, both hyperglycemia in vitro and diabetes in vivo enhanced the production of reactive nitrogen species and increased protein nitrosylation. jnk2 gene deletion blocked diabetes-induced protein nitrosylation. Conclusion JNK1/2 activation mediates hyperglycemia-induced iNOS gene expression and consequent nitrosative stress in diabetic embryopathy. PMID:20541731

  8. The JNK Pathway Is a Key Mediator of Anopheles gambiae Antiplasmodial Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Lindsey S.; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes limits Plasmodium infection through multiple molecular mechanisms. For example, midgut invasion by the parasite triggers an epithelial nitration response that promotes activation of the complement-like system. We found that suppression of the JNK pathway, by silencing either Hep, JNK, Jun or Fos expression, greatly enhanced Plasmodium infection; while overactivating this cascade, by silencing the suppressor Puckered, had the opposite effect. The JNK pathway limits infection via two coordinated responses. It induces the expression of two enzymes (HPx2 and NOX5) that potentiate midgut epithelial nitration in response to Plasmodium infection and regulates expression of two key hemocyte-derived immune effectors (TEP1 and FBN9). Furthermore, the An. gambiae L3–5 strain that has been genetically selected to be refractory (R) to Plasmodium infection exhibits constitutive overexpression of genes from the JNK pathway, as well as midgut and hemocyte effector genes. Silencing experiments confirmed that this cascade mediates, to a large extent, the drastic parasite elimination phenotype characteristic of this mosquito strain. In sum, these studies revealed the JNK pathway as a key regulator of the ability of An. gambiae mosquitoes to limit Plasmodium infection and identified several effector genes mediating these responses. PMID:24039583

  9. The JNK pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial immunity.

    PubMed

    Garver, Lindsey S; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes limits Plasmodium infection through multiple molecular mechanisms. For example, midgut invasion by the parasite triggers an epithelial nitration response that promotes activation of the complement-like system. We found that suppression of the JNK pathway, by silencing either Hep, JNK, Jun or Fos expression, greatly enhanced Plasmodium infection; while overactivating this cascade, by silencing the suppressor Puckered, had the opposite effect. The JNK pathway limits infection via two coordinated responses. It induces the expression of two enzymes (HPx2 and NOX5) that potentiate midgut epithelial nitration in response to Plasmodium infection and regulates expression of two key hemocyte-derived immune effectors (TEP1 and FBN9). Furthermore, the An. gambiae L3-5 strain that has been genetically selected to be refractory (R) to Plasmodium infection exhibits constitutive overexpression of genes from the JNK pathway, as well as midgut and hemocyte effector genes. Silencing experiments confirmed that this cascade mediates, to a large extent, the drastic parasite elimination phenotype characteristic of this mosquito strain. In sum, these studies revealed the JNK pathway as a key regulator of the ability of An. gambiae mosquitoes to limit Plasmodium infection and identified several effector genes mediating these responses. PMID:24039583

  10. Co-Targeting of JNK and HUNK in Resistant HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phelps-Polirer, Kendall; Abt, Melissa A.; Smith, Danzell; Yeh, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for successful primary treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer include use of the HER2 inhibitors trastuzumab or lapatinib in combination with standard chemotherapy. While successful, many patients develop resistance to these HER2 inhibitors indicating an unmet need. Consequently, current research efforts are geared toward understanding mechanisms of resistance and the signaling modalities that regulate these mechanisms. We have undertaken a study to examine whether signaling molecules downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor, which often act as compensatory signaling outlets to circumvent HER2 inhibition, can be co-targeted to overcome resistance. We identified JNK signaling as a potential area of intervention and now show that inhibiting JNK using the pan-JNK inhibitor, SP600125, is effective in the HER2-positive, resistant JIMT-1 xenograft mammary tumor model. We also investigate potential combination strategies to bolster the effects of JNK inhibition and find that co-targeting of JNK and the protein kinase HUNK can prohibit tumor growth of resistant HER2-positive mammary tumors in vivo. PMID:27045589

  11. Bile acids-mediated overexpression of MUC4 via FAK-dependent c-Jun activation in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Suhasini; Cruz, Eric; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Guha, Sushovan; Brand, Randall E; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Kumar, Sushil; Batra, Surinder K

    2016-08-01

    The majority of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients are clinically presented with obstructive jaundice with elevated levels of circulatory bilirubin and alkaline phosphatases. In the current study, we examined the implications of bile acids (BA), an important component of bile, on the pathophysiology of PC and investigated their mechanistic association in tumor-promoting functions. Integration of results from PC patient samples and autochthonous mouse models showed an elevated levels of BA (p < 0.05) in serum samples compared to healthy controls. Similarly, an elevated BA levels was observed in pancreatic juice derived from PC patients (p < 0.05) than non-pancreatic non-healthy (NPNH) controls, further establishing the clinical association of BA with the pathogenesis of PC. The tumor-promoting functions of BA were established by observed transcriptional upregulation of oncogenic MUC4 expression. Luciferase reporter assay revealed distal MUC4 promoter as the primary responsive site to BA. In silico analysis recognized two c-Jun binding sites at MUC4 distal promoter, which was biochemically established using ChIP assay. Interestingly, BA treatment led to an increased transcription and activation of c-Jun in a FAK-dependent manner. Additionally, BA receptor, namely FXR, which is also upregulated at transcriptional level in PC patient samples, was demonstrated as an upstream molecule in BA-mediated FAK activation, plausibly by regulating Src activation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that elevated levels of BA increase the tumorigenic potential of PC cells by inducing FXR/FAK/c-Jun axis to upregulate MUC4 expression, which is overexpressed in pancreatic tumors and is known to be associated with progression and metastasis of PC. PMID:27185392

  12. αvβ5 Integrin/FAK/PGC-1α Pathway Confers Protective Effects on Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Roggia, Murilo F.; Ueta, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the mechanism of the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) by photoreceptor outer segments (POS) and its effects on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Methods PGC-1α upregulation by POS was confirmed in ARPE-19 cells and in RPE ex vivo. To elucidate the mechanism, siRNAs against β5 integrin, CD36, Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK), and Atg5, blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK, and a specific inhibitor for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were used. We examined the effect of POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial biogenesis, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) after H2O2 treatment, and lysosomal activity. Lysosomal activity was evaluated through transcriptional factor EB and its target genes, and the activity of cathepsin D. Lipid metabolism after POS treatment was assessed using Oil Red O and BODIPY C11. RPE phenotypes of PGC-1α-deficient mice were examined. Results POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation was suppressed by siRNA against β5 integrin and a FAK inhibitor. siRNAs and blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK enhanced the effect of POS on PGC-1α. The upregulation of PGC-1α increased the levels of mRNA for antioxidant enzymes and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ROS levels, and reduced SA-β-gal staining in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells. PGC-1α was critical for lysosomal activity and lipid metabolism after POS treatment. PGC-1α-deficient mice demonstrated an accumulation of type 2 lysosomes in RPE, thickening of Bruch’s membrane, and poor choriocapillaris vasculature. Conclusions The binding, but not the internalization of POS confers protective effects on RPE cells through the αvβ5 integrin/FAK/PGC-1α pathway. PMID:26244551

  13. Effect of Protein Kinase C delta (PKC-δ) Inhibition on the Transcriptome of Normal and Systemic Sclerosis Human Dermal Fibroblasts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wermuth, Peter J.; Addya, Sankar; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase C- δ (PKC-δ) inhibition with the selective inhibitor, rottlerin, resulted in potent downregulation of type I collagen expression and production in normal human dermal fibroblasts and abrogated the exaggerated type I collagen production and expression in fibroblasts cultured from affected skin from patients with the fibrosing disorder systemic sclerosis (SSc). To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the ability of PKC-δ to regulate collagen production in fibroblasts, we examined the effects of PKC-δ inhibition on the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts. Normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with rottlerin (5 µM), and their gene expression was analyzed by microarrays. Pathway analysis and gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes in each comparison were performed. Identification of significantly overrepresented transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) was performed using the Promoter Analysis and Interaction Network Toolset (PAINT) program. PKC-δ activity was also inhibited using RNA interference (siRNA) and by treating fibroblasts with a specific PKC-δ inhibitory cell permeable peptide. Differential gene expression of 20 genes was confirmed using real time PCR. PKC-δ inhibition caused a profound change in the transcriptome of normal and SSc human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Pathway and gene ontology analysis identified multiple cellular and organismal pathways affected by PKC-δ inhibition. Furthermore, both pathway and PAINT analyses indicated that the transcription factor NFκB played an important role in the transcriptome changes induced by PKC-δ inhibition. Multiple genes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix components were significantly reduced in SSc fibroblasts and their expression was increased by PKC-δ inhibition. These results indicate that isoform-specific inhibition of PKC-δ profibrotic effects may represent a novel

  14. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis. PMID:25396715

  15. Interleukin-6 Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression via Src-FAK-STAT3 Signaling in Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Ou, George; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels correlates with tumor grade and poor prognosis in cancer patients. IL-6 has been shown to promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) induction in tumor cells. We recently showed that IL-6 also induced VEGF-C expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). However, the signaling mechanisms involved in IL-6-induces VEGF-C induction in LECs remain incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the causal role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in inducing VEGF-C expression in IL-6-stimulated murine LECs (SV-LECs). FAK signaling blockade by NSC 667249 (a FAK inhibitor) attenuated IL-6-induced VEGF-C expression and VEGF-C promoter-luciferase activities. IL-6’s enhancing effects of increasing FAK, ERK1/2, p38MAPK, C/EBPβ, p65 and STAT3 phosphorylation as well as C/EBPβ-, κB- and STAT3-luciferase activities were reduced in the presence of NSC 667249. STAT3 knockdown by STAT3 siRNA abrogated IL-6’s actions in elevating VEGF-C mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Src-FAK signaling blockade reduced IL-6’s enhancing effects of increasing STAT3 binding to the VEGF-C promoter region, cell migration and endothelial tube formation of SV-LECs. Together these results suggest that IL-6 increases VEGF-C induction and lymphangiogenesis may involve, at least in part, Src-FAK-STAT3 cascade in LECs. PMID:27383632

  16. Regulation of the effects of CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress by JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schattenberg, Jörn M.; Czaja, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to cellular oxidative stress that underlies a variety of forms of hepatocyte injury and death including that from alcohol. Although ROS can induce cell damage through direct effects on cellular macromolecules, the injurious effects of ROS are mediated largely through changes in signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In response to alcohol, hepatocytes have increased levels of the enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) which generates an oxidant stress that promotes the development of alcoholic steatosis and liver injury. These effects are mediated in large part through overactivation of JNK that alters cell death pathways. Targeting the JNK pathway or its downstream effectors may be a useful therapeutic approach to the oxidative stress generated by CYP2E1 in alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25462060

  17. JNK pathway activation is able to synchronize neuronal death and glial phagocytosis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shklover, J; Mishnaevski, K; Levy-Adam, F; Kurant, E

    2015-01-01

    Glial phagocytosis of superfluous neurons and damaged or aberrant neuronal material is crucial for normal development and maintenance of the CNS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between neuronal death and glial phagocytosis are poorly understood. We describe a novel mechanism that is able to synchronize neuronal cell death and glial phagocytosis of dying neurons in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. This mechanism involves c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which is required for developmental apoptosis of specific neurons during embryogenesis. We demonstrate that the dJNK pathway gain-of-function in neurons leads to dJNK signaling in glia, which results in upregulation of glial phagocytosis. Importantly, this promotion of phagocytosis is not mediated by upregulation of the glial phagocytic receptors SIMU and DRPR, but by increasing glial capacity to degrade apoptotic particles inside phagosomes. The proposed mechanism may be important for removal of damaged neurons in the developing and mature CNS. PMID:25695602

  18. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Sasajima, Junpei; Ikuta, Katsuya; Akutsu, Hiroaki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. PMID:27507542

  19. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Sasajima, Junpei; Ikuta, Katsuya; Akutsu, Hiroaki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. PMID:27507542

  20. Breviscapine attenuatted contrast medium-induced nephropathy via PKC/Akt/MAPK signalling in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenbin; Li, Zhengwei; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hao; Wu, Youyang; Wang, Yi; Shen, Zhida; He, Jialin; Chen, Shengyu; Zhang, Jiefang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a major cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced renal injury. Recent studies reveal that Breviscapine can ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in mice. Yet it remains unknown if Breviscapine could reduce CIN in diabetic mice. In this study, male C57/BL6J mice were randomly divided into 7 groups: control, diabetes mellitus, CIN, diabetes mellitus+CIN, diabetes mellitus+Breviscapine, CIN+Breviscapine and diabetes mellitus+CIN+Breviscapine. Model of CIN was induced by tail intravenous administration of iopromide and model of diabetes mellitus was induced by Streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Breviscapine was administered intragastrically for 4 weeks. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, markers of renal fibrosis, phosphorylation of protein kinase C/Akt/mitogen activated protein kinases were measured by western blot. We found out that diabetes mellitus aggravated CIN damage. Renal histological analysis showed Breviscapine reduced of renal fibrosis and tubular damage. Breviscapine was also shown markedly to ameliorate CIN fibrotic markers expression, reduced proteinuria and serum creatinine. Furthermore, Breviscapine decreased phosphorylation of PKCβII, Akt, JNK1/2 and p38. Therefore, Breviscapine treatment could ameliorate the development of CIN in diabetic mice, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal fibrosis via phosphorylation of PKCβII/Akt/JNK1/2/p38 signalling. PMID:27158329

  1. ERK- and JNK-Dependent Signaling Pathways Contribute to Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2007-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) often play important roles in virus infection. To explore intracellular signaling pathways induced by baculovirus infection, we examined the involvement of MAPKs in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection of BmN cells. We found that specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) significantly reduced occlusion body (OB) formation and budded virus (BV) production. Next, we quantified OB and BV production after applying the inhibitors at different times postinfection (p.i.). The inhibitors significantly reduced OB and BV production to various extents when applied at 12 h p.i., indicating that the reduction of BmNPV infectivity by these inhibitors occurs at the late stage of infection. Also, we observed that these inhibitors markedly repressed or deregulated the expression of delayed early, late, and very late gene products. Western blot analysis using phospho-MAPK-specific antibodies showed that ERK and JNK were activated at the late stage of BmNPV infection. In addition, the magnitude and pattern of MAPK activation were dependent on the multiplicity of infection. To verify the effects of the inhibitors on BmNPV infection, we also attempted to knock down the B. mori genes BmErk and BmJnk, which encode ERK and JNK, respectively. Knockdown of BmErk and BmJnk resulted in the reduced production of OBs and BVs, confirming that BmERK and BmJNK are involved in the BmNPV infection process. Taken together, these results indicate that the activation of MAPK signaling pathways is required for efficient infection by BmNPV. PMID:17913811

  2. Decline in the Recovery from Synaptic Depression in Heavier Aplysia Results from Decreased Serotonin-Induced Novel PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Tyler William; Sossin, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia are important behaviors for protecting the animal from predation. Habituation and dishabituation allow for experience-dependent tuning of these reflexes and the mechanisms underlying these forms of behavioral plasticity involve changes in transmitter release from the sensory to motor neuron synapses through homosynaptic depression and the serotonin-mediated recovery from depression, respectively. Interestingly, dishabituation is reduced in older animals with no corresponding change in habituation. Here we show that the cultured sensory neurons of heavier animals (greater than 120g) that form synaptic connections with motor neurons have both reduced recovery from depression and reduced novel PKC Apl II activation with 5HT. The decrease in the recovery from depression correlated better with the size of the animal than the age of the animal. Much of this change in PKC activation and synaptic facilitation following depression can be rescued by direct activation of PKC Apl II with phorbol dibutyrate, suggesting a change in the signal transduction pathway upstream of PKC Apl II activation in the sensory neurons of larger animals. PMID:26317974

  3. Targeting protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) in cancer with the phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen.

    PubMed

    Lahn, Michael; Sundell, Karen; Moore, Stephanie

    2003-12-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) offer a novel pharmacological platform to develop highly specific drugs. As shown by the clinical development of aprinocarsen, an ASO directed against protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha), this platform has made a remarkable advance from the bench to the bedside. This review summarizes the rationale of the early development of aprinocarsen and current clinical experience. PMID:14751841

  4. Stanniocalicin 2 Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion via the PKC/Claudin-1-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lina; Yu, Xiaoli; Yang, Zhaozhi; Deng, Yun; Meng, Jiao; Feng, Yan; Guo, Xiaomao; Yang, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC), a glycoprotein hormone, is expressed in a wide variety of tissues to regulate Ca2+ and PO4- homeostasis. STC2, a member of STC family, has been reported to be associated with tumor development. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of STC2 is associated with migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. We found that breast cancer cell line 231 HM transfected with STC2 shRNA displayed high motility, fibroblast morphology, and enhanced cell migration and invasion. Introduction of STC2 in 231 cells reduced cell migration and invasion. In response to irradiation, silencing of STC2 in 231 HM cells reduced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of STC2 in 231 cells promoted apoptosis, compared with in control cells. Mechanistic study showed that STC2 negatively regulated PKC to control the expression of Claudin-1, which subsequently induced the expressions of EMT-related factors including ZEB1, ZO-1, Slug, Twist, and MMP9. Suppression of PKC activity by using a PKC inhibitor (Go 6983) restored the normal motility of STC2-silenced cells. Furthermore, in vivo animal assay showed that STC2 inhibited tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Collectively, these results indicate that STC2 may inhibit EMT at least partially through the PKC/Claudin-1-mediated signaling in human breast cancer cells. Thus, STC2 may be exploited as a biomarker for metastasis and targeted therapy in human breast cancer. PMID:25830567

  5. Sustained Wnt/β-catenin signalling causes neuroepithelial aberrations through the accumulation of aPKC at the apical pole.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Saade, Murielle; Menendez, Anghara; Marti, Elisa; Pons, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    β-Catenin mediates the canonical Wnt pathway by stimulating Tcf-dependent transcription and also associates to N-cadherin at the apical complex (AC) of neuroblasts. Here, we show that while β-catenin activity is required to form the AC and to maintain the cell polarity, oncogenic mutations that render stable forms of β-catenin (sβ-catenin) maintain the stemness of neuroblasts, inhibiting their differentiation and provoking aberrant growth. In examining the transcriptional and structural roles of β-catenin, we find that while β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity induces atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) expression, an alternative effect of β-catenin restricts aPKC to the apical pole of neuroepithelial cells. In agreement, we show that a constitutively active form of aPKC reproduces the neuroepithelial aberrations induced by β-catenin. Therefore, we conclude that β-catenin controls the cell fate and polarity of the neuroblasts through the expression and localization of aPKC. PMID:24942669

  6. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  7. PKC-α contributes to high NaCl-induced activation of NFAT5 (TonEBP/OREBP) through MAPK ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Ferraris, Joan D; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M; Burg, Maurice B; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2015-01-15

    High NaCl in the renal medullary interstitial fluid powers the concentration of urine but can damage cells. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) activates the expression of osmoprotective genes. We studied whether PKC-α contributes to the activation of NFAT5. PKC-α protein abundance was greater in the renal medulla than in the cortex. Knockout of PKC-α reduced NFAT5 protein abundance and expression of its target genes in the inner medulla. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, high NaCl increased PKC-α activity, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PKC-α attenuated high NaCl-induced NFAT5 transcriptional activity. Expression of ERK1/2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were higher in the renal inner medulla than in the cortex. Knockout of PKC-α decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the inner medulla, as did knockdown of PKC-α in HEK-293 cells. Also, knockdown of ERK2 reduced high NaCl-dependent NFAT5 transcriptional activity in HEK-293 cells. Combined knockdown of PKC-α and ERK2 had no greater effect than knockdown of either alone. Knockdown of either PKC-α or ERK2 reduced the high NaCl-induced increase of NFAT5 transactivating activity. We have previously found that the high NaCl-induced increase of phosphorylation of Ser(591) on Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1-S591-P) contributes to the activation of NFAT5 in cell culture, and here we found high levels of SHP-1-S591-P in the inner medulla. PKC-α has been previously shown to increase SHP-1-S591-P, which raised the possibility that PKC-α might be acting through SHP-1. However, we did not find that knockout of PKC-α in the renal medulla or knockdown in HEK-293 cells affected SHP-1-S591-P. We conclude that PKC-α contributes to high NaCl-dependent activation of NFAT5 through ERK1/2 but not through SHP-1-S591. PMID:25391900

  8. Sevoflurane Stimulates MAP Kinase Signal transduction through the Activation of PKC α and βII in Fetal Rat Cerebral Cortex Cultured Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nagata, Hidetaka; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme that participates in various neuronal functions. PKC has also been identified as a target molecule for general anesthetic actions. Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) have been thought to be target effectors of PKC. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane on PKC/MAPK cascade signaling in cultured fetal rat cerebral ­cortex neurons, prepared from embryonic day 18 fetuses. The effects of sevoflurane on the translocation of 7 PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, γ, δ, ɛ and ζ) were observed by immunoblotting using isoform-selective antibodies to PKCs. The treatment of neurons with sevoflurane induced the translocation of PKC α and PKC βII species from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, which indicated the activation of these PKC isoforms. In contrast, there was no clear change in the distribution of other PKC isoforms. We next examined whether the specific activation of PKC α and βII by sevoflurane could stimulate the MAP kinase signaling pathway in cultured neurons. Raf phosphorylation was increased by the administration of 0.25 mM sevoflurane. The phosphorylation of Raf proteins reached a maximum at 5–10 min. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of MEK proteins was increased at 10–15 min after sevoflurane treatments. That of ERK proteins was induced at 15–60 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK induced by sevoflurane was significantly decreased by the treatment of PKC inhibitor (staurosporine) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059). On the other hand, the contents of total Raf, MEK and ERK proteins were relatively constant at all times examined. To examine the ­localization of phosphorylated-ERK protein, immunohistochemical staining of sevoflurane-treated cultured neurons was performed. The phosphorylated-ERK proteins were markedly accumulated in both the cytosol of the cell body and the neurites in the neuronal cells with time after 0

