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Sample records for jnk-mediated interleukin-2 mrna

  1. Substance P stabilizes interleukin-2 mRNA in activated Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Calvo, C F

    1994-04-01

    We investigated here the mechanism leading to the enhancement of interleukin (IL)-2 mRNA that we described in a previous work when Jurkat cells were co-stimulated with PHA+PMA and 10(-12) M of the Substance P (SP) neuropeptide. We show that the SP-augmented IL-2 mRNA signal is totally abrogated by an early addition of cyclosporin A, actinomycin D or cycloheximide. SP does not affect the IL-2 gene transcription, as evidenced by nuclear run on assays. In contrast, a posttranscriptional alteration of the IL-2 mRNA is shown, by demonstrating that the degradation rate of IL-2 mRNA following the addition of actinomycin D, at 4 h, was delayed in the (PHA+PMA)-activated cell cultures containing 10(-12) M of SP. Thus, the SP-induced augmentation of secreted IL-2 in activated T cells we demonstrated previously must result from an SP increase of the IL-2 mRNA stability. PMID:7512581

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 produces immune defects in CD4+ T lymphocytes by inhibiting interleukin 2 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Oyaizu, N; Chirmule, N; Kalyanaraman, V S; Hall, W W; Pahwa, R; Shuster, M; Pahwa, S

    1990-01-01

    Envelope glycoprotein gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to inhibit T-cell function, but little is known about the mechanisms of this immunosuppression. Pretreatment of a CD4+ tetanus toxoid-specific T-cell clone with soluble gp120 was found to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of soluble antigen-driven or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-driven proliferative response, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, and surface IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha-chain expression, all of which were reversed by the addition of exogenous IL-2. mRNA for the gene encoding IL-2 was suppressed by treatment with gp120, but IL-2R gene transcription was not inhibited. Bypass activation of the T-cell clone with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin was unaffected by gp120 pretreatment. Thus, gp120-CD4 interaction interferes with an essential role of the CD4 molecule in signal transduction through the CD3-antigen receptor (Ti) complex. Such a mechanism of gp120-induced immunosuppression, if operative in vivo, could contribute to the depressed specific immune responses associated with HIV infection. Images PMID:2315327

  3. Detection of three nonsense mutations and one missense mutation in the interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] chain gene in SCIDX1 that differently affect the mRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, S.; Fischer, A.; Saint Basile, G. de ); Subtil, A.; Dautry-Varsat, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The interleukin-2 receptor [gamma] (IL-2R[gamma]) chain gene encodes a 64-kDa protein that not only composes the high-affinity form of the IL-2 binding receptor in association with the 2R [alpha] and [beta] chains, but also participates in at least the IL-4 and IL-7 receptor complexes. Mutations in this gene have recently been shown to cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDX1). This disease of the immune system results from an early block of T lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, which leads to a severe cellular and humoral immune defect that is lethal unless treated by bone marrow transplantation. Analysis of the IL-2R[gamma] gene in SCIDX1 patients has revealed the presence of heterogeneous mutations principally located in the extracellular domain of the molecule. We report here three intraexonic mutations and one deletion in the IL-2R[gamma] gene in four SCIDX1 patients. These mutations appear to differentially affect RNA processing, either by decreasing IL-2R[gamma] mRNA level or by the skipping of a constitutive exon. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Generation of Interleukin-2 Receptor Gamma Gene Knockout Pigs from Somatic Cells Genetically Modified by Zinc Finger Nuclease-Encoding mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahito; Nakano, Kazuaki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Mirina; Matsumura, Yukina; Sakai, Rieko; Kuramoto, Momoko; Hayashida, Gota; Asano, Yoshinori; Takayanagi, Shuko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) is a powerful tool for genome editing. ZFN-encoding plasmid DNA expression systems have been recently employed for the generation of gene knockout (KO) pigs, although one major limitation of this technology is the use of potentially harmful genome-integrating plasmid DNAs. Here we describe a simple, non-integrating strategy for generating KO pigs using ZFN-encoding mRNA. The interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL2RG) gene was knocked out in porcine fetal fibroblasts using ZFN-encoding mRNAs, and IL2RG KO pigs were subsequently generated using these KO cells through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The resulting IL2RG KO pigs completely lacked a thymus and were deficient in T and NK cells, similar to human X-linked SCID patients. Our findings demonstrate that the combination of ZFN-encoding mRNAs and SCNT provides a simple robust method for producing KO pigs without genomic integration. PMID:24130776

  5. Dexamethasone inhibits human interleukin 2 but not interleukin 2 receptor gene expression in vitro at the level of nuclear transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Boumpas, D T; Anastassiou, E D; Older, S A; Tsokos, G C; Nelson, D L; Balow, J E

    1991-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids have an inhibitory effect on the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) genes. To determine the mechanisms of this inhibition, human T lymphocytes were stimulated with mitogens in the presence of dexamethasone. Nuclear transcription run-off assays showed that high doses of dexamethasone inhibited the transcription of the IL-2 gene but not that of the IL-2R gene. Post-transcriptionally, high doses of dexamethasone (10(-4) M) were required to inhibit IL-2R mRNA levels by 50%, whereas lower doses (10(-6) M) inhibited by greater than 70% the accumulation of IL-2 mRNA. IL-2 mRNA half-life decreased in the presence of dexamethasone (10(-6) M) by approximately 50%. At the protein product level, dexamethasone inhibited both IL-2 production, as well as cell surface and soluble forms of IL-2R. IL-2R gene expression was inhibited for at least 72 h after exposure of cells to dexamethasone. In the presence of exogenous IL-2, dexamethasone failed to exert a significant effect on the production of IL-2R protein. These data indicate that dexamethasone has a greater effect on the expression of the IL-2 gene than on the IL-2R gene. Dexamethasone both inhibits transcription of the IL-2 gene and decreases the stability of IL-2 mRNA. The effect of dexamethasone on the IL-2R gene is post-transcriptional and may result indirectly from decreased IL-2 production. Images PMID:2022743

  6. A JNK-mediated autophagy pathway that triggers c-IAP degradation and necroptosis for anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, W; Wang, Q; Srinivasan, B; Xu, J; Padilla, M T; Li, Z; Wang, X; Liu, Y; Gou, X; Shen, H-M; Xing, C; Lin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Killing cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis is one of the main mechanisms of chemotherapy. However, numerous cancer cells have primary or acquired apoptosis resistance, resulting in chemoresistance. In this study, using a novel chalcone derivative chalcone-24 (Chal-24), we identified a novel anticancer mechanism through autophagy-mediated necroptosis (RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necrosis). Chal-24 potently killed different cancer cells with induction of necrotic cellular morphology while causing no detectable caspase activation. Blocking the necroptosis pathway with either necrostatin-1 or by knockdown of RIP1 and RIP3 effectively blocked the cytotoxicity of Chal-24, suggesting that Chal-24-induced cell death is associated with necroptosis. Chal-24 robustly activated JNK and ERK and blockage of which effectively suppressed Chal-24-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, Chal-24 strongly induced autophagy that is dependent on JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and dissociation of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL from Beclin-1. Importantly, suppression of autophagy, with either pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNAs targeting the essential autophagy components ATG7 and Beclin-1, effectively attenuated Chal-24-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that autophagy activation resulted in c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 degradation and formation of the Ripoptosome that contributes to necroptosis. These results thus establish a novel mechanism for killing cancer cells that involves autophagy-mediated necroptosis, which may be employed for overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:23831571

  7. JNK-mediated activation of ATF2 contributes to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoying; Du, Xiaoxiao; He, Xin; Yu, Qing; Hu, Kunhua; Breitwieser, Wolfgang; Shen, Qingyu; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Mingtao

    2016-03-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway is a known critical regulator of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is considered a potential target for neuroprotective therapy. However, whether JNK is activated within dopaminergic neurons remains controversial, and whether JNK acts through downstream effectors other than c-Jun to promote dopaminergic neuronal death remains unclear. In this study, we confirm that JNK but not p38 is activated in dopaminergic neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxication. Furthermore, within the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in MPTP-treated mice, JNK2/3 phosphorylates threonine 69 (Thr69) of Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2), a transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family, whereas the phosphorylation of Thr71 is constitutive and remains unchanged. The increased phosphorylation of ATF2 on Thr69 by JNK in the MPTP mouse model suggests a functional relationship between the transcriptional activation of ATF2 and dopaminergic neuron death. By using dopaminergic neuron-specific conditional ATF2 mutant mice, we found that either partial or complete deletion of the ATF2 DNA-binding domain in dopaminergic neurons markedly alleviates the MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, indicating that the activation of ATF2 plays a detrimental role in neuropathogenesis in PD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that JNK-mediated ATF2 activation contributes to dopaminergic neuronal death in an MPTP model of PD. PMID:26515688

  8. Isothiocyanates inhibit the invasion and migration of C6 glioma cells by blocking FAK/JNK-mediated MMP-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Su; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Jae-Moon; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Park, Yoon-Yub; Bae, Young-Seuk; Chung, Il-Kyung; Kim, Mihyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Jin, Fansi; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Chang, Young-Chae

    2015-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables, including benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN), exhibit preventative effects against various types of cancers. Yet, the inhibitory effects of ITCs on C6 glioma cell invasion and migration have not been reported. Thus, we aimed to analyze ITC-regulated MMP-9 activation, a crucial enzyme of cancer metastasis that degrades the extracellular matrix, in C6 glioma cells to investigate the inhibitory effects on cancer invasion and migration by ITCs. In the present study, we found that ITCs specifically suppressed PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion and protein expression. The inhibitory effects of ITCs on PMA-induced MMP-9 expression were found to be associated with the inhibition of MMP-9 transcription levels through suppression of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1). It was also confirmed that ITCs decreased MMP-9-mediated signaling such as FAK and JNK, whereas they had no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Moreover, wound-healing and Τranswell invasion assays showed that ITCs inhibited the migration and invasion of C6 glioma cells. These results suggest that ITCs could be potential agents for the prevention of C6 glioma cell migration and invasion by decreasing FAK/JNK-mediated MMP-9 expression. PMID:26397194

  9. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan; Son, Young-Ok; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 ; Shi, Xianglin; Kim, Jong-Ghee; Heo, Jung Sun; Choe, Youngji; Jeon, Young-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305; Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756

    2012-03-15

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45α. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-α or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ► The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ► NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ► NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ► JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ► ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

  10. Human pregnancy serum inhibits interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, N S; Panayi, G S; Nouri, A M

    1984-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity may be depressed during pregnancy. We used the two way mixed lymphocyte reaction as an in vitro model of cell mediated immunity and studied the effect of pregnancy sera on this system by the amount of tritiated thymidine taken up by activated lymphocytes. We found that: (1) pregnancy sera contain a factor inhibiting the mixed lymphocyte reaction; (2) the inhibition of the mixed lymphocyte reaction induced by sera could be reversed by the addition of the supernatant from allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction; (3) pure interleukin-1 could not reverse the inhibitory effect and (4) recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) completely reversed the inhibitory effect of pregnancy sera on the mixed lymphocyte reaction. We conclude that a factor (or factors) present in serum from pregnant women is capable of inhibiting the generation of IL-2 during lymphocyte activation. PMID:6239719

  11. Structural and functional characterisation of ferret interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bin; McKinstry, William J; Pham, Tam; Newman, Janet; Layton, Daniel S; Bean, Andrew G; Chen, Zhenjun; Laurie, Karen L; Borg, Kathryn; Barr, Ian G; Adams, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    While the ferret is a valuable animal model for a number of human viral infections, such as influenza, Hendra and Nipah, evaluating the cellular immune response following infection has been hampered by the lack of a number of species-specific immunological reagents. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is one such key cytokine. Ferret recombinant IL-2 incorporating a C-terminal histidine tag was expressed and purified and the three-dimensional structure solved and refined at 1.89 Å by X-ray crystallography, which represents the highest resolution and first non-human IL-2 structure. While ferret IL-2 displays the classic cytokine fold of the four-helix bundle structure, conformational flexibility was observed at the second helix and its neighbouring region in the bundle, which may result in the disruption of the spatial arrangement of residues involved in receptor binding interactions, implicating subtle differences between ferret and human IL-2 when initiating biological functions. Ferret recombinant IL-2 stimulated the proliferation of ferret lymph node cells and induced the expression of mRNA for IFN-γ and Granzyme A. PMID:26472619

  12. Pulmonary edema as a complication of interleukin-2 therapy.

    PubMed

    Conant, E F; Fox, K R; Miller, W T

    1989-04-01

    Eight patients underwent IV bolus therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (Cetus Corporation, Emeryville, CA) for treatment of metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. The patients were randomized to receive interleukin-2 alone or interleukin-2 in combination with lymphokine-activated killer cells. Radiographs showed pulmonary edema in five of the eight patients. The changes ranged from mild interstitial edema (two patients) to frank pulmonary edema (three patients). The edema generally resolved within 4 days after the termination of therapy (four patients), however, one patient developed edema and arrhythmias approximately 7 days after interleukin-2 therapy ended. Seven of the eight patients had either cardiac arrythmias or angina. The mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of these cardiac complications with interleukin-2 therapy remain unclear. The development of pulmonary edema is thought to be caused by capillary leakage and cardiac pulmonary edema due to cardiac toxicity of the drug. The radiologic appearances of these types of pulmonary edema were indistinguishable from one another and from other causes of pulmonary edema. Our study shows that interleukin-2 can cause pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmias, and unstable angina. The severity of these conditions is unrelated to dose. PMID:2784257

  13. Human eosinophils express functional interleukin 2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Rand, T H; Silberstein, D S; Kornfeld, H; Weller, P F

    1991-01-01

    Because T cell-derived cytokines may affect the functioning of eosinophils, we have investigated the capacity of human eosinophils to respond to IL-2. IL-2 was a potent chemoattractant with ED50 of 10(-12) M with eosinophils from all normal and eosinophilic donors tested. The monoclonal antibodies anti-Tac and TU27 against p55 (Tac/CD25) and p75 receptor subunits, respectively, each inhibited IL-2-dependent eosinophil migration. The molar potency of IL-2 and the inhibitory activity of each of the above antibodies suggest that high affinity heterodimeric IL-2 receptor complexes mediated the migration responses of eosinophils to IL-2. Binding of monoclonal antibody against p75 was not detectable by flow cytometry, and high affinity binding sites for 125I-IL-2 were below the limits of quantitation on eosinophils from individuals with eosinophilia. Expression of p55 (Tac/CD25) by eosinophils, without requirement for in vitro activation, was demonstrable by flow cytometry, radioimmunoprecipitation, and Northern blotting for mRNA. Surface expression of p55 on eosinophils from normal or eosinophilic individuals increased during culture for 24-48 h with a biologic activity purified from stimulated U937 cells and to a lesser extent with granulocyte-macrophage CSF or lymphocyte chemoattractant factor but not with nine other cytokines. These studies indicate that blood eosinophils respond to IL-2 and identify one mechanism whereby activation of T lymphocytes may influence the function of eosinophils. Images PMID:1885772

  14. Regulation of the human interleukin-2/interleukin-2 receptor system: A role for immunosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Kaempfer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The strength of the cellular immune response is regulated to a large extent by the amount of interleukin-2 (IL-2) produced in response to a stimulus. The ability of lymphocytes and other cells to respond to IL-2 depends upon the expression of cell surface IL-2 receptors. Formation of a high-affinity IL-2 receptor is regulated primarily through induction of its {alpha} subunit, IL-2R{alpha}. Once formed, the IL-2R{alpha} chain turns over rapidly, rendering expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors during the immune response dependent upon continuous activity of the IL-2R{alpha} gene. The induced expression of both human IL-2 and IL-2R{alpha} chains is sensitive to cell-mediated suppression by CD8 cells; depletion of CD8 cells leads to extensive superinduction. This coupled suppression of IL-2 and IL-2R{alpha} genes greatly increases the extend of control, and strongly limits the strength, of the signal transduced by this ligand/receptor system during an immune response. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Leflunomide or A77 1726 protect from acetaminophen-induced cell injury through inhibition of JNK-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in immortalized human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Seah, Quee Ming; Tan, Rachel C.H.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Beerheide, Walter; Boelsterli, Urs A. . E-mail: phcbua@nus.edu.sg

    2006-11-15

    Leflunomide, a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, protects against T-cell-mediated liver injury by poorly understood mechanisms. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (teriflunomide) has been shown to inhibit stress-activated protein kinases (JNK pathway), which are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that leflunomide may protect from drugs that induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by blocking the JNK signaling pathway. To this end, we exposed cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to the standard protoxicant drug acetaminophen (APAP), which induces CsA-sensitive mPT-mediated cell death. We determined the effects of leflunomide on the extent of APAP-induced hepatocyte injury and the upstream JNK-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. We found that leflunomide or A77 1726 concentration-dependently protected hepatocytes from APAP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial permeabilization and lethal cell injury. This was not due to proximal inhibition of CYP-catalyzed APAP bioactivation to its thiol-reactive metabolite. Instead, we demonstrate that leflunomide (20 {mu}M) inhibited the APAP-induced early (3 h) activation (phosphorylation) of JNK1/2, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and preventing P-Bcl-2-mediated induction of the mPT. This greatly attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which we used as a marker for mitochondrial permeabilization. The specific JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 similarly protected from APAP-induced cell death. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that leflunomide protects from protoxicant-induced hepatocyte injury by inhibiting JNK signaling and preventing mPT induction.

  16. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in sera and supernatants from patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Famularo, G; Procopio, A; Giacomelli, R; Danese, C; Sacchetti, S; Perego, M A; Santoni, A; Tonietti, G

    1990-01-01

    We studied the sera of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) for elevated levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). We also measured IL-2, IL-4 and B cell growth factor (BCGF) activity in supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the same patients. The finding of elevated serum sIL-2R and IL-2, and the increased levels of IL-2, IL-4 and BCGF activity in culture supernatants indicates that T lymphocyte hyperactivity likely play a major role in PSS. The failure to detect under our experimental conditions a direct proliferative effect of recombinant IL-2 on enriched normal B cells might suggest that IL-4 is the cytokine mainly responsible of the BCGF activity recovered in PSS supernatants. PMID:2397608

  17. A humanized antibody that binds to the interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Queen, C; Schneider, W P; Selick, H E; Payne, P W; Landolfi, N F; Duncan, J F; Avdalovic, N M; Levitt, M; Junghans, R P; Waldmann, T A

    1989-01-01

    The anti-Tac monoclonal antibody is known to bind to the p55 chain of the human interleukin 2 receptor and to inhibit proliferation of T cells by blocking interleukin 2 binding. However, use of anti-Tac as an immunosuppressant drug would be impaired by the human immune response against this murine antibody. We have therefore constructed a "humanized" antibody by combining the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the anti-Tac antibody with human framework and constant regions. The human framework regions were chosen to maximize homology with the anti-Tac antibody sequence. In addition, a computer model of murine anti-Tac was used to identify several amino acids which, while outside the CDRs, are likely to interact with the CDRs or antigen. These mouse amino acids were also retained in the humanized antibody. The humanized anti-Tac antibody has an affinity for p55 of 3 x 10(9) M-1, about 1/3 that of murine anti-Tac. Images PMID:2513570

  18. Expression and production of recombinant human interleukin-2 in potato plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoonkyung; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2002-06-01

    Interleukin-2 is a pharmacologically important cytokine secreted by T lymphocytes. Recombinant interleukin-2 has been produced and found to be useful for many medical applications. Mass production of recombinant interleukin-2 will be prerequisite for a wider application of this molecule. In this study we investigated the possibility of using potato tubers for the production of recombinant human interleukin-2 in large quantity. A binary vector carrying the human interleukin-2 gene under a potato tuber-specific promoter (patatin promoter) was constructed. Several potato transformants expressing the human interleukin-2 gene were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression of the human interleukin-2 gene was confirmed by Northern blotting and the protein level was determined by Western blot analyses. A bioassay revealed that human interleukin-2 expressed in the potato tuber supported proliferation of interleukin-2-dependent cells, CTLL-2. We found that the recombinant protein in the 2-week-old microtuber has the highest activity (115 units per gram of microtuber) and estimated that an average yield for a potato (average 200 g per potato) was 23,000 units of rhIL-2 activity. The results suggest that the potato tuber is an excellent system for the mass production of biologically active human interleukin-2. PMID:12071711

  19. Interleukin-2 receptor-gamma -dependent endocytosis depends on biotin in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Camporeale, Gabriela; Griffin, Jacob B; Zempleni, Janos

    2003-02-01

    Biotin has been credited with having beneficial effects on immune function despite observations that biotin supplementation causes decreased secretion of interleukin-2. Here this paradox was addressed by determining whether receptor-dependent internalization of interleukin-2 by immune cells depends on biotin. Theoretically, this would be consistent with both decreased net secretion of interleukin-2 by biotin-supplemented cells (causing increased endocytosis) and beneficial effects of biotin on immune function (causing increased receptor signaling). Jurkat cells were cultured in biotin-defined media (25, 250, or 10,000 pM). Secretion of interleukin-2 correlated negatively with biotin supply, but transcriptional activity of the interleukin-2 gene correlated positively with biotin supply, suggesting that decreased secretion of interleukin-2 by biotin-supplemented cells was not caused by decreased gene expression. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor-gamma gene was greater at 10,000 pM than 25 pM biotin, mediating increased endocytosis of interleukin-2 in biotin-supplemented medium. Inhibition of endocytosis by genistein and overexpression of interleukin-2 receptor-gamma abolished the effect of biotin. These findings suggest that endocytosis of interleukin-2 depends on biotin. PMID:12388078

  20. Interleukin-2 gene transfer into human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Milella, M; Jacobelli, J; Cavallo, F; Guarini, A; Velotti, F; Frati, L; Fo, R; Forni, G; Santoni, A

    1999-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is one of the human cancers most responsive to immunotherapy, and local interleukin-2 (IL-2) production appears to be an important requirement for immunotherapy to be effective. In this study, we engineered two human bladder cancer cell lines (RT112 and EJ) to constitutively release human IL-2 by retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Following infection and selection, stable and consistent production of biologically active IL-2 was demonstrated at both the mRNA and the protein level. Morphology, in vitro growth rate and proliferation, as well as other cytokine gene mRNA or membrane adhesion receptor expression, were not altered in IL-2 transduced cells as compared to their parental or control vector-infected counterparts. Moreover, IL-2 engineered cells lost their tumorigenicity into nu/nu mice and the mechanism of rejection appeared to involve multiple host effector cell populations, among which a prominent role was played by neutrophils and radiosensitive cells. These findings may offer support to the development of an IL-2-based gene therapy approach to human bladder cancer. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070868

  1. Type I Diabetes-Associated Tolerogenic Properties of Interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Gaudreau, Simon; Nguyen, Alex; Sabha, Mahmoud; Amrani, Abdelaziz; ElGhazali, Geyhad

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) results from insulin-producing beta cells destruction by diabetogenic T lymphocytes in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The breakdown of tolerance has been associated with a defect in the number and the function of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) that are the master player in peripheral tolerance. Gene knockout experiments in mouse models have shown a nonredundant activity of IL-2 related to its critical role in inducing nTreg and controlling peripheral T cell tolerance. Whereas strong evidence has suggested that IL-2 is critically required for nTreg-mediated T1D control, several fundamental questions remain to be addressed. In this paper, we highlight the recent findings and controversies regarding the tolerogenic properties of IL-2 mediated through nTreg. We further discuss a potential link between the immunomodulatory role of interleukin-2 and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. PMID:21647403