  9. Computational Investigation of Pkcβ Inhibitors for the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gogula, Susmitha Valli; Divakar, Ch; Satyanarayana, Ch; Kumar, Yedla Phani; Lavanaya, Vadapalli Santhosi

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the attenuating complications of diabetes mellitus. The key gene responsible for causing diabetic retinopathy is protein kinase C beta (PKCβ). Protein kinase C is a family of protein kinase enzymes which are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through phosphorylation mechanism and plays a crucial role in signal transduction mechanisms. Among all the PKC isoenzymes, PKCβ could be a significant isoenzyme involved in vascular dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Studies show that oral administration of PKCβ inhibitor Ruboxistaurin (LY333531), decreases vessel permeability and improves retinal condition. Thus compounds that decrease the PKCβ activation would be helpful in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The compounds similar to Ruboxistaurin are taken from Super Target database and docking analysis was performed. Maleimide derivative 3 showed highest binding affinities compared to Ruboxistaurin and so we advise that compound may be utilized in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24497733

  10. Computational investigation of pkcβ inhibitors for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gogula, Susmitha Valli; Divakar, Ch; Satyanarayana, Ch; Kumar, Yedla Phani; Lavanaya, Vadapalli Santhosi

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the attenuating complications of diabetes mellitus. The key gene responsible for causing diabetic retinopathy is protein kinase C beta (PKCβ). Protein kinase C is a family of protein kinase enzymes which are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through phosphorylation mechanism and plays a crucial role in signal transduction mechanisms. Among all the PKC isoenzymes, PKCβ could be a significant isoenzyme involved in vascular dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Studies show that oral administration of PKCβ inhibitor Ruboxistaurin (LY333531), decreases vessel permeability and improves retinal condition. Thus compounds that decrease the PKCβ activation would be helpful in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The compounds similar to Ruboxistaurin are taken from Super Target database and docking analysis was performed. Maleimide derivative 3 showed highest binding affinities compared to Ruboxistaurin and so we advise that compound may be utilized in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24497733

  11. Acadesine Kills Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Cells through PKC-Dependent Induction of Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Guillaume; Ben Sahra, Issam; Puissant, Alexandre; Colosetti, Pascal; Belhacene, Nathalie; Gounon, Pierre; Hofman, Paul; Bost, Fréderic; Cassuto, Jill-Patrice; Auberger, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL) was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients. PMID:19924252

  12. JNK Inhibition Reduced Retinal Ganglion Cell Death after Ischemia/Reperfusion In Vivo and after Hypoxia In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie; Favez, Tatiana; Pournaras, Constantin J; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key regulators that have been linked to cell survival and death. Among the main classes of MAPKs, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to mediate cell stress responses associated with apoptosis. In Vitro, hypoxia induced a significant increase in 661W cell death that paralleled increased activity of JNK and c-jun. 661W cells cultured in presence of the inhibitor of JNK (D-JNKi) were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced cell death. In vivo, elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the rat promoted cell death that correlated with modulation of JNK activation. In vivo inhibition of JNK activation with D-JNKi resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in apoptosis in the ganglion cell layer, the inner nuclear layer and the photoreceptor layer. These results highlight the protective effect of D-JNKi in ischemia/reperfusion induced cell death of the retina. PMID:26427475

  13. JNK1 in hematopoietically derived cells contributes to diet-induced inflammation and insulin resistance without affecting obesity.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Giovanni; Vilcu, Cristian; Neels, Jaap G; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam K; Luo, Jun-Li; Naugler, Willscott; Grivennikov, Sergei; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Scadeng, Miriam; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Karin, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes, and Jun kinases (JNKs) are key negative regulators of insulin sensitivity in the obese state. Activation of JNKs (mainly JNK1) in insulin target cells results in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) at serine and threonine residues that inhibit insulin signaling. JNK1 activation is also required for accumulation of visceral fat. Here we used reciprocal adoptive transfer experiments to determine whether JNK1 in myeloid cells, such as macrophages, also contributes to insulin resistance and central adiposity. Our results show that deletion of Jnk1 in the nonhematopoietic compartment protects mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, in part through decreased adiposity. By contrast, Jnk1 removal from hematopoietic cells has no effect on adiposity but confers protection against HFD-induced insulin resistance by decreasing obesity-induced inflammation. PMID:17983584

  14. TIMP-1 mediates TGF-β-dependent crosstalk between hepatic stellate and cancer cells via FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lim, Woosung; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yhong Sheen, Yhun

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in progression and metastasis of HCC. This study was undertaken to gain the proof of concept of a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase, EW-7197 as a potent anti-cancer therapy for HCC. We identified tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as one of the secreted proteins of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a key mediator of TGF-β-mediated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells. TGF-β signaling led to increased expression of TIMP-1, which activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling via its interaction with CD63. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling using EW-7197 significantly attenuated the progression and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC in an SK-HEP1-Luc orthotopic-xenograft mouse model. In addition, EW-7197 inhibited TGF-β-stimulated TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs as well as the TIMP-1-induced proliferation, motility, and survival of HCC cells. Further, EW-7197 interrupted TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and Akt signaling, leading to significant reductions in the motility and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. In conclusion, we found that TIMP-1 mediates TGF-β-regulated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells via FAK signaling. In addition, EW-7197 demonstrates potent in vivo anti-cancer therapeutic activity and may be a potential new anti-cancer drug of choice to treat patients with liver cancer. PMID:26549110

  15. TIMP-1 mediates TGF-β-dependent crosstalk between hepatic stellate and cancer cells via FAK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-A; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Shin; Lim, Woosung; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yhong Sheen, Yhun

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in progression and metastasis of HCC. This study was undertaken to gain the proof of concept of a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase, EW-7197 as a potent anti-cancer therapy for HCC. We identified tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as one of the secreted proteins of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a key mediator of TGF-β-mediated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells. TGF-β signaling led to increased expression of TIMP-1, which activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling via its interaction with CD63. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling using EW-7197 significantly attenuated the progression and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC in an SK-HEP1-Luc orthotopic-xenograft mouse model. In addition, EW-7197 inhibited TGF-β-stimulated TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs as well as the TIMP-1-induced proliferation, motility, and survival of HCC cells. Further, EW-7197 interrupted TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and Akt signaling, leading to significant reductions in the motility and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. In conclusion, we found that TIMP-1 mediates TGF-β-regulated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells via FAK signaling. In addition, EW-7197 demonstrates potent in vivo anti-cancer therapeutic activity and may be a potential new anti-cancer drug of choice to treat patients with liver cancer. PMID:26549110

  16. Restoration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in resistant human pancreatic cancer cells by a novel FAK inhibitor, PH11.

    PubMed

    Dao, P; Smith, N; Scott-Algara, D; Garbay, C; Herbeuval, J P; Chen, H

    2015-04-28

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) emerges as one of the most-promising experimental cancer therapeutic drugs and is currently being tested in clinical trials. However, both intrinsic and acquired resistance of human cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis poses a huge problem in establishing clinically efficient TRAIL therapies. To assess the regulation of TRAIL-resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells, we studied the TRAIL resistant pancreatic cell line PANC-1. We show that treatment with PH11, a novel Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) inhibitor in association with TRAIL rapidly induces apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant PANC-1 cells, but not in normal human fibroblast cells. To explain sensitization, we showed that PH11 restores TRAIL apoptotic pathway in PANC-1 cells through down-regulation of c-FLIP via inhibition of FAK and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. These findings suggest that this combined treatment may offer an attractive therapeutic strategy for safely and efficiently treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:25684663

  17. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wei-Hong; Yang, Li-Yun; Cao, Zhong-Yi; Qian, Yong

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  18. NG2 expression in microglial cells affects the expression of neurotrophic and proinflammatory factors by regulating FAK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lie; Su, Qing; Jie, Xiang; Liu, Antang; Wang, Hui; He, Beiping; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is significantly upregulated in a subset of glial cells in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) following CNS injury. NG2 is reported to promote the resulting inflammatory reaction, however, the mechanism by which NG2 mediates these effects is yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the changes in NG2 expressing microglial cells in the FMN in response to facial nerve axotomy (FNA) in mice. Our findings indicated that NG2 expression was progressively induced and upregulated specifically in the ipsilateral facial nucleus following FNA. To further investigate the effects of NG2 expression, in vivo studies in NG2-knockout mice and in vitro studies in rat microglial cells transfected with NG2 shRNAs were performed. Abolition of NG2 expression both in vitro and in vivo resulted in increased expression of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and glial derived neurotrophic factor), decreased expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased apoptosis in the ipsilateral facial nucleus in response to FNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of FAK in these NG2-induced effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that NG2 expression mediates inflammatory reactions and neurodegeneration in microglial cells in response to CNS injury, potentially by regulating FAK phosphorylation. PMID:27306838

  19. Widdrol-induced lipolysis is mediated by PKC and MEK/ERK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun Young; Yun, Hee Jung; Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Eun Woo; Kwon, Hyun Ju

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a serious medical condition causing various diseases such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. Fat cells (adipocytes) play an important role in the generation of energy through hydrolysis of lipids they accumulate. Therefore, induction of lipolysis (breakdown of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol), is one of the ways to treat obesity. In the present study, we investigated the lipolytic effect of widdrol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. Widdrol considerably increased the amount of glycerol released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes into the medium in a time- and dose-dependent manner. To determine the mechanism of this effect, we investigated the alterations in glycerol release and protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with widdrol alone or widdrol and inhibitors of proteins involved in the cAMP-dependent pathway or cAMP-independent PKC-MAPK pathway, which are known to induce lipolysis in adipocytes. The adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ-22536, PLA2 inhibitor dexamethasone, PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, and PKA inhibitor H-89, which were used to investigate the involvement of the cAMP-dependent pathway, did not affect the lipolytic effect of widdrol. Widdrol-induced phosphorylation of PKC, MEK, and ERK, which are related to the PKC-MAPK pathway, and their phosphorylation was inhibited by their inhibitors (H-7, U0126, and PD-98059, respectively). Moreover, the increase in glycerol release induced by widdrol was almost completely blocked by PKC, MEK, and ERK inhibitors. These results suggest that widdrol induces lipolysis through activation of the PKC-MEK-ERK pathway. PMID:26359088

  20. Heterologous, PKC-Mediated Desensitization of Human Histamine H3 Receptors Expressed in CHO-K1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Montejo-López, Wilber; Rivera-Ramírez, Nayeli; Escamilla-Sánchez, Juan; García-Hernández, Ubaldo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Desensitization is a major mechanism to regulate the functional response of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work we studied whether the human histamine H3 receptor of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) experiences heterologous desensitization mediated by PKC activation. Bioinformatic analysis indicated the presence of Serine and Threonine residues susceptible of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl terminus of the hH3R445. In CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with the hH3R445 direct PKC activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA, 200 nM) abolished H3R-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Activation of endogenous purinergic receptors by ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate, 10 μM) increased the free calcium intracellular concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) confirming their coupling to phospholipase C stimulation. Incubation with ATP also abolished H3R-mediated inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, and this effect was prevented by the PKC inhibitors Ro-31-8220 and Gö-6976. Pre-incubation with TPA or ATP reduced H3R-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]-GTPγS binding to membranes from CHO-K1-hH3R445 cells by 39.7 and 54.2 %, respectively, with no change in the agonist potency, and the effect was prevented by either Ro-31-8220 or Gö-6976. Exposure to ATP or TPA also resulted in the loss of cell surface H3Rs (-30.4 and -45.1 %) as evaluated by [(3)H]-NMHA binding to intact cells. These results indicate that the hH3R445 undergoes heterologous desensitization upon activation of receptors coupled to PKC stimulation. PMID:27350581

  1. Neuropeptide Y inhibits ciliary beat frequency in human ciliated cells via nPKC, independently of PKA.

    PubMed

    Wong, L B; Park, C L; Yeates, D B

    1998-08-01

    The intracellular mechanisms whereby the inhibitory neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) decreases ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were investigated in cultured human tracheal and bronchial ciliated cells. CBF was measured by nonstationary analysis laser light scattering. NPY at 1 and 10 microM decreased CBF from a baseline of 6.7 +/- 0.5 (n = 12) to 6.1 +/- 0.5 (P < 0.05) and 5.8 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.01) Hz, respectively. Prior application of PYX-1, an NPY antagonist, prevented the decreases of CBF induced by both doses of NPY. Two broad protein kinase C (PKC) kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and calphostin C, also abolished the NPY-induced decrease in CBF. The NPY-induced decrease in CBF was abolished by GF 109203X, a novel PKC (nPKC) isoform inhibitor, whereas this decrease in CBF was not attenuated by Gö-6976, a specific inhibitor of conventional PKC isoforms. Because pretreatment with NPY did not block the stimulation of CBF by forskolin and pretreatment with forskolin did not abolish the NPY-induced inhibition of CBF, this NPY receptor-mediated signal transduction mechanism appears to be independent of the adenylate cyclase-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase by thapsigargin also prevented the suppression of CBF induced by subsequent application of NPY. These novel data indicate that, in cultured human epithelia, NPY decreases CBF below its basal level via the activation of an nPKC isoform and Ca2+-ATPase, independent of the activity of PKA. This is consistent with the proposition that NPY is an autonomic efferent inhibitory neurotransmitter regulating mucociliary transport. PMID:9688598

  2. The complexity of signaling in host-pathogen interactions revealed by the Toxoplasma gondii-dependent modulation of JNK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Carmen, John C.; Southard, R. Chase; Sinai, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of apoptosis by Toxoplasma gondii is governed by its modulation of several signaling cascades including the NFκappaB and JNK pathways. This is evident in the dysregulation of JNK activation following treatment with UV and TNFα, both apoptogenic stimuli. Infection-mediated interference with the JNK cascade was found to be highly reproducible in HeLa cells. In light of emerging evidence regarding cross talk between the JNK and NFκB cascades, we examined the impact of infection in wild type and RelA/p65−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Remarkably, parasite infection failed to significantly impact both UV and TNFα-mediated JNK phosphorylation in both cell lines suggesting a cell type specific effect. Furthermore siRNA-mediated knockdown of RelA/p65 failed to impact the parasite mediated effects on stimulus dependent activation of JNK in HeLa cells. Finally, the infection mediated suppression of JNK phosphorylation in HeLa cells did not result in decreased JNK kinase activity. Rather, the reduced levels of phospho-JNK in infected cells correlated with increased phosphatase activity noted by the partial rescue of the phenotype following treatment with okadaic acid. Taken together the results indicate that manipulation of the JNK-pathway does not involve NFκB and is furthermore not a central component of the parasite enforced block of apoptosis. It further highlights the complexity of these systems and the danger of extrapolating results both within and across pathogen-host cell systems based on limited studies. PMID:18929560

  3. Activation of TLR3 Promotes the Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Upregulating the Protein Levels of JNK3

    PubMed Central

    Chintala, Shravan K.; Putris, Nahrain; Geno, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) promotes the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by upregulating the protein levels of c-jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3). Methods. Toll-like receptor 3-specific activator, Poly(I:C) (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid), or PBS was injected into the vitreous humor of Thy1-YFP mice. At 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatments, degeneration of RGCs was assessed by using antibodies against brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3a (Brn3a). A TLR3-specific inhibitor was injected into the vitreous humor with or without Poly(I:C). Western blot assays were performed to determine relative levels of TLR3, JNK3, pJNK3, and sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif-containing 1 (SARM1) proteins in retinal protein extracts, and immunohistochemistry assays were performed to determine their cellular localization in the retina. Mouse eyes were treated with Poly(I:C) or PBS along with MitoTracker Red, and colocalization of MitoTracker Red and JNK3 in the retinas was determined by using antibodies against JNK3. Results. Poly(I:C) activated TLR3 and upregulated its downstream target protein JNK3 but not SARM1 in the retina. Poly(I:C) activated TLR3 and upregulated JNK3 specifically in RGCs and promoted a significant degeneration of RGCs over a 72-hour time period. Toll-like receptor 3 upregulated the levels of JNK3 protein in the cytoplasm of RGCs, but not in the mitochondria. Toll-like receptor 3-specific inhibitor downregulated Poly(I:C)-mediated upregulation of JNK3 protein, and, in turn, significantly attenuated TLR3-induced degeneration of RGCs. Conclusions. Results presented in this study show that the activation of TLR3 alone promotes the degeneration of RGCs by upregulating the protein levels of JNK3. PMID:25564448

  4. PKC Signaling Regulates Drug Resistance of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans via Circuitry Comprised of Mkc1, Calcineurin, and Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    LaFayette, Shantelle L.; Collins, Cathy; Zaas, Aimee K.; Schell, Wiley A.; Betancourt-Quiroz, Marisol; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie; Perfect, John R.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which Hsp90 regulates drug

  5. Targeting JNK for therapeutic depletion of stem-like glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken-ichiro; Sato, Atsushi; Okada, Masashi; Shibuya, Keita; Seino, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kaori; Watanabe, Eriko; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Kayama, Takamasa; Kitanaka, Chifumi

    2012-01-01

    Control of the stem-like tumour cell population is considered key to realizing the long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma, one of the most devastating human malignancies. To date, possible therapeutic targets and targeting methods have been described, but none has yet proven to target stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain to the extent necessary to provide a survival benefit. Here we show that targeting JNK in vivo, the activity of which is required for the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells, via transient, systemic administration of a small-molecule JNK inhibitor depletes the self-renewing and tumour-initiating populations within established tumours, inhibits tumour formation by stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain, and provide substantial survival benefit without evidence of adverse events. Our findings not only implicate JNK in the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells but also demonstrate that JNK is a viable, clinically relevant therapeutic target in the control of stem-like glioblastoma cells. PMID:22816039

  6. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T Y; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters. PMID:27008853

  7. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Karothu Durga; Trinath, Jamma; Biswas, Ansuman; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2014-11-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is one of the rising causes for mortality worldwide representing nearly 10% of intensive care unit admissions. Susceptibility to sepsis is identified to be mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors and responsive signaling pathways of the host. The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated signaling events play critical role in bacterial infection triggered multi-organ failure, cardiac dysfunction and mortality. In the context of kinase specificities, an extensive library of anthrapyrazolone analogues has been investigated for the selective inhibition of c-JNK and thereby to gain control over the inflammation associated risks. In our comprehensive biochemical characterization, it is observed that alkyl and halogen substitution on the periphery of anthrapyrazolone increases the binding potency of the inhibitors specifically towards JNK. Further, it is demonstrated that hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions generated by these small molecules effectively block endotoxin-induced inflammatory genes expression in in vitro and septic shock in vivo, in a mouse model, with remarkable efficacies. Altogether, the obtained results rationalize the significance of the diversity oriented synthesis of small molecules for selective inhibition of JNK and their potential in the treatment of severe sepsis.

  8. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Mingxiang; Chen, Xianying; Lv, Chaoyang; Yi, Xilu; Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Hongfu

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  9. The JNK/c-Jun signaling axis contributes to the TDP-43-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). The contribution of the upregulation of TDP-43 expression to the pathogenesis has been strongly suggested by the observation that the level of TDP-43 expression is increased in both ALS and FTLD-U patients. We previously found that the low-grade (twice to five times more than the endogenous level) overexpression of TDP-43 induces neuronal cell death through the upregulation of Bim and CHOP expression and the downregulation of Bcl-xL expression. In this study, we further show that the low-grade overexpression of TDP-43 increases the level of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the co-incubation with a JNK inhibitor, the expression of a dominant-negative JNK, or the expression of a dominant-negative c-Jun inhibited the TDP-43-induced death in NSC34 motor neuronal cells. These data together suggest that the JNK/c-Jun signaling axis contributes to the TDP-43-induced cell death. PMID:23001869

  10. Huaier Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Arrest in S Phase via JNK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Jialin; Li, Xin; Sun, Ning; Yu, Rui; Zhao, Bochao; Yu, Dongyang; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Huaier aqueous extract, the main active constituent of Huaier proteoglycan, has antihepatocarcinoma activity in experimental and clinical settings. However, the potential and associated antihepatoma mechanisms of Huaier extract are not yet fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the inhibitory proliferation effect of Huaier extract on apoptosis and cycle of HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells. Our data demonstrated that incubation with Huaier extract resulted in a marked decrease in cell viability dose-dependently. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a 48 h treatment of Huaier extract caused cell apoptosis. Typical apoptotic nucleus alterations were observed with fluorescence microscope after Hoechst staining. Immunoblot analysis further demonstrated that Huaier extract activated caspase 3 and PARP. Additionally, Huaier extract inhibited the activity of p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK in terms of MAPK. Furthermore, Huaier extract induced HCC cells arrest in S phase and decreased the cycle related protein expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1. Studies with JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, showed that Huaier extract induced S phase arrest and decreased β-catenin and cyclin D1 expression via JNK signaling pathway. In conclusion, we verify that Huaier extract causes cell apoptosis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cells arrest in S phase via JNK pathway, which advances our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of Huaier extract in hepatocarcinoma management. PMID:26229542

  11. Novel thiosemicarbazides induced apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells via JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Malki, Ahmed; Elbayaa, Rasha Y; Ashour, Hayam M A; Loffredo, Christopher A; Youssef, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel thiosemicarbazides and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized derivatives studied, compound 2-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxybutanoyl)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide 4c showed the highest cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells as it reduced cell viability to approximately 15% compared to approximately 25% in normal breast epithelial cells. Therefore, we focused on 4c for further investigations. Our data showed that 4c induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells which was further confirmed by TUNEL assay. Western blotting analysis showed that compound 4c up-regulated the pro-survival proteins Bax, Bad and ERK1/2, while it down-regulated anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Akt and STAT-3. Additionally, 4c induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in MCF-7 cells. Pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with 10 µM of JNK inhibitor significantly reduced 4c-induced apoptosis. Molecular docking results suggested that compound 4c showed a binding pattern close to the pattern observed in the structure of the lead fragment bound to JNK1. Collectively, the data of current study suggested that the thiosemicarbazide 4c might trigger apoptosis in human MCF-7 cells by targeting JNK signaling. PMID:25363687

  12. Blockage of JNK pathway enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.-S.; Liu, Z.-M.; Hong, D.-Y.

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is well known as a carcinogen predisposing humans to some severe diseases and also as an effective medicine for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, and psoriasis. Multiple active mechanisms, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, have been proposed in therapy; however, the opposing effects of arsenic remain controversial. Our previous study found that arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced activation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) led to A431 cell death through the antagonistic effects of the signaling of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of JNK1 on ATO-induced p21 expression were explored. Over-expression of JNK1 in A431 cells could inhibit p21 expression, which was associated with HDAC1 and TGIF. Using the GST pull-down assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-108) of TGIF, critical to its binding with c-Jun, was found. Using reporter assays, requirement of the C-terminal domain (amino acids 138-272) of TGIF to suppress ATO-induced p21 expression was observed. Thus, the domains of TGIF that carried out its inhibitory effects on p21 were identified. Finally, treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could enhance ATO-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by using flow cytometry.

  13. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Karothu Durga; Trinath, Jamma; Biswas, Ansuman; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is one of the rising causes for mortality worldwide representing nearly 10% of intensive care unit admissions. Susceptibility to sepsis is identified to be mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors and responsive signaling pathways of the host. The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated signaling events play critical role in bacterial infection triggered multi-organ failure, cardiac dysfunction and mortality. In the context of kinase specificities, an extensive library of anthrapyrazolone analogues has been investigated for the selective inhibition of c-JNK and thereby to gain control over the inflammation associated risks. In our comprehensive biochemical characterization, it is observed that alkyl and halogen substitution on the periphery of anthrapyrazolone increases the binding potency of the inhibitors specifically towards JNK. Further, it is demonstrated that hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions generated by these small molecules effectively block endotoxin-induced inflammatory genes expression in in vitro and septic shock in vivo, in a mouse model, with remarkable efficacies. Altogether, the obtained results rationalize the significance of the diversity oriented synthesis of small molecules for selective inhibition of JNK and their potential in the treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:25428720

  14. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kurio, Naito; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Ikeda, Masahiko; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  15. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kurio, Naito; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Ikeda, Masahiko; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr(397) inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases. PMID:21338601

  16. Inhibition of integrin β1 decreases the malignancy of ovarian cancer cells and potentiates anticancer therapy via the FAK/STAT1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; ZOU, WEN

    2015-01-01

    Integrin β1 (ITGB1) is frequently upregulated in ovarian cancer, and promotes ovarian tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the effects of ITGB1 inhibition on ovarian cancer progression and anticancer therapy remain to be elucidated. The results of the present study indicated that ITGB1 was upregulated in HO-8910 and HO-8910PM ovarian cancer cell lines, and knockdown of ITGB1 using short hairpin RNA markedly increased tumor cell apoptosis, decreased tumor cell adhesion and migration, and reduced tumor cell invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, the results of the present study provided evidence regarding the role of ITGB1 inhibition in bevacizumab anticancer therapy. The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in integrin-mediated cell migration and adhesion. In the present study, the expression levels of FAK were markedly upregulated in ovarian cancer. The adherence and migratory potentials of ovarian cancer cells were significantly reduced when the FAK/STAT1 signaling pathway was inhibited by fludarabine. The results of the present study demonstrated that ITGB1 inhibition effectively reduced tumorigenesis and disease exacerbation, and contributed to bevacizumab anticancer therapy via the FAK/STAT1 signaling pathway, suggesting that inhibition of ITGB1 is a potential novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26497667

  17. Activation of ERK induces phosphorylation of MAPK phosphatase-7, a JNK specific phosphatase, at Ser-446.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kouhei; Shima, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Kunimi

    2003-08-22

    We previously showed that MKP-7 suppresses MAPK activation in COS-7 cells in the order of selectivity, JNK > p38 > ERK, but interacts with ERK as well as JNK and p38. In this study we found that, when expressed in COS-7 cells with HA-ERK2, the mobility of FLAG-MKP-7 was decreased on SDS-PAGE gels depending on several stimuli, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, fetal bovine serum, epidermal growth factor, H2O2, and ionomycin. By using U0126, a MEK inhibitor, and introducing several point mutations, we demonstrated that this upward mobility shift is because of phosphorylation and identified Ser-446 of MKP-7 as the phosphorylation site targeted by ERK activation. To determine how MKP-7 interacts with MAPKs, we identified three domains in MKP-7 required for interaction with MAPKs, namely, putative MAP kinase docking domains (D-domain) I and II and a long COOH-terminal stretch unique to MKP-7. The D-domain I is required for interaction with ERK and p38, whereas the D-domain II is required for interaction with JNK and p38, which is likely to be important for MKP-7 to suppress JNK and p38 activations. The COOH-terminal stretch of MKP-7 was shown to determine JNK preference for MKP-7 by masking MKP-7 activity toward p38 and is a domain bound by ERK. These data strongly suggested that Ser-446 of MKP-7 is phosphorylated by ERK. PMID:12794087

  18. Acute and Chronic Hyperglycemia Elicit JIP1/JNK-Mediated Endothelial Vasodilator Dysfunction of Retinal Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Travis W.; Xu, Wenjuan; Xu, Xin; Kuo, Lih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with retinal inflammation and impairment of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)–mediated dilation of retinal arterioles. However, molecular mechanisms involved in this diminished endothelial vasodilator function remain unclear. We examined whether inflammatory stress-activated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, contribute to retinal arteriolar dysfunction during exposure to acute and chronic hyperglycemia. Methods Retinal arterioles were isolated from streptozocin-induced diabetic pigs (2 weeks; chronic hyperglycemia, 471 ± 23 mg/dL) or age-matched control pigs (euglycemia, 79 ± 5 mg/dL), and then cannulated and pressurized for vasoreactivity study. For acute hyperglycemia study, vessels from nondiabetic pigs were exposed intraluminally to high glucose (25 mM ≈ 450 mg/dL) for 2 hours, and normal glucose (5 mM ≈ 90 mg/dL) served as the control. Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to bradykinin was reduced in a similar manner after exposure to acute or chronic hyperglycemia. Administration of NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) nearly abolished vasodilations either in control (euglycemia and normal glucose) or hyperglycemic (acute and chronic) vessels. Treatment of either acute or chronic hyperglycemic vessels with JNK inhibitor SP600125 or JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1) inhibitor BI-78D3, but not p38 inhibitor SB203580, preserved bradykinin-induced dilation in an L-NAME–sensitive manner. By contrast, endothelium-independent vasodilation to sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by acute or chronic hyperglycemia. Conclusions Activation of JIP1/JNK signaling in retinal arterioles during exposure to acute or chronic hyperglycemia leads to selective impairment of endothelium-dependent NO-mediated dilation. Therapeutic targeting of the vascular JNK pathway may improve retinal endothelial vasodilator function during early diabetes. PMID

  19. Pristimerin triggers AIF-dependent programmed necrosis in glioma cells via activation of JNK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Chen; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Wang, Zongqi; Zheng, Linjie; Liu, Kai; Luo, Tianfei; Zhu, Dong; Chi, Guangfan; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

    2016-04-28

    Programmed necrosis is established as a new form of programmed cell death and is emerging as a new strategy of treatment for cancers. Pristimerin is a natural chemical with anti-tumor effect despite the fact that its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we used glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma to investigate the effect of pristimerin on glioma and its underlying mechanism. We found that pristimerin inhibited the viabilities of glioma cells in vitro and the growth of xenograft gliomas in vivo, which was accompanied by upregulation of JNK and phosphor-JNK, nuclear accumulation of AIF, and elevation in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In vitro studies showed that pristimerin induced necrosis in glioma cells, as well as mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of ROS and reduction of GSH. Ablation of AIF level with SiRNA mitigated pristimerin-induced nuclear accumulation of AIF and prevented necrosis in glioma cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK with SP600125 or knockdown of its level with SiRNA reversed mitochondrial depolarization attenuated the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 and suppressed nuclear accumulation of AIF. Further, inhibition of ROS with NAC not only rescued glioma cell necrosis but also suppressed JNK activation, mitigated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited AIF translocation into nucleus. Therefore, we demonstrated first in this study that pristimerin triggered AIF-dependent necroptosis in glioma cells via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of JNK through overproduction of ROS. These results suggest that pristimerin has potential therapeutic effects on glioma. PMID:26854718

  20. Exendin-4 promotes proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells through ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shi; Liu, Baichuan; Zhou, Hao; Hu, Shunyin; Zhou, Ying; Han, Tianwen; Chen, Yundai

    2016-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation has emerged as a potential tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, with a limited renewal capacity and the need for mass cells during the engraftment, strategies are needed to enhance ADSC proliferative capacity. In this study, we explored the effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on the growth of ADSCs, focusing in particular on c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Firstly, ADSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. Then, flow cytometry demonstrated that ADSCs were positive for CD90 and CD29 but negative for CD31, CD34, and CD45. Ex-4 (0-50 nM) treatment increased ADSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner but had no effects on stem cell markers of ADSCs. Moreover, we found that Ex-4 treatment elevated the phosphorylation levels of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. Furthermore, utilization of Ex-4 also promoted cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein expression, which was accompanied by more Edu(+) cells and a higher percentage of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle after Ex-4 treatment. In parallel, the application of inhibitors SP600125 and PD98059, inhibitors of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways, respectively, not only reversed such effects of Ex-4 on JNK and ERK but also resulted in lower percentages of S-phase cells and fewer numbers of Edu(+) cells. In summary, Ex-4 has no effects on stem cell markers in ADSCs but promotes ADSC growth via JNK and ERK signaling pathways. PMID:26932601

  1. Gartanin induces autophagy through JNK activation which extenuates caspase-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mun-Ock; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chin, Young-Won; Moon, Dong-Oh; Ahn, Jong-Seog

    2015-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Development of novel agents to eradicate liver cancer cells is required for treatment of HCC. Gartanin, a xanthone-type compound isolated from mangosteen, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antineoplastic properties. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of gartanin on HCC and explored the cell death mechanism. We showed that gartanin induced both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, which were interconnected by caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation. We also provided convincing evidence that gartanin induced autophagy in various cancer cells, as demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Additionally, gartanin induced the formation of typical autophagosomes and autolysosomes and enhanced the degradation rate of intracellular granule(s), including mitochondria. Notably, gartanin-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5). These findings suggested that gartanin-mediated autophagic response protected against eventual cell death induced by gartanin. Moreover, gartanin treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor (SP600125) inhibited autophagy yet promoted gartanin-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by gartanin. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was the critical regulator of gartanin-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. PMID:25955534

  2. Regulation of PI3K by PKC and MARCKS: Single-Molecule Analysis of a Reconstituted Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Brian P; Burke, John E; Masson, Glenn; Williams, Roger L; Falke, Joseph J

    2016-04-26

    In chemotaxing ameboid cells, a complex leading-edge signaling circuit forms on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane and directs both actin and membrane remodeling to propel the leading edge up an attractant gradient. This leading-edge circuit includes a putative amplification module in which Ca(2+)-protein kinase C (Ca(2+)-PKC) is hypothesized to phosphorylate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and release phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), thereby stimulating production of the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) by the lipid kinase phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K). We investigated this hypothesized Ca(2+)-PKC-MARCKS-PIP2-PI3K-PIP3 amplification module and tested its key predictions using single-molecule fluorescence to measure the surface densities and activities of its protein components. Our findings demonstrate that together Ca(2+)-PKC and the PIP2-binding peptide of MARCKS modulate the level of free PIP2, which serves as both a docking target and substrate lipid for PI3K. In the off state of the amplification module, the MARCKS peptide sequesters PIP2 and thereby inhibits PI3K binding to the membrane. In the on state, Ca(2+)-PKC phosphorylation of the MARCKS peptide reverses the PIP2 sequestration, thereby releasing multiple PIP2 molecules that recruit multiple active PI3K molecules to the membrane surface. These findings 1) show that the Ca(2+)-PKC-MARCKS-PIP2-PI3K-PIP3 system functions as an activation module in vitro, 2) reveal the molecular mechanism of activation, 3) are consistent with available in vivo data, and 4) yield additional predictions that are testable in live cells. More broadly, the Ca(2+)-PKC-stimulated release of free PIP2 may well regulate the membrane association of other PIP2-binding proteins, and the findings illustrate the power of single-molecule analysis to elucidate key dynamic and mechanistic features of multiprotein signaling pathways on membrane surfaces

  3. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Signaling as a Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarza, Ramon; Vela, Silvia; Solas, Maite; Ramirez, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are a family of protein kinases that play a central role in stress signaling pathways implicated in gene expression, neuronal plasticity, regeneration, cell death, and regulation of cellular senescence. It has been shown that there is a JNK pathway activation after exposure to different stressing factors, including cytokines, growth factors, oxidative stress, unfolded protein response signals or Aβ peptides. Altogether, JNKs have become a focus of screening strategies searching for new therapeutic approaches to diabetes, cancer or liver diseases. In addition, activation of JNK has been identified as a key element responsible for the regulation of apoptosis signals and therefore, it is critical for pathological cell death associated with neurodegenerative diseases and, among them, with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have reported alterations of JNK pathways potentially associated with pathogenesis and neuronal death in AD. JNK’s, particularly JNK3, not only enhance Aβ production, moreover it plays a key role in the maturation and development of neurofibrillary tangles. This review aims to explain the rationale behind testing therapies based on inhibition of JNK signaling for AD in terms of current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease. Keeping in mind that JNK3 is specifically expressed in the brain and activated by stress-stimuli, it is possible to hypothesize that inhibition of JNK3 might be considered as a potential target for treating neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with AD. PMID:26793112

  4. Inhibition of JNK-mediated autophagy enhances NSCLC cell sensitivity to mTORC1/2 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2016-01-01

    As the activation of autophagy contributes to the efficacy of many anticancer therapies, deciphering the precise role of autophagy in cancer therapy is critical. Here, we report that the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors PP242 and OSI-027 decreased cell viability but did not induce apoptosis in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines H460 and A549. PP242 induced autophagy in NSCLC cells as demonstrated by the formation of massive vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles and the accumulation of LC3-II. JNK was activated by PP242, and PP242-induced autophagy was blocked by inhibiting JNK pathway with SP600125 or JNK siRNA, suggesting that JNK activation is required for the mTORC1/2 inhibitor-mediated induction of autophagy in NSCLC cells. Inhibiting JNK or autophagy increased the sensitivity of H460 cells to mTORC1/2 inhibitors, indicating that JNK or autophagy promoted survival in NSCLC cells treated with mTORC1/2 inhibitors. Together, these data suggest that combining mTORC1/2 inhibitors with inhibitors of JNK or autophagy might be an effective approach for improving therapeutic outcomes in NSCLC. PMID:27358039

  5. Inhibition of JNK-mediated autophagy enhances NSCLC cell sensitivity to mTORC1/2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Hong, Sung-Eun; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2016-01-01

    As the activation of autophagy contributes to the efficacy of many anticancer therapies, deciphering the precise role of autophagy in cancer therapy is critical. Here, we report that the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitors PP242 and OSI-027 decreased cell viability but did not induce apoptosis in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines H460 and A549. PP242 induced autophagy in NSCLC cells as demonstrated by the formation of massive vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles and the accumulation of LC3-II. JNK was activated by PP242, and PP242-induced autophagy was blocked by inhibiting JNK pathway with SP600125 or JNK siRNA, suggesting that JNK activation is required for the mTORC1/2 inhibitor-mediated induction of autophagy in NSCLC cells. Inhibiting JNK or autophagy increased the sensitivity of H460 cells to mTORC1/2 inhibitors, indicating that JNK or autophagy promoted survival in NSCLC cells treated with mTORC1/2 inhibitors. Together, these data suggest that combining mTORC1/2 inhibitors with inhibitors of JNK or autophagy might be an effective approach for improving therapeutic outcomes in NSCLC. PMID:27358039

  6. JNK-mediated activation of ATF2 contributes to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoying; Du, Xiaoxiao; He, Xin; Yu, Qing; Hu, Kunhua; Breitwieser, Wolfgang; Shen, Qingyu; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Mingtao

    2016-03-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway is a known critical regulator of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is considered a potential target for neuroprotective therapy. However, whether JNK is activated within dopaminergic neurons remains controversial, and whether JNK acts through downstream effectors other than c-Jun to promote dopaminergic neuronal death remains unclear. In this study, we confirm that JNK but not p38 is activated in dopaminergic neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxication. Furthermore, within the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in MPTP-treated mice, JNK2/3 phosphorylates threonine 69 (Thr69) of Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2), a transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family, whereas the phosphorylation of Thr71 is constitutive and remains unchanged. The increased phosphorylation of ATF2 on Thr69 by JNK in the MPTP mouse model suggests a functional relationship between the transcriptional activation of ATF2 and dopaminergic neuron death. By using dopaminergic neuron-specific conditional ATF2 mutant mice, we found that either partial or complete deletion of the ATF2 DNA-binding domain in dopaminergic neurons markedly alleviates the MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, indicating that the activation of ATF2 plays a detrimental role in neuropathogenesis in PD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that JNK-mediated ATF2 activation contributes to dopaminergic neuronal death in an MPTP model of PD. PMID:26515688

  7. A Liver Full of JNK: Signaling in Regulation of Cell Function and Disease Pathogenesis, and Clinical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Ekihiro; Brenner, David A.; Karin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family member that is activated by diverse stimuli, including cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), pathogens, toxins, drugs, endoplasmic reticulum stress, free fatty acids, and metabolic changes. Upon activation, JNK induces multiple biologic events through the transcription factor AP-1 and transcription-independent control of effector molecules. JNK isozymes regulate cell death and survival, differentiation, proliferation, ROS accumulation, metabolism, insulin signaling, and carcinogenesis in the liver. The biologic functions of JNK are isoform, cell-type, and context dependent. Recent studies using genetically engineered mice showed that loss or hyper-activation of the JNK pathway contributes to the development of inflammation, fibrosis, cancer growth, and metabolic diseases that include obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. We review the functions and pathways of JNK in liver physiology and pathology, and discuss findings from pre-clinical studies with JNK inhibitors. PMID:22705006

  8. REGULATION OF PTEN EXPRESSION IN INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS BY JNK ACTIVATION AND NF-κB INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Wang, QingDing; Zhou, Yuning; Wang, Xiaofu; Chung, Dai H.; Evers, B. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein PTEN plays an important role in intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation and tumor suppression by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms regulating PTEN expression are largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment of the colon cancer cell line, HT29, with the differentiating agent sodium butyrate (NaBT) increased PTEN protein and mRNA expression and induced JNK activation. Inhibition of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) by chemical or genetic methods attenuated NaBT-induced PTEN expression. In addition, our findings demonstrated a cross-talk between NF-κB and JNK with respect to PTEN regulation. Overexpression of the NF-κB superrepressor increased PTEN expression and JNK activity, whereas overexpression of the p65 NF-κB subunit reduced both basal and NaBT-mediated JNK activation and PTEN expression. Moreover, we showed that overexpression of PTEN or treatment with NaBT increased expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1 in HT29 cells; this induction was attenuated by inhibition of PTEN or JNK expression or overexpression of p65. Finally, we demonstrate a role for PTEN in NaBT-mediated cell death and differentiation. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB/JNK/PTEN pathway plays a critical role in normal intestinal homeostasis and colon carcinogenesis. PMID:17699782

  9. Differences in activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase in Jnk3 null mice following KA treatment.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Luisa; Junyent, Fèlix; Verdaguer, Ester; Folch, Jaume; Romero, Rafael; Pallàs, Mercè; Ferrer, Isisdre; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2010-09-01

    The MAPK family is formed by extracellular signal-regulated kinases p38 kinase and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK/JNK). There are three genes that encode for three JNK proteins. JNK3 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and has been related to various processes in that tissue. Specifically, JNK3 plays a crucial role in neuronal death in several neurodegenerative diseases. The activation of this kinase has been described in epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Different studies have shown that the lack of the Jnk3 gene confers neuroprotection. However, the specific mechanism involved in such neuroprotection has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the neuroprotection in mice lacking Jnk3 against neuronal death induced by kainic acid. Moreover, we analyzed the activation of different MAPKs. The results revealed that neuronal death was attenuated and different activation/inactivation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 was reported with respect to control. Therefore, the data indicate that the lack of the JNK3 protein modulates other MAPKs and these changes could also have a pivotal role in neuroprotection. PMID:20534003

  10. FoxM1 regulates transcription of JNK1 to promote the G1/S transition and tumor cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ju; Hughes, Douglas E; Ackerson, Timothy; Major, Michael L; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Costa, Robert H; Raychaudhuri, Pradip; Tyner, Angela L; Lau, Lester F