  2. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Following Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dutcher, Janice P.; Fan, Wen; Wiernik, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent systemic treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). Anemia requiring transfusion of 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was required during the second week of IL-2 therapy. One month following completion of high-dose IL-2 treatment, she was hospitalized for severe, symptomatic anemia and received 5 units of PRBCs. She was referred back for evaluation. A complete hematologic evaluation was performed including antiviral serology, evaluation for hemolysis, complete iron studies, and finally bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The diagnosis was pure red cell aplasia, and no inciting viral cause could be ascertained. She required PRBCs for 5 months following IL-2 therapy. It was concluded that IL-2 was the cause of her red cell aplasia. This subsequently resolved spontaneously, and she had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, 1 and 2 years after treatment. PMID:27144182

  3. Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

  4. Human Interleukin-2 and Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Screening for Bacteriolytic Activity against Various Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Levashov, P. A.; Ovchinnikova, E. D.; Morozova, O. A.; Matolygina, D. A.; Osipova, H. E.; Cherdyntseva, T. A.; Savin, S. S.; Zakharova, G. S.; Alekseeva, A. A.; Belogurova, N. G.; Smirnov, S. A.; Tishkov, V. I.; Levashov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and hen egg white lysozyme against 34 different species of microorganisms has been studied. It was found that 6 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of interleukin-2. All interleukin-2-sensitive microorganisms belong either to the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, or the Lactobacillaceae family. It was also found that 12 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of lysozyme, and 16 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and lysozyme was studied at various pH values. PMID:27099789

  5. Expression of interleukin 2 receptors by monocytes from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and induction of monocyte interleukin 2 receptors by human immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J B; McCartney-Francis, N; Smith, P D; Simon, G; Gartner, S; Wahl, L M; Popovic, M; Wahl, S M

    1990-01-01

    A population of circulating mononuclear cells from patients with AIDS was identified which expressed interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R). By dual-fluorescence flow microfluorometry, the patients' IL-2R+ cells were further identified as Leu M3+ monocytes (29.4 +/- 5.2% of the Leu M3+ cells were IL-2R+, n = 15), whereas Leu M3+ monocytes from normal subjects were IL-2R negative (2.0 +/- 0.42%; P less than 0.001). By Northern analysis, monocytes from AIDS patients, but not control subjects, constitutively expressed steady-state levels of IL-2R mRNA. Functionally, the IL-2R+ monocytes were capable of depleting IL-2 from culture supernatants, suggesting a mechanism for the reduced IL-2 levels commonly seen in AIDS patients. IL-2R+ monocytes also expressed increased levels of surface HLA-DR which may favor monocyte T-cell interactions and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In additional studies, normal monocytes were infected with a macrophage-tropic HIV isolate in vitro and monitored for IL-2R and HLA-DR expression. Within 24-48 h after exposure to HIV in vitro, but before evidence of productive infection, greater than 25% of the monocytes became IL-2R+ with increasing numbers of IL-2R+ cells and HLA-DR levels through day 6. These early signaling effects of HIV could be mimicked by adding purified HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the monocytes. This stimulation of monocytes before or independent of productive infection of the cells by HIV is consistent with in vivo observations of activated and/or abnormal functions by monocytes that do not appear to be infected with HIV in AIDS patients. Images PMID:2295695

  6. Soluble serum interleukin 2 receptor levels in leprosy patients

    PubMed Central

    Tung, K. S. K.; Umland, Edith; Matzner, P.; Nelson, K.; Schauf, Victoria; Rubin, L.; Wagner, D.; Scollard, D.; Vithayasai, Prakong; Vithayasai, Vicharn; Worobec, Sophie; Smith, T.; Suriyanond, Vinai

    1987-01-01

    Soluble interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) in sera of leprosy patients from Chiang Mai, Thailand, were quantified with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay using two monoclonal antibodies to the IL-2R. The IL-2R levels of untreated lepromatous, borderline lepromatous or midborderline patients and treated lepromatous and borderline lepromatous or treated borderline tuberculoid and tuberculoid patients were comparable to those of the Thai household or nonhousehold contacts; and they were significantly higher than the levels of USA control subjects. In contrast, IL-2R of untreated tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid patients were significantly reduced. Patients with ongoing reversal reaction had very high circulating IL-2R, the levels of which correlated with fever and extent of skin lesions. Although erythrema nodosum leprosum patients also had elevated IL-2R levels, they were significantly below those of patients with reversal reaction. When treated with corticosteroid, precipitous reduction of IL-2R was noted in all patients with reversal reaction but not in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. PMID:3115652

  7. Intravenous ascorbic acid as an adjuvant to interleukin-2 immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy has been demonstrated to induce responses in 10-20% of advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients, which translates into durable remissions in up to half of the responsers. Unfortunately the use of IL-2 has been associated with severe toxicity and death. It has been previously observed and reported that IL-2 therapy causes a major drop in circulating levels of ascorbic acid (AA). The IL-2 induced toxicity shares many features with sepsis such as capillary leakage, systemic complement activation, and a relatively non-specific rise in inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein, and in advanced cases organ failure. Animal models and clinical studies have shown rapid depletion of AA in conditions of sepsis and amelioration associated with administration of AA (JTM 9:1-7, 2011). In contrast to other approaches to dealing with IL-2 toxicity, which may also interfere with therapeutic effects, AA possesses the added advantage of having direct antitumor activity through cytotoxic mechanisms and suppression of angiogenesis. Here we present a scientific rationale to support the assessment of intravenous AA as an adjuvant to decrease IL-2 mediated toxicity and possibly increase treatment efficacy. PMID:24884532

  8. Detection of salivary interleukin-2 in recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, R; Thubashini, M; Sundharam, B Sivapatha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to estimate and compare salivary interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis, among healthy controls and their variation with age and sex. Study Design: Saliva was collected from 60 patients within the age range of 16-60 years which included 30 patients (17 Females and 13 Males) with recurrent aphthous stomatitis and healthy control group consisted of 30 participants (18 Females and 12 Males). IL-2 estimation was done in both the groups using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis of the data was done using Independent t test. Results: The results showed increased salivary IL-2 levels in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis compared to the healthy controls. The IL-2 levels were also increased in patients with the age group of 16-30 years compared to other age groups. Similar increase of IL-2 was also seen in female patients. Conclusion: Age related and sex related alterations of IL-2 in recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients were observed. PMID:25948989

  9. Interleukin 2 exerts autocrine stimulation on murine T-cell leukaemia growth.

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, C. I.; Mongini, C.; Alvarez, E.; Sánchez Lockhart, M.; Gravisaco, M. J.; Hajos, S. E.

    1997-01-01

    As it has been suggested that an autocrine mechanism may control tumour cell growth, in this work cells from a spontaneous murine T lymphocyte leukaemia (LB) expressing the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) (CD25) were evaluated in vitro for IL-2-mediated autocrine growth. Cells grew readily in culture and proliferation was enhanced by the addition of recombinant IL-2 but inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against either IL-2 or IL-2 receptor, in the absence of exogenous IL-2. Cyclosporin A also inhibited LB cell growth. However, when exogenous IL-2 was added together with cyclosporin A, cell proliferation proved similar to controls. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), mRNA for IL-2 was found to be present in tumour cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that LB tumour cell proliferation is mediated by an autocrine pathway involving endogenous IL-2 generation, despite the fact that these cells are not dependent on exogenous IL-2 to grow in culture. Images Figure 5 PMID:9083328

  10. Interleukin-2 activation of cytotoxic cells in postmastectomy seroma.

    PubMed

    Gercel-Taylor, C; Hoffman, J P; Taylor, D D; Owens, K J; Eisenberg, B L

    1996-02-15

    Lymphocytes were isolated from breast seroma fluids and used to study the mechanism of activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and possible role of immunological potentiation following surgery in breast cancer patients. Single or serial samples were obtained from patients who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node dissection. Lymphocytes were activated with rIL-2 (interleukin-2) and their cytotoxic activity was studied against Daudi and K562 cells and against a breast tumor line (SKBr-3). All of the patients (21/21) responded to IL-2 stimulation by significant activation of cytotoxic activity. The unstimulated cytotoxic activity of these cells against NK targets was low with less than 10% specific release in cytotoxicity assays. In simultaneous experiments, autologous seroma fluid was included during activation of lymphocytes to study possible regulatory molecules that may be present. In 17/21 patients, the presence of their seroma fluid, during the activation period, enhanced or did not effect the cytotoxic potential of their lymphocytes; inhibition was observed when seroma fluids from 4/21 patients were included. Analysis of the cytotoxic population derived from combined IL-2 and seroma treatments indicates the presence of cells with increased expression of CD56, and CD2, as well as in some cases CD16 expression. Cytotoxic lymphocytes derived from IL-2 and seroma treatments appeared to be more effective killers. Modulation of CD2 expression with seroma alone appeared to result in the generation of this highly cytotoxic population. This study demonstrates the role of CD2 expression in the effectiveness of LAK cell killing and also potential benefit of an immunotherapeutic approach to the postoperative treatment of carcinoma of the breast. PMID:8769948

  11. [Biological properties and therapeutic use of interleukin 2 (IL-2)].

    PubMed

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    A cytokine produced by the subpopulation of activated helper lymphocytes T has been called interleukin-2 (IL-2). The obtaining of recombinant cytokine has facilitated the study of its biological properties and its application in the treatment of certain neoplastic and infectious diseases. IL-2 affects the target cells by means of a receptor of great affinity consisting of three independent chains: alpha, beta, gamma. The cytokine is the most important growth factor of lymphocytes T, conditioning their clonal expansion. Antigen stimulation is the condition for the expression of IL-2 does not, however, affect resting lymphocytes T. The expression of the receptor for this cytokine on NK cells is, however, continuous in character but only a very small percentage of these cells has receptors of great affinity. IL-2 plays a great role in adoptive immunotherapy consisting in intravenous administration of cells with cytotoxic properties. Cells obtained from peripheral blood and grown in vitro are called LAK cells (lymphocyte activated killer cells), while cells obtained from neoplasms and grown in similar conditions are named TIL cells (tumor infiltrated lymphocytes). LAK and TIL cells reveal a similar antineoplastic activity in vivo. At present, however, recombinant IL-2 alone is used more often, either intravenously or subcutaneously. The cytokine is effective in the treatment of patients with disseminate cancer of the kidney and melanoma, and in adjuvant therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Attempts have been made to apply it in the treatment of AIDS and leprosy. The toxic effect of IL-2 depends on the dose and the mode of administration. In the majority of patients parainfluenza symptoms appear. Most undesirable effects are connected with multisystemic syndrome of capillary vessels hyperpermeability leading to the increased fluid retention into extravascular spaces, oedema, hypotonia and oliguria. PMID:8657637

  12. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  13. Interleukin-2-triggered Raf-1 expression, phosphorylation, and associated kinase activity increase through G1 and S in CD3-stimulated primary human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zmuidzinas, A; Mamon, H J; Roberts, T M; Smith, K A

    1991-01-01

    To gain further insight into the role of Raf-1 in normal cell growth, c-raf-1 mRNA expression, Raf-1 protein production, and Raf-1-associated kinase activity in normal human T cells were analyzed. In contrast to the constitutive expression of Raf-1 in continuously proliferating cell lines, c-raf-1 mRNA and Raf-1 protein levels were barely detectable in freshly isolated G0 T lymphocytes. Previous work with fibroblasts has suggested that Raf-1 plays a signaling role in the G0-G1 phase transition. In T cells, triggering via the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex (TCR/CD3) resulted in an approximately fourfold increase in c-raf-1 mRNA. In addition, the promotion of G1 progression by interleukin 2 (IL-2) was associated with a 5- to 10-fold immediate/early induction of c-raf-1 mRNA, resulting in up to a 12-fold increase in Raf-1 protein expression. TCR/CD3 activation did not alter the phosphorylation state of Raf-1, whereas interleukin 2 receptor stimulation resulted in a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of a subpopulation of Raf-1 molecules progressively increasing throughout G1. These findings were complemented by assays for Raf-1-associated kinase activity which revealed a gradual accumulation of serine and threonine autokinase activity in Raf-1 immunoprecipitates during G1, which remained elevated throughout DNA replication. Images PMID:1708096

  14. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. )

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

  15. A randomized phase II trial of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2-interferon alpha in advanced renal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jayson, G. C.; Middleton, M.; Lee, S. M.; Ashcroft, L.; Thatcher, N.

    1998-01-01

    A randomized phase II trial was performed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) with an IL-2 and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) regimen for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. Sixty patients with recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who had previously undergone a nephrectomy were randomized to receive three cycles of IL-2 or IL-2 with IFN-alpha2b. Eighteen MU of IL-2 were administered subcutaneously on Mondays-Fridays for 3 weeks out of 4. Those patients randomized to receive the combination received the same regimen of IL-2 with 9 MU of IFN-alpha2b subcutaneously on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays for 3 weeks out of 4. Thirty patients were randomized to receive each arm. Twenty-nine were evaluable in each arm. Twenty-two patients received three cycles of IL-2 but only 14 patients received three cycles of IL-2/IFN-alpha because of the greater toxicity of the combination. The principal toxicities included nausea, fatigue and fever. There were no complete responses in either arm and only two patients who were treated with IL-2 attained a partial response. Twelve patients in each arm had stable disease and 15 patients in the IL-2 arm and 16 patients in the IL-2/IFN-alpha arm progressed through treatment. There were no significant differences in survival. Ten patients who received IL-2 are alive with a median follow-up of 266 days, whereas six patients who received IL-2/IFN-alpha are alive after a median of 278 days. The median survival from the time of identification of metastatic disease is 444 days in the IL-2 arm and 381 days in the IL-2/IFN-alpha arm. The IL-2/IFN-alpha combination is more toxic than IL-2 alone and this resulted in a reduced number of cycles of treatment. However, the median survival of the two groups was the same, suggesting that further evaluation of the IL-2/IFN-alpha combination should be confined to large prospective randomized clinical trials. PMID:9703284

  16. The rapid induction by interleukin-2 of pulmonary microvascular permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Klausner, J M; Morel, N; Paterson, I S; Kobzik, L; Valeri, C R; Eberlein, T J; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B

    1989-01-01

    The clinical use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is limited by severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction. This study examines the mechanism of respiratory failure related to IL-2, using sheep with chronic lung lymph fistulae. Awake animals were infused with an intravenous (I.V.) bolus of IL-2 10(5) U/kg (n = 5) or its excipient (EXC) control (n = 3), every 8 hours for 4 to 5 days. Cardiopulmonary function was monitored daily for at least one 8-hour period. Within 2 hours after each IL-2 administration, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) rose. On Day 1, the mean rise was from 13 to 26 mmHg (p less than 0.05), and on Day 5, to 29 mmHg (p less than 0.05). MPAP returned to baseline levels after 2-3 hours. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressure was unchanged from 4 mmHg. There were transient falls in arterial oxygen tension, from 88 to 77 mmHg on Day 1 and to 73 mmHg (p less than 0.05) on Day 5. Lung lymph flow (QL) rose from 2.4 to 6.8 ml/30 minutes (p less than 0.05) on Day 1, and from 4.7 to 10.2 ml/30 minutes (p less than 0.05) on Day 5, whereas the lymph/plasma protein ratio increased on Day 1 from 0.69 to 0.83 (p less than 0.05) and from 0.63 to 0.71 (p less than 0.05) on Day 5. This documents an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability. Thromboxane (Tx)B2 levels increased transiently after each IL-2 injection in plasma from 195 to 340 pg/ml (p less than 0.05) and in lung lymph from 222 to 772 pg/ml (p less than 0.05) on Day 1, and to similar levels on Day 5. There was a progressive rise in cardiac output from 5.7 to 8.6 1/minute (p less than 0.05) during the 5 days of infusion. Systemic blood pressure did not change. Temperature rose from 39.1 to 41.2 C (p less than 0.05), and shaking chills were common. There was a progressive fall in leukocyte count, from 8.4 to 3.2 X 10(3)/mm3 (p less than 0.05) by Day 5, reflecting a 77% fall in lymphocytes. Lung lymph lymphocyte counts rose, and lymphocyte clearance increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figs. 6 A and B. Figs. 7 A and B. PMID:2783363

  17. Influence of CD28 co-stimulation on cytokine production is mainly regulated via interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, H M; de Jong, R; Brouwer, M; Lammers, K; Wijdenes, J; van Lier, R A

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of CD28 with its ligand B7 plays an important role in the initiation of immune responses. The co-stimulatory signal generated by cross-linking of CD28 molecules results in enhanced T-cell proliferation and augmentation of cytokine production. In particular, mRNA levels of T-helper 1 (Th1)-type cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are reported to be strongly increased. We investigated the effect of CD28 co-stimulation on the production of Th2-type cytokines. CD28 mAb induced a strong augmentation of IL-2 secretion in activated T-cell clones. Production of IFN-gamma was also enhanced, but the increase in IL-4 secretion was generally moderate. Augmentation of IL-4 production by CD28 was most pronounced in clones that produced low amounts of IL-2, compared to clones producing high levels of IL-2. It was found that the up-regulation of IL-4 by CD28 co-stimulation was mainly controlled indirectly via an increase of IL-2. Some clones could produce IL-4 in an IL-2-independent manner; in these situations CD28 co-stimulation had no augmenting effect on the production of IL-4. The secretion of IL-4 by peripheral blood CD4+ T cells, that were activated with B7-expressing transfectants, was also found to be dependent on IL-2. Finally, Northern blot analysis confirmed that co-stimulation of CD28 primarily affected IL-2 production, and that inhibition of IL-2/IL-2 receptor interaction abolished the augmenting action of CD28 monoclonal antibody on the production of the Th2-type cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and of the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma. Images Figure 3 PMID:7821964

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone triggers autophagic cell death in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 via JNK-mediated p62/SQSTM1 expression.

    PubMed

    Vegliante, Rolando; Desideri, Enrico; Di Leo, Luca; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that cancer cells usually exploit during stress conditions to provide energy by recycling organelles and proteins. Beyond its prosurvival role, it is well accepted that occurrence of autophagy is often associated with a particular type of programmed cell death known as autophagic cell death (ACD). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous hormone showing anticancer properties even if the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear yet. Here, we provide evidence that DHEA induces ACD in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Indeed, autophagy inhibitors (i.e. 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA) significantly reduced the percentage of dead cells. DHEA induces p62-dependent autophagy, which turns detrimental and brings about death. DHEA stimulates reactive oxygen species-independent jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphoactivation and the treatment with JNK inhibitor reduces p62 mRNA levels, as well as DHEA-induced ACD. The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like-2 (Nrf2) constitutes the link between JNK and p62 since its migration to the nucleus is suppressed by JNK inhibitor and its inhibition through a dominant negative Nrf2 plasmid transfection decreases p62 protein levels. Overall, our data indicate that DHEA induces ACD in HepG2 via a JNK-Nrf2-p62 axis. Thus, DHEA could represent a new appealing drug for eliminating tumor cells through autophagy particularly in apoptosis-resistant cases. PMID:26762228

  19. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  20. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... risks associated with the field testing of this vaccine, examines the potential effects that...

  1. Single cell tuning of Myc expression by antigen receptor signal strength and interleukin-2 in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gavin C; Sinclair, Linda V; Kaskar, Aneesa; Hukelmann, Jens L; Navarro, Maria N; Ferrero, Isabel; MacDonald, H Robson; Cowling, Victoria H; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2015-01-01

    Myc controls the metabolic reprogramming that supports effector T cell differentiation. The expression of Myc is regulated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now show that the TCR is a digital switch for Myc mRNA and protein expression that allows the strength of the antigen stimulus to determine the frequency of T cells that express Myc. IL-2 signalling strength also directs Myc expression but in an analogue process that fine-tunes Myc quantity in individual cells via post-transcriptional control of Myc protein. Fine-tuning Myc matters and is possible as Myc protein has a very short half-life in T cells due to its constant phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We show that Myc only accumulates in T cells exhibiting high levels of amino acid uptake allowing T cells to match Myc expression to biosynthetic demands. The combination of digital and analogue processes allows tight control of Myc expression at the population and single cell level during immune responses. PMID:26136212

  2. Single cell tuning of Myc expression by antigen receptor signal strength and interleukin-2 in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Preston, Gavin C; Sinclair, Linda V; Kaskar, Aneesa; Hukelmann, Jens L; Navarro, Maria N; Ferrero, Isabel; MacDonald, H Robson; Cowling, Victoria H; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2015-08-01

    Myc controls the metabolic reprogramming that supports effector T cell differentiation. The expression of Myc is regulated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now show that the TCR is a digital switch for Myc mRNA and protein expression that allows the strength of the antigen stimulus to determine the frequency of T cells that express Myc. IL-2 signalling strength also directs Myc expression but in an analogue process that fine-tunes Myc quantity in individual cells via post-transcriptional control of Myc protein. Fine-tuning Myc matters and is possible as Myc protein has a very short half-life in T cells due to its constant phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We show that Myc only accumulates in T cells exhibiting high levels of amino acid uptake allowing T cells to match Myc expression to biosynthetic demands. The combination of digital and analogue processes allows tight control of Myc expression at the population and single cell level during immune responses. PMID:26136212

  3. Reduced primary antigen-specific T-cell precursor frequencies in neonates is associated with deficient interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J; Reen, D J

    1996-01-01

    Clinical evidence has indicated that the neonatal cell-mediated immune response to primary infection is delayed when compared to that of adults with the same primary infection. The mechanisms regulating the development of antigen-specific T-cell immunity in neonates remain to be elucidated. We examined the primary immune response to the non-recall antigen, keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) in adults and neonates in vitro. We report here that conventional bulk culture methods show reduced proliferative responses in neonates although statistical significance was not achieved. Using limiting dilution analysis, the frequencies of KLH-specific T lymphocytes were 10-100-fold lower in neonates when compared to adults. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production was significantly lower in the supernatants of neonatal mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated with KLH when compared to adults. Addition of exogenous IL-2 increased precursor frequencies twofold in both adult and newborn cultures. In contrast to the secreted IL-2 levels, IL-2 mRNA expression was higher in antigen-stimulated neonatal MNC preparations, even though proliferation was lower. These observations indicate differential in vitro responsiveness in neonates and adults to primary antigenic challenge. Since no IL-2 was detected in cell lysates, the presence of high levels of IL-2 mRNA and low IL-2 production suggests inability by neonatal MNC to translate IL-2. This deficiency in IL-2 production may explain the reduced precursor frequencies, suggesting failure to recruit T lymphocytes in order to expand the KLH-specific T-cell response. These observations are important for the understanding of the development of primary immune responses and immunological maturation in neonates. Images Figure 3 PMID:8675216

  4. Purification and refolding of Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant human interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Esfandiar, Samaneh; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Sarrafzadeh, Shokuh Aazam; Pourpak, Zahra

    2010-04-01

    The expression of rhIL-2 (recombinant human interleukin-2) in bacteria results in the formation of insoluble inclusion-body aggregates. These aggregates were first solubilized under denaturing conditions (sodium phosphate buffer solution containing 8 M urea and 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol) and then purified using IMAC (immobilized metal-ion-affinity chromatography). IMAC was used to capture rhIL-2. The protein was gradually refolded on the column by a gradient elution (8 M to 0 M urea) in the presence of 10% (v/v) glycerol. Glycerol was used to prevent protein aggregation during the refolding step. Using this method, rhIL-2 was collected at 97% purity and its activity was measured by the lymphocyte transformation test. The measured activity was identical with commercial human interleukin-2. PMID:20236092

  5. Human Immune Disorder Arising from Mutation of the α Chain of the Interleukin-2 Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfe, Nigel; Dadi, Harjit K.; Shahar, Michal; Roifman, Chaim M.

    1997-04-01

    Profound cellular immunodeficiency occurs as the result of mutations in proteins involved in both the differentiation and function of mature lymphoid cells. We describe here a novel human immune aberration arising from a truncation mutation of the interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25), a subunit of the tripartite high-affinity receptor for interleukin 2. This immunodeficiency is characterized by decreased numbers of peripheral T cells displaying abnormal proliferation but normal B cell development. Extensive lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, including lung, liver, gut, and bone, is observed, accompanied by tissue atrophy and inflammation. Although mature T cells are present, the absence of CD25 does affect the differentiation of thymocytes. While displaying normal development of CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD8 expression, CD25-deficient cortical thymocytes do not express CD1, and furthermore they fail to normally down-regulate levels of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2.

  6. [Increase of interleukin-2 soluble receptors in multiple sclerosis: preliminary study in 26 patients].

    PubMed

    Tilbery, C P; Felipe, E; Mota, I M; Scheinberg, M A

    1994-06-01

    Serum samples were analysed for interleukin-2 receptors levels (sIL-2R) in 26 patients with definite multiple sclerosis as defined by Poser and col. Three groups of patients form the basis of this study: group I, with 14 patients with clinical evidence of active disease; group II, with 12 patients with clinically stable multiple sclerosis; and group III, with 8 patients with other neurological diseases. Blood was collected by venipuncture and centrifuged. All samples were stored at -20 degrees C until testing. The assay used monoclonal antibodies against epitopes of interleukin-2 receptors. In the wells of a microtiter plate coated with anti-soluble interleukin-2 receptors (Immunotech SA) samples to be measured or standards are incubated in the presence of a second monoclonal antibody conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. The amount of bound enzyme-conjugate is measured by adding a chromogenic substrate. The intensity of the resulting colour is proportional to the sIL-2R concentration present in the sample. Increased serum levels of sIL-2R were found in 7 of 14 patients with active multiple sclerosis (50%), in only 1 of the 12 patients with clinically stable multiple sclerosis and in none of the patients with other neurological diseases. PMID:7826250

  7. Interleukin 2 production in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, C; Cabrero, E; Vicario, J L; Martín Villa, M; Rengel, M A; Gomez Campdera, F J; Yebra, M; Fernández-Cruz, E; Arnaiz Villena, A

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 2 production was studied in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance. Autoimmune manifestations seemed to be associated with the HLA haplotype containing the C4Q0 allele, which was shared by all four ill family members. Concentrations of interleukin 2, however, did not associate either with the haplotype or with the clinical or serological manifestations, as diminished concentrations of interleukin 2 were found in only two subjects with SLE. Thus the defect in this family seemed to be acquired rather than genetically conditioned. PMID:1888202

  8. T-cell proliferation involving the CD28 pathway is associated with cyclosporine-resistant interleukin 2 gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    June, C H; Ledbetter, J A; Gillespie, M M; Lindsten, T; Thompson, C B

    1987-01-01

    CD28 is a homodimeric glycoprotein expressed on the surface of a major subset of human T cells that has recently been identified as a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family. The binding of monoclonal antibodies to the CD28 antigen on purified T cells does not result in proliferation; however, previous studies have shown that the combination of CD28 stimulation and protein kinase C activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) results in T-cell proliferation that is independent of both accessory cells and activation of the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. In the present study, effects of stimulation by anti-CD28 on cell cycle progression and on the interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor system have been investigated on primary cultures of purified peripheral-blood CD28+ T cells. There was no measurable effect on cell size or on DNA synthesis after stimulation of resting (G0) cells by CD28 alone. After 3 h of activation of T cells by PMA alone, a slight (8%) increase in cell volume occurred that did not progress to DNA synthesis. In contrast, T-cell stimulation by CD28 in combination with PMA resulted in a progressive increase in cell volume in approximately 100% of cells at 12 to 14 h after stimulation. Northern blot (RNA blot) analysis revealed that CD28 stimulation alone failed to cause expression of the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor or of IL-2 mRNA, and in accord with previous studies, stimulation by PMA alone resulted in the accumulation of IL-2 receptor transcripts but no detectable IL-2 mRNA. In contrast, T-cell stimulation by the combination of CD28 and PMA resulted in the appearance of IL-2 transcripts and enhanced expression of IL-2 receptor mRNA. Functional studies revealed that the proliferation induced by CD28 and PMA stimulation was entirely resistant to cyclosporine, in contrast to T-cell activation induced by the CD3-T-cell receptor complex. Cyclosporine was found not to affect the accumulation of IL-2 mRNA after CD28 plus PMA stimulation, although there was no detectable IL-2 mRNA after stimulation by CD3 in the presence of the drug. Furthermore, stimulation by CD28 in combination with immobilized CD3 antibodies caused a striking enhancement of IL-2 mRNA expression that was, in part, resistant to the effects of cyclosporine. These studies indicate that the CD28 molecule synergizes with protein kinase C activation to induce IL-2 gene expression and demonstrate that stimulation by the CD28 pathway can cause vigorous T-cell proliferation even in the presence of cyclosporine and that cyclosporine does not prevent transcription of 16-2 mRNA, as has been suggested previously. Moreover, these findings suggest that a potential role for the CD28 molecule in vivo may be to augment IL-2 production after stimulation of the CD3-T-cell receptor molecular complex and thereby to amplify an antigen-specific immune response. Finally, these results provide further evidence that the CD28 molecule triggers T-cell proliferation in a manner that differs biochemically from CD3-T-cell receptor-induced proliferation. Images PMID:2830495

  9. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fu-Liang; Yu, Yin-Hang; Tian, Hui; Ren, Gui-Ping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Bing; Han, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Qing-Zhong; Li, De-Shan

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals' survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system. PMID:24971746

  10. Effects of interferons and interleukin 2 on natural killing of cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Miller, D S; Matsumoto-Kobayashi, M; Clark, S C; Starr, S E

    1987-01-01

    The ability of nonadherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells of normal individuals to lyse noninfected and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected human fibroblasts was enhanced by preincubation with recombinant human alpha interferon (alpha-rIFN) or beta (beta-rIFN). In contrast, recombinant human gamma IFN (gamma-rIFN) augmented natural killing (NK) against both targets relatively poorly. Recombinant or natural human interleukin 2(IL-2) also augmented NK against noninfected and CMV-infected targets. Augmentation of NK by IFN or IL-2 could be blocked by the addition of corresponding antisera. IL-2-enhanced NK against CMV-infected targets was usually independent of alpha-IFN production. PMID:2440628

  11. Selection of internalization-deficient cells by interleukin-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin chimeric protein: the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain does not contribute to internalization of interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Furse, R K; Malek, T R

    1993-12-01

    To study the structural basis of ligand-induced receptor-mediated internalization of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a strategy has been developed to generate variant T cells that are deficient in internalization of this cytokine. IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha- and beta-bearing EL4 cells, that express high-affinity IL-2R and internalize IL-2, were treated with low doses of IL-2-Pseudomonas exotoxin chimeric protein (IL-2-PE40). This treatment resulted in isolation of a variant (CX1) that was unable to express high-affinity IL-2R or internalize IL-2. Transfection of CX1 with the IL-2R beta cDNA led to surface expression of IL-2R beta and high-affinity IL-2R as well as the ability to internalize IL-2. This finding indicates that the absence of the beta subunit was the sole defect in CX1 responsible for its failure to internalize IL-2. By transfecting CX1 with mutated beta cDNA, several CX1 transfectants were produced that expressed a beta-subunit that lacked all amino acids of the intracytoplasmic region. These transfectants expressed high-affinity IL-2R and internalized IL-2 at a rate comparable to cells expressing wild-type beta-chain. These results demonstrate that internalization of IL-2 is independent of any signals contained in the intracytoplasmic tail of the beta subunit and raise the possibility that such signals may be entirely contained within the gamma subunit. PMID:8258333

  12. T-cell subpopulations, expression of interleukin-2 receptor, and production of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon in human American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Castes, M; Cabrera, M; Trujillo, D; Convit, J

    1988-01-01

    Leukocyte subpopulations, the expression of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, and the production of IL-2 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) were studied in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients that had been stimulated in vitro with either leishmanial antigen or mitogen (phytohemagglutinin M). The 75 patients examined were classified as having either the localized (LCL; 66 patients), mucocutaneous (MCL; 5 patients), or the rare diffuse (DCL; 4 patients) form of the disease. Patients with DCL, who are characterized by their defective cell-mediated immune response to leishmanial antigen, failed to express the IL-2 receptor and did not produce IFN-gamma when exposed to the antigen but did so when stimulated by phytohemagglutinin M. Both LCL and MCL patients showed strong proliferative responses to leishmanial antigen; these were by far the greatest in MCL patients. Both groups had significantly increased IL-2 receptor expression and IFN-gamma production after exposure to either antigen or mitogen, and these were highest in the MCL patients. Concerning the leukocyte subpopulations evaluated (CD2, CD4, CD8, CD20, MO2), the most significant findings were a decrease of both CD4+ cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio in MCL patients compared with the other groups. Considering IL-2 production, in response to phytohemagglutinin M both MCL and LCL patients showed amounts of IL-2 comparable to those of the controls. Our results help explain the anergy of T cells from DCL patients to leishmanial antigen, which could lead to a defective production of IFN-gamma and possibly contribute to their incapacity to kill the Leishmania parasite. Concerning MCL patients, the significantly increased expression of IL-2 receptor, decreased expression of the CD4 (helper-inducer of suppression) phenotype, and elevated IFV-gamma production might partially explains the state of hypersensitivity and mucosal damage exhibited by these patients. PMID:3133391

  13. Gene expression for interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the spleen of old rats under physiological condition and during septic shock. Possible pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed

    Annoni, G; Arosio, B; Santambrogio, D; Cullurà, D; Gagliano, N; Uslenghi, C

    1994-12-01

    Older individuals are more susceptible to infectious agents than younger and this is related to the disrepair of the immune defence mechanisms associated with aging. In this study we evaluated the activity of a new biological response modifier (BRM), pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6) in relation to the expression of some cytokine genes. We utilized 24 month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24), randomly divided into 4 groups: controls (n = 6), pidotimod-treated (n = 6; 200 mg/kg i.p., for 10 days), infected (n = 6; i.p. infection of E. coli CH 198) and pidotimod-treated + infected (n = 6). Poly(A+)RNA purified from the spleens of the animals killed 48 h after the infection was probed with Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cDNA clones. Northern blot analysis showed a slight signal of the IL-2 steady state mRNA in the groups of control, pidotimod-treated and infected animals, with an increase (20%) evident only in pidotimod + infected rats, 48 h after E. coli injection. On the contrary, the TNF-alpha mRNA levels were easily detectable in controls and infected rats and lower (20%, 40%) following the drug treatment, independent of i.p. infection. These results account for the BRM activity of pidotimod. PMID:7531977

  14. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab) treatment of corticosteroid-refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Patrick F; Seggewiss, Ruth; McCloskey, Donna Jo; Boss, Carol A; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Rick, Margaret E

    2006-02-01

    We administered daclizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) antibody, to 11 patients with corticosteroid-refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) every 2 weeks for five treatments. Of nine evaluable patients, one individual experienced a partial response. Lymphocyte phenotyping by flow cytometry indicated post-treatment binding of IL-2Ra by daclizumab in all patients. Mid-study serum soluble IL-2R levels in all patients increased 4-15 -fold over baseline values (p=0.004). Despite these measurable immunologic effects, blockade of the IL-2/IL-2R axis did not effectively abrogate the autoimmune response in this group of patients with corticosteroid-refractory AITP. PMID:16461323

  15. Interleukin-2 at the Crossroads of Effector Responses, Tolerance, and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Lin, Jian-Xin; Leonard, Warren J.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced after antigen activation that plays pivotal roles in the immune response. Discovered as a T-cell growth factor, IL-2 additionally promotes CD8+ T cell and NK cell cytolytic activity, and modulates T cell differentiation programs in response to antigen, promoting nave CD4+ T cell differentiation into T helper-1 (Th1) and T helper-2 (Th2) cells while inhibiting T helper-17 (Th17) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell differentiation. Moreover, IL-2 is essential for the development and maintenance of T regulatory (Treg) cells and for activation-induced cell death, thereby mediating tolerance and limiting inappropriate immune reactions. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms and complex cellular actions of IL-2, its cooperative and opposing effects with other cytokines, and how both promoting and blocking the actions of IL-2 are being utilized in clinical medicine. PMID:23352221

  16. Interleukin-2 Receptor Signaling: At the Interface between Tolerance and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Thomas R.; Castro, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling regulates tolerance and immunity. Here, we review recent work concerning the structure, signaling, and function of the IL-2R, emphasizing the contribution of IL-2 for T cell-dependent activity in vivo. IL-2R signaling influences two discrete aspects of immune responses by CD8+ T cells, terminal differentiation of effector cells in primary responses, and aspects of memory recall responses. IL-2 also delivers essential signals for thymic development of regulatory T (Treg) cells and later to promote their homeostasis and function. Each of these outcomes on T effector and Treg cells requires distinct amounts of IL-2R signaling, with low IL-2R signaling sufficient for many key aspects of Treg cells. Thus, tolerance is readily maintained and favored with limited IL-2. PMID:20732639

  17. Interleukin 2 acts as an adjuvant to increase the potency of inactivated rabies virus vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Nunberg, J H; Doyle, M V; York, S M; York, C J

    1989-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) occupies a central position in the cascade of events involved in the immune response. We were interested in determining whether IL-2 could function as an adjuvant to vaccination, to increase the immune response to vaccine immunogens. Using the National Institutes of Health test for rabies vaccine potency, we found that daily systemic administration of IL-2 in conjunction with inactivated rabies virus can increase the potency of vaccination in outbred mice at least 25-fold, as measured by survival following challenge with virulent rabies virus. Enhanced protection is not correlated with an increase in virus-neutralizing antibody titers, and we suggest that IL-2 acts to increase the cellular immune response to vaccination. PMID:2786210

  18. Interleukin 2 receptor expression by human blood lymphocytes after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tvede, N; Heilmann, C; Christensen, L D

    1989-06-01

    Proliferative responses of unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and blood T cells to recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) were significantly increased 7-21 days after the vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS). In contrast, non-T cells expressed increased responsiveness to rIL-2 only on post-vaccination day 7. Analysis of the proliferative response to rIL-2 among lymphocyte subsets (CD4+Leu8+, CD4+Leu8-, CD8+Leu8+, CD8+Leu8-, CD20+) in cultures of unseparated PBMC revealed that the CD8+Leu8- T cells expressed increased responsiveness 7-14 days after vaccination, whereas neither CD4+ (Leu8+ and Leu8-) nor CD8+Leu8+ T cells showed significantly increased responsiveness after vaccination. The CD20+ B cells, like non-T cells, expressed increased responsiveness to rIL-27 days after the vaccination only. Expression of the 55 kD low-affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R, CD 25) on freshly isolated PBMC, as judged by direct fluorescence staining with a MoAb anti-55 kD chain, was low (less than 3%) and an increased expression of this receptor was not detected following vaccination. In contrast, binding of 125I-labelled IL-2 to freshly isolated PBMC increased following vaccination (day 7). Scatchard plot analysis revealed a modest increase in the expression of high-affinity IL-2R (Kd = 1-2 pM), whereas the increase in expression of the 75-kD, intermediate-affinity IL-2R (Kd = 300 pM) was more pronounced (from 195 to 295 (means) receptors per PBMC). It is concluded that, following vaccination with PPS increased IL-2R expression is induced on blood lymphocytes. These investigations suggest a role for T cells in the human immune response against PPS. PMID:2787716

  19. NK-lysin, a novel effector peptide of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Structure and cDNA cloning of the porcine form, induction by interleukin 2, antibacterial and antitumour activity.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M; Gunne, H; Agerberth, B; Boman, A; Bergman, T; Sillard, R; Jrnvall, H; Mutt, V; Olsson, B; Wigzell, H

    1995-01-01

    A 78 residue antimicrobial, basic peptide, NK-lysin, with three intrachain disulfide bonds was purified from pig small intestine and characterized. A corresponding clone was isolated from a porcine bone marrow cDNA library. The 780 bp DNA sequence had a reading frame of 129 amino acids which corresponded to NK-lysin. The clone was used to show that stimulation with human interleukin-2 induced synthesis of NK-lysin-specific mRNA in a lymphocyte fraction enriched for T and NK cells. Lower levels of mRNA were detected in tissues known to contain T and NK cells, such as small intestine, spleen and colon. Interleukin-2 also induced both proliferation of the lymphocyte fraction and cytolytic function in these cells. Immunostaining showed that NK-lysin was present in cells positive for CD8, CD2 and CD4. NK-lysin showed high anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium and moderate activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The peptide showed a marked lytic activity against an NK-sensitive mouse tumour cell line, YAC-1, but it did not lyse red blood cells. The amino acid sequence of NK-lysin exhibits 33% identity with a putative human preproprotein, NKG5, of unknown function but derived from a cDNA clone of activated NK cells. We suggest that NK-lysin is a new effector molecule of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Images PMID:7737114

  20. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  1. Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels, Temperament and Character in Formerly Depressed Suicide Attempters Compared with Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenhausler, Hans-Bernd; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    An imbalance of the immune system and mixed personality profiles in suicide attempters have been reported. As suicidal behavior is common in patients with psychiatric disorders within the spectrum of depressive features, in this study we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and…

  2. Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels, Temperament and Character in Formerly Depressed Suicide Attempters Compared with Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenhausler, Hans-Bernd; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    An imbalance of the immune system and mixed personality profiles in suicide attempters have been reported. As suicidal behavior is common in patients with psychiatric disorders within the spectrum of depressive features, in this study we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and

  3. Inhibition of Interleukin-2 Gene Expression by Human Herpesvirus 6B U54 Tegument Protein

    PubMed Central

    Iampietro, Mathieu; Morissette, Guillaume; Gravel, Annie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a ubiquitous pathogen causing lifelong infections in approximately 95% of humans worldwide. To persist within its host, HHV-6B has developed several immune evasion mechanisms, such as latency, during which minimal proteins are expressed, and the ability to disturb innate and adaptive immune responses. The primary cellular targets of HHV-6B are CD4+ T cells. Previous studies by Flamand et al. (L. Flamand, J. Gosselin, I. Stefanescu, D. Ablashi, and J. Menezes, Blood 85:1263–1271, 1995) reported on the capacity of HHV-6A as well as UV-irradiated HHV-6A to inhibit interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in CD4+ lymphocytes, suggesting that viral structural components could be responsible for this effect. In the present study, we identified the HHV-6B U54 tegument protein (U54) as being capable of inhibiting IL-2 expression. U54 binds the calcineurin (CaN) phosphatase enzyme, causing improper dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) proteins, resulting in suboptimal IL-2 gene transcription. The U54 GISIT motif (amino acids 293 to 297), analogous to the NFAT PXIXIT motif, contributed to the inhibition of NFAT activation. IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are associated with an increasing number of pathologies. These viruses have developed strategies to avoid the immune response allowing them to persist in the host. Several studies have illustrated mechanisms by which HHV-6A and HHV-6B are able to disrupt host defenses (reviewed in L. Dagna, J. C. Pritchett, and P. Lusso, Future Virol. 8:273–287, 2013, doi:10.2217/fvl.13.7). Previous work informed us that HHV-6A is able to suppress synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a key immune growth factor essential for adequate T lymphocyte proliferation and expansion. We obtained evidence that HHV-6B also inhibits IL-2 gene expression and identified the mechanisms by which it does so. Our work led us to the identification of U54, a virion-associated tegument protein, as being responsible for suppression of IL-2. Consequently, we have identified HHV-6B U54 protein as playing a role in immune evasion. These results further contribute to our understanding of HHV-6 interactions with its human host and the efforts deployed to ensure its long-term persistence. PMID:25122797

  4. Identification of a Cytotoxic Form of Dimeric Interleukin-2 in Murine Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wrenshall, Lucile E.; Clabaugh, Suzanne E.; Cool, David R.; Arumugam, Prakash; Grunwald, William C.; Smith, Deandra R.; Liu, Gino C.; Miller, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a multi-faceted cytokine, known for promoting proliferation, survival, and cell death depending on the cell type and state. For example, IL-2 facilitates cell death only in activated T cells when antigen and IL-2 are abundant. The availability of IL-2 clearly impacts this process. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that IL-2 is retained in blood vessels by heparan sulfate, and that biologically active IL-2 is released from vessel tissue by heparanase. We now demonstrate that heparanase digestion also releases a dimeric form of IL-2 that is highly cytotoxic to cells expressing the IL-2 receptor. These cells include “traditional” IL-2 receptor-bearing cells such as lymphocytes, as well as those less well known for IL-2 receptor expression, such as epithelial and smooth muscle cells. The morphologic changes and rapid cell death induced by dimeric IL-2 imply that cell death is mediated by disruption of membrane permeability and subsequent necrosis. These findings suggest that IL-2 has a direct and unexpectedly broad influence on cellular homeostatic mechanisms in both immune and non-immune systems. PMID:25019288

  5. Interleukin 2 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haihan; Chen, Lei; Cha, Zhanshan

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a key role in the proliferation of T cells and natural killer cells. It has been reported that polymorphisms in the IL-2 gene are associated with various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of polymorphisms in the IL-2 gene on the development of NHL in the Chinese population. IL-2-330T/G and +114T/G polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 438 NHL cases and 482 age-matched healthy controls. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results showed that individuals with −330TG genotype or −330GG genotype had significantly increased susceptibility to NHL (Odds ratio [OR]=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.85, p=0.020 and OR=2.04, 95%CI: 1.28–3.24, p=0.002). Meanwhile, the +114T/G polymorphism did not show any correlation with NHL. When analyzing the haplotypes of these two polymorphisms, the prevalence of −330G/+114T haplotype was significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.12–1.88, p=0.005). These data indicate that IL-2 gene polymorphisms may be new risk factors for NHL. PMID:22472080

  6. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  7. Construction and characterization of encapsidated poliovirus replicons that express biologically active murine interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Basak, S; McPherson, S; Kang, S; Collawn, J F; Morrow, C D

    1998-05-01

    Poliovirus genomes have been constructed in which the capsid genes have been substituted with the murine gene encoding interleukin-2 (IL-2) (referred to as replicons). One replicon contained the gene for IL-2 in place of the poliovirus capsid VP2 and VP3 genes, and a second replicon was constructed that contained the murine IL-2 substituted for the poliovirus VP3 and VP1 genes. The IL-2 genes were cloned into the replicon so as to maintain the translational reading frame with the remaining poliovirus proteins. Transfection of either replicon into cells resulted in the expression of replicon-encoded proteins and replication of replicon RNA. Using a procedure developed in this laboratory, we have encapsidated these replicons into authentic polio virions by passaging the replicons in the presence of a recombinant vaccinia virus, VVP1, which expresses the capsid precursor, P1, protein. Using a quantitative immunoassay, we determined that the majority of the IL-2 produced remained intracellular, with approximately 1%-2% released from the infected cells, and that the IL-2 was biologically active. The results of these studies demonstrate the utility of poliovirus replicons for expression of small bioactive molecules and are discussed with respect to future applications as immune adjuvants as well as potential new tumor therapies. PMID:9620357

  8. Interleukin-2-Dependent Allergen-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory Cells Drive Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hondowicz, Brian D; An, Dowon; Schenkel, Jason M; Kim, Karen S; Steach, Holly R; Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Keitany, Gladys J; Garza, Esteban N; Fraser, Kathryn A; Moon, James J; Altemeier, William A; Masopust, David; Pepper, Marion

    2016-01-19

    Exposure to inhaled allergens generates T helper 2 (Th2) CD4(+) T cells that contribute to episodes of inflammation associated with asthma. Little is known about allergen-specific Th2 memory cells and their contribution to airway inflammation. We generated reagents to understand how endogenous CD4(+) T cells specific for a house dust mite (HDM) allergen form and function. After allergen exposure, HDM-specific memory cells persisted as central memory cells in the lymphoid organs and tissue-resident memory cells in the lung. Experimental blockade of lymphocyte migration demonstrated that lung-resident cells were sufficient to induce airway hyper-responsiveness, which depended upon CD4(+) T cells. Investigation into the differentiation of pathogenic Trm cells revealed that interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling was required for residency and directed a program of tissue homing migrational cues. These studies thus identify IL-2-dependent resident Th2 memory cells as drivers of lung allergic responses. PMID:26750312

  9. beta. -Adrenergic receptor-mediated suppression of interleukin 2 receptors in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.; Hunninghake, G.W.; McArdle, W.L.