    2008-07-25

    The Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) protein is a proliferation-specific transcription factor that plays a key role in controlling both the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions through the cell cycle and is essential for the development of various cancers. We show here that FoxM1 directly activates the transcription of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1) gene in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Expression of JNK1, which regulates the expression of genes important for the G(1)/S transition, rescues the G(1)/S but not the G(2)/M cell cycle block in FoxM1-deficient cells. Knockdown of either FoxM1 or JNK1 inhibits tumor cell migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. However, expression of JNK1 in FoxM1-depleted cells does not rescue these defects, indicating that JNK1 is a necessary but insufficient downstream mediator of FoxM1 in these processes. Consistent with this interpretation, FoxM1 regulates the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, which play a role in tumor cell invasion, through JNK1-independent and -dependent mechanisms in U2OS cells, respectively. Taken together, these findings identify JNK1 as a critical transcriptional target of FoxM1 that contributes to FoxM1-regulated cell cycle progression, tumor cell migration, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth. PMID:18524773

  11. Twist induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell motility in breast cancer via ITGB1-FAK/ILK signaling axis and its associated downstream network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiajia; Hou, Yixuan; Zhou, Mingli; Wen, Siyang; Zhou, Jian; Xu, Liyun; Tang, Xi; Du, Yan-e; Hu, Ping; Liu, Manran

    2016-02-01

    Twist, a highly conserved basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor, functions as a major regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In different cell models, signaling pathways such as TGF-β, MAPK/ERK, WNT, AKT, JAK/STAT, Notch, and P53 have also been shown to play key roles in the EMT process, yet little is known about the signaling pathways regulated by Twist in tumor cells. Using iTRAQ-labeling combined with 2D LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 194 proteins with significant changes of expression in MCF10A-Twist cells. These proteins reportedly play roles in EMT, cell junction organization, cell adhesion, and cell migration and invasion. ECM-receptor interaction, MAPK, PI3K/AKT, P53 and WNT signaling were found to be aberrantly activated in MCF10A-Twist cells. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis showed that integrin β1 (ITGB1) acts as a core regulator in linking integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Focal-adhesion kinase (FAK), MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and WNT signaling. Increased Twist and ITGB1 are associated with breast tumor progression. Twist transcriptionally regulates ITGB1 expression. Over-expression of ITGB1 or Twist in MCF10A led to EMT, activation of FAK/ILK, MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and WNT signaling. Knockdown of Twist or ITGB1 in BT549 and Hs578T cells decreased activity of FAK, ILK, and their downstream signaling, thus specifically impeding EMT and cell invasion. Knocking down ILK or inhibiting FAK, MAPK/ERK, or PI3K/AKT signaling also suppressed Twist-driven EMT and cell invasion. Thus, the Twist-ITGB1-FAK/ILK pathway and their downstream signaling network dictate the Twist-induced EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. PMID:26693891

  12. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  13. PKC/MAPK signaling suppression by retinal pericyte conditioned medium prevents retinal endothelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsu; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Hori, Satoko; Tomi, Masatoshi; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2005-05-01

    Little is known about the regulation mechanism of endothelial cell proliferation by retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the suppression mechanism of retinal capillary endothelial cell growth by soluble factors derived from retinal pericytes. Conditioned medium of retinal pericytes (rPCT1-CM) suppressed ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. The growth and DNA synthesis of TR-iBRB2 cells, a conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line, were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by concentrated rPCT1-CM. The number of human cultured endothelial cells was also reduced by rPCT1-CM. These results provide the first evidence that CM from the cultivation of pericytes alone can inhibit retinal neovascularization in vivo and in vitro. Although the growth reduction of TR-iBRB2 cells was only partly reversed by treatment of rPCT1-CM with antibodies to transforming growth factor-beta1, it was completely lost by heat-treatment of rPCT1-CM, suggesting that anti-angiogenic factors are soluble proteins. The levels of expression of G1/S-phase-related proteins, such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)4, cdk6, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were reduced and a cdk inhibitor, p21(Cip1), was induced in rPCT1-CM-treated TR-iBRB2 cells. Moreover, phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) in TR-iBRB2 cells was reduced by rPCT1-CM treatment and phosphorylated protein kinase C (PKC)alpha/betaII, which is upstream of p44/42 MAPK, was also suppressed. In conclusion, CM from retinal pericytes suppresses PKC-p44/42 MAPK signaling, inhibits endothelial cell growth, and prevents retinal neovascularization. Anti-angiogenic factors derived from retinal pericytes are likely to play a critical role in the regulation of retinal endothelial cell growth. PMID:15499572

  14. PKC and AKT Modulate cGMP/PKG Signaling Pathway on Platelet Aggregation in Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Pires, M Elisa; Naime, Ana C Antunes; Almeida Cardelli, Nádia J; Anjos, Débora J; Antunes, Edson; Marcondes, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis severity has been positively correlated with platelet dysfunction, which may be due to elevations in nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP levels. Protein kinase C, Src kinases, PI3K and AKT modulate platelet activity in physiological conditions, but no studies evaluated the role of these enzymes in platelet aggregation in sepsis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that in sepsis these enzymes positively modulate upstream the NO-cGMP pathway resulting in platelet inhibition. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and blood was collected after 6 h. Platelet aggregation was induced by ADP (10 μM). Western blotting assays were carried out to analyze c-Src and AKT activation in platelets. Intraplatelet cGMP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay kit. Phosphorylation of c-SRC at Tyr416 was the same magnitude in platelets of control and LPS group. Incubation of the non-selective Src inhibitor PP2 (10 μM) had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. LPS increased intraplatelet cGMP levels by 5-fold compared with control group, which was accompanied by 76% of reduction in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (25 μM) and the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (25 μM) fully reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on platelet aggregation. Likewise, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10 μM) reversed the inhibition by LPS of platelet aggregation and decreased cGMP levels in platelets. AKT phosphorylation at Thr308 was significantly higher in platelets of LPS compared with control group, which was not reduced by PI3K inhibition. The AKT inhibitor API-1 (20 μM) significantly increased aggregation and reduced cGMP levels in platelets of LPS group. However, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and LY29004 had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. Therefore, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation after LPS injection is mediated by cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanisms, and PKC and AKT act

  15. PKC and AKT Modulate cGMP/PKG Signaling Pathway on Platelet Aggregation in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Pires, M. Elisa; Naime, Ana C. Antunes; Almeida Cardelli, Nádia J.; Anjos, Débora J.; Antunes, Edson; Marcondes, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis severity has been positively correlated with platelet dysfunction, which may be due to elevations in nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP levels. Protein kinase C, Src kinases, PI3K and AKT modulate platelet activity in physiological conditions, but no studies evaluated the role of these enzymes in platelet aggregation in sepsis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that in sepsis these enzymes positively modulate upstream the NO-cGMP pathway resulting in platelet inhibition. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and blood was collected after 6 h. Platelet aggregation was induced by ADP (10 μM). Western blotting assays were carried out to analyze c-Src and AKT activation in platelets. Intraplatelet cGMP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay kit. Phosphorylation of c-SRC at Tyr416 was the same magnitude in platelets of control and LPS group. Incubation of the non-selective Src inhibitor PP2 (10 μM) had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. LPS increased intraplatelet cGMP levels by 5-fold compared with control group, which was accompanied by 76% of reduction in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (25 μM) and the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (25 μM) fully reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on platelet aggregation. Likewise, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10 μM) reversed the inhibition by LPS of platelet aggregation and decreased cGMP levels in platelets. AKT phosphorylation at Thr308 was significantly higher in platelets of LPS compared with control group, which was not reduced by PI3K inhibition. The AKT inhibitor API-1 (20 μM) significantly increased aggregation and reduced cGMP levels in platelets of LPS group. However, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and LY29004 had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. Therefore, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation after LPS injection is mediated by cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanisms, and PKC and AKT act

  16. aPKC regulates apical localization of Lgl to restrict elongation of microridges in developing zebrafish epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Renuka; Damle, Indraneel; Rote, Rahul; Banerjee, Shamik; Dingare, Chaitanya; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells exhibit apical membrane protrusions, which confer specific functions to epithelial tissues. Microridges are short actin protrusions that are laterally long and form a maze-like pattern in the apical domain. They are widely found on vertebrate squamous epithelia including epidermis and have functions in mucous retention, membrane storage and abrasion resistance. It is largely unknown how the formation of these laterally long actin projections is regulated. Here, we show that antagonistic interactions between aPKC and Lgl–regulators of apical and basolateral domain identity, respectively,–control the length of microridges in the zebrafish periderm, the outermost layer of the epidermis. aPKC regulates the levels of Lgl and the active form of non-muscle myosinII at the apical cortex to prevent actin polymerization-dependent precocious fusion and elongation of microridges. Our data unravels the functional significance of exclusion of Lgl from the apical domain in epithelial cells. PMID:27249668

  17. aPKC regulates apical localization of Lgl to restrict elongation of microridges in developing zebrafish epidermis.

    PubMed

    Raman, Renuka; Damle, Indraneel; Rote, Rahul; Banerjee, Shamik; Dingare, Chaitanya; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells exhibit apical membrane protrusions, which confer specific functions to epithelial tissues. Microridges are short actin protrusions that are laterally long and form a maze-like pattern in the apical domain. They are widely found on vertebrate squamous epithelia including epidermis and have functions in mucous retention, membrane storage and abrasion resistance. It is largely unknown how the formation of these laterally long actin projections is regulated. Here, we show that antagonistic interactions between aPKC and Lgl-regulators of apical and basolateral domain identity, respectively,-control the length of microridges in the zebrafish periderm, the outermost layer of the epidermis. aPKC regulates the levels of Lgl and the active form of non-muscle myosinII at the apical cortex to prevent actin polymerization-dependent precocious fusion and elongation of microridges. Our data unravels the functional significance of exclusion of Lgl from the apical domain in epithelial cells. PMID:27249668

  18. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The “positive cooperativity” molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26903999

  19. Effects of sevoflurane on tight junction protein expression and PKC-α translocation after pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jun; Long, Bo; Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Yan; Han, Ning; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury is the leading cause of mortality in lung transplantation. We aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane pretreatment on lung permeability, tight junction protein occludin and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) expression, and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)-α after ischemia-reperfusion. A lung ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established in 96 male Wistar rats following the modified Eppinger method. The rats were divided into four groups with 24 rats in each group: a control (group C), an ischemia-reperfusion group (IR group), a sevoflurane control group (sev-C group), and a sevoflurane ischemia-reperfusion group (sev-IR group). There were three time points in each group: ischemic occlusion for 45 min, reperfusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 120 min; and there were six rats per time point. For the 120-min reperfusion group, six extra rats underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded at each time point. The wet/dry weight ratio and lung permeability index (LPI) were measured. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure pulmonary occludin and ZO-1, and Western blot was used to measure cytosolic and membranous PKC-α in the lung. Lung permeability was significantly increased after ischemia-reperfusion. Sevoflurane pretreatment promoted pulmonary expression of occludin and ZO-1 after reperfusion and inhibited the translocation of PKC-α. In conclusion, sevoflurane pretreatment alleviated lung permeability by upregulating occludin and ZO-1 after ischemia-reperfusion. Sevoflurane pretreatment inhibited the translocation and activation of PKC-α, which also contributed to the lung-protective effect of sevoflurane. PMID:26045255

  20. Reduced Apoptosis by Ethanol and Its Association with PKC-δ and Akt Signaling in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Adam; Elmadhoun, Omar; Peng, Changya; Ding, Jamie Y.; Geng, Xiaokun; Guthikonda, Murali; Ding, Yuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Along with thrombolytic therapy, which has a number of limitations, stroke outcome may be improved with neuroprotective therapies that disrupt ischemic cell death. Recent research has shown a neuroprotective role of ethanol administration during ischemic stroke, such as its ability to reduce infarct volume and neurologic deficit. In order to investigate this further, we assessed the hypothesis that ethanol’s neuroprotective effect is through reduction of apoptosis and the modulation of the important apoptotic PKC-δ and Akt signaling pathway. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injections to 54 Sprague-Dawley rats after 2 hours of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, followed by 3 or 24 hours of reperfusion. We measured apoptotic cell death, PKC-δ, and Akt mRNA and protein expressions in each of ischemic groups with or without ethanol treatment using ELISA, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Our results showed that cell death was significantly increased in rats following 2 hour MCA occlusion and 24 hour reperfusion. Subsequently, cell death was significantly reduced by an administration of ethanol. We further found that ethanol administration, prior to either 3 or 24 hours of reperfusion, significantly decreased the expression of PKC-δ while simultaneously increasing the expression Akt at both mRNA and protein levels at the two points. In conclusion, our study suggests that ethanol administration following ischemic stroke modulates the gene and protein profile in such a way that it increased expression of anti-apoptotic Akt and decreased the pro-apoptotic PKC-δ. This ultimately results in a decrease in neuronal apoptosis, thus conferring neuroprotection. PMID:25489491

  1. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuehua; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. PMID:26605346

  2. F-actin links Epac-PKC signaling to purinergic P2X3 receptor sensitization in dorsal root ganglia following inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanping; Wang, Congying; Li, GuangWen

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) contributes to the production of exaggerated nociceptive responses following inflammatory injury. We showed previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) potentiates P2X3R-mediated ATP currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from both control and complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflamed rats. PGE2 potentiation of ATP currents depends only on PKA signaling in control neurons, but it depends on both PKA and PKC signaling in inflamed neurons. We further found that inflammation evokes an increase in exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) in dorsal root ganglions. This increase promotes the activation of PKC to produce a much enhanced PGE2 effect on ATP currents and to elicit Epac-dependent flinch nocifensive behavioral responses in complete Freund’s adjuvant rats. The link between Epac-PKC signaling and P2X3R sensitization remains unexplored. Here, we show that the activation of Epacs promotes the expression of phosphorylated PKC and leads to an increase in the cytoskeleton, F-actin, expression at the cell perimeter. Depolymerization of F-actin blocks PGE2-enhanced ATP currents and inhibits P2X3R-mediated nocifensive responses after inflammation. Thus, F-actin is dynamically involved in the Epac-PKC-dependent P2X3R sensitization. Furthermore, Epacs induce a PKC-dependent increase in the membrane expression of P2X3Rs. This increase is abolished by F-actin depolymerization, suggesting that F-actin mediates Epac-PKC signaling of P2X3R membrane expression. Thus, after inflammation, an Epac-PKC dependent increase in F-actin in dorsal root ganglion neurons enhances the membrane expression of P2X3Rs to bring about sensitization of P2X3Rs and abnormal pain behaviors. PMID:27385722

  3. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKC{alpha} linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-03-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC {yields} ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKC{alpha} using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKC{alpha}, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKC{alpha} activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKC{alpha} activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKC{alpha} and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade.

  4. Huntingtin Is Required for Epithelial Polarity through RAB11A-Mediated Apical Trafficking of PAR3-aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Salah; McGuire, John Russel; Yu, Hua; Humbert, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of apical-basolateral polarity is important for both normal development and disease, for example, during tumorigenesis and metastasis. During this process, polarity complexes are targeted to the apical surface by a RAB11A-dependent mechanism. Huntingtin (HTT), the protein that is mutated in Huntington disease, acts as a scaffold for molecular motors and promotes microtubule-based dynamics. Here, we investigated the role of HTT in apical polarity during the morphogenesis of the mouse mammary epithelium. We found that the depletion of HTT from luminal cells in vivo alters mouse ductal morphogenesis and lumen formation. HTT is required for the apical localization of PAR3-aPKC during epithelial morphogenesis in virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. We show that HTT forms a complex with PAR3, aPKC, and RAB11A and ensures the microtubule-dependent apical vesicular translocation of PAR3-aPKC through RAB11A. We thus propose that HTT regulates polarized vesicular transport, lumen formation and mammary epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25942483

  5. Huntingtin Is Required for Epithelial Polarity through RAB11A-Mediated Apical Trafficking of PAR3-aPKC.

    PubMed

    Elias, Salah; McGuire, John Russel; Yu, Hua; Humbert, Sandrine

    2015-05-01

    The establishment of apical-basolateral polarity is important for both normal development and disease, for example, during tumorigenesis and metastasis. During this process, polarity complexes are targeted to the apical surface by a RAB11A-dependent mechanism. Huntingtin (HTT), the protein that is mutated in Huntington disease, acts as a scaffold for molecular motors and promotes microtubule-based dynamics. Here, we investigated the role of HTT in apical polarity during the morphogenesis of the mouse mammary epithelium. We found that the depletion of HTT from luminal cells in vivo alters mouse ductal morphogenesis and lumen formation. HTT is required for the apical localization of PAR3-aPKC during epithelial morphogenesis in virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. We show that HTT forms a complex with PAR3, aPKC, and RAB11A and ensures the microtubule-dependent apical vesicular translocation of PAR3-aPKC through RAB11A. We thus propose that HTT regulates polarized vesicular transport, lumen formation and mammary epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25942483

  6. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  7. Atypical PKC-iota Controls Stem Cell Expansion via Regulation of the Notch Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mah, In Kyoung; Soloff, Rachel; Hedrick, Stephen M.; Mariani, Francesca V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The number of stem/progenitor cells available can profoundly impact tissue homeostasis and the response to injury or disease. Here, we propose that an atypical PKC, Prkci, is a key player in regulating the switch from an expansion to a differentiation/maintenance phase via regulation of Notch, thus linking the polarity pathway with the control of stem cell self-renewal. Prkci is known to influence symmetric cell division in invertebrates; however a definitive role in mammals has not yet emerged. Using a genetic approach, we find that loss of Prkci results in a marked increase in the number of various stem/progenitor cells. The mechanism used likely involves inactivation and symmetric localization of NUMB, leading to the activation of NOTCH1 and its downstream effectors. Inhibition of atypical PKCs may be useful for boosting the production of pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, or possibly even primordial germ cells by promoting the stem cell/progenitor fate. PMID:26527382

  8. PKC-epsilon activation is required for recognition memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zisopoulou, Styliani; Asimaki, Olga; Leondaritis, George; Vasilaki, Anna; Sakellaridis, Nikos; Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Mangoura, Dimitra

    2013-09-15

    Activation of PKCɛ, an abundant and developmentally regulated PKC isoform in the brain, has been implicated in memory throughout life and across species. Yet, direct evidence for a mechanistic role for PKCɛ in memory is still lacking. Hence, we sought to evaluate this in rats, using short-term treatments with two PKCɛ-selective peptides, the inhibitory ɛV1-2 and the activating ψɛRACK, and the novel object recognition task (NORT). Our results show that the PKCɛ-selective activator ψɛRACK, did not have a significant effect on recognition memory. In the short time frames used, however, inhibition of PKCɛ activation with the peptide inhibitor ɛV1-2 significantly impaired recognition memory. Moreover, when we addressed at the molecular level the immediate proximal signalling events of PKCɛ activation in acutely dissected rat hippocampi, we found that ψɛRACK increased in a time-dependent manner phosphorylation of MARCKS and activation of Src, Raf, and finally ERK1/2, whereas ɛV1-2 inhibited all basal activity of this pathway. Taken together, these findings present the first direct evidence that PKCɛ activation is an essential molecular component of recognition memory and point toward the use of systemically administered PKCɛ-regulating peptides as memory study tools and putative therapeutic agents. PMID:23911427

  9. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis. PMID:24153433

  10. The 5-HT7 receptor triggers cerebellar long-term synaptic depression via PKC-MAPK.

    PubMed

    Lippiello, Pellegrino; Hoxha, Eriola; Speranza, Luisa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Ferraro, Angela; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Tempia, Filippo; Miniaci, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) mediates important physiological effects of serotonin, such as memory and emotion, and is emerging as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive disorders and depression. Although previous studies have revealed an expression of 5-HT7R in cerebellum, particularly at Purkinje cells, its functional role and signaling mechanisms have never been described. Using patch-clamp recordings in cerebellar slices of adult mice, we investigated the effects of a selective 5-HT7R agonist, LP-211, on the main plastic site of the cerebellar cortex, the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. Here we show that 5-HT7R activation induces long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse via a postsynaptic mechanism that involves the PKC-MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, a 5-HT7R antagonist abolished the expression of PF-LTD, produced by pairing parallel fiber stimulation with Purkinje cell depolarization; whereas, application of a 5-HT7R agonist impaired LTP induced by 1 Hz parallel fiber stimulation. Our results indicate for the first time that 5-HT7R exerts a fine regulation of cerebellar bidirectional synaptic plasticity that might be involved in cognitive processes and neuropsychiatric disorders involving the cerebellum. PMID:26482421

  11. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  12. Ferroptosis, a newly characterized form of cell death in Parkinson's disease that is regulated by PKC.