    1987-11-15

    Adrenergic receptor agonists are know to attenuate the proliferative response of human lymphocytes after activation; however, their mechanism of action is unknown. Since expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors is a prerequisite for proliferation, the effect of ..beta..-adrenergic receptor agonists on lymphocyte IL-2 receptors was studied on both mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and IL-2-dependent T lymphocyte cell lines. In both cell types the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol blocked the expression of IL-2 receptors, as determined with the IL-2 receptor anti-TAC antibody. To determine the effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agonists on expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptors, (/sup 125/I)IL-2 binding studies were performed at concentrations selective for high affinity sites. No significant effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agonists on high affinity IL-2 receptor sites could be detected. The data demonstrate that ..beta..-adrenergic receptor agonists down-regulate IL-2 receptors primarily affecting low affinity sites.

  10. Molecular signatures induced by interleukin-2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ping; Wang, Ena; Provenzano, Maurizio; Deola, Sara; Selleri, Silvia; Ren, Jiaqiang; Voiculescu, Sonia; Stroncek, David; Panelli, Monica C; Marincola, Francesco M

    2006-01-01

    Experimentally, interleukin-2 (IL-2) exerts complex immunological functions promoting the proliferation, survival and activation of T cells on one hand and inducing immune regulatory mechanisms on the other. This complexity results from a cross talk among immune cells which sways the effects of IL-2 according to the experimental or clinical condition tested. Recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 47 donors of different genetic background induced generalized T cell activation and anti-apoptotic effects. Most effects were dependent upon interactions among immune cells. Specialized functions of CD4 and CD8 T cells were less dependent upon and often dampened by the presence of other PBMC populations. In particular, cytotoxic T cell effector function was variably affected with a component strictly dependent upon the direct stimulation of CD8 T cells in the absence of other PBMC. This observation may provide a roadmap for the interpretation of the discrepant biological activities of rIL-2 observed in distinct pathological conditions or treatment modalities. PMID:16805915

  11. Interleukin-2, interleukin-12, and interferon-γ levels and risk of young adult Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Parkash S.; Salam, Muhammad T.; Nieters, Alexandra; Masood, Rizwan; Cockburn, Myles G.; Gauderman, W. James; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Nathwani, Bharat N.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Deapen, Dennis M.; Mack, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Young adult Hodgkin lymphoma (YAHL) is associated clinically with altered immunity, including a systemic defect in cell-mediated responses. There is strong evidence of a genetic contribution to risk, so we hypothesized that heritable alterations in cytokine production associated with Th1 function may contribute to susceptibility. We identified twin pairs in whom at least one member had YAHL and measured interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels in PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatant in 90 case-twins, 84 of their disease-free twins (unaffected cotwins), and 90 matched controls. Mean difference and mean percentage difference in cytokine levels between case-twins and controls, and unaffected cotwins and controls were determined using analysis of covariance. YAHL case-twins and their unaffected cotwins had IL-12 levels that were 60.6% (P = .002) and 49% (P = .04) lower than those of their matched controls, respectively. IL-2 levels were significantly higher in case-twins (P = .049), but not unaffected cotwins (P = .57), compared with controls. Differences in IFN-γ levels were not statistically significant in either comparison. An IL-12 polymorphism known to regulate expression was associated with a 2.8-fold (P = .03) increase in YAHL risk. Thus, both case-twins and their unaffected cotwins had a decreased ability to produce IL-12, which may contribute to YAHL susceptibility. PMID:18077789

  12. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.

    1985-11-01

    With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation.

  13. High-dose interleukin 2-induced myocarditis: can myocardial damage reversibility be assessed by cardiac MRI?

    PubMed

    Chow, Shien; Cove-Smith, Laura; Schmitt, Matthias; Hawkins, Robert

    2014-06-01

    High-dose interleukin 2 (HD-IL2) is one of the therapeutic options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In well-selected patients with favorable clinical and pathologic features, it offers impressive response and potential long-term remission. It also has a place for treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma and in adoptive cell therapy. However, it is known for its intensive course and toxicities. Myocarditis is one of the known complications of this treatment and can pose a diagnostic challenge to treating oncologists because of its nonspecific and similar presentation to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We report 3 short cases of HD-IL2-related myocarditis, which were either missed or misdiagnosed as ACS using conventional assessment but subsequently accurately diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonant imaging (CMR). We discussed the clinical presentation of these cases and demonstrated the diagnostic advantage of CMR compared with standard investigations including its superior capability to assess myocardial reversibility, which has important short-term and long-term implications. The use of CMR also avoided unnecessary invasive intervention such as coronary angiogram in all 3 patients. These example cases call for effort to conduct prospective research to assess and confirm the utility of CMR, thus informing a more effective management pathway for immune-related myocarditis in HD-IL2 and other cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24810642

  14. Interleukin 2 receptor in patients with localized and systemic parasitic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Josimovic-Alasevic, O; Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Harms, G; Hahn, H; Shrisuphanunt, M; Diamantstein, T

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) in the serum of patients with helminthic and protozoal infections. The results demonstrated that levels of IL-2R were normal in patients with helminthic infections limited to the intestinal tract (ascariasis, trichuriasis), but significantly elevated in patients with systemic or long-lasting infections (strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis). In patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni levels of IL-2R were higher in those with the hepatosplenic than in those with the intestinal form of the disease. Patients with malaria also showed increased serum levels of IL-2R, irrespective whether the infection was caused by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. No difference was observed between patients with acute or history of malaria. The highest levels of IL-2R were observed in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Interestingly, in these patients the concentration of IL-2R correlated to specific antibody titre. The results are discussed in the context of preferential activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and/or macrophages during the course of the different parasitic infections investigated. PMID:3136958

  15. Evidence for tumor reduction in refractory or relapsed B-CLL patients with infusional interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Kay, N E; Oken, M M; Mazza, J J; Bradley, E C

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is a biologic response modifier that is capable of enhancing or restoring the cytolytic capacity of large granular lymphocytes (LGL). We utilized this biologic response modifier in the treatment of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), a disease frequently characterized by deficient or absent natural killer activity. B-CLL (n = 12) patients previously refractory to chemotherapy or with progressive disease post cessation of chemotherapy were eligible. rIL-2 was given as i.v. infusion (2 x 10(6) units/m2) over 2 h 5 times per week for 3 weeks as induction. Responding patients were placed on maintenance therapy. Although there were no complete or partial responses (by ECOG criteria) there was clear evidence of tumor reduction. Seven of 10 evaluable patients had a reduction of the peripheral blood B cell clone, 3 had node reduction and 2 had reduction in their splenomegaly. All patients experienced mild to moderate toxicity and 1 patient died while on induction therapy. Three B-CLL patients following induction rIL-2 treatment were placed back on chemotherapy because of progressive disease. Interestingly, these 2 B-CLL patients achieved extremely rapid and complete responses to chemotherapy which had previously been ineffective. These data suggest a possible role for rIL-2 in treatment of B-CLL. PMID:3265509

  16. Interleukin-2 activity can be fine tuned with engineered receptor signaling clamps.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suman; Ring, Aaron M; Amarnath, Shoba; Spangler, Jamie B; Li, Peng; Ju, Wei; Fischer, Suzanne; Oh, Jangsuk; Spolski, Rosanne; Weiskopf, Kipp; Kohrt, Holbrook; Foley, Jason E; Rajagopalan, Sumati; Long, Eric O; Fowler, Daniel H; Waldmann, Thomas A; Garcia, K Christopher; Leonard, Warren J

    2015-05-19

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) regulates lymphocyte function by signaling through heterodimerization of the IL-2Rβ and γc receptor subunits. IL-2 is of considerable therapeutic interest, but harnessing its actions in a controllable manner remains a challenge. Previously, we have engineered an IL-2 "superkine" with enhanced affinity for IL-2Rβ. Here, we describe next-generation IL-2 variants that function as "receptor signaling clamps." They retained high affinity for IL-2Rβ, inhibiting binding of endogenous IL-2, but their interaction with γc was weakened, attenuating IL-2Rβ-γc heterodimerization. These IL-2 analogs acted as partial agonists and differentially affected lymphocytes poised at distinct activation thresholds. Moreover, one variant, H9-RETR, antagonized IL-2 and IL-15 better than blocking antibodies against IL-2Rα or IL-2Rβ. Furthermore, this mutein prolonged survival in a model of graft-versus-host disease and blocked spontaneous proliferation of smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL) T cells. This receptor-clamping approach might be a general mechanism-based strategy for engineering cytokine partial agonists for therapeutic immunomodulation. PMID:25992859

  17. Production of human and murine interleukin-2 by toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Micusan, V V; Mercier, G; Bhatti, A R; Reiser, R F; Bergdoll, M S; Oth, D

    1986-01-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), isolated from Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS), is known as a potent mitogen and interleukin-1 inducer. The potential of TSST-1 as an interleukin-2 (IL-2) inducer was tested on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) and murine spleen lymphocytes (MSL). These cells were incubated with TSST-1 and the supernatants analysed for IL-2 production. Preincubation of IL-2-dependent indicator cells (IC) with a monoclonal antibody specific for murine IL-2 receptors inhibited their proliferation by supernatants of TSST-1-treated MSL, thus strongly suggesting that they contain IL-2. The concentrations of TSST-1 required for HPBL or MSL to produce IL-2 ranged between 10(-1) and 10(-4) micrograms/ml. The amount of IL-2 units/ml varied little from one experiment to another. In contrast, IL-2 production by PHA-stimulated HPBL or Con A-stimulated MSL showed great variability and dependence on mitogen concentration. T-cell depleted MSL exposed to TSST-1 produced less IL-2. Experiments with germ-free mice and TSST-1-primed mice demonstrated that IL-2 production is not related to TSST-1 antigenicity. PMID:3486824

  18. Recombinant human interleukin-2-induced mitogenic proliferation of in vitro unstimulated bovine intestinal lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, A M; Babiuk, L A

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHIL-2) in the absence or presence of additional stimuli, was able to induce and support the proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from the intra-epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the small intestine of normal adult cows. Although dose-dependent effects of rHIL-2 were observed with all three cell populations, concentrations as low as 2.5 U/mL were able to induce DNA synthesis as measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, rHIL-2 as low as 5.0 U/mL was shown to significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation. These proliferative responses to rHIL-2 were detected within two days of culture and peaked after five days. Although the extent of the blastogenic response was variable in individual animals, the general pattern of time-course and dose-response to rHIL-2 was similar in all animals tested. The response of all three leukocyte populations to rHIL-2 was dependent on the presence of adherent accessory cells and/or 2-mercaptoethanol. Both nylon wool nonadherent (T cells, null cells) and adherent cells (B cells) were shown to be responsive to rHIL-2. These studies demonstrate that bovine lymphocytes isolated from different anatomical locations of the small intestine are capable of proliferation in response to xenogenic IL-2 without in vitro preactivation signals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2783657

  19. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and cleavage of interleukin-2 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Theander, T G; Kharazmi, A; Pedersen, B K; Christensen, L D; Tvede, N; Poulsen, L K; Odum, N; Svenson, M; Bendtzen, K

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (ELA) on human lymphocyte function. AP at 50 micrograms/ml and ELA at 12 micrograms/ml caused a 50% inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation. There was no difference in the effect of proteases on CD4- and CD8-positive cells. To determine the effect of proteases on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced cell proliferation, the proteases and IL-2 were added to the IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell line. AP and ELA inhibited the proliferation of these cells. When IL-2 was added in excess, the inhibition was partly reversed. ELA at 10 micrograms/ml cleaved IL-2, as judged by size chromatography of a reaction mixture containing 125I-labeled IL-2 and the proteases. The ELA-digested IL-2 exhibited a reduced binding capacity to IL-2 receptors on the lymphocytes. Furthermore, treatment of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes with AP and ELA resulted in inhibition of binding of intact IL-2 to IL-2 receptors on the stimulated lymphocytes. These results indicated that P. aeruginosa-derived enzymes are able to interfere with human lymphocyte function in vitro and that this effect might be due to cleavage of IL-2. PMID:3133317

  20. Integrating Signals from the T-Cell Receptor and the Interleukin-2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Tilo; Busse, Mandy; Hristov, Kroum; Gurbiel, Slavyana; Smida, Michal; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Ballerstein, Kathrin; Pfeuffer, Frank; Weismantel, Robert; Schraven, Burkhart; Lindquist, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response, making them targets for immunotherapy. Although immunosuppressive therapies prevent disease progression, they also leave patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. To identify novel drug targets, we established a logical model describing T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. However, to have a model that is able to predict new therapeutic approaches, the current drug targets must be included. Therefore, as a next step we generated the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling network and developed a tool to merge logical models. For IL-2R signaling, we show that STAT activation is independent of both Src- and PI3-kinases, while ERK activation depends upon both kinases and additionally requires novel PKCs. In addition, our merged model correctly predicted TCR-induced STAT activation. The combined network also allows information transfer from one receptor to add detail to another, thereby predicting that LAT mediates JNK activation in IL-2R signaling. In summary, the merged model not only enables us to unravel potential cross-talk, but it also suggests new experimental designs and provides a critical step towards designing strategies to reprogram T cells. PMID:21829342

  1. Transcriptional Activation of the Interleukin-2 Promoter by Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bergqvist, Anders; Rice, Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    Most patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) become chronic carriers. Viruses that efficiently establish persistent infections must have effective ways of evading host defenses. In the case of HCV, little is known about how chronic infections are established or maintained. Besides hepatocytes, several reports suggest that HCV can infect T and B lymphocytes. Since T cells are essential for viral clearance, direct or indirect effects of HCV on T-cell function could influence the outcome of infection. Given that T-cell growth and differentiation require the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2), we asked whether HCV might modulate synthesis of IL-2. Portions of the HCV polyprotein were expressed in Jurkat cells under a variety of conditions. We found that the highly conserved HCV core protein, in combination with other stimuli, was able to dramatically activate transcription from the IL-2 promoter. The carboxy-terminal hydrophobic portion of the core protein was required for this activity. Activation was dependent on nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), occurred in cells deficient in the tyrosine kinase p56lck, and could be blocked by addition of cyclosporin A and by depletion of calcium. These results suggest that the HCV core protein can activate transcription of the IL-2 promoter through the NFAT pathway. This novel activity may have consequences for T-cell development and establishment of persistent infections. PMID:11134290

  2. Biochemical and immunological properties of rat recombinant interleukin-2 and interleukin-4.

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, A J; Classon, B J

    1992-01-01

    We have previously described the isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding rat interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In the present study, we report the generation of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines which constitutively synthesize and secrete high levels of rat recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) and IL-4 (rIL-4). The expression of the cytokine cDNA sequences is driven by the human cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer within the respective pEE6. HCMV-GS vector constructs, following the successful transfection and isolation of methionine sulphoximine (MSX)-resistant CHO cell lines. Analyses of metabolically labelled CHO.rIL-2 and CHO.rIL-4 have been performed, in addition to studies which demonstrate certain biological properties of these recombinant cytokines including T-cell growth factor activity (rIL-2) and the ability to enhance expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on spleen cells (rIL-4). The availability of large quantities of these rat recombinant cytokines, conveniently produced by a mammalian cell line, will prove invaluable in future studies into the induction and regulation of immune responses in this species. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1551691

  3. Expression of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) interleukin-2 in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Adams, J E; Pea, M T; Gillis, T P; Williams, D L; Adams, L B; Truman, R W

    2005-12-01

    The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is the only immunologically intact animal that regularly develops lepromatous-type leprosy when inoculated with Mycobacterium leprae. However, the ability to exploit this model for understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy has been limited by a lack of suitable immunological reagents. Recently, efforts began to sequence the entire armadillo genome, and this sequence information will help make possible the development of a wide array of new immunological reagents suitable for use with armadillos. Using the available sequence data, a region of high homology to interleukin-2 of other mammals was identified. Primers were designed to amplify the coding region corresponding to the mature peptide and its exact sequence was confirmed. cDNA was made from ConA-stimulated armadillo PBMC. The amplified coding region was sub-cloned into a pET expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli for over-expression. The subsequent product was characterized by SDS-PAGE and bioassays. Tritiated thymidine incorporation by CTLL-2 and armadillo lymphoblasts confirmed functionality of the recombinant product. The advent of the D. novemcinctus genome sequence and subsequent generation of immunological tools will assist in advancing the armadillo as a translational model for leprosy. PMID:16338142

  4. Activity of outpatient intravenous interleukin-2 and famotidine in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine Marie

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient daily intravenous infusions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been developed to maintain anticancer activity and decrease toxicity of this agent against kidney cancer. Lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) numbers are increased with these IL-2 schedules. Famotidine may enhance the LAK activity by increasing IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Fifteen patients with metastatic clear cell kidney cancer received IL-2 18 million IU/M² intravenously over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg IV daily for 3 days for 6 consecutive weeks as outpatients. Cycles were repeated every 8 weeks. Patient characteristics were seven males/eight females, median age 59 (range: 28-70), median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status-1; common metastatic sites were lungs (14), lymph nodes (9), liver (4), bone (4), and pancreas (4). Prior systemic therapies were oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (8), IL-2 (6), and mTor inhibitor (2). Most common toxicities were rigors, arthralgia/myalgia, nausea/emesis, fever, and hypotension. All episodes of hypotension were reversible with intravenous fluid. No patients required hospitalization due to toxicity. One complete response (7%) and four partial responses (26%) were seen (total response rate=33%; 95% confidence interval: 15%-59%). Responses occurred in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Outpatient intravenous IL-2 with famotidine has activity in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer. PMID:24251758

  5. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-08-13

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions. PMID:26124312

  6. Employment of Oligodeoxynucleotide plus Interleukin-2 Improves Cytogenetic Analysis in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Antonella; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Tammiso, Elisa; Volta, Eleonora; Pezzolo, Elisa; Formigaro, Luca; Sofritti, Olga; Daghia, Giulia; Ambrosio, Cristina; Rizzotto, Lara; Abass, Awad E.; D'Auria, Fiorella; Musto, Pellegrino; Cuneo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficiency of novel mitogenic agents and traditional mitosis inductors, 18 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) were studied. Three cultures using oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2), or TPA, or LPS were setup in each patient. Seventeen/18 cases with ODN + IL2 had moderate/good proliferation (94, 4%) as compared with 10/18 cases with TPA and LPS (55%) (P = .015); 14/18 (77, 7%) cases with ODN + IL2 had sufficient good quality of banding as compared with 8/18 cases (44, 4%) with TPA and LPS. The karyotype could be defined from ODN + IL2-stimulated cultures in all 18 patients, 14 of whom (77, 7%) had a cytogenetic aberration, whereas clonal aberrations could be documented in 9 and in 3 cases by stimulation with LPS and TPA, respectively. Recurrent chromosome aberrations in our series were represented by aberrations of chromosome 14q in 5 patients, by trisomy 12 and 7q deletion in 4 cases each, and by abnormalities involving 11q and 13q in two cases each. These findings show that stimulation with ODN + IL2 offers more mitotic figures of better quality and results in an increased rate of clonal aberrations in SMZL, making this method ideal for prospective studies aiming at the definition of the prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in this disorder. PMID:21629757

  7. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    SciTech Connect

    Cervia, Davide; Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano ; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  8. Production of and in vitro response to interleukin 2 in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murray, H W; Welte, K; Jacobs, J L; Rubin, B Y; Mertelsmann, R; Roberts, R B

    1985-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that deficient interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion may underlie the impaired capacity of T cells from patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the AIDS-related complex (ARC) to generate the macrophage-activating lymphokine, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), we used five specific microbial antigens to examine IL-2 production. Mononuclear cells from only one of 32 (3%) AIDS patients secreted normal levels of IL-2, and 21 (66%) failed to produce any detectable IL-2. For 36 ARC patients, IL-2 generation was normal in nine (25%) and absent in 11 (31%). Given these results, recombinant (r) IL-2 was tested for its capacity to stimulate or enhance IFN-gamma production. rIL-2 (10 U/ml) alone stimulated cells from controls, ARC, and AIDS patients to secrete 93 +/- 25, 99 +/- 33, and 7 +/- 3 U/ml of IFN-gamma, respectively. rIL 2 (10 U/ml) plus antigen induced no change in mean IFN-gamma levels for controls, a 4.4-fold increase for 17 AIDS patients (16 +/- 16 vs. 71 +/- 21 U/ml), and a 7.2-fold increase (18 +/- 5 vs. 130 +/- 27 U/ml) for 19 ARC patients with abnormal IFN-gamma generation to antigen alone. Individual responses indicated that six of the 17 (35%) AIDS patients with opportunistic infections and 12 of the 19 (63%) with ARC were apparent responders to 10-100 U/ml of rIL-2. These results (a) document profound impairment in antigen-induced IL-2 secretion by AIDS and ARC T cells, (b) indicate that, in vitro, mononuclear cells from certain patients can respond to rIL-2 with enhanced IFN-gamma production, and thus (c) suggest that in selected patients rIL-2 might have a potentially beneficial therapeutic (AIDS) or prophylactic (ARC) effect against opportunistic infections. PMID:2997299

  9. Activated lck tyrosine protein kinase stimulates antigen-independent interleukin-2 production in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, K; Sefton, B M

    1992-01-01

    p56lck, a member of the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is expressed predominantly in T cells where it associates with the T-cell surface molecules CD4 and CD8. Mutants of CD4 and CD8 that have lost the ability to associate with p56lck no longer enhance antigen-induced T-cell activation. This suggests that p56lck plays an important role during T-cell activation. In an effort to understand the function of p56lck in T cells, a constitutively activated lck gene (F505lck) was introduced into T-helper hybridoma cell lines by retroviral infection. In four T-cell lines we examined, the activated lck protein stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, a hallmark of T-cell activation, in the absence of antigenic stimulation. In addition, a marked increase in antigen-independent IL-2 production was apparent when T cells infected with a temperature-sensitive F505lck were shifted to the permissive temperature. Only one cell line expressing F505lck exhibited increased sensitivity to antigenic stimulation. The SH3 domain of p56lck was dispensable for the induction of antigen-independent IL-2 production. In contrast, deletion of the majority of the SH2 domain of p56F505lck reduced its ability to induce spontaneous IL-2 production markedly. Activated p60c-src also induced antigen-independent IL-2 production, whereas two other tyrosine kinases, v-abl and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, did not. Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 70-kDa cellular protein was observed after cross-linking of CD4 in T cells expressing F505lck but not in cells expressing F527src. Images PMID:1383689

  10. Low-dose interleukin-2 therapy: a driver of an imbalance between immune tolerance and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kosmaczewska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) is a characteristic of autoimmune diseases, and is dependent on homeostatic cytokines, including IL-2. Actually, inherent defects in the IL-2 signaling pathway and/or levels leading to Treg compromised function and numbers as well as Th17 expansion have been attributed to autoimmune disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In particular, we highlight the impact of the dysregulated IL-2 pathway on disruption of the Treg/Th17 balance, reversal of which appears to be a possible mechanism of the low-dose IL-2 treatment. The negative effects of IL-2 on the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and pathogenic Th17 cells, both of which contribute to autoimmunity, is emphasized in the paper as well. We also compare the current IL-2-based therapies of animal and human subjects with immune-mediated diseases aimed at boosting the Treg population, which is the most IL-2-dependent cell subset desirable for sufficient control of autoimmunity. New perspectives of therapeutic approaches focused on selective delivery of IL-2 to inflamed tissues, thus allowing local activity of IL-2 to be combined with its reduced systemic and pleiotropic toxicity, are also proposed in this paper. PMID:25322151

  11. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  12. Antibody-based delivery of interleukin-2 to neovasculature has potent activity against acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gutbrodt, Katrin L; Schliemann, Christoph; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Frey, Katharina; Pabst, Thomas; Klapper, Wolfram; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Neri, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rapidly progressing disease that is accompanied by a strong increase in microvessel density in the bone marrow. This observation prompted us to stain biopsies of AML and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients with the clinical-stage human monoclonal antibodies F8, L19, and F16 directed against markers of tumor angiogenesis. The analysis revealed that the F8 and F16 antibodies strongly stained 70% of AML and 75% of ALL bone marrow specimens, whereas chloroma biopsies were stained with all three antibodies. Therapy experiments performed in immunocompromised mice bearing human NB4 leukemia with the immunocytokine F8-IL2 [consisting of the F8 antibody fused to human interleukin-2 (IL-2)] mediated a strong inhibition of AML progression. This effect was potentiated by the addition of cytarabine, promoting complete responses in 40% of treated animals. Experiments performed in immunocompetent mice bearing C1498 murine leukemia revealed long-lasting complete tumor eradication in all treated mice. The therapeutic effect of F8-IL2 was mediated by both natural killer cells and CD8(+) T cells, whereas CD4(+) T cells appeared to be dispensable, as determined in immunodepletion experiments. The treatment of an AML patient with disseminated extramedullary AML manifestations with F16-IL2 (consisting of the F16 antibody fused to human IL-2, currently being tested in phase 2 clinical trials in patients with solid tumors) and low-dose cytarabine showed significant reduction of AML lesions and underlines the translational potential of vascular tumor-targeting antibody-cytokine fusions for the treatment of patients with leukemia. PMID:24005158

  13. Interleukin 2 Topical Cream for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Experiment Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is estimated there are 2.9 million diabetic patients in the United Kingdom, and around 5%-7% of patients have diabetic ulcers. This number will continue to increase globally. Diabetic ulcers are a major economic burden on the healthcare system. More than £650 million is spent on foot ulcers or amputations each year, and up to 100 people a week have a limb amputated due to diabetes. In T1DM, the level of IL-2 is reduced, and hence, wound healing is in a prolonged inflammatory phase. It is not known if IL-2 topical cream can shorten the healing process in T1DM patients. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the pathophysiology in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and investigate possible future treatment based on its clinical features. The hypothesis is that IL-2 cream can speed up wound healing in NOD mice and that this can be demonstrated in a ten-week study. An experiment protocol is designed in a mouse model for others to conduct the experiment. The discussion is purely based on diabetic conditions; lifestyle influences like smoking and drinking are not considered. Methods Skin incisions will be created on 20 nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and IL-2 topical cream will be applied in a 10-week study to prove the hypothesis. Mice will be randomly and equally divide into two groups with one being the control group. Results T1DM patients have a decreased number of T regulatory (Treg) cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2). These are the keys to the disease progression and delay in wound healing. Diabetic ulcer is a chronic wound and characterized by a prolonged inflammatory phase. Conclusions If the experiment is successful, T1DM patients will have an alternative, noninvasive treatment of foot ulcers. In theory, patients with other autoimmune diseases could also use IL-2 topical cream for treatment. PMID:26276522

  14. Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Therapy: A Driver of an Imbalance between Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kosmaczewska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) is a characteristic of autoimmune diseases, and is dependent on homeostatic cytokines, including IL-2. Actually, inherent defects in the IL-2 signaling pathway and/or levels leading to Treg compromised function and numbers as well as Th17 expansion have been attributed to autoimmune disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In particular, we highlight the impact of the dysregulated IL-2 pathway on disruption of the Treg/Th17 balance, reversal of which appears to be a possible mechanism of the low-dose IL-2 treatment. The negative effects of IL-2 on the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and pathogenic Th17 cells, both of which contribute to autoimmunity, is emphasized in the paper as well. We also compare the current IL-2-based therapies of animal and human subjects with immune-mediated diseases aimed at boosting the Treg population, which is the most IL-2-dependent cell subset desirable for sufficient control of autoimmunity. New perspectives of therapeutic approaches focused on selective delivery of IL-2 to inflamed tissues, thus allowing local activity of IL-2 to be combined with its reduced systemic and pleiotropic toxicity, are also proposed in this paper. PMID:25322151

  15. Use of recombinant interleukin-2 to enhance adoptive transfer of resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    PubMed Central

    Haak-Frendscho, M; Czuprynski, C J

    1992-01-01

    In vitro incubation of Listeria-immune spleen cells (LISC) with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) for at least 3 days increased their ability to transfer antilisteria resistance to recipient mice. This effect was blocked by the in vitro addition of transforming growth factor beta 1. The level of protection afforded by the transfer of rIL-2-incubated LISC was further elevated by the in vivo administration of rIL-2 at a dose that by itself did not significantly increase antilisteria resistance. The antilisteria resistance of recipient mice remained elevated for approximately 7 days and then rapidly declined to undetectable levels by 10 days. After cell transfer, recipient mice were protected against challenge with Listeria monocytogenes but not Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Streptococcus pyogenes. Flow cytometric analyses revealed an increase in the percentages of CD8+, NK+, and gamma delta T cell receptor+ cells but no change in the percentage of CD4+ cells as a result of LISC coculturing with rIL-2. In vitro depletion of CD4+ cells just prior to transfer had no significant effect on the adoptive transfer of resistance; depletion of CD8+ cells reduced the level of resistance by approximately 25%. Combined depletion of Thy-1.2+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells just prior to adoptive transfer diminished the level of protection in the spleens but not the livers of recipient mice. These data suggest that rIL-2 can be used to augment adoptive immunotherapy for bacterial infection in a manner similar to adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer patients. Although the protective cell population was not definitively identified, it appeared to be independent of CD4+ cells and only partly dependent on CD8+ cells. PMID:1548066

  16. Interleukin-2-induces development of denditric cells from cord blood CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Bykovskaja, S N; Buffo, M J; Bunker, M; Zhang, H; Majors, A; Herbert, M; Lokshin, A; Levitt, M L; Jaja, A; Scalise, D; Kosiban, D; Evans, C; Marks, S; Shogan, J

    1998-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to develop along a myeloid or lymphoid lineage of differentiation propagated from bone marrow or early thymic precursor cells with hematopoietic cytokines. In our study, we have induced growth and differentiation of DC from cord blood CD34+ cells initiated in interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone or in IL-2 + stem cell factor (SCF) + tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-supplemented medium and cultured with IL-2 or IL-2 + SCF for 28-35 days. Dendritic morphology and antigenic phenotype of DC grown with IL-2 were characteristic for DC cultured in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Growth and differentiation of DC was followed by an increase in expression of MHC II and co-stimulating molecules CD80 and CD86. We have also shown the expression of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) gamma-chain in CD34+ cells after 2-3 days of culture with IL-2 alone. The co-expression of the IL-2R alpha, beta, and gamma subunits in both DC cultured with IL-2- or GM-CSF-containing cocktail of cytokines was also shown. The time curve for induction of IL-2R demonstrated low levels of subunit expression at the beginning of culture. The number of CD1a cells co-expressing CD25, CD122, and CDgamma increased to about 24-68 and to 78-95% after 21 and 28-35 days, respectively. Development of natural killer cells was shown along with DC. The proportion of CD56+ cells and cytotoxicity increased in a time-dependent manner. PMID:9581807

  17. Immunotherapy with Canarypox Vaccine and Interleukin-2 for HIV-1 Infection: Termination of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kendall A; Andjelic, Sofija; Popmihajlov, Zoran; Kelly-Rossini, Liza; Sass, Aquanette; Lesser, Martin; Benkert, Steven; Waters, Cory; Ruitenberg, Joyce; Bellman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether immunotherapy of chronic HIV-1 infection can prevent or attenuate viremia upon antiviral discontinuation. Design: This was a Phase II randomized, partially double blinded, 2×2 factorial study of three steps of 12 wk/step. Step I involved four groups: (1) vaccine placebo, (2) vaccine (ALVAC, vCP1452), (3) placebo + interleukin 2 (IL-2), and (4) vaccine + IL-2. Step II involved a 12-wk diagnostic treatment interruption (DTI). Step III involved an extension of the DTI for an additional 12 wk. Setting: The Weill-Cornell General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Chronically infected HIV-1 positive adults with undetectable HIV-1 levels and > 400 CD4+ T cells/μl. Interventions An HIV canarypox vaccine (vCP1452) and vaccine placebo, administered every 4 wk for four doses, and low-dose IL-2 administered daily for 12–24 wk. Outcome measures: Primary endpoints: (1) Proportion of participants with undetectable plasma HIV RNA during trial Step II, (2) mean log10 HIV RNA copies/ml ([HIV]) from weeks 21–25, and (3) proportion of individuals eligible for trial Step III. Results: 44 participants were randomized, but 16 withdrew or were withdrawn before completing Step II. As all participants underwent viral relapse in Step II, the study was terminated after 28 participants completed Step II. Among the four groups, there was no difference in mean [HIV] or the proportion of individuals with < log10 4.48 HIV; no difference between the mean [HIV] of the two groups that received ALVAC (n = 17) versus placebo (n = 11); and no significant difference between the mean [HIV] of the two groups that received IL-2 (n = 11) versus placebo (n = 17). Conclusions: Neither ALVAC (vCP1452) nor low-dose daily IL-2 nor their combination prevented the relapse of viremia upon discontinuation of antiviral therapy. PMID:17260026

  18. Cyclotides Suppress Human T-Lymphocyte Proliferation by an Interleukin 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gründemann, Carsten; Thell, Kathrin; Lengen, Karin; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huber, Roman; Craik, David J.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are a diverse and abundant group of ribosomally synthesized plant peptides containing a unique cyclic cystine-knotted topology that confers them with remarkable stability. Kalata B1, a representative member of this family of mini-proteins, has been found to inhibit the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of T-cell proliferation upon treatment with chemically synthesized kalata B1 mutants revealed a region comprising inter-cysteine loops 1 and 2 of the cyclotide framework to be important for biological activity. Cytokine signaling analysis using an ‘active’ kalata B1 mutant [T20K], and the reference drug cyclosporin A (CsA) demonstrated that treatment of activated T-lymphocytes with these compounds decreased the expression of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) surface receptor as well as IL-2 cytokine secretion and IL-2 gene expression, whereas the ‘inactive’ kalata B1 mutant [V10K] did not cause any effects. The anti-proliferative activity of [T20K] kalata B1 was antagonized by addition of exogenous IL-2. Furthermore, treatment with [T20K] kalata B1 led to an initial reduction of the effector function, as indicated by the reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, but the levels of both cytokines stabilized over time and returned to their normal levels. On the other hand, the degranulation activity remained reduced. This indicated that cyclotides interfere with T-cell polyfunctionality and arrest the proliferation of immune-competent cells through inhibiting IL-2 biology at more than one site. The results open new avenues to utilize native and synthetically-optimized cyclotides for applications in immune-related disorders and as immunosuppressant peptides. PMID:23840803

  19. Exploiting a natural conformational switch to engineer an Interleukin-2 superkine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Aron M.; Bates, Darren L.; Ring, Aaron M.; Krieg, Carsten; Lin, Jack T.; Su, Leon; Moraga, Ignacio L.; Raeber, Miro E.; Bowman, Gregory R.; Novick, Paul; Pande, Vijay S.; Fathman, C. Garrison; Boyman, Onur; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a growth factor for a wide range of leukocytes, including T cells and natural killer (NK) cells13. Considerable effort has been invested using IL-2 as a therapeutic agent for a variety of immune disorders ranging from AIDS to cancer. However, adverse effects have limited its use in the clinic. On activated T cells, IL-2 signals through a quaternary high affinity receptor complex consisting of IL-2, IL-2R? (termed CD25), IL-2R?, and ?c48. Nave T cells express only a low density of IL-2R? and ?c, and are therefore relatively insensitive to IL-2, but acquire sensitivity after CD25 expression, which captures the cytokine and presents it to IL-2R? and?c. Here, using in vitro evolution, we eliminated IL-2s functional requirement for CD25 expression by engineering an IL-2 superkine (termed super-2) with increased binding affinity for IL-2R?. Crystal structures of super-2 in free and receptor-bound forms showed that the evolved mutations are principally in the core of the cytokine, and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the evolved mutations stabilized IL-2, including a flexible helix in the IL-2R? binding site, into an optimized receptor-binding conformation resembling that when bound to CD25. The evolved mutations in super-2 recapitulated the functional role of CD25 by eliciting potent phosphorylation of STAT5 and vigorous proliferation T cells irrespective of CD25 expression. Compared to IL-2, super-2 induced superior expansion of cytotoxic T cells, leading to improved anti-tumor responses in vivo, and elicited proportionally less expansion of T regulatory cells and reduced pulmonary edema. Collectively, we show that in vitro evolution has mimicked the functional role of CD25 in enhancing IL-2 potency and regulating target cell specificity, which has implications for immunotherapy. PMID:22446627

  20. Rational interleukin 2 therapy for HIV positive individuals: daily low doses enhance immune function without toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, E L; Pilaro, F; Smith, K A

    1996-01-01

    When administered in high doses to HIV positive (HIV+) individuals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) causes extreme toxicity and markedly increases plasma HIV levels. Integration of the information from the structure-activity relationships of the IL-2 receptor interaction, the cellular distribution of the different classes of IL-2 receptors, and the pharmacokinetics of IL-2 provides for the rationale that low IL-2 doses should circumvent toxicity. Therefore, to identify a nontoxic, but effective and safe IL-2 treatment regimen that does not stimulate viral replication, doses of IL-2 from 62,500 to 250,000 IU/m2/day were administered subcutaneously for 6 months to 16 HIV+ individuals with 200-500 CD4+ T cells/mm3. IL-2 was already detectable in the plasma of most HIV+ individuals even before therapy. Peak plasma IL-2 levels were near saturating for high affinity IL-2 receptors in 10 individuals who received the maximum nontoxic dose, which ranged from 187,500 to 250,000 IU/m2/day. During the 6 months of treatment at this dose range, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines remained undetectable, and plasma HIV RNA levels did not change significantly. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens were markedly augmented, and there were IL-2 dose-dependent increases in circulating Natural Killer cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and CD4+ T cells. Expanded clinical trials of low dose IL-2 are now warranted, especially in combination with effective antivirals to test for the prevention of immunodeficiency and the emergence of drug-resistant mutants and for the eradication of residual virions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8816813

  1. Association between two interleukin-2 gene polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Xiuxiu; Huang, Junjie; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Shi, Jizhou; Lu, Wei; Lv, Zhaojie; Mei, Hongbing; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have illustrated that polymorphisms in interleukin-2 (IL-2) were associated with diverse cancer types. However, recently published statistics were inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, the current meta-analysis was performed to elaborate the effects of IL-2 polymorphisms (rs2069762 and rs2069763) on cancer susceptibility. Material and methods A total of 5,601 cancer cases and 7,809 controls from 21 published case–control studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between IL-2 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results Our study demonstrated an increased susceptibility to cancer in rs2069762 (G vs T: OR =1.268, 95% CI =1.113–1.445; GG vs TT: OR =1.801, 95% CI =1.289–2.516; GT vs TT: OR =1.250, 95% CI =1.061–1.473; GG + GT vs TT: OR =1.329, 95% CI =1.118–1.579; GG vs GT + TT: OR =1.536, 95% CI =1.162–2.030). In the subgroup analysis, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the hospital-based group and PHWE<0.05 (P-value of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium [HWE]) group. In addition, a positive association with cancer susceptibility was observed among both Chinese and non-Chinese. However, no relationship was detected between the rs2069763 polymorphism of IL-2 and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion To conclude, rs2069762 polymorphism of IL-2 contributed to an increased susceptibility to cancer, whereas no association was identified between rs2069763 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. Further detailed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27143914

  2. Antigen-specific suppressor T cells respond to recombinant interleukin-2 and other lymphokines.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C E; Fauntleroy, M B; Stashak, P W; Baker, P J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transfer of whole spleen cell populations obtained from primed donors or transfer of purified T cells enriched for suppressor activity (Ts) to recipient mice decreased the antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide type III (SSS-III) when the animals were simultaneously immunized with SSS-III. In the present studies, such suppression of the antibody response was transferred with 10- to 100-fold fewer primed spleen cells when the cells were treated in vitro with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) before transfer; spleen cells from naive mice or mice primed with an unrelated antigen (dextran) and then treated with rIL-2 did not cause suppression of the antibody response to SSS-III, thereby eliminating the possibility of nonspecific carryover effects induced by rIL-2. In vivo administration of rIL-2 at the time of immunization with an optimally immunogenic dose of SSS-III resulted in significant (P less than 0.05) suppression of the antibody response relative to that of control animals, suggesting that IL-2 augments the clonal expansion of Ts cells in vivo. Further, the ability of passively administered anti-IL-2 receptor antibody to inhibit generation of Ts cells in vivo is consistent with such a view. Spleen cells from primed animals treated with rIL-4, rIL-5, or gamma interferon--but not those from primed animals treated with rIL-6--likewise were able to transfer suppression of the antibody response with fewer cells than those required when primed cells not treated with lymphokines were used. Thus, these studies indicate that Ts cell activity is greatly influenced by lymphokines produced by helper T cells. The studies also suggest that these lymphokines are required during activation and/or clonal expansion of Ts cells. PMID:1824762

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during chronic central administration of interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Hanisch, U K; Rowe, W; Sharma, S; Meaney, M J; Quirion, R

    1994-12-01

    The cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) exerts numerous effects within the immune as well as the central nervous system and is thought to serve as a humoral signal in their communication. Brain-derived or blood-borne IL-2 may also control the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at various levels of regulation. In this study we investigated whether persistently elevated levels of central IL-2, which are associated with several diseases or induced during immunotherapeutic use of this cytokine, could induce long term activation of the HPA axis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an intracerebroventricular infusion of the recombinant cytokine at a rate of 5 U/h (equivalent to 2.5 ng/h or 162 fmol/h) by means of osmotic minipumps. Control animals received heat-inactivated IL-2. After 7 days of continuous infusion, blood samples were taken at intervals of 4 h over a period of 24 h, and plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) were determined. IL-2 caused a significant increase in ACTH levels during the later portion of the dark phase of the cycle. Plasma CORT concentrations were significantly elevated over almost the whole diurnal cycle. Measurements of CORT-binding globulin concentrations revealed IL-2-induced decreases during the dark phase, resulting in a marked increase in free CORT. Additionally, after 11 days of chronic infusion, both groups of animals underwent a 20-min restraint stress. IL-2-treated animals showed stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH and CORT that were not significantly different from those of animals treated with heat-inactivated IL-2. Along with the alteration of HPA activity seen in the IL-2-treated animals, chronic delivery of the cytokine caused periventricular tissue damage and gliosis. Taken together, the data reflect the capacity of IL-2 to modulate neuroendocrine activity over an extended period of treatment. Moreover, the IL-2-induced effects on HPA activity seen here may help to explain some of the endocrine disturbances seen in patients undergoing IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:7988433

  4. Regulation of interleukin-2 signaling by fatty acids in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Gorjão, Renata; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; de Lima, Thaís Martins; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Curi, Rui

    2007-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic (DHA; C22:6 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA; C20:5 n-3), palmitic (PA; C16:0), and stearic (SA; C18:0) acids decrease lymphocyte proliferation in concentrations of >50 muM, as observed in our previous study. However, oleic acid (OA; C18:1 n-9) and linoleic acid (LA; C18:2 n-6) increase lymphocyte proliferation at 25 muM. In this study, the effect of these FAs on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling pathway in human lymphocytes was investigated. Cells were isolated from heparinized venous blood of healthy human donors by density-gradient sedimentation. Cells were stimulated with 5 mug/ml concanavalin A and treated with FAs in the absence or presence of IL-2 for 1 hour. CD25-alpha externalization was analyzed by flow cytometry, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), JAK3, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, Akt, and protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blotting. The expression of CD25-alpha at the cell surface was increased by DHA, SA, and PA but was unaffected by EPA, OA, and LA. PA, SA, DHA, and EPA decreased JAK1, JAK3, STAT5, and Akt phosphorylation induced by IL-2, but OA and LA did not cause any effect. OA and LA increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas the other FAs caused a marked decrease. PKC-zeta phosphorylation was decreased by OA and LA and was not altered by the remaining FAs. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of PA, SA, DHA, and EPA on lymphocyte proliferation observed in our previous study was attributable to a decrease in JAK/STAT, ERK, and Akt pathways activated by IL-2. Probably, OA and LA stimulated lymphocyte proliferation by increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation through PKC-zeta activation. The inhibition of JAK1, JAK3, STAT5, ERK1/2, and Akt phosphorylation caused by DHA, SA, and PA is associated with an alteration of CD25 expression at the cell surface. PMID:17592174

  5. Construction, replication, and immunogenic properties of a simian immunodeficiency virus expressing interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Gundlach, B R; Linhart, H; Dittmer, U; Sopper, S; Reiprich, S; Fuchs, D; Fleckenstein, B; Hunsmann, G; Stahl-Hennig, C; Uberla, K

    1997-01-01

    To study the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity, we replaced the nef gene of SIVmac239 by the IL-2 coding region. The virus, designated SIV-IL2, stably expressed high levels of IL-2 in cell culture. In comparison to SIVmac239, SIV-IL2 replicated more efficiently in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of exogenously added IL-2. To determine whether this growth advantage would be of relevance in vivo, four juvenile rhesus monkeys were infected with SIV-IL2 and four monkeys were infected with a nef deletion mutant of SIV (SIVdeltaNU). After a peak in the cell-associated viral load 2 weeks postinfection, the viruses could barely be isolated 3 to 7 months postinfection. Mean capsid antigen levels were higher in the SIV-IL2 group than in the nef deletion group 2 weeks postinfection. Viruses reisolated from the SIV-IL2-infected animals expressed high levels of IL-2 during the acute phase of infection. Deletions in the IL-2 coding region of SIV-IL2 were observed in two of the SIV-IL2-infected macaques 3 months postinfection. Urinary neopterin levels, a marker for unspecific immune stimulation, were higher in the SIV-IL2-infected macaques than in SIVdeltaNU-infected animals during the acute phase of infection. The SIV-specific T-cell-proliferative response and antibody titers were similar in both groups. Cytotoxic T cells directed against viral antigens were detected in all SIV-IL2-infected macaques and in two of the SIVdeltaNU-infected animals. Expression of IL-2 did not seem to alter the attenuated phenotype of nef deletion mutants fundamentally, although there might have been a slight increase in virus replication and immune stimulation during the acute phase of infection. Deletion of the viral IL-2 gene 3 months postinfection could be a consequence of a selective disadvantage due to local coexpression of viral antigen and IL-2 in the presence of an antiviral immune response. PMID:9032357