    PubMed

    Do Van, Bruce; Gouel, Flore; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Timmerman, Kelly; Gelé, Patrick; Pétrault, Maud; Bastide, Michèle; Laloux, Charlotte; Moreau, Caroline; Bordet, Régis; Devos, David; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex illness characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss. Several mechanisms associated with the iron-induced death of dopaminergic cells have been described. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, regulated cell death process that was recently described in cancer. Our present work show that ferroptosis is an important cell death pathway for dopaminergic neurons. Ferroptosis was characterized in Lund human mesencephalic cells and then confirmed ex vivo (in organotypic slice cultures) and in vivo (in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model). Some of the observed characteristics of ferroptosis differed from those reported previously. For example, ferroptosis may be initiated by PKCα activation, which then activates MEK in a RAS-independent manner. The present study is the first to emphasize the importance of ferroptosis dysregulation in PD. In neurodegenerative diseases like PD, iron chelators, Fer-1 derivatives and PKC inhibitors may be strong drug candidates to pharmacologically modulate the ferroptotic signaling cascade. PMID:27189756

  13. PAR3-aPKC regulates Tiam1 by modulating suppressive internal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Kenji; Akita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Takashi; Kakeno, Mai; Matsui, Toshinori; Wang, Shujie; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Tiam1 is one of the most extensively analyzed activators of the small GTPase Rac. However, fundamental aspects of its regulation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Tiam1 is functionally suppressed by internal interactions and that the PAR complex participates in its full activation. The N-terminal region of Tiam1 binds to the protein-binding and catalytic domains to inhibit its localization and activation. Atypical PKCs phosphorylate Tiam1 to relieve its intramolecular interactions, and the subsequent stabilization of its interaction with PAR3 allows it to exert localized activity. By analyzing Tiam1 regulation by PAR3-aPKC within the context of PDGF signaling, we also show that PAR3 directly binds PDGF receptor β. Thus we provide the first evidence for the negative regulation of Tiam1 by internal interactions, elucidate the nature of Tiam1 regulation by the PAR complex, and reveal a novel role for the PAR complex in PDGF signaling. PMID:26941335

  14. PKC theta and p38 MAPK activate the EBV lytic cycle through autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gonnella, Roberta; Granato, Marisa; Farina, Antonella; Santarelli, Roberta; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2015-07-01

    PKC activation by combining TPA with sodium butyrate (T/B) represents the most effective and widely used strategy to induce the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The results obtained in this study show that novel PKCθ is involved in such process and that it acts through the activation of p38 MAPK and autophagy induction. Autophagy, a mechanism of cellular defense in stressful conditions, is manipulated by EBV to enhance viral replication. Besides promoting the EBV lytic cycle, the activation of p38 and autophagy resulted in a pro-survival effect, as indicated by p38 or ATG5 knocking down experiments. However, this pro-survival role was counteracted by a pro-death activity of PKCθ, due to the dephosphorylation of AKT. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, that T/B activates a PKCθ-p38 MAPK axis in EBV infected B cells, that promotes the viral lytic cycle and cell survival and dephosphorylates AKT, balancing cell life and cell death. PMID:25827954

  15. In vitro neutrophil migration requires protein kinase c-delta (δ-PKC) mediated MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate) phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Eui Jae; Adler, Kenneth B.; Jones, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated release of neutrophil reactive oxygen species and proteolytic enzymes contributes to both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, molecular regulators of these processes are potential targets for new anti-inflammatory therapies. We have shown previously that MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate), a well-known PKC substrate protein, is a key regulator of neutrophil functions. In the current study we investigate the role of PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation in neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates fMLF induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50 = 5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50 = 8.4 uM) and migration (IC50 = 6.7 uM); while α-, β- and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils. PMID:25515270

  16. ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by reactive oxygen species and dual-specificity JNK kinase MKK4.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Ohta, Saho; Shiota, Shinichiro; Kanta, Hironori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ito, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    To search for new chemotherapeutic agents to treat colorectal cancer, we isolated a number of natural ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the plant Croton tonkinensis. Among them, only CeKDs with the 15-oxo-16-ene moiety induced the apoptosis of colorectal cancer cell lines Caco-2 and LS180. The active CeKD induced the activation of ERK and JNK, but the inactive ones induced that of ERK, but not that of JNK. It thus appears that JNK seemed to play an important role in the apoptotic activity of the active compounds. The dualspecificity JNK kinase MKK4 was activated in both colorectal cancer cells treated with the active CeKD, but MKK7 was not activated. Further, the active CeKD, but not the inactive one, enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both cells. CeKD-induced cell apoptosis and ROS generation, as well as JNK activation, were inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These findings suggest that ROS stimulated the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by MKK4 and played a critical role in CeKD-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24476312

  17. Synthesis and SAR of novel isoxazoles as potent c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuanjun; Duckett, Derek; Chen, Weimin; Ling, Yuan Yuan; Cameron, Michael D.; Lin, Li; Ruiz, Claudia H.; LoGrasso, Philip V.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Koenig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The design and synthesis of isoxazole 3 is described, a potent JNK inhibitor with two fold selectivity over p38. Optimization of this scaffold led to compounds 27 and 28 which showed greatly improved selectivity over p38 by maintaining the JNK3 potency of compound 3. Extensive SAR studies will be described as well as preliminary in vivo data of the two lead compounds. PMID:24332487

  18. Design and synthesis of a novel, orally active, brain penetrant, tri-substituted thiophene based JNK inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Simeon; Truong, Anh P.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Neitzel, Martin; Probst, Gary D.; Hom, Roy K.; Peterson, Brian; Galemmo, Jr., Robert A.; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergley; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Brigham, Elizabeth F.; Quinn, Kevin P.; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ruslim, Lany; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene

    2012-02-28

    The SAR of a series of tri-substituted thiophene JNK3 inhibitors is described. By optimizing both the N-aryl acetamide region of the inhibitor and the 4-position of the thiophene we obtained single digit nanomolar compounds, such as 47, which demonstrated an in vivo effect on JNK activity when dosed orally in our kainic acid mouse model as measured by phospho-c-jun reduction.

  19. Explore the variation of MMP3, JNK, p38 MAPKs, and autophagy at the early stage of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Zhang, Changjie; Yi, Zhongjie; Lan, Chunna

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by cartilage degeneration and chondrocyte apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating OA process. Autophagy has an important effect on the OA process, and it is believed to be regulated by MAPKs. To reveal the mechanism and the effect of JNK and p38 MAPKs on matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and autophagy in OA, the study established OA model in rabbits, used the measurement of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scoring system to evaluate OA model, and conducted general observation, histological observation, and Western blotting of JNK, phosphorylate-JNK (P-JNK), p38, phosphorylate-p38 (P-p38), MMP3, and light-chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I to explore the variation of JNK, p38 MAPKs, and autophagy at the early stage of OA. With OA progressing at the early stage, MMP3, P-p38, and P-JNK were gradually upregulated from the baseline to the peak in study groups when compared with the control group; JNK and p38 variated of turbulence without statistical difference; and LC3-II/LC3-I had a decreasing tendency from the 0- to 15-day group. This study identifies that compromised autophagy may be related to the OA progress and that JNK and p38 MAPKs have positive regulation on MMP3 and negative regulation on autophagy. It also implicates a new therapeutic strategy for OA and other degenerate diseases based on selective MAPK inhibitors, reduction of MMP3, and autophagy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(4):293-302, 2016. PMID:26873249

  20. Thymosin beta-10 is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic cancer and induces JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhai, Qihui; Feurino, Louis W; Fisher, William E; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-03-01

    Thymosin beta-10 (T beta 10) has been shown to be associated with several cancers; however, its role in pancreatic cancer is not understood. The expression of T beta 10 was determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of JNK and the cytokine secretion was determined by using the Bio-Plex phosphoprotein and cytokines assays. Pancreatic cancer tissues and cells expressed higher amounts of T beta 10 than normal surrounding tissues and human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Exogenous T beta 10 caused the phosphorylation of JNK and increased the secretion of cytokines interleukin (IL)-7 and IL-8 in BxPC-3 cells. T beta 10 might be a promising marker and a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:19194824

  1. Paraxial protocadherin coordinates cell polarity during convergent extension via Rho A and JNK

    PubMed Central

    Unterseher, Frank; Hefele, Joerg A; Giehl, Klaudia; De Robertis, Eddy M; Wedlich, Doris; Schambony, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Convergent extension movements occur ubiquitously in animal development. This special type of cell movement is controlled by the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Here we show that Xenopus paraxial protocadherin (XPAPC) functionally interacts with the Wnt/PCP pathway in the control of convergence and extension (CE) movements in Xenopus laevis. XPAPC functions as a signalling molecule that coordinates cell polarity of the involuting mesoderm in mediolateral orientation and thus selectively promotes convergence in CE movements. XPAPC signals through the small GTPases Rho A and Rac 1 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Loss of XPAPC function blocks Rho A-mediated JNK activation. Despite common downstream components, XPAPC and Wnt/PCP signalling are not redundant, and the activity of both, XPAPC and PCP signalling, is required to coordinate CE movements. PMID:15297873

  2. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Losick, Vicki P; Jun, Albert S; Spradling, Allan C

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues. PMID:26958853

  3. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Vicki P.; Jun, Albert S.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues. PMID:26958853

  4. LRP-1 Promotes Cancer Cell Invasion by Supporting ERK and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Benoit; Perrot, Gwenn; Schneider, Christophe; Henriet, Patrick; Emonard, Hervé; Martiny, Laurent; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is an endocytic receptor mediating the clearance of various extracellular molecules involved in the dissemination of cancer cells. LRP-1 thus appeared as an attractive receptor for targeting the invasive behavior of malignant cells. However, recent results suggest that LRP-1 may facilitate the development and growth of cancer metastases in vivo, but the precise contribution of the receptor during cancer progression remains to be elucidated. The lack of mechanistic insights into the intracellular signaling networks downstream of LRP-1 has prevented the understanding of its contribution towards cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a short-hairpin RNA-mediated silencing approach, we identified LRP-1 as a main regulator of ERK and JNK signaling in a tumor cell context. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that LRP-1 constitutes an intracellular docking site for MAPK containing complexes. By using pharmacological agents, constitutively active and dominant-negative kinases, we demonstrated that LRP-1 maintains malignant cells in an adhesive state that is favorable for invasion by activating ERK and inhibiting JNK. We further demonstrated that the LRP-1-dependent regulation of MAPK signaling organizes the cytoskeletal architecture and mediates adhesive complex turnover in cancer cells. Moreover, we found that LRP-1 is tethered to the actin network and to focal adhesion sites and controls ERK and JNK targeting to talin-rich structures. Conclusions We identified ERK and JNK as the main molecular relays by which LRP-1 regulates focal adhesion disassembly of malignant cells to support invasion. PMID:20644732

  5. Regulation of Neurite Growth by Inorganic Pyrophosphatase 1 via JNK Dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Yu; Okada, Mizuki; Tada, Yuka; Yamauchi, Junji; Nishigori, Hideo; Sanbe, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation during development is controlled by multiple signaling pathways, in which protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play an important role. In this study, we examined the role of pyrophosphatase1 (PPA1) in neuronal differentiation using the loss and gain of function analysis. Neuronal differentiation induced by external factors was studied using a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (N1E115). The neuronal like differentiation in N1E115 cells was determined by morphological analysis based on neurite growth length. In order to analyze the loss of the PPA1 function in N1E115, si-RNA specifically targeting PPA1 was generated. To study the effect of PPA1 overexpression, an adenoviral gene vector containing the PPA1 gene was utilized to infect N1E115 cells. To address the need for pyrophosphatase activity in PPA1, D117A PPA1, which has inactive pyrophosphatase, was overexpressed in N1E115 cells. We used valproic acid (VPA) as a neuronal differentiator to examine the effect of PPA1 in actively differentiated N1E115 cells. Si-PPA1 treatment reduced the PPA1 protein level and led to enhanced neurite growth in N1E115 cells. In contrast, PPA1 overexpression suppressed neurite growth in N1E115 cells treated with VPA, whereas this effect was abolished in D117A PPA1. PPA1 knockdown enhanced the JNK phosphorylation level, and PPA1 overexpression suppressed it in N1E115 cells. It seems that recombinant PPA1 can dephosphorylate JNK while no alteration of JNK phosphorylation level was seen after treatment with recombinant PPA1 D117A. Enhanced neurite growth by PPA1 knockdown was also observed in rat cortical neurons. Thus, PPA1 may play a role in neuronal differentiation via JNK dephosphorylation. PMID:23626709

  6. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC. PMID:27446399

  7. JNK-TLR9 signal pathway mediates allergic airway inflammation through suppressing melatonin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Mei; Shen, Qi-Ying; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Shen, Pei-Ting; Liu, Ya-Jing; Liu, Rong-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases such as asthma. TLR9 is one of the most extensively studied TLRs as an approach to treat asthma. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR9 in the allergic airway inflammation and the underlying mechanism. Wild-type (WT) mice and TLR9(-/-) mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish allergic airway disease model. We found that the expression of TLR9 was elevated concomitantly with airway inflammation post-OVA challenge, and TLR9 deficiency effectively inhibited airway inflammation, including serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), pulmonary inflammatory cell recruitment, mucus secretion, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inflammatory cytokine production. Meanwhile, the protein expression of hydroxyindole-o-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in lung tissues, the level of melatonin in serum, and BALF were reduced in OVA-challenged WT mice, while these reductions were significantly restored by TLR9 deficiency. Additionally, we showed that although TLR9 deficiency had no effect on OVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK, inhibition of JNK by specific inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased OVA-induced expression of TLR9, suggesting that JNK is the upstream signal molecular of TLR9. Furthermore, SP600125 treatment promoted resolution of allergic airway inflammation in OVA-challenged WT mice, but not further ameliorated allergic airway inflammation in OVA-challenged TLR9(-/-) mice. Similarly, SP600125 significantly restored the protein expression of HIOMT and the level of melatonin in OVA-challenged WT mice, while such effect was not further enhanced by TLR9 deficiency. Collectively, our results indicated that JNK-TLR9 signal pathway mediates allergic airway inflammation through suppressing melatonin biosynthesis. PMID:26914888

  8. Plasmodium falciparum evades mosquito immunity by disrupting JNK-mediated apoptosis of invaded midgut cells.

    PubMed

    Ramphul, Urvashi N; Garver, Lindsey S; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, must survive and develop in the mosquito vector to be successfully transmitted to a new host. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene is critical for malaria transmission. Parasites that express Pfs47 (NF54 WT) evade mosquito immunity and survive, whereas Pfs47 knockouts (KO) are efficiently eliminated by the complement-like system. Two alternative approaches were used to investigate the mechanism of action of Pfs47 on immune evasion. First, we examined whether Pfs47 affected signal transduction pathways mediating mosquito immune responses, and show that the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial responses to P. falciparum infection and that Pfs47 disrupts JNK signaling. Second, we used microarrays to compare the global transcriptional responses of A. gambiae midguts to infection with WT and KO parasites. The presence of Pfs47 results in broad and profound changes in gene expression in response to infection that are already evident 12 h postfeeding, but become most prominent at 26 h postfeeding, the time when ookinetes invade the mosquito midgut. Silencing of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes identified caspase-S2 as a key effector of Plasmodium elimination in parasites lacking Pfs47. We provide experimental evidence that JNK pathway regulates activation of caspases in Plasmodium-invaded midgut cells, and that caspase activation is required to trigger midgut epithelial nitration. Pfs47 alters the cell death pathway of invaded midgut cells by disrupting JNK signaling and prevents the activation of several caspases, resulting in an ineffective nitration response that makes the parasite undetectable by the mosquito complement-like system. PMID:25552553

  9. Plasmodium falciparum evades mosquito immunity by disrupting JNK-mediated apoptosis of invaded midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, must survive and develop in the mosquito vector to be successfully transmitted to a new host. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene is critical for malaria transmission. Parasites that express Pfs47 (NF54 WT) evade mosquito immunity and survive, whereas Pfs47 knockouts (KO) are efficiently eliminated by the complement-like system. Two alternative approaches were used to investigate the mechanism of action of Pfs47 on immune evasion. First, we examined whether Pfs47 affected signal transduction pathways mediating mosquito immune responses, and show that the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial responses to P. falciparum infection and that Pfs47 disrupts JNK signaling. Second, we used microarrays to compare the global transcriptional responses of A. gambiae midguts to infection with WT and KO parasites. The presence of Pfs47 results in broad and profound changes in gene expression in response to infection that are already evident 12 h postfeeding, but become most prominent at 26 h postfeeding, the time when ookinetes invade the mosquito midgut. Silencing of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes identified caspase-S2 as a key effector of Plasmodium elimination in parasites lacking Pfs47. We provide experimental evidence that JNK pathway regulates activation of caspases in Plasmodium-invaded midgut cells, and that caspase activation is required to trigger midgut epithelial nitration. Pfs47 alters the cell death pathway of invaded midgut cells by disrupting JNK signaling and prevents the activation of several caspases, resulting in an ineffective nitration response that makes the parasite undetectable by the mosquito complement-like system. PMID:25552553

  10. Opposing roles for JNK and Aurora A in regulating the association of WDR62 with spindle microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nicholas R.; Yeap, Yvonne Y. C.; Zhao, Teresa T.; Yip, Yan Y.; Wong, Shu C.; Xu, Dan; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Xu, Zhiheng; Bogoyevitch, Marie A.; Ng, Dominic C. H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) is a spindle pole protein required for normal cell division and neuroprogenitor differentiation during brain development. Microcephaly-associated mutations in WDR62 lead to mitotic mislocalization, highlighting a crucial requirement for precise WDR62 spatiotemporal distribution, although the regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the WD40-repeat region of WDR62 is required for microtubule association, whereas the disordered C-terminal region regulates cell-cycle-dependent compartmentalization. In agreement with a functional requirement for the WDR62–JNK1 complex during neurogenesis, WDR62 specifically recruits JNK1 (also known as MAPK8), but not JNK2 (also known as MAPK9), to the spindle pole. However, JNK-mediated phosphorylation of WDR62 T1053 negatively regulated microtubule association, and loss of JNK signaling resulted in constitutive WDR62 localization to microtubules irrespective of cell cycle stage. In contrast, we identified that Aurora A kinase (AURKA) and WDR62 were in complex and that AURKA-mediated phosphorylation was required for the spindle localization of WDR62 during mitosis. Our studies highlight complex regulation of WDR62 localization, with opposing roles for JNK and AURKA in determining its spindle association. PMID:25501809

  11. The synergistic repressive effect of NF-κB and JNK inhibitor on the clonogenic capacity of Jurkat leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinli; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Volk, Andrew; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is commonly detected in leukemia, suggesting an important role for these two signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of leukemia. In this study, using Jurkat cells, an acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell line, we evaluated the effects of an NF-κB inhibitor and a JNK inhibitor individually and in combination on the proliferation, survival and clonogenic capacity of leukemic cells. We found that leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) were more sensitive to NF-κB inhibitor treatment than were healthy hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), as shown by a reduction in the clonogenic capacity of the former. Inactivation of NF-κB leads to the activation of JNK signaling in both leukemic cells and healthy HSPCs. Interestingly, JNK inhibitor treatment enhanced the repressive effects of NF-κB inhibitor on LSPCs but prevented such repression in HSPCs. Our data suggest that JNK signaling stimulates proliferation/survival in LSPCs but is a death signal in HSPCs. The combination of NF-κB inhibitor and JNK inhibitor might provide a better treatment for T-ALL leukemia by synergistically killing LSPCs while simultaneously preventing the death of normal HPCs. PMID:25526629

  12. The Synergistic Repressive Effect of NF-κB and JNK Inhibitor on the Clonogenic Capacity of Jurkat Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinli; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jing; Volk, Andrew; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is commonly detected in leukemia, suggesting an important role for these two signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of leukemia. In this study, using Jurkat cells, an acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell line, we evaluated the effects of an NF-κB inhibitor and a JNK inhibitor individually and in combination on the proliferation, survival and clonogenic capacity of leukemic cells. We found that leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) were more sensitive to NF-κB inhibitor treatment than were healthy hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), as shown by a reduction in the clonogenic capacity of the former. Inactivation of NF-κB leads to the activation of JNK signaling in both leukemic cells and healthy HSPCs. Interestingly, JNK inhibitor treatment enhanced the repressive effects of NF-κB inhibitor on LSPCs but prevented such repression in HSPCs. Our data suggest that JNK signaling stimulates proliferation/survival in LSPCs but is a death signal in HSPCs. The combination of NF-κB inhibitor and JNK inhibitor might provide a better treatment for T-ALL leukemia by synergistically killing LSPCs while simultaneously preventing the death of normal HPCs. PMID:25526629

  13. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for

  14. Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 Inhibits Lymphocyte Proliferation by Regulation of the JNK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Maya; Shiozaki, Takuya; Endo, Tsutomu; Ukibe, Ken; Uenishi, Hiroshi; Kadooka, Yukio; Moriya, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Hisako; Nakayama, Yosuke; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171) is a lactic acid bacterium with high protease activity and used in starter cultures in the manufacture of cheese. We recently reported that consumption of cheese manufactured using LH2171 alleviated symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In this study, we have examined whether LH2171 itself exerts an inhibitory effect on the excessive proliferation of lymphocytes. We found that LH2171 inhibited the proliferation of LPS-stimulated mouse T and B cells, and the human lymphoma cell lines, Jurkat and BJAB. Cell cycle analysis showed an accumulation of LH2171-treated BJAB cells in the G2/M phase. Further, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun was reduced by LH2171 in BJAB cells. Subsequently, expression of cell division cycle 2 (CDC2), regulated by the JNK signaling pathway and essential for G2/M phase progression, was inhibited by LH2171. It was also demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of LH2171 strongly alleviated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. These findings suggest that LH2171 inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes through a suppression of the JNK signaling pathway and exerts an immunosuppressive effect in vivo. PMID:25268890

  15. IL-18 enhances thrombospondin-1 production in human gastric cancer via JNK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Cherlhyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Bang, Sa Ik; Yang, Young; Park, Hyunjeong; Cho, Daeho . E-mail: cdhkor@sookmyung.ac.kr

    2006-06-16

    IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by many cancer cells. A recent report suggested that IL-18 plays a key role in regulating the immune escape of melanoma and gastric cancer cells. Thrombospondin (TSP-1) is known to inhibit angiogenesis in several cancers but some studies have reported that it stimulates angiogenesis in some cancers such as gastric cancer. IL-18 and TSP-1 are related to tumor proliferation and metastasis. This study investigated the relationship between IL-18 and TSP-1 in gastric cancer. RT-PCR and ELISA showed that after the cells had been treated with IL-18, the level of TSP-1 mRNA expression and TSP-1 protein production by IL-18 increased in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cells were next treated with specific inhibitors in order to determine the signal pathway involved in IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 production. IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 expression was blocked by SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. In addition, Western blot showed that IL-18 enhanced the expression of phosphorylated JNK. Overall, these results suggest that IL-18 plays a key role in TSP-1 expression involving JNK.