  6. The Association of -475 and -631 Interleukin-2 Gene Polymorphism with Multiple Sclerosis in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sayad, Aida; Allameh, Abdolamir; Sayad, Arezou; Noruzinia, Mehrdad; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Sarzaeem, Ali; Akbar, Akbari; Haji Hoseini, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease due to demyelination of the central nervous system. It is believed that cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The interleukin-2 (IL2) gene is powerful functional candidate that is involved in immune regulation and operation. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the effect of -475 A/T and -631 G/A IL2 polymorphisms on MS disease in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 100 MS patients (mean age: 32.95 ± 6.51 years, age range: 20-42 years) selected according to McDonald criteria, and 100 ethnically, sex and age matched healthy controls (mean age: 29 ± 7.8 years, age range: 20-52 years) with no personal or family history of autoimmune diseases were studied. The restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method was applied to define different alleles and genotypes of IL2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism -475 A/T as well as -631 G/A among individuals. χ2 was calculated and Fisher’s exact test was applied to analyze the obtained data. The value of p < 0.05 was considered significantly . Results: Evaluation of the -475 IL2 revealed that T allele and A/T genotype are present in 2% and 4% of MS patients, respectively, whereas T allele was absent in control samples. The comparison between alleles and genotypes in MS patients and healthy controls was not significant (p=0.1). For the -631 position, 1% and 2% of MS patients carried A allele and A/G heterozygote genotypes, respectively. All control samples had G allele and G/G genotype. The differences between patients and controls were not significant (p=0.4). Moreover, our results showed a very low frequency of T at -475 and A at -631 IL2 position in each of the two groups. Conclusion: Both -475 and -631 IL2 polymorphisms were higher in MS patients as compared to controls, but the frequency differences were not significant. Based on these data, it is suggested that the -475 and -631 IL2 polymorphisms as functional promoter position may be involved in IL2 expression and regulation. To find out the exact effect of the mentioned SNPs on susceptibility to MS, study on a larger sample size is suggested. PMID:23862113

  7. Impaired left ventricular filling rate induced by treatment with recombinant interleukin 2 for advanced cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, G.; Tresoldi, M.; Benti, R.; Vidal, M.; Marcatti, M.; Borri, A.; Besana, C.; Gerundini, P. P.; Rugarli, C.; Chierchia, S.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2) has been extensively used to treat cancer but its use has been hampered by serious side effects including severe hypotension, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE--To assess the effects of rIL 2 on human left ventricular function. METHODS--Left ventricular (LV) function was monitored in 22 patients (9 women, 13 men) (mean (SD) age 53 (10) years) undergoing a 120 h continuous intravenous infusion of rIL 2 (18 x 10(6) IU/m2/day) for melanoma (4), renal cell (16), ovarian (1), and colon cancer (1). Radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and 1 h after the end of treatment. Ejection fraction (EF), peak emptying rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR), and regional left ventricular wall motion were analysed. Heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), the electrocardiogram, and myocardial enzyme concentrations were monitored throughout the study. RESULTS--All variables (mean (SD)) were normal before rIL 2 was given. After rIL 2 administration HR increased significantly from 84 (11) to 125 (18) beats/min (p < 0.0001), SBP fell from 128 (11) to 100 (9) mmHg (p < 0.001) and DBP from 76 (9) to 65 (7) mmHg (p < 0.0001). CVP decreased from 3.70 (3.2) to 1.30 (0.45) cm H2O (p < 0.001). EF (65 (7) to 64 (8%) and PER (3.56 (0.60) to 3.86 (0.83) EDV/s) did not change significantly. PFR decreased significantly at the end of the rIL 2 infusion from 2.68 (0.46) to 2.37 (0.43) EDV/s (p < 0.01). Left ventricular segmental hypokinesia developed in 6 patients. Myocardial enzyme concentrations remained normal throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this study confirmed that rIL 2 produces important haemodynamic changes, predominantly related to decreased systemic resistance. However, the observed reduction in PFR in most patients suggested that rIL 2 might exert its action at the level of the heart muscle itself. The localised systolic dysfunction in some patients suggested that rIL 2 might also adversely affect myocardial perfusion. PMID:8130026

  8. Intrapleural administration of interleukin 2 in pleural mesothelioma: a phase I-II study.

    PubMed Central

    Goey, S. H.; Eggermont, A. M.; Punt, C. J.; Slingerland, R.; Gratama, J. W.; Oosterom, R.; Oskam, R.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Stoter, G.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with pleural mesothelioma stage I-IIA were entered in a study of continuous daily intrapleural infusion of interleukin 2 (IL-2) for 14 days, repeated every 4 weeks. IL-2 was administered according to a groupwise dose escalation schedule (group A, 3 x 10(4); group B, 3 x 10(5); group C, 3 x 10(6); group D, 6 x 10(6); group E, 18 x 10(6); and group F, 36 x 10(6) IU day-1). Each group consisted of at least three patients. Intrapleural administration of IL-2 was associated with acceptable toxicity. All patients were treated on an outpatient basis except for the patients at dose levels E and F. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed at level F, 36 x 10(6) IU daily, and consisted of catheter infection, fever and flu-like symptoms. Intrapleural IL-2 levels were high (> 20,000 IU ml-1) at levels E and F, while serum levels in most patients were not or barely detectable (< 3-30 IU ml-1). Intrapleural IL-2 levels were up to 6000-fold higher than systemic levels. Intrapleural tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels varied greatly and did not correlate with IL-2 dosage. Intrapleural mononuclear cells (MNCs) displayed IL-2-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity in all patients. Two patients were not evaluable for response owing to catheter-related problems which precluded the delivery of IL-2. Partial response (PR) occurred in 4 of 21 evaluable patients (19%; 95% confidence interval 5-42%) with a median time to progression of 12 months (range 5-37). Stable disease (SD) occurred in seven patients with a median time to progression of 5 months (range 2-7). There were no complete responses (CRs). The median overall survival was 15.6 months (range 3.0-43). No relationship between the dose of IL-2 and response rate was observed. We conclude that IL-2 given intrapleurally is accompanied with acceptable toxicity and has anti-tumour activity against mesothelioma. In view of the refractory nature of the disease IL-2 may be a treatment option for mesothelioma. A formal phase II study is warranted. Based on the observed toxicity, the lack of dose-response relationship and the immunomodulatory effects seen at relatively low-dose IL-2, the recommended dose for a phase II study is 3 x 10(6) IU day-1 using the present treatment schedule. Images Figure 1 PMID:7577483

  9. Role of CD4 molecule in the induction of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2 receptor in class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen-specific T helper clones. T cell receptor/CD3 complex transmits CD4-dependent and CD4-independent signals.

    PubMed Central

    Oyaizu, N; Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S

    1992-01-01

    The CD4 molecule plays an essential role in antigen-induced activation of T helper (Th) cells, but its contribution to signal transduction events resulting in physiologic T cell function is ill defined. By utilizing anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize distinct epitopes of CD4, we have investigated the role of CD4 molecule in antigen-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha chain expression in class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen-specific human Th clones. Pretreatment of the Th clones with Leu3a resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of antigen-induced proliferative responses, inositol phosphate accumulation, increase in free cytoplasmic calcium ions ([Ca2+]i), IL-2 mRNA accumulation, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression. IL-2R mRNA accumulation, however, was unaffected even at highest Leu3a concentrations. Leu3a treatment did not affect bypass activation of T cells with PMA plus ionomycin or activation via CD2 molecule. The MAb OKT4, which binds another domain of CD4, was not inhibitory. These results suggest that after T cell antigen receptor-CD3 activation, IL-2 gene induction, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression are absolutely dependent upon participation of CD4 molecules, phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, and increase in [Ca2+]i. The requirement for IL-2R gene induction, however, occurs independently of CD4 molecule participation and PI hydrolysis. Images PMID:1534818

  10. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PrOOH did not change either between baseline measures or after exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. PMID:21665113

  11. Cyclosporine inhibits expression of receptors for interleukin 2 and transferrin on mitogen-activated human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    John, J.K.; Prince, H.E.

    1986-03-05

    Cyclosporine (CyS) has been shown to inhibit activation of human T lymphocytes. A cascade of interactions involving Interleukin 2 (IL2), Interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) and transferrin receptor (TR) is necessary for activation. In studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy donors, the authors measured the expression of IL2 and TR (using receptor-specific monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry) and DNA synthesis (/sup 3/-thymidine incorporation) in response to PHA, OKT3, Leu 4 or Con A. In the presence of CyS (0.5 ..mu..g/ml) expression of IL2R and TR as well as DNA synthesis were markedly reduced. Upon serial dilutions of CyS, changes in DNA synthesis in response to OKT3 reflected changes in IL2R and TR levels, indicating all 3 parameters may be interrelated. Addition of exogenous IL2 partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of CyS on these activation parameters in response to PHA, OKT3 and Leu 4 but not to Con A. The authors results suggest that CyS is an effective inhibitor of mitogen-induced expression of IL2R and TR and that exogenous IL2 partially reverses this inhibitory effect.

  12. NF45/ILF2 tissue expression, promoter analysis, and interleukin-2 transactivating function

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Guohua; Shi Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Hu Hong; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2005-05-01

    NF45/ILF2 associates with NF90/ILF3 in the nucleus and regulates IL-2 gene transcription at the antigen receptor response element (ARRE)/NF-AT DNA target sequence (P.N. Kao, L. Chen, G. Brock, J. Ng, A.J. Smith, B. Corthesy, J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 20691-20699). NF45 is widely expressed in normal tissues, especially testis, brain, and kidney, with a predominantly nuclear distribution. NF45 mRNA expression is increased in lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. The human and murine NF45 proteins differ only by substitution of valine by isoleucine at amino acid 142. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human NF45 gene to chromosome 1q21.3, and mouse NF45 gene to chromosome 3F1. Promoter analysis of 2.5 kB of the murine NF45 gene reveals that significant activation is conferred by factors, possible including NF-Y, that bind to the CCAAT-box sequence. The function of human NF45 in regulating IL-2 gene expression was characterized in Jurkat T-cells stably transfected with plasmids directing expression of NF45 cDNA in sense or antisense orientations. NF45 sense expression increased IL-2 luciferase reporter gene activity 120-fold, and IL-2 protein expression 2-fold compared to control cells. NF45 is a highly conserved, regulated transcriptional activator, and one target gene is IL-2.

  13. Final report of a phase II study of interleukin 2 and interferon alpha in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kruit, W. H.; Goey, S. H.; Calabresi, F.; Lindemann, A.; Stahel, R. A.; Poliwoda, H.; Osterwalder, B.; Stoter, G.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty-seven patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) 7.8 MIU m-2 day-1 as a continuous infusion for 4 days combined with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) 6 MIU m-2 day-1 subcutaneously on days 1 and 4. The cycle was repeated every 2 weeks for a maximum number of 13 cycles. Of the 51 evaluable patients, one (2%) achieved a complete and seven (14%) a partial response (total response rate 16%; CI 7-29%). Median time to progression and median survival were 2.5 and 11.3 months respectively. This regimen of IL-2 and IFN-alpha appeared to be only moderately active. PMID:7779731

  14. Phytohemagglutinin induced proliferation by aged lymphocytes: reduced expression of high affinity interluekin-2 receptors and interleukin-2 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, C.J.; Burkett, J.S.; Guiffaut, S.; Kingsland, R.; Brauner, D.

    1988-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from elderly and young donors were cultured with phytohemagglutinin. Cultures from two groups of aged donors, recruited respectively from the authors ambulatory clinic and a nursing home, incorporated less tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) and secreted less interleukin-2 than did young donors. Furthermore, as determined for the first time by a radioligand binding receptor assay, the aged lymphoblasts possessed significantly fewer high affinity IL-2 receptors per cell. Despite a decrease in the number of high affinity receptor cells the dissociation constant (Kd) was comparable for the three groups. It was also shown that the amounts of soluble IL-2 receptors that were released into the supernatants by mitogen stimulated cells did not differ for the aged and young donors. These data suggest that defects in IL-2 production and high affinity IL-2 receptor generation may both be responsible for immune deficiency in the elderly.

  15. Intratumoral Injection of an Adenovirus Expressing Interleukin 2 Induces Regression and Immunity in a Murine Breast Cancer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, Christina L.; Braciak, Todd; Ralston, Robert; Muller, William J.; Gauldie, Jack; Graham, Frank L.

    1995-08-01

    Rodent tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 are rejected by syngeneic recipients due to an enhanced antitumor host immune response. An adenovirus vector (AdCAIL-2) containing the human IL-2 gene has been constructed and shown to direct secretion of high levels of human IL-2 in infected tumor cells. AdCAIL-2 induces regression of tumors in a transgenic mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma following intratumoral injection. Elimination of existing tumors in this way results in immunity against a second challenge with tumor cells. These findings suggest that adenovirus vectors expressing cytokines may form the basis for highly effective immunotherapies of human cancers.

  16. Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus expressing interleukin 2 induces regression and immunity in a murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Addison, C L; Braciak, T; Ralston, R; Muller, W J; Gauldie, J; Graham, F L

    1995-01-01

    Rodent tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 are rejected by syngeneic recipients due to an enhanced antitumor host immune response. An adenovirus vector (AdCAIL-2) containing the human IL-2 gene has been constructed and shown to direct secretion of high levels of human IL-2 in infected tumor cells. AdCAIL-2 induces regression of tumors in a transgenic mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma following intratumoral injection. Elimination of existing tumors in this way results in immunity against a second challenge with tumor cells. These findings suggest that adenovirus vectors expressing cytokines may form the basis for highly effective immunotherapies of human cancers. PMID:7667323

  17. Interleukin-2-mediated inhibition of dendritic cell development correlates with decreased CD135 expression and increased monocyte/macrophage precursors

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Alan D; Dong, Matthew B; Zhao, Yongge; Lau-Kilby, Annie; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) development from mouse bone marrow (BM) precursors stimulated with the ligand for FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt3L), and have provided evidence that this inhibition occurs at the monocyte DC precursor stage of DC development. Here, we explored the mechanism of IL-2-mediated inhibition of DC development. First, we showed that these in vitro cultures accurately model DCs that develop in vivo by comparing gene and protein expression of the three main Flt3L-induced DC subsets from the BM, CD11b+ and CD24+ conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) with their respective ex vivo spleen DC subsets (CD11b+, CD8+ and pDCs). Next, gene expression changes were quantified in Flt3L DC subsets that developed in the presence of IL-2. These changes included increased expression of Bcl2l11, which encodes the apoptosis-inducing protein Bim, and decreased expression of Flt3 (CD135), the receptor that initiates DC development. Interleukin-2 also significantly reduced Flt3 protein expression on all three Flt3L DC subsets, and attenuated Flt3L-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in DCs. Based on these data, we hypothesized that decreased Flt3 signalling may divert BM precursors down monocyte and macrophage lineages. Indeed, addition of IL-2 led to increases in Flt3− cells, including cKit+ Ly6C+ CD11b− populations consistent with the recently identified committed monocyte/macrophage progenitor. Therefore, IL-2 can inhibit DC development via decreased signalling through Flt3 and increased monocyte/macrophage development. PMID:24954893

  18. Interleukin-2-mediated inhibition of dendritic cell development correlates with decreased CD135 expression and increased monocyte/macrophage precursors.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Alan D; Dong, Matthew B; Zhao, Yongge; Lau-Kilby, Annie; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that interleukin-2 (IL-2) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) development from mouse bone marrow (BM) precursors stimulated with the ligand for FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt3L), and have provided evidence that this inhibition occurs at the monocyte DC precursor stage of DC development. Here, we explored the mechanism of IL-2-mediated inhibition of DC development. First, we showed that these in vitro cultures accurately model DCs that develop in vivo by comparing gene and protein expression of the three main Flt3L-induced DC subsets from the BM, CD11b(+) and CD24(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) with their respective ex vivo spleen DC subsets (CD11b(+), CD8(+) and pDCs). Next, gene expression changes were quantified in Flt3L DC subsets that developed in the presence of IL-2. These changes included increased expression of Bcl2l11, which encodes the apoptosis-inducing protein Bim, and decreased expression of Flt3 (CD135), the receptor that initiates DC development. Interleukin-2 also significantly reduced Flt3 protein expression on all three Flt3L DC subsets, and attenuated Flt3L-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in DCs. Based on these data, we hypothesized that decreased Flt3 signalling may divert BM precursors down monocyte and macrophage lineages. Indeed, addition of IL-2 led to increases in Flt3(-) cells, including cKit(+) Ly6C(+) CD11b(-) populations consistent with the recently identified committed monocyte/macrophage progenitor. Therefore, IL-2 can inhibit DC development via decreased signalling through Flt3 and increased monocyte/macrophage development. PMID:24954893

  19. The role of interleukin 2 in the regulation of proliferation and IgM synthesis of human newborn mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Punnonen, J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of interleukin 2 (IL-2) on cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) was studied, with special reference to B cell function. The study shows that CBMCs proliferate in response to recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) without in-vitro preactivation. The response was also detected when whole blood cultures were used. CBMCs not preactivated in vitro proliferated in response to rIL-2 even after T cell and monocyte depletion. Thus, rIL-2 affects both non-T cells and T cells of newborns without preactivation in vitro. IL-2 receptors on unstimulated CBMCs appear to be distinct from Tac antigen, as the mean number of Tac antigen-positive cells among CBMCs was only 0.8%. Furthermore, rIL-2 inhibited PWM-induced proliferation and the response was more prominent in newborns than in adults. Thus, rIL-2 seems to cause a higher increase of suppressor cell function in CBMCs than in adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neither rIL-2 nor Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 (SAC) stimulated any IgM synthesis, but a dose-dependent IgM synthesis was obtained by combining SAC and rIL-2. Alone, however, rIL-2 appears to be an insufficient factor to induce differentiation of SAC-activated cord blood B cells, as no IgM production in response to rIL-2 occurred in T cell and monocyte-depleted cell populations. The results of this study suggest both increased suppressor cell function and intrinsic B cell deficiency as causes of a weak humoral immune response in newborns. PMID:2784745

  20. Formation of an active form of the interleukin-2/15 receptor beta-chain by insertion of the intracisternal A particle in a radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphoma and its role in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Hideki; Ishii-Oba, Hiroko; Ukai-Tadenuma, Maki; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Tsuji, Hideo

    2003-06-01

    Although many reports suggest that aberrant regulation of cytokine signaling pathways via the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) induces tumorigenic transformation, constitutively active IL-2R in tumors has not been reported. We searched for genomic alteration of the IL-2/15R beta-subunit gene (IL-2/15R beta) in cytokine-independent cell lines established from radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas. In the TL34 cell line and its primary tumor, one of the IL-2/15R beta alleles was rearranged by the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposon. The IAP-IL2/15R beta chimeric gene expressed chimeric mRNA in which IAP-coding Gag-Pol mRNA was fused to IL-2/15R beta mRNA and coded for Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric protein. Forced expression of the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric cDNA in a mouse cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL-2) converted IL-2-dependent cell growth to IL-2-independent growth, suggesting that the chimeric protein activates some of the IL-2 signaling pathways necessary for cell proliferation. Downregulation of the expression of the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta chimeric protein in TL34 by antisense RNA inhibited cell growth, and concomitantly reduced the level of c-myc protein. These results suggest that the Gag-Pol-IL-2/15R beta is a constitutively active form that transmits proliferative signals by expressing downstream target genes, including c-myc. Thus, we demonstrated that the chimeric receptor gene produced by the insertion of an IAP functions as an oncogene by providing IL-2-independent autonomous growth potential. PMID:12766910

  1. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  2. Unfractionated human thymocytes have a lower proliferative capacity than CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ ones but have a similar capacity for expression of interleukin 2 receptors and production of interleukin 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vives, J.; Sole, J.; Suarez, B.

    1987-12-01

    CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ and unfractionated thymocytes were compared for their capacity to proliferate, to express interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, and to secrete IL-2. Phorbol ester and Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore were used as mitogens. CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ thymocytes responded vigorously when stimulated with phorbol ester in the presence of IL-2 or in combination with Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore. In contrast, unfractionated thymocytes responded weakly when stimulated with either of these mitogens. Surprisingly, however, the stimulation of these populations with either phorbol ester plus IL-2 or phorbol ester plus ionophore induced a high and similar level of IL-2 receptor expression in both thymocyte populations. A similar level of IL-2 secretion in both populations was also obtained when they were stimulated with a combination of phorbol ester plus ionophere. These results suggest that during the maturation process, the majority of thymocytes lose their capacity to be activated by some mitogens, although they maintain their capacity to secrete IL-2 and to express the IL-2 receptor.

  3. Functional impairment of natural killer cells in active ulcerative colitis: reversion of the defective natural killer activity by interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, L; Alvarez-Mon, M; Abreu, L; Antonio Vargas, J; de la Morena, E; Corugedo, F; Duràntez, A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the functional characteristics and clinical importance of the natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with ulcerative colitis. Normal NK activity was observed in PBMNC from patients with inactive disease, but a pronounced decrease was found in those with active disease. Clinical change from active to inactive disease was associated with enhancement of the depressed NK activity. The impairment of NK cytotoxicity found in patients with active disese could not be ascribed to a deficient number of NK cells as the amounts of HNK-1+, CD16+ (Leu 11), and CD11b (OKM1) cells in PBMNC were within normal ranges. This defective cytotoxic PBMNC activity was normalised by short term (18 hour) incubation with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2). Moreover, long term (5 day) incubation of these effector cells with rIL-2 induced strong cytotoxic activity against NK resistant and NK sensitive target cells in patients with active and inactive disease. We also found that both precursors and effectors of cytotoxic activity promoted by short term and long term incubation with rIL-2 of PBMNC from the patients showed the phenotype of NK cells (CD16+, CD3-). Taken together, these results show that active ulcerative colitis is associated with a defective function of NK cells that is found to be normal in the inactive stage of the disease. The possible pathogenic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1541421

  4. Enumeration of human alloreactive helper T lymphocyte precursor frequencies by limiting dilution analysis of interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Young, N T; Roelen, D L; Dallman, M J; Wood, K J; Morris, P J; Welsh, K I

    1996-09-01

    We describe a limiting dilution assay for the enumeration of alloreactive interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursors (HTLp). In place of the commonly used CTLL cell line, we have employed concanvalin A (ConA) stimulated rat thymocytes as IL-2 responsive indicator cells in a proliferation assay to detect IL-2 levels in limiting dilution microculture supernatants. The proliferation of ConA stimulated thymocytes induced by either recombinant IL-2 or culture supernatants could be blocked by co-incubation with a monoclonal antibody against the rat IL-2 receptor alpha chain, demonstrating the specificity of the response. Our investigations of alloantigen-induced IL-2 production show that (i) a minimum stimulator cell irradiation dose of 50-60 Gy is required to prevent backstimulation of microcultures; (ii) frequencies of alloreactive HTLp are significantly associated with HLA-DR antigen matching between responder and stimulator; (iii) HTLp frequencies detected in assays using B lymphoblastoid cell line stimulators are significantly higher than in assays employing peripheral blood lymphocyte stimulators but possibly reflect a degree of non-specific activation; and (iv) allosensitized responders exhibit altered kinetics of IL-2 production which may permit discrimination between sensitized and naive individuals. Our results both confirm and extend previous reports concerning such features of the alloresponse in humans and demonstrate that ConA stimulated thymocytes are a suitable alternative to CTLL as IL-2 responsive indicator cells in limiting dilution assays for HTLp analysis. PMID:8814317

  5. Treatment of Walker ascites tumor cells by combination of photodynamic therapy with cyclophosphamide and interleukin-2 entrapped in liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Ionescu, Mircea D.; Balotescu, Carmen; Dima, V. S.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial and adverse local effects of PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy on rats bearing Walker ascites tumor cells. Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with ascites tumor cells receiving intraperitoneally PDT (Photofrin II and 18 hrs later HeNe laser irradiation); Cyclophosphamide (CY); interleukin-2 (IL-2) or associated therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2). The control batch consisted of untreated rats (HBSS). The following results were noticed: (a) sole administration of PDT, IL-2 or CY reduced tumor growth, gave survival rates between 28.4 and 56.5% and cure rates ranging from 12.4 to 33.3%; (b) combined therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2) decreased tumor growth, increased survival rates (88.5%) and cure rates were 73.1% forty-two days post-transplantation. Summing up, in this study we noticed that PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy reduced mortality as well as tumor volumes and increased cure rates in rats with ascites tumor cells. This approach points to the need for further evaluation in patients with peritoneal malignancies.

  6. Respective contribution of intracellular calcium release and extracellular calcium influx for interleukin-2 synthesis in activated T-cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D B; Perera, M A; Dorrington, K J; Klein, M H

    1990-01-01

    Triggering of the T-cell receptor (TcR)alpha beta/CD3 receptor complex with anti-allotypic antibodies or concanavalin A (Con A) induced a rapid release of intracellular calcium in a murine T-cell hybridoma model system. Internal calcium release preceded the influx of extracellular calcium, as judged by comparative analysis of time-dependent changes in Quin 2 fluorescence following T-cell activation in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium. The magnitude of intracellular calcium release and extracellular calcium influx depended on the degree of receptor-occupancy and cross-linking. Correlations between the concentration of stimulating ligand, cytosolic calcium increase and IL-2 synthesis indicated a positive but non-linear relationship. Our data suggest that TcR cross-linking may provide a third T-cell activation signal which, in conjunction with protein kinase C activation and cytosolic calcium elevation, together form a signal triad responsible for interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis. PMID:2312169

  7. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-..beta.. subunit (..beta..-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with /sup 3/H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or ..beta..-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 ..mu..g/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. ..beta..-CT, which binds to GM/sub 1/ and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation.

  8. Influence of immunomodulatory drugs on the cytotoxicity induced by monoclonal antibody 17-1A and interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Flieger, Dimitri; Varvenne, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Rolf; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

    2007-03-01

    Patients treated with monoclonal antibodies and cytokines for cancer receive often co-medication, which may influence treatment efficacy. Therefore, we investigated with a flowcytometric cytotoxicity assay the effect of several immunomodulatory drugs on antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), interleukin-2 (IL-2) induced cytotoxicity and IL-2-induced-ADCC. We found that dexamethasone markedly inhibited the IL-2 induced cytotoxicity and the IL-2-induced-ADCC. Ondansetron, a 5-HT-3 serotonin receptor antagonist augmented significantly ADCC. Clemastine, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist augmented the IL-2-induced-ADCC. The TNF antagonist thalidomide suppressed ADCC whereas pentoxifylline proved to be ineffective. Other tested drugs namely ibuprofen and indomethacin, both prostaglandin E2 antagonists, cimetidine a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, the opioid pethidine, prostaglandin E2 and histamine exerted minor effects or had no influence on the tested parameters. We conclude that glucocorticosteroids should be avoided with monoclonal antibody and cytokine treatment. According to our in vitro data the other drugs tested did not have a negative impact on cellular cytotoxicity and ADCC. PMID:17562330

  9. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 production between species, between tissues, and between young and old individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.; Akagawa, T.; Anderson, D.G.; Makinodan, T.

    1985-04-01

    The radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production was assessed of (a) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young humans, dogs, and mice (C57BL/6); (b) PBMC and splenic cells of young mice; and (c) PBMC of young and old humans and the splenic cells of young and old mice. The results indicate that (a) large differences in radiosensitivity exist between the PBMC of humans, dogs, and mice (e.g., the radiation doses which resulted in 37% remaining IL-2 activity (D37) of human, dog, and mouse PBMC were 3771, greater than 10,000, and 1398 rads, respectively); (b) only a small difference exists between the PBMC and splenic cells of mice; and (c) no difference exists between the PBMC of young and old humans and between splenic cells of young and old mice. Topological abnormalities, as judged by scanning electron microscopic analysis, could not be detected in dog PBMC after their exposure to 1800 rads, but could be detected in mouse PBMC after their exposure to 400 rads.

  10. Antiapoptotic effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in B-CLL cells with low and high affinity IL-2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Decker, Thomas; Bogner, Christian; Oelsner, Madlen; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo

    2010-11-01

    Although B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells express the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor CD25, little is known about the effect of IL-2 on apoptosis in B-CLL cells. We have shown previously that stimulation of B-CLL cells with a CpG-oligonucleotide induces IL-2 high affinity receptors. In our current work, we analyzed the effect of IL-2 on apoptosis in resting B-CLL cells and in our model of activated B-CLL cells (CD25 high cells). IL-2 had modest antiapoptotic activity in resting B-CLL cells. In contrast, IL-2 was much more potent to prevent apoptosis in activated cells. Prevention of cell death was also associated with the maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential. While only limited regulation of apoptosis controlling proteins was observed in resting B-CLL cells, IL-2 had strong effects on MCL-1, Bcl-xl, and survivin expression and inhibited Bax cleavage in CD25 high cells. Interestingly, expression of Bcl-2 was reduced. Addition of IL-2 to activated B-CLL cells caused rapid phosphorylation of Akt, while IL-2 failed to significantly phosphorylate Akt in resting B-CLL cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt by LY294002 restored sensitivity of activated B-CLL cells to fludarabine. IL-2 might be an important survival factor in activated B-CLL cells and might contribute to disease progression by upregulation of several critical antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:20544350

  11. Use of interleukin-2 for management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Zhang, Yinan; Graves, Donna; DeSena, Allen D; Frohman, Elliot; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    A 51-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 3-year history of natalizumab use developed expressive aphasia. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed left frontotemporal and right parietal lesion with mild contrast enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham virus (JCV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient received five cycles of plasmapheresis followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this intervention, her speech deteriorated and she developed right hemiparesis. Upon referral to our institution, CSF quantitative JCV PCR was notable for 834 copies/ml. The patient was given an initial dose of 50,000 units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously (SQ) followed by 1 million units IL-2 SQ daily. Due to concern for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the patient also received intravenous methylprednisone weekly. The regimen was tolerated well by the patient with no severe adverse effects. Clinically, the patient showed some improvement, and became more responsive and regained right lower extremity antigravity strength. After 12 weeks of IL-2 therapy, JCV quantitative PCR was notable for 31 copies/ml and the patient was more responsive. Due to persistence of JCV, IL-2 therapy was changed to mefloquine. At follow up after 6 months, the patient showed no clinical deterioration. PMID:27134676

  12. Use of interleukin-2 for management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Zhang, Yinan; Graves, Donna; DeSena, Allen D.; Frohman, Elliot; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 3-year history of natalizumab use developed expressive aphasia. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed left frontotemporal and right parietal lesion with mild contrast enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham virus (JCV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient received five cycles of plasmapheresis followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this intervention, her speech deteriorated and she developed right hemiparesis. Upon referral to our institution, CSF quantitative JCV PCR was notable for 834 copies/ml. The patient was given an initial dose of 50,000 units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously (SQ) followed by 1 million units IL-2 SQ daily. Due to concern for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the patient also received intravenous methylprednisone weekly. The regimen was tolerated well by the patient with no severe adverse effects. Clinically, the patient showed some improvement, and became more responsive and regained right lower extremity antigravity strength. After 12 weeks of IL-2 therapy, JCV quantitative PCR was notable for 31 copies/ml and the patient was more responsive. Due to persistence of JCV, IL-2 therapy was changed to mefloquine. At follow up after 6 months, the patient showed no clinical deterioration. PMID:27134676

  13. Oral tacrolimus oil formulations for enhanced lymphatic delivery and efficient inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Kiyo; Yoshioka, Tatsunobu; Tsutsui, Yuuki; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Oral oil formulations have been reported to deliver drugs into the lymph. Lymphatic delivery of immunomodulatory drugs can more efficiently expose the drugs to T-cells in lymph, consequently induce higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this study, effects of tacrolimus oral oil formulations on drug blood exposure, and on inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were investigated in rats. Oil formulations (sunflower oil, cacao butter, medium chain triglyceride, and palm oil) dissolving tacrolimus showed lower drug blood concentration than a solid dispersion formulation (SDF). The sunflower oil, and cacao butter formulations suppressed drug blood exposure to 50% of the SDF, and inhibited T-cell's IL-2 production similar to the SDF. In vitro digestion tests indicated that slower digestion of the oils might reduce amount and rate of tacrolimus blood absorption. The cacao butter formulations showed 3.0 times more rapid tacrolimus absorption to lymphatic fluid than the SDF. Ratio of the rate constants of absorption into lymph to that into blood was higher in oil formulations (15 times in cacao butter, 15 times sunflower oil, and 3.5 times palm oil) than in the SDF. These results indicated that the oral oil formulations might be suitable for reduced tacrolimus blood concentration for low systemic side effects, and keep high lymph concentration for high efficacy in organ transplantation patients. PMID:26748381

  14. Secretion of biologically active human interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 from genetically modified tobacco cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, N S; Linzmaier, P M; Reeves, R; An, G; HayGlass, K; Lee, J M

    1998-06-01

    Biologically active human interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4, key lymphokines involved in immune regulation, were produced and secreted into the medium by genetically modified Nicotiana tabacum cells grown in suspension culture. Secretion through the plasma membrane and cell wall into the medium was facilitated by the natural mammalian leader sequences. IL-2 and IL-4 were detected in the medium at concentrations of 0.10 and 0.18 microgram/mL, respectively, although higher levels were detected within the lymphokine-producing cells (approximately 0.80 microgram/mL for IL-2 and approximately 0.28 microgram/mL for IL-4). By Western blot, IL-4 was found to be secreted as two small polypeptides with molecular masses of approximately 18-20 kDa. The biological activity of IL-2 was determined by cell proliferation of the IL-2-dependent murine CTLL-2 cell line, while that of IL-4 was determined by cell proliferation of the CTLL-2 cell line [CT.h4S] which was stably transfected with the human IL-4 receptor. These findings indicate that plant suspension culture can be used to produce and secrete into the medium a variety of biologically active mammalian proteins that are of clinical and diagnostic relevance. PMID:9631514

  15. Two mutational hotspots in the interleukin-2 receptor {gamma} chain gene causing human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, A.E.; Puck, J.M.; Buckley, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    Human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a syndrome of profoundly impaired cellular and humoral immunity, is most commonly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor {gamma} chain (IL2RG). For mutational analysis of IL2RG in males with SCID, SSCP screening was followed by DNA sequencing. Of 40 IL2RG mutations found in unrelated SCID patients, 6 were point mutations at the CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 690-691, encoding amino acid R226. This residue lies in the extracellular domain of the protein in a region not previously recognized to be significantly conserved in the cytokine receptor gene family, 11 amino acids upstream from the highly conserved WSXWS motif. Three additional instances of mutation at another CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 879 produced a premature termination signal in the intracellular domain of IL2RG, resulting in loss of the SH2-homologous intracellular domain known to be essential for signaling from the IL-2 receptor complex. Mutations at these two hotspots constitute >20% of the X-linked SCID mutations found by our group and a similar proportion of all reported IL2RG mutations. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Qualitative Immune Modulation by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Adjuvant Therapy in Immunological Non Responder HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Francesca; Bandera, Alessandra; Ferrario, Giulio; Trabattoni, Daria; Marchetti, Giulia; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of HIV-infected patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces significant increases in CD4 T cell counts; however an associated qualitative improvement in cells function has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. By measuring mycobacterial killing activity, we evaluated IL-2-mediated functional immune enhancement ex vivo in immunological non-responders (INRs). Methods and Findings PBMC from 12 immunological non-responders (INRs) (CD4+<200/µl, HIV-RNA<50 cp/ml) on combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) were collected at baseline, and after 3 IL-2 cycles. Eight INRs receiving only cART were studied as controls. After 21 days of PBMC incubation with a virulent M. avium suspension, counts of residual colony forming units (CFUs) and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-10 and IFN-γ were determined. In IL-2 treated patients, a significant reduction in mean residual CFUs of PBMC cultures was observed (p<0.01). Moreover, following IL-2 treatment, significant increases in PBMC's IFNγ production (p = 0.02) and substantial reductions in IL-10 levels were observed. Conclusions IL-2 therapy restores the ability of the lympho-monocyte system in eliciting an effective response against mycobacterial infections. Our data indicate the possibility of a clinical role held by IL-2 in enhancing the immune function of subjects unable to achieve immune competence through cART alone. PMID:21124762

  17. The clinical effects of prolonged treatment of patients with advanced cancer with low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 [corrected

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R. C.; Malkovska, V.; Morgan, S.; Galazka, A.; Aniszewski, C.; Roy, S. E.; Shearer, R. J.; Marsden, R. A.; Bevan, D.; Gordon-Smith, E. C.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced malignant disease have been treated as outpatients with increasing doses (0.1-100 mcg) of interleukin 2 (IL2) by once daily self-administered subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, 5 days weekly for 8 weeks followed by a 4 week observation period. Systemic side effects were not experienced by patients at the 3 lower doses. Three patients required dose reduction from 100 mcg daily because of intolerance (fever, rash, lethargy, nausea and vomiting) and one patient was discontinued because of dyspnoea. We observed immunological effects at the 100 mcg dose (but not at the lower doses). These consisted of (a) a modest sustained lymphocytosis, (b) eosinophilia in six (out of nine) patients and (c) a significant rise in IL2-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocyte activated killer (LAK) cell activity in six (out of nine) patients to a mean of 2.0 times pretreatment levels (P less than 0.01). Two (out of nine) patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with 100 mcg daily had partial responses of duration 4 and 9 months respectively and a further three had disease stabilisation for at least 3 months. Low dose long-term s.c. IL2 is clinically and immunologically active, and in comparison to other IL2 regimens it has minor toxicity and is easy to administer. These characteristics make low dose s.c. IL2 suitable for study in the adjuvant setting. PMID:1997106

  18. The clinical effects of prolonged treatment of patients with advanced cancer with low-dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 [corrected].

    PubMed

    Stein, R C; Malkovska, V; Morgan, S; Galazka, A; Aniszewski, C; Roy, S E; Shearer, R J; Marsden, R A; Bevan, D; Gordon-Smith, E C

    1991-02-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced malignant disease have been treated as outpatients with increasing doses (0.1-100 mcg) of interleukin 2 (IL2) by once daily self-administered subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, 5 days weekly for 8 weeks followed by a 4 week observation period. Systemic side effects were not experienced by patients at the 3 lower doses. Three patients required dose reduction from 100 mcg daily because of intolerance (fever, rash, lethargy, nausea and vomiting) and one patient was discontinued because of dyspnoea. We observed immunological effects at the 100 mcg dose (but not at the lower doses). These consisted of (a) a modest sustained lymphocytosis, (b) eosinophilia in six (out of nine) patients and (c) a significant rise in IL2-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocyte activated killer (LAK) cell activity in six (out of nine) patients to a mean of 2.0 times pretreatment levels (P less than 0.01). Two (out of nine) patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with 100 mcg daily had partial responses of duration 4 and 9 months respectively and a further three had disease stabilisation for at least 3 months. Low dose long-term s.c. IL2 is clinically and immunologically active, and in comparison to other IL2 regimens it has minor toxicity and is easy to administer. These characteristics make low dose s.c. IL2 suitable for study in the adjuvant setting. PMID:1997106

  19. Subcutaneous low-dose recombinant interleukin 2 and alpha-interferon in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ravaud, A.; Négrier, S.; Cany, L.; Merrouche, Y.; Le Guillou, M.; Blay, J. Y.; Clavel, M.; Gaston, R.; Oskam, R.; Philip, T.

    1994-01-01

    A double-institution phase II study was performed in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and alpha-interferon (INF-alpha). Thirty-eight patients were treated over a course of 7 weeks. Initially (day 1 + 2) patients received s.c. IL-2 at 18 x 10(6) IU m-2. During the following 6 weeks, patients received s.c. IL-2 at 3.6 x 10(6) IU m-2 for 5 days per week and s.c. INF-alpha at 5 x 10(6) for 3 days per week. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated for response. An objective response was seen in seven patients (18.4 +/- 12.3%), with one complete response and six partial responses. Median duration of response was 6.7 months. Toxicity could be evaluated in 38 patients and was limited. Mild to moderate toxicity included fever (97%), fatigue or malaise (76%), nausea or vomiting (50%), anorexia (32%), hypotension (26%), neurological disturbances (26%) and hypercreatininaemia (39%). In addition, four grade IV haematological toxicities were noted. No cardiac side-effects were seen. IL-2 and INF-alpha given by this schedule can be safely administered in an outpatient setting. The objective response rate was similar to our previous treatments with high-dose IL-2 given as a continuous infusion. PMID:8198979

  20. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with subcutaneous interleukin 2: evidence for non-renal clearance of cytokines.

    PubMed Central

    Banks, R. E.; Forbes, M. A.; Hallam, S.; Jenkins, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Dilger, P.; Meager, A.; Thorpe, R.; Bowmer, C. J.; Joffe, J. K.; Patel, P.; Johnson, P. W.; Selby, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    The circulating cytokine concentrations following administration of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) in combination with interferon alpha and 5-fluorouracil used to treat advanced renal cancer were studied. One patient was anephric and on dialysis, and seven had normal biochemical renal function, although five had undergone single nephrectomy. The pharmacokinetics of IL-2 and changes in IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were essentially similar in all patients including the anephric patient, irrespective of the periods of dialysis, although at some time points, IL-2 concentrations were slightly higher in the anephric patient than in the others. These results show that for subcutaneous administration of low-dose IL-2, renal clearance of IL-2 is not important. This contrasts with high-dose, intravenous IL-2 where blood concentrations are higher and renal clearance seems to occur, perhaps because of saturation of the non-renal mechanisms of clearance. The subcutaneous route is certainly preferred if IL-2 is used in anephric patients and in those with impaired renal function, and it may be generally preferred for most purposes. PMID:9192992

  1. The cognitive effects of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) therapy: a controlled clinical trial using computerised assessments.

    PubMed

    Walker, L G; Wesnes, K P; Heys, S D; Walker, M B; Lolley, J; Eremin, O

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that patients undergoing treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) may develop cognitive impairment. To evaluate these effects, 17 patients with advanced colorectal cancer took part in a randomised, parallel group study of rIL-2 with chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) and chemotherapy alone. Assessments were carried out daily whilst patients were in hospital and regularly between cycles of treatment using state-of-the-art computerised cognitive assessment, as well as traditional psychometric tests. Rigorous discontinuation criteria were applied to ensure that the effect of time-related variables did not influence the results. One patient developed repeated transient psychotic episodes associated with rIL-2 infusions and another regularly became confused. Computerised cognitive assessments revealed that immunochemotherapy produced significant impairment in various tasks, especially reaction time, picture recognition and vigilance. These effects were not due to sleep deprivation or pyrexia. For most patients, cognitive functioning was restored to the baseline level within 10 days following the cessation of rIL-2. In conclusion, during infusions of rIL-2, some patients experience severe confusion and amnesia which resembles some of the major cognitive impairments associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Computerised cognitive assessment using the Cognitive Drug Research system provides a feasible, sensitive and reliable method of evaluating cognitive changes in patients with cancer. It could usefully be included in quality of life assessments in clinical trials where treatment-related cognitive changes need to be evaluated. PMID:9038610

  2. Effect of interleukin-2 treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    HU, RUNLEI; MA, SHENGLIN; KE, XIANFU; JIANG, HONG; WEI, DONGSHAN; WANG, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice. Magnetic fluids were prepared in vitro and directly injected into the tumors in the mice, which were subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The temperature in the tumor reached 43°C and was maintained by controlling the strength of magnetic field for 30 min. Twenty-four hours later, IL-2 was injected directly into the tumors. Mice were divided into four groups: Group I (control), II (MFH), III (IL-2) and IV (IL-2+MFH). The tumor grew gradually in groups II and IV (both P<0.05) compared to the control group. Histological analysis showed that the tumor cells underwent apoptosis and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that heat-shock protein 70 and cluster of differentiation (CD) 8-positive and CD4-positive T cells were strongly expressed following hypothermia. Therefore, the present study provided evidence that IL-2 treatment combined with MFH improves the therapeutic effect on lung cancer-bearing mice. PMID:26870335

  3. Modulating effect of interleukin 2 therapy on interferon production by blood leukocytes of patients with minimal residual hematological disease.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Legieć, W; Dmoszyńska, A; Szuster-Ciesielska, A

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy on interferon (IFN) production. Patients enrolled in the study suffered from multiple myeloma (MM), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). All of them were in remission after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Results indicated that IL-2 given subcutaneously at a dose of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day for 3 weeks induced IFN-gamma in serum of patients and caused a prolonged effect on the ability of blood leukocytes to produce IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro by mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Such enhancement of IFN-gamma production may be beneficial for antitumor immune response. Low-dose IL-2 therapy was well tolerated by all patients and side effects not exceeding II grade of toxicity according to WHO scale were observed. Five patients with MM have relapsed 3-10 months after cesation of IL-2 therapy but 15 patients 18 months after therapy were in complete remission. PMID:9597084

  4. In vitro assessment of choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) as a vehicle for recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)

    PubMed Central

    Foureau, David M.; Vrikkis, Regina M.; Jones, Chase P.; Weaver, Katherine D.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Salo, Jonathan C.; McKillop, Iain H.; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2013-01-01

    Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) is an ionic liquid reported to increase thermal stability of model proteins. The current work investigated CDHP effect on structural integrity and biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), a therapeutic protein used for treating advanced melanoma. In vitro CDHP biocompatibility was also evaluated using primary cell cultures, or B16-F10 cell line, chronically exposed to the ionic liquid. Formulation of rhIL-2 in an aqueous 680mM CDHP pH 7.4 solution resulted in a 12.5°C increase in the Tm of rhIL-2 compared to a basic buffer formulation, and provided conformational rhIL-2 stabilization when the solution was heated to 23.3°C above the Tm. CDHP solutions (≤80mM), exhibited no cytotoxic activity toward primary splenocytes or B16-F10 cells in culture. However, a 10-fold loss in biological activity was observed when rhIL-2 was used in a 30mM CDHP aqueous solution with NaHCO3 (pH≥7.2) compared to controls without CDHP. While increased Tm is associated with a diminished rhIL-2 biological activity, the therapeutic protein remains structurally intact and functional. PMID:24504148

  5. Normal gamma interferon (IFN-. gamma. ) and decreased interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by copper-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lukasewycz, O.A.; Prohaska, J.R. )

    1991-03-15

    The production of both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-{gamma}) was determined in lymphocyte preparations from spleens of copper-deficient ({minus}Cu) and copper adequate control (+Cu) mice. Swiss albino mice were fed a diet low in copper. The +Cu mice drank water with copper added, while {minus}Cu mice drank deionized water. Compared to +Cu controls, {minus}Cu mice had lower hematocrits, reduced levels of liver Cu, low plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and higher levels of liver iron. Production of IL-2 was assessed by the response of an IL-2-dependent cell line (CTLL) to serial dilutions of Con A-stimulated splenic lymphocyte culture supernatants. IFN-{gamma} levels were determined in these same supernatants by an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Analysis indicated that IL-2 production by splenic lymphocytes from {minus}Cu mice was only 62% of the mean +Cu value. IFN-{gamma} levels of {minus}Cu and +Cu splenic lymphocytes, on the other hand, were equivalent. These data indicate differential effects of copper deficiency on two distinct lymphokines elaborated by the same murine T-help subpopulation, T{sub H}1.