  16. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  17. Recurrent MLK4 Loss-of-Function Mutations Suppress JNK Signaling to Promote Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marusiak, Anna A.; Stephenson, Natalie L.; Baik, Hayeon; Trotter, Eleanor W.; Li, Yaoyong; Blyth, Karen; Mason, Susan; Chapman, Phil; Puto, Lorena A.; Read, Jon A.; Brassington, Claire; Pollard, Hannah K.; Phillips, Chris; Green, Isabelle; Overman, Ross; Collier, Matthew; Testoni, Ewelina; Miller, Crispin J.; Hunter, Tony; Sansom, Owen J.; Brognard, John

    2015-01-01

    MLK4 is a member of the mixed-lineage family of kinases that regulate the JNK, p38, and ERK kinase signaling pathways. MLK4 mutations have been identified in various human cancers including frequently in colorectal cancer, where their function and pathobiological importance has been uncertain. In this study, we assessed the functional consequences of MLK4 mutations in colon tumorigenesis. Biochemical data indicated that a majority of MLK4 mutations are loss-of-function (LOF) mutations that can exert dominant negative effects. In seeking to understand the abrogated activity of these mutants, we elucidated a new MLK4 catalytic domain structure. To determine whether MLK4 is required to maintain the tumorigenic phenotype, we reconstituted its signaling axis in colon cancer cells harboring MLK4 inactivating mutations. We found that restoring MLK4 activity reduced cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro and delayed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations established that restoring the function of MLK4 selectively induced the JNK pathway and its downstream targets, cJUN, ATF3 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN2B. Our work indicates that MLK4 is a novel tumor suppressing kinase harboring frequent LOF mutations that lead to diminished signaling in the JNK pathway and enhanced proliferation in colon cancer. PMID:26637668

  18. Antagonistic control of cell fates by JNK and p38-MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wada, T; Stepniak, E; Hui, L; Leibbrandt, A; Katada, T; Nishina, H; Wagner, E F; Penninger, J M

    2008-01-01

    During the development and organogenesis of all multicellular organisms, cell fate decisions determine whether cells undergo proliferation, differentiation, or aging. Two independent stress kinase signaling pathways, p38-MAPK, and JNKs, have evolved that relay developmental and environmental cues to determine cell responses. Although multiple stimuli can activate these two stress kinase pathways, the functional interactions and molecular cross-talks between these common second signaling cascades are poorly elucidated. Here we report that JNK and p38-MAPK pathways antagonistically control cellular senescence, oncogenic transformation, and proliferation in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Similarly, genetic inactivation of the JNK pathway results in impaired proliferation of fetal hepatoblasts in vitro and defective adult liver regeneration in vivo, which is rescued by inhibition of the p38-MAPK pathway. Thus, the balance between the two stress-signaling pathways, MKK7-JNK and MKK3/6-p38-MAPK, determines cell fate and links environmental and developmental stress to cell cycle arrest, senescence, oncogenic transformation, and adult tissue regeneration. PMID:17762881

  19. Gαi3-Dependent Inhibition of JNK Activity on Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Guillaume; Yang, Jin Ye; Heximer, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling has been shown to modulate a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. The activity of one MAPK family class, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), has been traditionally linked to the activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the plasma membrane. Using a unique set of G-protein signaling tools developed in our laboratory, we show that subcellular domain-specific JNK activity is inhibited by the activation of Gαi3, the Gαi isoform found predominantly within intracellular membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi interface, and their associated vesicle pools. Regulators of intracellular Gαi3, including activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3) and the regulator of G-protein signaling protein 4 (RGS4), have a marked impact on the regulation of JNK activity. Together, these data support the existence of unique intracellular signaling complexes that control JNK activity deep within the cell. This work highlights some of the cellular pathways that are regulated by these intracellular complexes and identifies potential strategies for their regulation in mammalian cells. PMID:26389115

  20. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

    PubMed Central

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  1. Guggulsterone-induced apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells through ROS/JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Fei; Tong, Zhu-Ting; Fan, Lu-Lu; Zha, Li-Xia; Wang, Fang; Yao, Meng-Qun; Gu, Kang-Sheng; Cao, Yun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the most common biliary tract malignancy, is arising from the bile duct epithelium with the global significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we showed the effect of guggulsterone, a steroid found in the resin of the guggul plant, on human HuCC-T1 and RBE CCA cells. Exposure to various concentrations of guggulsterone for multiple action time resulted in significant apoptosis in the CCA cells via activating both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the apoptosis of CCA cells was induced by Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated JNK signaling pathway. Consistently, inhibition of JNK activity, overexpression of JBD, its binding protein or reduction of ROS by overexpression of catalase, all decreased apoptotic cells. Our results also revealed that guggulsterone-induced apoptosis was coupled with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in CHOP-dependent pathway. Downregulation of CHOP instead of other ERS markers could inhibit CCA cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results showed that guggulsterone could induce apoptosis of human CCA cells through ROS/JNK signaling pathway, indicating that guggulsterone could be important for the clinical therapy of CCA. PMID:27186398

  2. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco . E-mail: fperez@med.ucm.es; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  3. Curcumin exerts antitumor effects in retinoblastoma cells by regulating the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jingtao; Yan, Li; Li, Jie; Wang, Hui; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), exerts antitumor effects in various types of malignancy. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of curcumin on retinoblastoma (RB) cells have not been fully explored. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its anticancer effects in RB Y79 cells were investigated. The results showed that curcumin reduced cell viability in Y79 cells. Curcumin induced G1 phase arrest through downregulating the expression of cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/6 and upregulating the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of Y79 cells occurred through the activation of caspases-9/-3. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed that curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells. We also found that curcumin induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed curcumin‑induced activation of caspases-9/-3 and inhibited the apoptosis of Y79 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin induced the apoptosis of Y79 cells through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings provide a novel treatment strategy for human RB. PMID:27432244

  4. Urm1: an essential regulator of JNK signaling and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Khoshnood, B; Dacklin, I; Grabbe, C

    2016-05-01

    Ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (Urm1) is a ubiquitin-like molecule (UBL) with the dual capacity to act both as a sulphur carrier and posttranslational protein modifier. Here we characterize the Drosophila melanogaster homologues of Urm1 (CG33276) and its E1 activating enzyme Uba4 (CG13090), and show that they function together to induce protein urmylation in vivo. Urm1 conjugation to target proteins in general, and to the evolutionary conserved substrate Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) specifically, is dependent on Uba4. A complete loss of Urm1 is lethal in flies, although a small number of adult zygotic Urm1 (n123) mutant escapers can be recovered. These escapers display a decreased general fitness and shortened lifespan, but in contrast to their S. cerevisiae counterparts, they are resistant to oxidative stress. Providing a molecular explanation, we demonstrate that cytoprotective JNK signaling is increased in Urm1 deficient animals. In agreement, molecular and genetic evidence suggest that elevated activity of the JNK downstream target genes Jafrac1 and gstD1 strongly contributes to the tolerance against oxidative stress displayed by Urm1 (n123) null mutants. In conclusion, Urm1 is a UBL that is involved in the regulation of JNK signaling and the response against oxidative stress in the fruit fly. PMID:26715182

  5. Berberine inhibits inflammatory mediators and attenuates acute pancreatitis through deactivation of JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Wang, Shaofan; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening disease. Berberine (BBR), a well-known plant alkaloid, is reported to have anti-inflammatory activity in many diseases. However, the effects of BBR on AP have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on cerulein-induced AP in mice. AP was induced by either cerulein or l-arginine. In the BBR treated group, BBR was administered intraperitoneally 1h before the first cerulein or l-arginine injection. Blood samples were obtained to determine serum amylase and lipase activities and nitric oxide production. The pancreas and lung were rapidly removed for examination of histologic changes, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of BBR were evaluated. Treatment of mice with BBR reduced pancreatic injury and activities of amylase, lipase, and pancreatitis-associated lung injury, as well as inhibited several inflammatory parameters such as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthesis (iNOS). Furthermore, BBR administration significantly inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cerulein-induced AP. Deactivation of JNK resulted in amelioration of pancreatitis and the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that BBR exerts anti-inflammatory effects on AP via JNK deactivation on mild and severe acute pancreatitis model, and could be a beneficial target in the management of AP. PMID:27148818

  6. Dihydroartemisinin induces endothelial cell anoikis through the activation of the JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Guo, Ling; Zhou, Xia; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Cheng, Zuowang; Xu, Yinghua; Liang, Jiyong; Xie, Qi; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The anti-malarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA) demonstrates potent anti-angiogenic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. During the process of angiogenesis, endothelial cells migrating from existing capillaries may undergo programmed cell death after detaching from the extracellular matrix, a process that is defined as anchorage-dependent apoptosis or anoikis. In the present study, DHA-induced cell death was compared in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in suspension and attached to culture plates. In suspended HUVECs, the cell viability was decreased and apoptosis was increased with the treatment of 50 µM DHA for 5 h, while the same treatment did not affect the attached HUVECs. In addition, 50 µM DHA increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in suspended HUVECs, but not in attached HUVECs, for up to 5 h of treatment. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reversed DHA-induced cell death in suspended HUVECs, suggesting that the JNK pathway may mediate DHA-induced endothelial cell anoikis. The data from the present study indicates a novel mechanism for understanding the anti-angiogenic effects of DHA, which may be used as a component for chemotherapy. PMID:27602117

  7. Activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways by mycotoxin citrinin in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-H.; Yu, F.-Y.; Wang, L.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Liu, B.-H.

    2009-06-15

    Mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is commonly found in foods and feeds that are contaminated/inoculated with Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus species. The exposure of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and HeLa cells to CTN resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of two major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2 and JNK. In HEK293 cultures, the administering of CTN increased both the mRNA and protein levels of egr-1, c-fos and c-jun genes; additionally, the ERK1/2 pathway contributed to the upregulation of Egr-1 and c-Fos protein expression. CTN treatment also induced the transcription activity of Egr-1 and AP-1 proteins, as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays. Bioinformatic analyses indicated two genes Gadd45{beta} and MMP3 have Egr-1 and AP-1 response elements in their promoters, respectively. Furthermore, co-exposure of HEK293 cells to CTN and MAPK pathway inhibitors demonstrated that CTN increased the levels of Gadd45{beta} mRNA through ERK1/2 signaling pathway and up-regulated the MMP3 transcripts majorly via JNK pathway. Finally, CTN-triggered caspase 3 activity was significantly reduced in the presence of MAPK inhibitors. Our results suggest that CTN positively regulates ERK1/2 and JNK pathways as well as their downstream effectors in human cells; activated MAPK pathways are also involved in CTN-induced apoptosis.

  8. Galectin-7 regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation through JNK-miR-203-p63 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Lin; Chiang, Po-Cheng; Lo, Chia-Hui; Lo, Yuan-Hsin; Hsu, Daniel K.; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-7, a member of the β-galactoside-binding protein family, is primarily expressed in stratified epithelial cells, including keratinocytes. There is information in the literature suggesting a role for this protein in regulation of keratinocyte survival and growth, but the underlying mechanism remains relatively unknown. Moreover, its expression pattern in the epidermis suggests that it is also involved in the regulation of keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that galectin-7 knockdown results in reduced differentiation and increased proliferation of keratinocytes. Using microarray and deep-sequencing analyses, we found that galectin-7 positively and negatively regulates microRNA (miR)-203 and miR-146a expression, respectively. We show that galectin-7 regulates keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation through miR-203 but not miR-146a. A knockdown of either galectin-7 or miR-203 in keratinocytes increases expression of p63, an essential transcription factor involved in skin development. Rescue of miR-203 expression in a galectin-7 knockdown model reduces p63 expression to baseline. Increased galectin-7 expression up-regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein levels, which is required for miR-203 expression. Finally, we establish that galectin-7 can be associated with JNK1 and protect it from ubiquitination and degradation. Thus, our data suggest an intracellular function of galectin-7: regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation through the JNK1-miR-203-p63 pathway. PMID:26763438

  9. The Notch-mediated hyperplasia circuitry in Drosophila reveals a Src-JNK signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Diana M; Pallavi, SK; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling controls a wide range of cell fate decisions during development and disease via synergistic interactions with other signaling pathways. Here, through a genome-wide genetic screen in Drosophila, we uncover a highly complex Notch-dependent genetic circuitry that profoundly affects proliferation and consequently hyperplasia. We report a novel synergistic relationship between Notch and either of the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src42A and Src64B to promote hyperplasia and tissue disorganization, which results in cell cycle perturbation, JAK/STAT signal activation, and differential regulation of Notch targets. Significantly, the JNK pathway is responsible for the majority of the phenotypes and transcriptional changes downstream of Notch-Src synergy. We previously reported that Notch-Mef2 also activates JNK, indicating that there are commonalities within the Notch-dependent proliferation circuitry; however, the current data indicate that Notch-Src accesses JNK in a significantly different fashion than Notch-Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05996.001 PMID:26222204

  10. The p38 MAPK and JNK pathways protect host cells against Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Masahiro; Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K(+) from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K(+)-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K(+)-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival. PMID:23876806

  11. The p38 MAPK and JNK Pathways Protect Host Cells against Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K+ from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K+-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K+-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival. PMID:23876806

  12. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2015-07-15

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  13. Impaired JNK signaling cooperates with KrasG12D expression to accelerate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Clare C.; Harvey, Emma; McMahon, Raymond F.T.; Finegan, Katherine G.; Connor, Frances; Davis, Roger J.; Tuveson, David A.; Tournier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and its two direct activators, namely the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK7, constitute a signaling node frequently mutated in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we demonstrate the cooperative interaction of endogenous expression of KrasG12D with loss-of-function mutations in mkk4 or both, mkk4 and mkk7 genes in the pancreas. More specifically, impaired JNK signaling in a subpopulation of Pdx1-expressing cells dramatically accelerated the appearance of KrasG12D-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, which rapidly progressed to invasive PDAC within 10 weeks of age. Furthermore, inactivation of mkk4/mkk7 compromised acinar regeneration following acute inflammatory stress by locking damaged exocrine cells in a permanently de-differentiated state. Therefore, we propose that JNK signaling exerts its tumor suppressive function in the pancreas by antagonising the metaplastic conversion of acinar cells towards a ductal fate capable of responding to oncogenic stimulation. PMID:24713432

  14. Recurrent MLK4 Loss-of-Function Mutations Suppress JNK Signaling to Promote Colon Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Marusiak, Anna A; Stephenson, Natalie L; Baik, Hayeon; Trotter, Eleanor W; Li, Yaoyong; Blyth, Karen; Mason, Susan; Chapman, Phil; Puto, Lorena A; Read, Jon A; Brassington, Claire; Pollard, Hannah K; Phillips, Chris; Green, Isabelle; Overman, Ross; Collier, Matthew; Testoni, Ewelina; Miller, Crispin J; Hunter, Tony; Sansom, Owen J; Brognard, John

    2016-02-01

    MLK4 is a member of the mixed-lineage family of kinases that regulate the JNK, p38, and ERK kinase signaling pathways. MLK4 mutations have been identified in various human cancers, including frequently in colorectal cancer, where their function and pathobiological importance have been uncertain. In this study, we assessed the functional consequences of MLK4 mutations in colon tumorigenesis. Biochemical data indicated that a majority of MLK4 mutations are loss-of-function (LOF) mutations that can exert dominant-negative effects. In seeking to understand the abrogated activity of these mutants, we elucidated a new MLK4 catalytic domain structure. To determine whether MLK4 is required to maintain tumorigenic phenotypes, we reconstituted its signaling axis in colon cancer cells harboring MLK4-inactivating mutations. We found that restoring MLK4 activity reduced cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro and delayed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations established that restoring the function of MLK4 selectively induced the JNK pathway and its downstream targets, cJUN, ATF3, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN2B. Our work indicates that MLK4 is a novel tumor-suppressing kinase harboring frequent LOF mutations that lead to diminished signaling in the JNK pathway and enhanced proliferation in colon cancer. Cancer Res; 76(3); 724-35. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26637668

  15. Alternatively spliced RAGEv1 inhibits tumorigenesis via suppression of JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kalea, Anastasia Z.; See, Fiona; Harja, Evis; Arriero, Maria; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Hudson, Barry I.

    2010-01-01

    RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products) and its ligands are overexpressed in multiple cancers. RAGE has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis, but little is known of the mechanisms involved. In this study we define a specific functional role for an alternate splice variant termed RAGEv1 that encodes a soluble endogenous form of the receptor that inhibits tumorigenesis. RAGEv1 was downregulated in lung, prostate, and brain tumors relative to control matched tissue. Overexpressing RAGEv1 in tumor cells altered RAGE-ligand stimulation of several novel classes of genes that are critical in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Additionally, RAGEv1 inhibited tumor formation, cell invasion, and angiogenesis induced by RAGE-ligand signaling. Analysis of signal transduction pathways underlying these effects revealed marked suppression of JNK pathway signaling and JNK inhibition suppressed signaling through the RAGE pathway. Tumors expressing RAGEv1 were significantly smaller than wild-type tumors and displayed prominently reduced activation of JNK. Our results identify RAGEv1 as a novel suppressor function the study of which may offer new cancer therapeutic directions. PMID:20570900

  16. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. PMID:27016483

  17. A ternary complex comprising FAK, PTPα and IP3 receptor 1 functionally engages focal adhesions and the endoplasmic reticulum to mediate IL-1-induced Ca2+ signalling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Yongqiang; Downey, Gregory P; Plotnikov, Sergey; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2016-02-15

    Ca(2+) release is tightly sequestered in eukaryotic cells to enable fine spatio-temporal control of signalling but how Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is linked to cell adhesions is not defined. We examined the spatial restriction of Ca(2+) release through the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1) in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) and the functions of the adhesion-associated proteins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα). In cultured fibroblasts IL-1 treatment promoted co-localization of PTPα and FAK with the ER and increased association of IP3R1 with PTPα and FAK at focal adhesions (FAs). GST pull-down assays of purified proteins demonstrated that PTPα and FAK directly interacted with IP3R1. These interactions depended on the focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) and band4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM) domains of FAK. PTPα was required for the association of IP3R1 with Src, which mediated IP3R1 phosphorylation and consequently ER Ca(2+) release. Collectively, these data indicate that PTPα and FAK, which are enriched in FAs, interact with IP3R1 at adjacent ER sites to spatially sequester IL-1-induced Ca(2+) signalling. PMID:26611753

  18. Go-6976 reverses hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance independently of cPKC inhibition in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine A; Hegyi, Krisztina; Hannun, Yusuf A; Buse, Maria G; Sethi, Jaswinder K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces insulin resistance by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. One model of hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance involves chronic preincubation of adipocytes in the presence of high glucose and low insulin concentrations. We have previously shown that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a partial role in the development of insulin resistance in this model. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with Go-6976, a widely used "specific" inhibitor of cPKCs, alleviates hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance. However, the effects of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin and Go-6976 were not additive and only rapamycin restored impaired insulin-stimulated AKT activation. Although, PKCα, (but not -β) was abundantly expressed in these adipocytes, our studies indicate cPKCs do not play a major role in causing insulin-resistance in this model. There was no evidence of changes in the expression or phosphorylation of PKCα, and PKCα knock-down did not prevent the reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. This was also consistent with lack of IRS-1 phosphorylation on Ser-24 in hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistant adipocytes. Treatment with Go-6976 did inhibit a component of the mTORC1 pathway, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Raptor knock-down enhanced the effect of insulin on glucose transport in insulin resistant adipocytes. Go-6976 had the same effect in control cells, but was ineffective in cells with Raptor knock-down. Taken together these findings suggest that Go-6976 exerts its effect in alleviating hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistance independently of cPKC inhibition and may target components of the mTORC1 signaling pathway. PMID:25330241

  19. A novel light-dependent activation of DAGK and PKC in bovine photoreceptor nuclei.

    PubMed

    Natalini, Paola M; Mateos, Melina V; Ilincheta de Boschero, Mónica G; Giusto, Norma M

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we describe a selective light-dependent distribution of the lipid kinase 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.107, DAGK) and the phosphorylated protein kinase C alpha (pPKCα) in a nuclear fraction of photoreceptor cells from bovine retinas. A nuclear fraction enriched in small nuclei from photoreceptor cells (PNF), was obtained when a modified nuclear isolation protocol developed by our laboratory was used. We measured and compared DAGK activity as phosphatidic acid (PA) formation in PNF obtained from retinas exposed to light and in retinas kept in darkness using [γ-(32)P]ATP or [(3)H]DAG. In the absence of exogenous substrates and detergents, no changes in DAGK activity were observed. However, when DAGK activity assays were performed in the presence of exogenous substrates, such as stearoyl arachidonoyl glycerol (SAG) or dioleoyl glycerol (DOG), and different detergents (used to make different DAGK isoforms evident), we observed significant light effects on DAGK activity, suggesting the presence of several DAGK isoforms in PNF. Under conditions favoring DAGKζ activity (DOG, Triton X-100, dioleoyl phosphatidylserine and R59022) we observed an increase in PA formation in PNF from retinas exposed to light with respect to those exposed to darkness. In contrast, under conditions favoring DAGKɛ (SAG, octylglucoside and R59022) we observed a decrease in its activity. These results suggest different physiological roles of the above-mentioned DAGK isoforms. Western blot analysis showed that whereas light stimulation of bovine retinas increases DAGKζ nuclear content, it decreases DAGKɛ and DAGKβ content in PNF. The role of PIP2-phospholipase C in light-stimulated DAGK activity was demonstrated using U73122. Light was also observed to induce enhanced pPKCα content in PNF. The selective distribution of DAGKζ and ɛ in PNF could be a light-dependent mechanism that in vertebrate retina promotes selective DAG removal and PKC regulation. PMID:24950064

  20. Catalpol increases hippocampal neuroplasticity and up-regulates PKC and BDNF in the aged rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Qiao-Jie; Zou, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xia; Bao, Yong-Ming; Liu, Yu-Xin; An, Li-Jia

    2006-12-01

    Rehmannia, a traditional Chinese medical herb, has a long history in age-related disease therapy. Previous work has indicated that catalpol is a main active ingredient performing neuroprotective effect in rehmannia, while the mechanism underlying the effect remains poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to investigate the effect of catalpol on presynaptic proteins and explore a potential mechanism. The hippocampal levels of GAP-43 and synaptophysin in 3 groups of 4 months (young group), 22-24 months (aged group) and catalpol-treated 22-24 months (catalpol-treated group) rats were evaluated by western blotting. Results clearly showed a significant decrease in synaptophysin (46.6%) and GAP-43 (61.4%) levels in the aged group against the young animals and an increase (45.0% and 31.8% respectively) in the catalpol-treated aged rats in comparison with the untreated aged group. In particular, synaptophysin immunoreactivity (OD) in the dentate granule layer of the hippocampus was increased 0.0251 in the catalpol-treated group as compared with the aged group. The study also revealed a catalpol-associated increase of PKC and BDNF in the hippocampus of the catalpol-treated group in comparison with the aged rats and highly correlated with synaptophysin and GAP-43. Such positive correlations between presynaptic proteins and signaling molecules also existed in the young group. These results suggested that catalpol could increase presynaptic proteins and up-regulate relative signaling molecules in the hippocampus of the aged rats. Consequently, it seemed to indicate that catalpol might ameliorate age-related neuroplasticity loss by "normalizing" presynaptic proteins and their relative signaling pathways in the aged rats. PMID:17078935

  1. PKC δ and βII regulate angiotensin II-mediated fibrosis through p38: a mechanism of RV fibrosis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chichger, Havovi; Vang, Alexander; O'Connell, Kelly A.; Zhang, Peng; Mende, Ulrike; Harrington, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) eventually leads to right ventricular (RV) fibrosis and dysfunction that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although angiotensin II plays an important role in RV remodeling associated with hypoxic PH, the molecular mechanisms underlying RV fibrosis in PH largely remain unresolved. We hypothesized that PKC-p38 signaling is involved in RV collagen accumulation in PH and in response to angiotensin II stimulation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 wk of normoxia or hypoxia (10% FiO2) as a model of PH. Hypoxic rats developed RV hypertrophy and fibrosis associated with an increase in PKC βII and δ protein expression and p38 dephosphorylation in freshly isolated RV cardiac fibroblasts. Further mechanistic studies were performed in cultured primary cardiac fibroblasts stimulated with angiotensin II, a key activator of ventricular fibrosis in PH. Angiotensin II induced a reduction in p38 phosphorylation that was attenuated following chemical inhibition of PKC βII and δ. Molecular and chemical inhibition of PKC βII and δ abrogated angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition in vitro. The effects of PKC inhibition on proliferation and fibrosis were reversed by chemical inhibition of p38. Conversely, constitutive activation of p38 attenuated angiotensin II-induced increase of cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen accumulation. PKC βII- and δ-dependent inactivation of p38 regulates cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition in response to angiotensin II, which suggests that the PKC-p38 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts may be involved and important in the pathophysiology of RV fibrosis in PH. PMID:25659900

  2. Suppression of PKC-α attenuates TNF-α-evoked cerebral barrier breakdown via regulations of MMP-2 and plasminogen-plasmin system.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Zuraidah; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2016-07-01

    Ischaemic stroke, accompanied by neuroinflammation, impairs blood-brain barrier integrity through a complex mechanism involving both protein kinase C (PKC) and urokinase. Using an in vitro model of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and astrocytes, this study assessed the putative roles of these elements in BBB damage evoked by enhanced availability of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. Treatment of HBMEC with TNF-α significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of all plasminogen-plasmin system (PPS) components, namely tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and also the activities of urokinase, total PKC and extracellular MMP-2. Inhibition of urokinase by amiloride abated the effects of TNF-α on BBB integrity and MMP-2 activity without affecting that of total PKC. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms dramatically suppressed TNF-α-induced overactivation of urokinase. Knockdown of PKC-α gene via specific siRNA in HBMEC suppressed the stimulatory effects of TNF-α on protein expression of all PPS components, MMP-2 activity, DNA fragmentation rates and pro-apoptotic caspase-3/7 activities. Establishment of co-cultures with BMEC transfected with PKC-α siRNA attenuated the disruptive effects of TNF-α on BBB integrity and function. This was partly due to elevations observed in expression of a tight junction protein, claudin-5 and partly to prevention of stress fibre formation. In conclusion, specific inhibition of PKC-α in cerebral conditions associated with exaggerated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, notably TNF-α may be of considerable therapeutic value and help maintain endothelial cell viability, appropriate cytoskeletal structure and basement membrane. PMID:27094771

  3. α1-Adrenoceptor activation of PKC-ε causes heterologous desensitization of thromboxane receptors in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingzi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In the aorta of adult spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), but not in that of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), rats, previous exposure to phenylephrine inhibits subsequent contractions to PGE2. The present experiments were designed to examine the mechanism(s) underlying this inhibition. Experimental Approach Isometric tension was measured in isolated rings of SHR and WKY aortae. Gene expression and protein presence were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. Key Results In aorta of 18 weeks SHR, but not age-matched WKY, pre-exposure to phenylephrine inhibited subsequent contractions to PGE2 that were mediated by thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors. This inhibition was not observed in preparations of pre-hypertensive 5-week-old SHR, and was significantly larger in those of 36- than 18-week-old SHR. Pre-exposure to the PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, also inhibited subsequent contractions to PGE2 in SHR aortae. The selective inhibitor of PKC-ε, ε-V1-2, abolished the desensitization caused by pre-exposure to phenylephrine. Two molecular PKC bands were detected and their relative intensities differed in 36-week-old WKY and SHR vascular smooth muscle. The mRNA expressions of PKC-α, PKC-ε, PK-N2 and PKC-ζ and of G protein-coupled kinase (GRK)-2, GRK4 and β-arrestin2 were higher in SHR than WKY aortae. Conclusions and Implications These experiments suggest that in the SHR but not the WKY aorta, α1-adrenoceptor activation desensitizes TP receptors through activation of PKC-ε. This heterologous desensitization is a consequence of the chronic exposure to high arterial pressure. PMID:25857252

  4. Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Levites, Yona; Amit, Tamar; Mandel, Silvia; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2003-05-01

    Green tea extract and its main polyphenol constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) possess potent neuroprotective activity in cell culture and mice model of Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis guiding this study is that EGCG may play an important role in amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and protection against toxicity induced by beta-amyloid (Abeta). The present study shows that EGCG enhances (approximately 6-fold) the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble form of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) into the conditioned media of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. sAPPalpha release was blocked by the hydroxamic acid-based metalloprotease inhibitor Ro31-9790, which indicated mediation via alpha-secretase activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with the inhibitor GF109203X, or by down-regulation of PKC, blocked the EGCG-induced sAPPalpha secretion, suggesting the involvement of PKC. Indeed, EGCG induced the phosphorylation of PKC, thus identifying a novel PKC-dependent mechanism of EGCG action by activation of the non-amyloidogenic pathway. EGCG is not only able to protect, but it can rescue PC12 cells against the beta-amyloid (Abeta) toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, administration of EGCG (2 mg/kg) to mice for 7 or 14 days significantly decreased membrane-bound holoprotein APP levels, with a concomitant increase in sAPPalpha levels in the hippocampus. Consistently, EGCG markedly increased PKCalpha and PKC in the membrane and the cytosolic fractions of mice hippocampus. Thus, EGCG has protective effects against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and regulates secretory processing of non-amyloidogenic APP via PKC pathway. PMID:12670874

  5. FAP-α (Fibroblast activation protein-α) is involved in the control of human breast cancer cell line growth and motility via the FAK pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroblast Activation Protein alpha (FAP-α) or seprase is an integral membrane serine peptidase. Previous work has not satisfactorily explained both the suppression and promotion effects that have been observed in cancer. The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of FAP-α in human breast cancer. Expression of FAP-α was characterized in primary tumour samples and in cell lines, along with the effects of FAP-α expression on in vitro growth, invasion, attachment and migration. Furthermore the potential interaction of FAP-α with other signalling pathways was investigated. Results FAP-α was significantly increased in patients with poor outcome and survival. In vitro results showed that breast cancer cells over expressing FAP-α had increased growth ability and impaired migratory ability. The growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and the adhesion and invasion ability of both MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells were not dramatically influenced by FAP-α expression. Over-expression of FAP-α resulted in a reduction of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) level in both cells cultured in normal media and serum-free media. An inhibitor to FAK restored the reduced motility ability of both MCF-7exp cells and MDA-MB-231exp cells and prevented the change in phosphorylated FAK levels. However, inhibitors to PI3K, ERK, PLCϒ, NWASP, ARP2/3, and ROCK had no influence this. Conclusions FAP-α in significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. In vitro, FAP-α promotes proliferation and inhibits migration of breast cancer cells, potentially by regulating the FAK pathway. These results suggest FAP-α could be a target for future therapies. PMID:24885257

  6. Increased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide-induced tenocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Chen, Zhen; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Yang, Li; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that a synthetic mechano-growth factor (MGF) C-terminal E-domain with 25 amino acids (MGF-C25E) promotes rat tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. However, the role of the nucleus in MGF-C25E-promoted tenocyte migration and the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that MGF-C25E increases the Young’s modulus of tenocytes through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This increase is not accompanied by an obvious change in the expression of Lamin A/C but is accompanied by significant chromatin condensation, indicating that MGF-C25E-induced chromatin condensation may contribute to the increased nuclear stiffness. Moreover, DNA methylation is observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. Inhibition of DNA methylation suppresses the elevation in chromatin condensation, in nuclear stiffness, and in tenocyte migration induced by MGF-C25E. The inhibition of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) or extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signals represses MGF-C25E-promoted DNA methylation. It also abolishes chromatin condensation, nuclear stiffness, and cell migration. Taken together, our results suggest that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration by increasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in tenocyte migration and new insight into the molecular mechanisms of MGF-promoted tenocyte migration. PMID:26742689

  7. Curcumin induced human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells apoptosis by ROS-mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK stress signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xue, Wenhua; Zhao, Songfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Pei, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion) significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells. PMID:25198898

  8. Curcumin Induced Human Gastric Cancer BGC-823 Cells Apoptosis by ROS-Mediated ASK1-MKK4-JNK Stress Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xue, Wenhua; Zhao, Songfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Pei, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The signaling mediated by stress-activated MAP kinases (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has well-established importance in cancer. In the present report, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the signaling pathway in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. Curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and BGC-823 cells apoptosis. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidant (NAC or Trion) significantly prevented curcumin-mediated apoptosis. Notably, we observed that curcumin activated ASK1, a MAPKKK that is oxidative stress sensitive and responsible to phosphorylation of JNK via triggering cascades, up-regulated an upstream effector of the JNK, MKK4, and phosphorylated JNK protein expression in BGC-823 cells. However, curcumin induced ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling was attenuated by NAC. All the findings confirm the possibility that oxidative stress-activated ASK1-MKK4-JNK signaling cascade promotes the apoptotic response in curcumin-treated BGC-823 cells. PMID:25198898

  9. Zerumbone Suppresses Osteopontin-Induced Cell Invasion Through Inhibiting the FAK/AKT/ROCK Pathway in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-22

    Lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and Korea. We have previously demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) induces cell invasion through inactivating cofilin. Inactivation of cofilin is mediated by the FAK/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Zerumbone (1) has been shown to exert anticancer activities. In this study, whether and how 1 affects OPN-induced cell invasion was determined in NSCLC A549 cells. Results from Boyden chamber assays suggested that OPN induced invasion of A549 cells and that 1 strongly suppressed this activity without affecting cell viability. Compound 1 effectively inhibited OPN-induced protein expression of ROCK1, the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. In addition, immunofluorescence staining showed that OPN caused a significant increase in lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells. However, 1 dramatically decreased OPN-induced lamellipodia formation. Compound 1 impaired OPN-induced phosphorylation of FAK and AKT, as determined by Western blot analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that 1 causes considerable suppression of OPN-induced cell invasion through inhibiting the FAK/AKT/ROCK pathway in NSCLC A549 cells. PMID:26681550

  10. KLF8 and FAK cooperatively enrich the active MMP14 on the cell surface required for the metastatic progression of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Heng; Hu, Liu; Yu, Lin; Wang, Xianhui; Urvalek, Alison M.; Li, Tianshu; Shen, Chao; Mukherjee, Debarati; Lahiri, Satadru K.; Wason, Melissa S.; Zhao, Jihe

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) regulates critical gene transcription associated with cancer. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unidentified. We have recently demonstrated that KLF8 expression enhances the activity but not expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), the target substrate of MMP14. Here, we report a novel KLF8 to MMP14 signaling that promotes human breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Using cell lines for inducible expression and knockdown of KLF8, we demonstrate that KLF8 promotes MMP14 expression at the transcriptional level. Knocking down KLF8 expression inhibited the breast cancer cell invasion both in vitro and in vivo as well as the lung metastasis in mice, which could be rescued by ectopic expression of MMP14. Promoter reporter assays and oligonucleotide and chromatin immunoprecipitations determined that KLF8 activates the human MMP14 gene promoter by both directly acting on the promoter and indirectly via promoting the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, the expression of T cell factor-1 (TCF1) and subsequent activation of the promoter by the β-catenin/TCF1 complex. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) using pharmacological inhibitor, RNA interference or knockout showed that the cell surface presentation of active MMP14 downstream of KLF8 depends upon FAK expression and activity. Taken together, this work identified novel signaling mechanisms by which KLF8 and FAK work together to promote the extracellular activity of MMP14 critical for breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23812425

  11. Activation of the FAK/PI3K pathway is crucial for AURKA-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyun; Zhou, Quan; Chen, Xuehua; Su, Liping; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and the main cause of death is metastasis. Overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) plays an important role in the metastasis of LSCC. However, the mechanism by which AURKA promotes the metastasis of LSCC is poorly understood. Recent accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be one of the mechanisms of tumor metastasis. In the present study, we studied whether AURKA may induce EMT to promote the metastasis of LSCC. CCK-8 and plate colony-formation assays were carried out to show that AURKA significantly promoted the proliferation of Hep2 cells. Immunofluorescence staining and western blotting showed that EMT-related proteins changed in a time-dependent manner along with the alteration of AURKA, with decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and slug and increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, downregulation of the expression of AURKA inhibited FAK/PI3K pathway activity. Inhibition of the FAK/PI3K pathway caused less mesenchymal-like characteristics and reduced the mobility, migration and invasion of Hep2 cells. In conclusion, AURKA may induce EMT to promote metastasis via activation of the FAK/PI3K pathway in LSCC. Those regulatory factors may present new diagnostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for LSCC. PMID:27373675

  12. JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediates asperphenamate derivative BBP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanchun; Luo, Qiyu; Yuan, Lei; Miao, Caixia; Mu, Xiaoshuo; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jianchun; Sun, Tiemin; Ma, Enlong

    2012-08-15

    N-Benzoyl-O-(N′-(1-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-piperidiylcarbonyl) -D-phenylalanyl)-D-phenylalaninol (BBP), a novel synthesized asperphenamate derivative with the increased solubility, showed growth inhibitory effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy, which was demonstrated by the development of acidic vesicular organelles, cleavage of LC3 and upregulation of Atg4 in BBP-treated MCF-7 cells. Since the application of Atg4 siRNA totally blocked the cleavage of LC3, we demonstrated a central role of Atg4 in BBP-induced autophagy. The further studies showed that BBP increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with NAC effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS, autophagy and growth inhibition triggered by BBP. Moreover, BBP induced the activation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed autophagy, the increase of Atg4 levels, conversion of LC3 and growth inhibition induced by BBP. Knockdown of JNK by siRNA efficiently inhibited ROS production and autophagy, but antioxidant NAC failed to block JNK activation induced by BBP, indicating that JNK activation may be a upstream signaling of ROS and should be a core component in BBP-induced autophagic signaling pathway. These results suggest that BBP produces its growth inhibitory effect through induction of the autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells, which is modulated by a JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation involving ROS production. -- Highlights: ► Asperphenamate derivative BBP with increased solubility was synthesized. ► BBP selectively inhibited the growth of human breast tumor cells. ► The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy. ► JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated BBP-induced autophagy.

  13. cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation of serine 36 is critical for p66Shc activation

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Sana; Drasche, Astrid; Thurner, Marco; Hermann, Martin; Ashraf, Muhammad Imtiaz; Fresser, Friedrich; Baier, Gottfried; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert; Troppmair, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    p66Shc-dependent ROS production contributes to many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during solid organ transplantation. Inhibiting p66Shc activation may provide a novel therapeutic approach to prevent damage, which is poorly managed by antioxidants in vivo. Previous work suggested that pro-oxidant and a pro-apoptotic function of p66Shc required mitochondrial import, which depended on serine 36 phosphorylation. PKCß has been proposed as S36 kinase but cJun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) may also phosphorylate this residue. To simulate the early stages of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) we either used H2O2 treatment or hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). As during reperfusion in vivo, we observed increased JNK and p38 activity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and HL-1 cardiomyocytes along with significantly increased p66ShcS36 phosphorylation, ROS production and cell damage. Application of specific inhibitors caused a pronounced decrease in p66ShcS36 phosphorylation only in the case of JNK1/2. Moreover, S36 phosphorylation of recombinant p66Shc by JNK1 but not PKCß was demonstrated. We further confirmed JNK1/2-dependent regulation of p66ShcS36 phosphorylation, ROS production and cell death using JNK1/2 deficient MEFs. Finally, the low ROS phenotype of JNK1/2 knockout MEFs was reversed by the phosphomimetic p66ShcS36E mutant. Inhibiting JNK1/2-regulated p66Shc activation may thus provide a therapeutic approach for the prevention of oxidative damage. PMID:26868434

  14. Apoptosis induced by domoic acid in mouse cerebellar granule neurons involves activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, G.; Klintworth, H.M.; Kavanagh, T.J.; Costa, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    In mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) the marine neurotoxin domoic acid (DomA) induces neuronal cell death, either by apoptosis or by necrosis, depending on its concentration, with apoptotic damage predominating in response to low concentrations (100 nM). DomA-induced apoptosis is due to selective activation of AMPA/kainate receptors, and is mediated by DomA-induced oxidative stress, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of caspase-3. The p38 MAP kinase and the c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) have been shown to be preferentially activated by oxidative stress. Here we report that DomA increases p38 MAP kinase and JNK phosphorylation, and that this effect is more pronounced in CGNs from Gclm (−/−) mice, which lack the modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, have very low glutathione (GSH) levels, and are more sensitive to DomA-induced apoptosis than CGNs from wild-type mice. The increased phosphorylation of JNK and p38 kinase was paralleled by a decreased phosphorylation of Erk 1/2. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX, but not the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, prevents DomA-induced activation of p38 and JNK kinases. Several antioxidants (GSH ethyl ester, catalase, phenylbutylnitrone) also prevent DomA-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases. Inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and of JNK (SP600125) antagonize DomA-induced apoptosis. These results indicate the importance of oxidative stress-activated JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways in DomA-induced apoptosis in CGNs. PMID:18164102

  15. JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways contribute to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhee; Kim, Youngnam; Jeon, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are central building blocks in the intracellular signaling network, are often manipulated by viruses of diverse families to favor their replication. Among the MAPK family, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is known to be modulated during the infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); however, involvement of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) comprising p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) remains to be determined. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether activation of p38 MAPK and JNK cascades is required for PEDV replication. Our results showed that PEDV activates p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 up to 24h post-infection, whereas, thereafter their phosphorylation levels recede to baseline levels or even fall below them. Notably, UV-irradiated inactivated PEDV, which can enter cells but cannot replicate inside them, failed to induce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 suggesting that viral biosynthesis is essential for activation of these kinases. Treatment of cells with selective p38 or JNK inhibitors markedly impaired PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner and these antiviral effects were found to be maximal during the early times of the infection. Furthermore, direct pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or JNK1/2 activation resulted in a significant reduction of viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and progeny release. However, independent treatments with either SAPK inhibitor did not inhibit PEDV-induced apoptotic cell death mediated by activation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) suggesting that SAPKs are irrelevant to the apoptosis pathway during PEDV infection. In summary, our data demonstrated critical roles of the p38 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways in facilitating successful viral infection during the post-entry steps of the PEDV life cycle. PMID:27215486

  16. PKC enhances the capacity for secretion by rapidly recruiting covert voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Groten, Christopher J; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-11

    It is unknown whether neurons can dynamically control the capacity for secretion by promptly changing the number of plasma membrane voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. To address this, we studied peptide release from the bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica, which initiate reproduction by secreting hormone during an afterdischarge. This burst engages protein kinase C (PKC) to trigger the insertion of a covert Ca(2+) channel, Apl Cav2, alongside a basal channel, Apl Cav1. The significance of Apl Cav2 recruitment to secretion remains undetermined; therefore, we used capacitance tracking to assay secretion, along with Ca(2+) imaging and Ca(2+) current measurements, from cultured bag cell neurons under whole-cell voltage-clamp. Activating PKC with the phorbol ester, PMA, enhanced Ca(2+) entry, and potentiated stimulus-evoked secretion. This relied on channel insertion, as it was occluded by preventing Apl Cav2 engagement with prior whole-cell dialysis or the cytoskeletal toxin, latrunculin B. Channel insertion reduced the stimulus duration and/or frequency required to initiate secretion and strengthened excitation-secretion coupling, indicating that Apl Cav2 accesses peptide release more readily than Apl Cav1. The coupling of Apl Cav2 to secretion also changed with behavioral state, as Apl Cav2 failed to evoke secretion in silent neurons from reproductively inactive animals. Finally, PKC also acted secondarily to enhance prolonged exocytosis triggered by mitochondrial Ca(2+) release. Collectively, our results suggest that bag cell neurons dynamically elevate Ca(2+) channel abundance in the membrane to ensure adequate secretion during the afterdischarge. PMID:25673863

  17. ROS, MAPK/ERK and PKC play distinct roles in EGF-stimulated human corneal cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Huo, Y-N; Chen, W; Zheng, X-X

    2015-01-01

    Cornea is at the outermost surface of eye globe, and it easily receives damage from ultraviolet light exposure, physiology wounding, and infections. It is essential to understand the mechanisms controlling human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell proliferation and wound healing. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) could stimulate cell proliferation and migration in various cell types. Therefore, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of EGF on HCE cell proliferation and migration. CCK-8 kit and wound healing experiment were used to investigate HCE cell proliferation and cell migration, respectively. ROS activity was quantified by DCFDA and flow cytometry. Western blot and Q-PCR were performed to examine protein and RNA levels. EGF could promote HCE cell proliferation and migration in both physiology status and UV irradiation conditions, which is used to mimic the disease condition in human corneal epithelial cells. Interestingly, the promotion effect of EGF on HCE cell proliferation is mainly mediated by activated ROS signaling under disease condition. However, the EGF function is mediated by ROS and MAPK/ERK pathway in EGF-treated corneal epithelial cells in physiology status, in which ROS and MAPK/ERK pathway have no mutual influence on the other signaling pathway in EGF-stimulated corneal epithelial cells. We also revealed that MAPK/ERK pathway instead of ROS mediates EGF-stimulated HCE cell migration. Interestingly, we found that PKC proteins were downregulated by EGF in HCE cells that is partially mediated by ROS signaling, while PKC pathway was not involved in EGF-stimulated corneal cell proliferation and migration. EGF promotes human corneal cell proliferation and migration both in physiology and disease conditions, and ROS, MAPK/ERK and PKC pathways play different roles in these processes. PMID:26567598

  18. FRET study of the structural and kinetic effects of PKC phosphomimetic cardiac troponin T mutants on thin filament regulation.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, William; Zhou, Zhiqun; Li, King-Lun; Rieck, Daniel; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2014-05-15

    FRET was used to investigate the structural and kinetic effects that PKC phosphorylations exert on Ca(2+) and myosin subfragment-1 dependent conformational transitions of the cardiac thin filament. PKC phosphorylations of cTnT were mimicked by glutamate substitution. Ca(2+) and S1-induced distance changes between the central linker of cTnC and the switch region of cTnI (cTnI-Sr) were monitored in reconstituted thin filaments using steady state and time resolved FRET, while kinetics of structural transitions were determined using stopped flow. Thin filament Ca(2+) sensitivity was found to be significantly blunted by the presence of the cTnT(T204E) mutant, whereas pseudo-phosphorylation at additional sites increased the Ca(2+)-sensitivity. The rate of Ca(2+)-dissociation induced structural changes was decreased in the C-terminal end of cTnI-Sr in the presence of pseudo-phosphorylations while remaining unchanged at the N-terminal end of this region. Additionally, the distance between cTnI-Sr and cTnC was decreased significantly for the triple and quadruple phosphomimetic mutants cTnT(T195E/S199E/T204E) and cTnT(T195E/S199E/T204E/T285E), which correlated with the Ca(2+)-sensitivity increase seen in these same mutants. We conclude that significant changes in thin filament Ca(2+)-sensitivity, structure and kinetics are brought about through PKC phosphorylation of cTnT. These changes can either decrease or increase Ca(2+)-sensitivity and likely play an important role in cardiac regulation. PMID:24708997

  19. FRET Study of the Structural and Kinetic Effects of PKC Phosphomimetic Cardiac Troponin T Mutants on Thin Filament Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Schlecht, William; Zhou, Zhiqun; Li, King-Lun; Rieck, Daniel; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2014-01-01

    FRET was used to investigate the structural and kinetic effects that PKC phosphorylations exert on Ca2+ and myosin subfragment-1 dependent conformational transitions of the cardiac thin filament. PKC phosphorylations of cTnT were mimicked by glutamate substitution. Ca2+ and S1-induced distance changes between the central linker of cTnC and the switch region of cTnI (cTnI-Sr) were monitored in reconstituted thin filaments using steady state and time resolved FRET, while kinetics of structural transitions were determined using stopped flow. Thin filament Ca2+ sensitivity was found to be significantly blunted by the presence of the cTnT(T204E) mutant, whereas pseudo-phosphorylation at additional sites increased the Ca2+-sensitivty. The rate of Ca2+-dissociation induced structural changes was decreased in the C-terminal end of cTnI-Sr in the presence of pseudo-phosphorylations while remaining unchanged at the N-terminal end of this region. Additionally, the distance between cTnI-Sr and cTnC was decreased significantly for the triple and quadruple phosphomimetic mutants cTnT(T195E/S199E/T204E) and cTnT(T195E/S199E/T204E/T285E), which correlated with the Ca2+-sensitivity increase seen in these same mutants. We conclude that significant changes in thin filament Ca2+-sensitivity, structure and kinetics are brought about through PKC phosphorylation of cTnT. These changes can either decrease or increase Ca2+-sensitivity and likely play an important role in cardiac regulation. PMID:24708997

  20. Mouse Sphingosine Kinase 1a Is Negatively Regulated through Conventional PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation at S373 Residue

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yong-Seok; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase is a lipid kinase that converts sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate, an important signaling molecule with intracellular and extracellular functions. Although diverse extracellular stimuli influence cellular sphingosine kinase activity, the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mouse sphingosine kinase (mSK) isoforms 1 and 2. mSK1a was robustly phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimuli such as phorbol ester, whereas mSK2 exhibited a high basal level of phosphorylation in quiescent cells regardless of agonist stimulation. Interestingly, phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of mSK1a correlated with suppression of its activity. Chemical inhibition of conventional PKCs (cPKCs) abolished mSK1a phosphorylation, while overexpression of PKCα, a cPKC isoform, potentiated the phosphorylation, in response to phorbol ester. Furthermore, an in vitro kinase assay showed that PKCα directly phosphorylated mSK1a. In addition, phosphopeptide mapping analysis determined that the S373 residue of mSK1a was the only site phosphorylated by cPKC. Interestingly, alanine substitution of S373 made mSK1a refractory to the inhibitory effect of phorbol esters, whereas glutamate substitution of the same residue resulted in a significant reduction in mSK1a activity, suggesting the significant role of this phosphorylation event. Taken together, we propose that mSK1a is negatively regulated through cPKC-dependent phosphorylation at S373 residue. PMID:26642194

  1. Leishmania amazonensis: heme stimulates (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C/protein kinase C-like (PI-PLC/PKC) signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Cardoso, Viviane Carrozino; Francioli, Fernanda Gomes; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In the present paper we studied the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC (PI-PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase stimulation by heme in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Heme stimulated the PKC-like activity with a concentration of 50nM. Interestingly, the maximal stimulation of the PKC-like activity promoted by phorbol ester was of the same magnitude promoted by heme. However, the stimulatory effect of heme is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122, specific inhibitors of PI-PLC. (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is increased in the presence of increased concentrations of heme, being maximally affected at 50nM. This effect was completely reversed by 10nM calphostin C, an inhibitor of PKC. Thus, the effect of 50nM heme on (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the heme receptor mediates the stimulatory effect of heme on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity through a PI-PLC/PKC signaling pathway. PMID:20045694

  2. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L.; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R.; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C. Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J.; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J.; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G.; Turner, Stephen J.; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4+ T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4+ T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  3. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G; Turner, Stephen J; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D; Rao, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4(+) T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4(+) T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  4. FAK inhibition with small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases viability, clonogenicity, and cell attachment in thyroid cancer cell lines and synergizes with targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Shalana; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Liu, Biao; Cance, William G

    2014-09-15

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is up-regulated in thyroid cancer and small molecule FAK scaffolding inhibitor, Y15, was shown to decrease cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test the effectiveness of Y15 in thyroid cancer cell lines, profile gene expression with Y15 compared with clinical trial FAK inhibitor PF-04554878, and use Y15 in novel drug combinations. Cell viability was decreased in a dose dependent manner in four thyroid cancer cell lines with Y15 and with higher doses in PF-04554878. Y397 FAK and total FAK were decreased with Y15 and decreased less with PF-04554878. Detachment and necrosis were increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines with Y15. Clonogenicity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner for both Y15 and PF-04554878. We compared gene profiles between papillary thyroid cell lines, TPC1, BCPAP and K1, and 380, 109, and 74 genes were significantly >2-fold changed with Y15 treatment, respectively. Common up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and heat shock; down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cell-to-cell interactions, and cancer stem cell markers. We also compared gene profiles of TT cells treated with Y15 versus PF-04554878. Y15 caused 144 genes to change over 4 fold and PF-04554878 caused 208 gene changes >4-fold (p<0.05). Among genes changed 4 fold, 11 were shared between the treatments, including those involved in metabolism, cell cycle, migration and transcription. Y15 demonstrated synergy with PF-04554878 in TT cells and also synergy with Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and strong synergy with Sunitinib in resistant K1 cells. This report revealed the biological effect of Y15 inhibitor, detected the unique and common gene signature profiles in response to Y15 in 4 different thyroid cancer cell lines, demonstrated differential response changes with Y15 and PF-04554878 treatment, and showed the synergy of Y15 with PF-04554878, Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and

  5. FAK inhibition with small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases viability, clonogenicity, and cell attachment in thyroid cancer cell lines and synergizes with targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Shalana; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Liu, Biao; Cance, William G

    2014-08-25

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is up-regulated in thyroid cancer and small molecule FAK scaffolding inhibitor, Y15, was shown to decrease cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test the effectiveness of Y15 in thyroid cancer cell lines, profile gene expression with Y15 compared with clinical trial FAK inhibitor PF-04554878, and use Y15 in novel drug combinations. Cell viability was decreased in a dose dependent manner in four thyroid cancer cell lines with Y15 and with higher doses in PF-04554878. Y397 FAK and total FAK were decreased with Y15 and decreased less with PF-04554878. Detachment and necrosis were increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines with Y15. Clonogenicity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner for both Y15 and PF-04554878. We compared gene profiles between papillary thyroid cell lines, TPC1, BCPAP and K1, and 380, 109, and 74 genes were significantly >2-fold changed with Y15 treatment, respectively. Common up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and heat shock; down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cell-to-cell interactions, and cancer stem cell markers. We also compared gene profiles of TT cells treated with Y15 versus PF-04554878. Y15 caused 144 genes to change over 4 fold and PF-04554878 caused 208 gene changes >4-fold (p<0.05). Among genes changed 4 fold, 11 were shared between the treatments, including those involved in metabolism, cell cycle, migration and transcription. Y15 demonstrated synergy with PF-04554878 in TT cells and also synergy with Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and strong synergy with Sunitinib in resistant K1 cells. This report revealed the biological effect of Y15 inhibitor, detected the unique and common gene signature profiles in response to Y15 in 4 different thyroid cancer cell lines, demonstrated differential response changes with Y15 and PF-04554878 treatment, and showed the synergy of Y15 with PF-04554878, Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and

  6. PTTG promotes invasion in human breast cancer cell line by upregulating EMMPRIN via FAK/Akt/mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Zhong, Feng; Xie, Jing; Peng, Jianjun; Han, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a novel oncogene that is expressed at higher level in most of the tumors. PTTG overexpression correlates with lymph node infiltration and a higher degree of tumor recurrence in breast cancer. However, the cellular functions and precise signals elicited by PTTG in breast cancer are not fully understood. Here, we established a breast cancer cell line which stably overexpressed PTTG. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of PTTG in MCF-7 cells was associated with enhanced cell migration and invasion as well as EMT. Our results also demonstrated that PTTG overexpression correlated with elevated EMMPRIN level, which mediated the enhanced cell migration, invasion and EMT. Moreover, our findings suggested that PTTG enhances metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inducing EMMPRIN through activating FAK/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of the biological effect of PTTG and provide mechanistic insights for developing potential therapeutic strategies for inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.

  7. Interplay between FAK, PKCδ, and p190RhoGAP in the Regulation of Endothelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Grinnell, Katie L.; Harrington, Elizabeth O.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of either intercellular or extracellular junctions involved in maintaining endothelial barrier function can result in increased endothelial permeability. Increased endothelial permeability, in turn, allows for the unregulated movement of fluid and solutes out of the vasculature and into the surrounding connective tissue, contributing to a number of disease states, including stroke and pulmonary edema (Ermert et al., 1995; Lee and Slutsky, 2010; van Hinsbergh, 1997; Waller et al., 1996; Warboys et al., 2010). Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which endothelial cell junction integrity is controlled is necessary for development of therapies aimed at treating such conditions. In this review, we will discuss the functions of three signaling molecules known to be involved in regulation of endothelial permeability: focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein kinase C delta (PKCδ), and p190RhoGAP (p190). We will discuss the independent functions of each protein, as well as the interplay that exists between them and the effects of such interactions on endothelial function. PMID:21549132

  8. Guggulsterone decreases proliferation and metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells by modulating JAK/STAT and Src/FAK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Gupta, Suprit; Pai, Priya; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate efficacy, high toxicity and drug resistance associated with existing chemotherapeutic agents mandate a need for novel therapeutic strategies for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer (PC). Guggulsterone (GS) exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cells and has emerged as an attractive candidate for use in complementary or preventive cancer therapies. However, the knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of GS in PC is still limited and needs to be explored. We studied the effect of GS on PC cell growth, motility and invasion and elucidated the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. Treatment of Capan1 and CD18/HPAF PC cells with GS resulted in dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and decreased colony formation. Further, GS treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as assessed by Annexin-V assay and FACS analysis. Increased apoptosis following GS treatment was accompanied with Bad dephosphorylation and its translocation to the mitochondria, increased Caspase-3 activation, decreased Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and xIAP expression. Additionally, GS treatment decreased motility and invasion of PC cells by disrupting cytoskeletal organization, inhibiting activation of FAK and Src signaling and decreased MMP9 expression. More importantly, GS treatment decreased mucin MUC4 expression in Capan1 and CD18/HPAF cells through transcriptional regulation by inhibiting Jak/STAT pathway. In conclusion, our results support the utility of GS as a potential therapeutic agent for lethal PC. PMID:23920124

  9. PTTG promotes invasion in human breast cancer cell line by upregulating EMMPRIN via FAK/Akt/mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Zhong, Feng; Xie, Jing; Peng, Jianjun; Han, Zhiwu

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a novel oncogene that is expressed at higher level in most of the tumors. PTTG overexpression correlates with lymph node infiltration and a higher degree of tumor recurrence in breast cancer. However, the cellular functions and precise signals elicited by PTTG in breast cancer are not fully understood. Here, we established a breast cancer cell line which stably overexpressed PTTG. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of PTTG in MCF-7 cells was associated with enhanced cell migration and invasion as well as EMT. Our results also demonstrated that PTTG overexpression correlated with elevated EMMPRIN level, which mediated the enhanced cell migration, invasion and EMT. Moreover, our findings suggested that PTTG enhances metastatic potential of breast cancer cells by inducing EMMPRIN through activating FAK/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of the biological effect of PTTG and provide mechanistic insights for developing potential therapeutic strategies for inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:27186413

  10. Guggulsterone decreases proliferation and metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells by modulating JAK/STAT and Src/FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Macha, Muzafar A; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Gupta, Suprit; Pai, Priya; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Batra, Surinder K; Jain, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate efficacy, high toxicity and drug resistance associated with existing chemotherapeutic agents mandate a need for novel therapeutic strategies for highly aggressive Pancreatic Cancer (PC). Guggulsterone (GS) exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cells and has emerged as an attractive candidate for use in complementary or preventive cancer therapies. However, the knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of GS in PC is still limited and needs to be explored. We studied the effect of GS on PC cell growth, motility and invasion and elucidated the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. Treatment of Capan1 and CD18/HPAF PC cells with GS resulted in dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and decreased colony formation. Further, GS treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as assessed by Annexin-V assay and FACS analysis. Increased apoptosis following GS treatment was accompanied with Bad dephosphorylation and its translocation to the mitochondria, increased Caspase-3 activation, decreased Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and xIAP expression. Additionally, GS treatment decreased motility and invasion of PC cells by disrupting cytoskeletal organization, inhibiting activation of FAK and Src signaling and decreased MMP9 expression. More importantly, GS treatment decreased mucin MUC4 expression in Capan1 and CD18/HPAF cells through transcriptional regulation by inhibiting Jak/STAT pathway. In conclusion, our results support the utility of GS as a potential therapeutic agent for lethal PC. PMID:23920124

  11. Bufalin enhances antitumor effect of paclitaxel on cervical tumorigenesis via inhibiting the integrin α2/β5/FAK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingming; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Ziliang; Cheng, Xi

    2016-01-01

    While Bufalin restrains primary tumorigenesis, the role of Bufalin in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that Bufalin can inhibit cervical cancer cell proliferation, block cell cycle in G2/M phase, induce cellular apoptosis and reduce cell metastasis through stimulation of p21waf/cip1, p27cip/kip, Bax and E-cadherin, and suppression of cyclin A, cyclin B1, CDK2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, MMP9 and SNAIL1. Further study suggests that Bufalin has no apparent damage to human normal cervical cells at the low concentration (<20nM), but increases the chemotherapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. Mechanistic study reveals that Bufalin suppresses the integrin α2/FAK/AKT1/ GSK3β signaling. Finally, in vivo studies show that Bufalin blocks the Siha-induced xenograft tumor growth without detectable toxicity in the animals at the therapeutic doses, and the combination treatment of Bufalin and paclitaxel more efficiently inhibits xenograft tumor growth. Thus, Bufalin may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cervical cancer. PMID:26758421

  12. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression during hypoxia: role of Ca2+ and PKC.

    PubMed

    Raymond, R; Millhorn, D

    1997-02-01

    PKC family is essential for this regulation. PMID:9027734

  13. MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 Pathway Negatively Regulates Rgs4 Expression in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonggang; Li, Fang; Liu, Shu; Wang, Hong; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Background Regulator of G-protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) plays an important role in regulating smooth muscle contraction, cardiac development, neural plasticity and psychiatric disorder. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Our recent studies have shown that upregulation of Rgs4 by interleukin (IL)-1β is mediated by the activation of NFκB signaling and modulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. Here we investigate the effect of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway on Rgs4 expression in rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultured cells at first passage were treated with or without IL-1β (10 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of the selective JNK inhibitor (SP600125) or JNK small hairpin RNA (shRNA). The expression levels of Rgs4 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. SP600125 or JNK shRNA increased Rgs4 expression in the absence or presence of IL-1β stimulation. Overexpression of MEKK1, the key upstream kinase of JNK, inhibited Rgs4 expression, which was reversed by co-expression of JNK shRNA or dominant-negative mutants for MKK4 or JNK. Both constitutive and inducible upregulation of Rgs4 expression by SP600125 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D. Dual reporter assay showed that pretreatment with SP600125 sensitized the promoter activity of Rgs4 in response to IL-1β. Mutation of the AP1-binding site within Rgs4 promoter increased the promoter activity. Western blot analysis confirmed that IL-1β treatment increased the phosphorylation of JNK, ATF-2 and c-Jun. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays validated that IL-1β increased the in vitro and ex vivo binding activities of AP1 within rabbit Rgs4 promoter. Conclusion/Significance Activation of MEKK1-MKK4-JNK-AP1 signal pathway plays a tonic inhibitory role in

  14. JNK1/2 regulate Bid by direct phosphorylation at Thr59 in response to ALDH1L1

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, A; Ghose, S; Oleinik, N V; Bethard, J R; Peterson, Y K; Krupenko, N I; Krupenko, S A

    2014-01-01

    BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (Bid) is a BH3-only pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Its function in apoptosis is associated with the proteolytic cleavage to the truncated form tBid, mainly by caspase-8. tBid translocates to mitochondria and assists Bax and Bak in induction of apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent alternative processing of Bid to jBid was also reported. We have previously shown that the folate stress enzyme 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (ALDH1L1) activates JNK1 and JNK2 in cancer cells as a pro-apoptotic response. Here we report that in PC-3 prostate cancer cells, JNK1/2 phosphorylate Bid at Thr59 within the caspase cleavage site in response to ALDH1L1. In vitro, all three JNK isoforms, JNK 1–3, phosphorylated Thr59 of Bid with JNK1 being the least active. Thr59 phosphorylation protected Bid from cleavage by caspase-8, resulting in strong accumulation of the full-length protein and its translocation to mitochondria. Interestingly, although we did not observe jBid in response to ALDH1L1 in PC-3 cells, transient expression of Bid mutants lacking the caspase-8 cleavage site resulted in strong accumulation of jBid. Of note, a T59D mutant mimicking constitutive phosphorylation revealed more profound cleavage of Bid to jBid. JNK-driven Bid accumulat