  6. Development of an attenuated interleukin-2 fusion protein that can be activated by tumour-expressed proteases

    PubMed Central

    Puskas, John; Skrombolas, Denise; Sedlacek, Abigail; Lord, Edith; Sullivan, Mark; Frelinger, John

    2011-01-01

    The ability to alter the cytokine microenvironment has the potential to shape immune responses in many physiological settings, including the immunotherapy of tumours. We set out to develop a general approach in which cytokines could be functionally attenuated until activated. We report the development and initial characterization of fusion proteins in which human or mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent growth factor for immune cells, is joined to a specific IL-2 inhibitory binding component separated by a protease site. The rationale is that upon cleavage by a protease the cytokine is free to dissociate from the inhibitory component and becomes biologically more available. We describe the successful development of two attenuation strategies using specific binding: the first uses the mouse IL-2 receptor alpha chain as the inhibitory binding component whereas the second employs a human antibody fragment (scFv) reactive with human IL-2. We demonstrated that the fusion proteins containing a prostate-specific antigen or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protease cleavage site are markedly attenuated in the intact fusion protein but had enhanced bioactivity of IL-2 in vitro when cleaved. Further, we showed that a fusion protein composed of the IL-2/IL-2 receptor alpha chain with an MMP cleavage site reduced tumour growth in vivo in a peritoneal mouse tumour model. This general strategy should be applicable to other proteases and immune modulators allowing site-specific activation of immunomodulators while reducing unwanted side-effects. PMID:21426339

  7. Evidence of enhanced recombinant interleukin-2 sensitivity in thymic lymphocytes from patients with myasthenia gravis: possible role in autoimmune pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Levasseur, P; Binet, J P; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1989-09-01

    We evaluated the activation state of thymic lymphocytes in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) by cytofluorographic analysis of CD25 expression and by testing their sensitivity to recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in the absence of any known previous stimulation. We detected no phenotypic signs of activation in fresh MG thymic lymphocyte suspensions, while functional signs of activation were reflected in a significantly higher sensitivity to rIL-2 in MG patients than in controls. The responses to rIL-2 were time- and dose-dependent, were inhibited by a blocking anti-IL-2 receptor antibody, and were associated with an increase in CD25+ T cells in both patients and controls. The T cells with functional signs of previous activation may represent autoreactive cells involved in the autoimmune process and confirm thymus gland hyperactivity in MG. These cells could result from primary autosensitization against the thymic acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-like molecule or from altered migration of peripheral activated cells into an abnormal thymic environment. Our results also provide a clue for understanding the effect of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. PMID:2808688

  8. Interleukin 2 activates STAT5 transcription factor (mammary gland factor) and specific gene expression in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, K C; Pine, R; Reich, N C

    1995-01-01

    Although prolactin and interleukin 2 (IL-2) can elicit distinct physiological responses, we have found that their signal pathways share a common signal transducer and activator of transcription, STAT5. STAT5 was originally identified as a mammary gland factor induced by prolactin in lactating breast cells. Here we demonstrate that STAT5 is activated after IL-2 stimulation of two responsive lymphocyte cell lines, Nb2 and YT. Activation of STAT5 is measured both by IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and by IL-2-induced DNA binding. The STAT5 DNA recognition site is the same as the interferon gamma-activated site (GAS) in the interferon regulatory factor 1 gene. We demonstrate that the GAS element is necessary and sufficient for transcriptional induction by both IL-2 and prolactin in T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the role of STAT5 in the regulation of gene expression is not restricted to mammary cells or to prolactin, but is an integral part of the signal pathway of a critical immunomodulatory cytokine, IL-2. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479881

  9. mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Two decades ago, mRNA became the focus of research in molecular medicine and was proposed as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for the therapy of cancer. In this regard, mRNA has been mainly used for ex vivo modification of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs). This vaccination strategy has proven to be safe, well tolerated and capable of inducing tumor antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, the direct application of mRNA for in situ modification of APCs, hence immunization was shown to be feasible and at least as effective as DC-based immunization in pre-clinical models. It is believed that application of mRNA as an off-the-shelf vaccine represents an important step in the development of future cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we will discuss the use of ex vivo mRNA-modified DCs and “naked mRNA” for cancer immunotherapy focusing on parameters such as the employed DC subtype, DC activation stimulus and route of immunization. In addition, we will provide an overview on the clinical trials published so far, trying to link their outcome to the aforementioned parameters. PMID:23291946

  10. A phase II trial of trastuzumab in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients (PTS) with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who have previously failed trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Aruna; Roda, Julie; Young, Donn; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Fleming, Gini F.; Kaufman, Peter; Brufsky, Adam; Ottman, Susan; Carson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Trastuzumab mediates the lysis of HER2-expressing breast cancer cell lines by interleukin-2 (IL-2) primed natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that IL-2 would augment the anti-tumor effects of trastuzumab in MBC in patients who had progressed on or within 12 months of receiving a trastuzumab-containing regimen. Secondary objectives were to measure antibody-directed cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HER2 over-expressing target cells, and to measure serum cytokines. Patients received trastuzumab (4 mg/kg intravenously (IV)) every 2 weeks in combination with daily low-dose IL-2 (1 million IU/m2 subcutaneously (SC)) and pulsed intermediate-dose IL-2 (12 million IU/m2 SC). Samples were analyzed for NK cell expansion and ADCC against a HER2-positive breast cancer cell line. In addition, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the following serum cytokines were measured: IFN-γ, monokine-induced by IFN-γ (MIG), and interferon-inducible protein ten (IP-10). The median number of treatment cycles was four (range 1–23) and the treatment was well tolerated. There were no objective responses. NK cells were not expanded and ADCC was not enhanced. Eight (62%) patients had a twofold or higher increase in mRNA transcript for IFN-γ, two (15%) patients had elevated serum levels of IFN-γ and 12 (92%) had increases angiogenic MIG and IP-10. In trastuzumab-refractory patients adding IL-2 did not produce responses and did not result in NK cell expansion. However, these patients had the ability to respond to IL-2 as evidenced by increases in IFN-γ transcripts and chemokines. The lack of NK cell expansion may explain the absence of clinical benefit. PMID:19051009

  11. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the C? 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  12. Gangliosides inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation by preventing the interaction of interleukin-2 with its cell surface receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, J W; Sharom, F J

    1993-01-01

    Gangliosides are known to be actively shed from tumour cell membranes, and increased levels of circulating gangliosides may cause tumour-induced T-lymphocyte immunosuppression in vivo by interfering with the actions of interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have investigated the effect of gangliosides on the interaction of IL-2 with its cell surface receptors (IL-2R). Gangliosides inhibited IL-2-stimulated proliferation in synchronized populations of the IL-2-dependent cell lines CTLL-2 and HT-2. The immunosuppressive effect was most effective when gangliosides were added during the first 4 hr after IL-2-stimulation, indicating that they acted early in the IL-2 signalling pathway. Inhibition could be completely overcome by exogenous IL-2, suggesting that gangliosides inhibited growth solely by competing with IL-2R for available IL-2. In support of this proposal, gangliosides induced a concomitant dose-dependent decrease in binding of [125I]IL-2 to high-, medium- and low-affinity IL-2R. Ganglioside-treated cells recovered their high-affinity [125I]IL-2 binding after washing. The glycolipids also prevented chemical cross-linking of [125I]IL-2 to the p55/p75 complex, as well as to both IL-2R alpha (p55) and IL-2R beta (p75) independently. A thin-layer chromatography overlay technique was used to demonstrate that IL-2 binds directly to gangliosides, but not to simple neutral glycolipids or acidic lipids. Taken together, these findings indicate that gangliosides directly block the interaction of IL-2 with IL-2R, and may explain, in part, the immunosuppressive activities of gangliosides in vivo. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8509130

  13. Targeting human {gamma}delta} T cells with zoledronate and interleukin-2 for immunotherapy of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dieli, Francesco; Vermijlen, David; Fulfaro, Fabio; Caccamo, Nadia; Meraviglia, Serena; Cicero, Giuseppe; Roberts, Andrew; Buccheri, Simona; D'Asaro, Matilde; Gebbia, Nicola; Salerno, Alfredo; Eberl, Matthias; Hayday, Adrian C

    2007-08-01

    The increasing evidence that gammadelta T cells have potent antitumor activity suggests their value in immunotherapy, particularly in areas of unmet need such as metastatic carcinoma. To this end, we initiated a phase I clinical trial in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer to examine the feasibility and consequences of using the gammadelta T-cell agonist zoledronate, either alone or in combination with low-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2), to activate peripheral blood gammadelta cells. Nine patients were enlisted to each arm. Neither treatment showed appreciable toxicity. Most patients were treated with zoledronate + IL-2, but conversely only two treated with zoledronate displayed a significant long-term shift of peripheral gammadelta cells toward an activated effector-memory-like state (T(EM)), producing IFN-gamma and perforin. These patients also maintained serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), consistent with a parallel microarray analysis showing that TRAIL is produced by gammadelta cells activated via the T-cell receptor and IL-2. Moreover, the numbers of T(EM) gammadelta cells showed a statistically significant correlation with declining prostate-specific antigen levels and objective clinical outcomes that comprised three instances of partial remission and five of stable disease. By contrast, most patients treated only with zoledronate failed to sustain either gammadelta cell numbers or serum TRAIL, and showed progressive clinical deterioration. Thus, zoledronate + IL-2 represents a novel, safe, and feasible approach to induce immunologic and clinical responses in patients with metastatic carcinomas, potentially providing a substantially increased window for specific approaches to be administered. Moreover, gammadelta cell phenotypes and possibly serum TRAIL may constitute novel biomarkers of prognosis upon therapy with zoledronate + IL-2 in metastatic carcinoma. PMID:17671215

  14. Piperine blocks interleukin-2-driven cell cycle progression in CTLL-2 T lymphocytes by inhibiting multiple signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Greenshields, Anna L; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-04-01

    Piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in the fruits of black pepper plants, has diverse physiological effects, including the ability to inhibit immune cell-mediated inflammation. Since the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is essential for the clonal expansion and differentiation of T lymphocytes, we investigated the effect of piperine on IL-2 signaling in IL-2-dependent mouse CTLL-2 T lymphocytes. Tritiated-thymidine incorporation assays and flow cytometric analysis of Oregon Green 488-stained cells showed that piperine inhibited IL-2-driven T lymphocyte proliferation; however, piperine did not cause T lymphocytes to die or decrease their expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor, as determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that piperine blocked the IL-2-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and STAT5 without affecting the upstream phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK3. In addition, piperine inhibited the IL-2-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt, which are signaling molecules that regulate cell cycle progression. Piperine also suppressed the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 1, Cdk4, Cdk6, cyclin B, cyclin D2, and Cdc25c protein phosphatase by IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes, indicating G0/G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Piperine-mediated inhibition of IL-2 signaling and cell cycle progression in CTLL-2 T lymphocytes suggests that piperine should be further investigated in animal models as a possible natural source treatment for T lymphocyte-mediated transplant rejection and autoimmune disease. PMID:25655587

  15. Low-dose interleukin-2 fosters a dose-dependent regulatory T cell tuned milieu in T1D patients.

    PubMed

    Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Churlaud, Guillaume; Mallone, Roberto; Six, Adrien; Dérian, Nicolas; Chaara, Wahiba; Lorenzon, Roberta; Long, S Alice; Buckner, Jane H; Afonso, Georgia; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Hartemann, Agnès; Yu, Aixin; Pugliese, Alberto; Malek, Thomas R; Klatzmann, David

    2015-04-01

    Most autoimmune diseases (AID) are linked to an imbalance between autoreactive effector T cells (Teffs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). While blocking Teffs with immunosuppression has long been the only therapeutic option, activating/expanding Tregs may achieve the same objective without the toxicity of immunosuppression. We showed that low-dose interleukin-2 (ld-IL-2) safely expands/activates Tregs in patients with AID, such HCV-induced vasculitis and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Here we analyzed the kinetics and dose-relationship of IL-2 effects on immune responses in T1D patients. Ld-IL-2 therapy induced a dose-dependent increase in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD8(+)Foxp3(+) Treg numbers and proportions, the duration of which was markedly dose-dependent. Tregs expressed enhanced levels of activation markers, including CD25, GITR, CTLA-4 and basal pSTAT5, and retained a 20-fold higher sensitivity to IL-2 than Teff and NK cells. Plasma levels of regulatory cytokines were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while cytokines linked to Teff and Th17 inflammatory cells were mostly unchanged. Global transcriptome analyses showed a dose-dependent decrease in immune response signatures. At the highest dose, Teff responses against beta-cell antigens were suppressed in all 4 patients tested. These results inform of broader changes induced by ld-IL-2 beyond direct effects on Tregs, and relevant for further development of ld-IL-2 for therapy and prevention of T1D, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25634360

  16. Secretion of a unique peptide from interleukin-2-stimulated natural killer cells that induces endomitosis in immature human megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Grigus, Shawn R; Carlson, Patricia L; Krystal, Geoffrey W; Dessypris, Emmanuel N

    2002-01-01

    When interleukin-2 (IL-2) was added to immature, low-ploidy (greater than 80% 2N+4N) megakaryocytes generated in IL-3 and stem cell factor (SCF)-containing liquid cultures of blood mononuclear cells highly enriched in hematopoietic progenitors, a 2- to 6-fold increase in the absolute number of polyploid (more than 8N) megakaryocytes was noted. This effect was found to be indirect and was mediated through natural killer (NK) cells that constitute the major lymphoid cell contaminating day 6 megakaryocyte cell populations. IL-2 had no effect on megakaryocytes generated from CD34(+) cells stimulated with IL-3 and SCF. However, medium conditioned by IL-2-stimulated, but not resting, NK cells (NKCM) contained a trypsin-sensitive factor capable of increasing 2- to 5-fold the number of polyploid megakaryocytes generated in vitro from IL-3 and SCF-stimulated CD34(+) cells. The activity in NKCM was dose dependent and could not be neutralized by an excess of antibodies to IL-6, IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), gp130, stromal cell derived factor-1a (SDF-1a), and thrombopoietin (TPO). Addition of IL-11, but not TPO, to NKCM-containing cultures resulted in further augmentation of polyploidy, with the generation of 50% to 70% polyploid megakaryocytes with a modal ploidy of 16N. This factor is distinct from TPO because it induces endomitosis in IL-3-generated megakaryocytes in vitro, whereas TPO does not, and its activity on megakaryocyte ploidy is not altered by optimal concentrations of TPO. In addition, no message for TPO is detectable in IL-2-stimulated NK cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These findings indicate that IL-2-stimulated NK cells produce a novel peptide, distinct from TPO, IL-6, IL-11, LIF, other gp130-associated interleukins, and SDF1a, that can induce in vitro endomitosis in immature human megakaryocytes in the presence of IL-3 and SCF. PMID:11756162

  17. Improvement of hepatitis B virus DNA vaccines by plasmids coexpressing hepatitis B surface antigen and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Y H; Huang, W L; Chi, W K; Chu, Y D; Tao, M H

    1997-01-01

    DNA vaccines encoding a viral protein have been shown to induce antiviral immune responses and provide protection against subsequent viral challenge. In this study, we show that the efficacy of a DNA vaccine can be greatly improved by simultaneous expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Plasmid vectors encoding the major (S) or middle (pre-S2 plus S) envelope proteins of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were constructed and compared for their potential to induce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific immune responses with a vector encoding the middle envelope and IL-2 fusion protein or with a bicistronic vector separately encoding the middle envelope protein and IL-2. Following transfection of cells in culture with these HBV plasmid vectors, we found that the encoded major protein was secreted while the middle protein and the fusion protein were retained on the cell membrane. Despite differences in localization of the encoded antigens, plasmids encoding the major or middle proteins gave similar antibody and T-cell proliferative responses in the vaccinated animals. The use of plasmids coexpressing IL-2 and the envelope protein in the fusion or nonfusion context resulted in enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, the vaccine efficacy in terms of dosage used in immunization was increased at least 100-fold by coexpression of IL-2. We also found that DNA vaccines coexpressing IL-2 help overcome major histocompatibility complex-linked nonresponsiveness to HBsAg vaccination. The immune responses elicited by HBV DNA vaccines were also modulated by coexpression of IL-2. When restimulated with antigen in vitro, splenocytes from mice that received plasmids coexpressing IL-2 and the envelope protein produced much stronger T helper 1 (Th1)-like responses than did those from mice that had been given injections of plasmids encoding the envelope protein alone. Coexpression of IL-2 also increased the Th2-like responses, although the increment was much less significant. PMID:8985336

  18. Human and Mouse CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells at Steady State and during Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Churlaud, Guillaume; Pitoiset, Fabien; Jebbawi, Fadi; Lorenzon, Roberta; Bellier, Bertrand; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Klatzmann, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8+ suppressor T cells are emerging as an important subset of regulatory T cells. Diverse populations of CD8+ T cells with suppressive activities have been described. Among them, a small population of CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells is found both in mice and humans. In contrast to thymic-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs, their origin and their role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are less understood. We report here the number, phenotype, and function of CD8+ Tregs cells in mice and humans, at the steady state and in response to low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). CD8+ Tregs represent approximately 0.4 and 0.1% of peripheral blood T cells in healthy humans and mice, respectively. In mice, their frequencies are quite similar in lymph nodes (LNs) and the spleen, but two to threefold higher in Peyer patches and mesenteric LNs. CD8+ Tregs express low levels of CD127. CD8+ Tregs express more activation or proliferation markers such as CTLA-4, ICOS, and Ki-67 than other CD8+ T cells. In vitro, they suppress effector T cell proliferation as well as or even better than CD4+ Tregs. Owing to constitutive expression of CD25, CD8+ Tregs are 20- to 40-fold more sensitive to in vitro IL-2 stimulation than CD8+ effector T cells, but 2–4 times less than CD4+ Tregs. Nevertheless, low-dose IL-2 dramatically expands and activates CD8+ Tregs even more than CD4+ Tregs, in mice and humans. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical relevance of CD8+ Tregs in AIDs and the efficacy of IL-2 treatment. PMID:25926835

  19. Human cytokine-induced killer cells have enhanced in vitro cytolytic activity via non-viral interleukin-2 gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Srinivas; Ziske, Carsten; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo GH

    2004-01-01

    Modulation of the immune system by genetically modified immunological effector cells is of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of malignancies. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial cytokine which induces potent antitumor response. Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) have been described as highly efficient cytotoxic effector cells capable of lysing tumor cell targets and are capable of recognizing these cells in a non-MHC restricted fashion. Dendritic cells (DC) are the major antigen presenting cells. This study evaluated the antitumor effect of CIK cells which were non-virally transfected with IL-2 and co-cultured with pulsed and unpulsed DC. Human CIK cells generated from peripheral blood were transfected in vitro with plasmid encoding for the human IL-2. Transfection involved a combination of electrical parameters and a specific solution to deliver plasmid directly to the cell nucleus by using the Nucleofector electroporation system. Nucleofection resulted in the production of IL-2 with a mean of 478.5 pg/106 cells (range of 107.61079.3 pg /106 cells/24 h) compared to mock transfected CIK cells (31 pg/106 cells) (P = 0.05). After co-culturing with DC their functional ability was assessed in vitro by a cytotoxicity assay. On comparison with non-transfected CIK cells co-cultured with DCs (36.5 5.3 %), transfected CIK cells co-cultured with DC had a significantly higher lytic activity of 58.5 3.2% (P = 0.03) against Dan G cells, a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line. PMID:15329148

  20. Lack of association between interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene rs2069762 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yafeng; Shu, Yun; Jiang, Heping; Sun, Bin; Ma, Zhiqiang; Tang, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an important member of the cytokines that play critical roles in carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated the association between IL-2 rs2069762 polymorphism and cancer risk; however, the results remain controversial. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between IL-2 rs2069762 polymorphism and cancer risk. All eligible case-control studies accorded with criteria published up to March 30, 2015 were identified by searching Embase and PubMed databases. Association between IL-2 rs2069762 polymorphism and cancer risk was assessed by crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Ten case-control studies from nine publications with 3095 cases and 4480 controls were included. Overall, IL-2 rs2069762 polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk in five genetic models (G vs. T: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.95-1.21, P = 0.278; GG vs. TT: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.86-1.57, P = 0.317; GG + TG vs. TT: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.93-1.28, P = 0.273; GG vs. TT + TG: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.85-1.44, P = 0.451; TG vs. TT: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.92-1.28, P = 0.339, respectively). Similar results were also obtained after stratified by ethnicity and cancer type. This meta-analysis indicates that IL-2 rs2069762 T>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer risk. And the same conclusion is drawn after stratified by cancer type and ethnicity. PMID:26550166

  1. Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc H.; Roberts, Robert L.; Ank, Bonnie J.; Lin, Syh-Jae; Lau, Casey K.; Stiehm, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    Newborn infants are more susceptible to infections due in part to deficiencies in the cytotoxic functions of their lymphocytes. We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. The cytotoxic activity of cord blood MNCs was less than 50% that of adult MNCs in most assays prior to exposure to cytokines. Incubation with IL-2 (100 U/ml) or IL-12 (1 ng/ml) for 18 h increased the NK cell activity (using K562 target cells) of both cord blood and adult MNCs, and the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased cord blood cytotoxicity threefold, making the cytotoxicity of cord blood cells equivalent to that of adult cells treated with the same cytokines. In ADCC assays with chicken erythrocyte targets, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased the cytotoxicities of both cord blood and adult MNCs, with greater enhancement again seen with cord blood cells. In assays with NK cell-resistant CEM cells coated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 antigen in the presence of hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin, ADCC of cord blood MNCs was about 50% that of adult MNCs; ADCC of cord blood MNCs increased two- to threefold with the addition of IL-2 and IL-12, whereas ADCC of adult MNCs did not increase. Incubation of cord blood cells, but not adult cells, with IL-2 or IL-12 for 1 week increased the percentage of CD16+/CD56+ cells two- to fivefold and enhanced ADCC activity. Thus, IL-2 and IL-12 greatly enhance both the NK cell and ADCC activities of neonatal MNCs and increase the number of NK cells in longer-term culture. PMID:9455889

  2. Enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of neonatal cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Q H; Roberts, R L; Ank, B J; Lin, S J; Lau, C K; Stiehm, E R

    1998-01-01

    Newborn infants are more susceptible to infections due in part to deficiencies in the cytotoxic functions of their lymphocytes. We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. The cytotoxic activity of cord blood MNCs was less than 50% that of adult MNCs in most assays prior to exposure to cytokines. Incubation with IL-2 (100 U/ml) or IL-12 (1 ng/ml) for 18 h increased the NK cell activity (using K562 target cells) of both cord blood and adult MNCs, and the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased cord blood cytotoxicity threefold, making the cytotoxicity of cord blood cells equivalent to that of adult cells treated with the same cytokines. In ADCC assays with chicken erythrocyte targets, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased the cytotoxicities of both cord blood and adult MNCs, with greater enhancement again seen with cord blood cells. In assays with NK cell-resistant CEM cells coated with human immunodeficiency virus (HV) gp120 antigen in the presence of hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin, ADCC of cord blood MNCs was about 50% that of adult MNCs; ADCC of cord blood MNCs increased two- to threefold with the addition of IL-2 and IL-12, whereas ADCC of adult MNCs did not increase. Incubation of cord blood cells, but not adult cells, with IL-2 or IL-12 for 1 week increased the percentage of CD16+/CD56+ cells two- to fivefold and enhanced ADCC activity. Thus, IL-2 and IL-12 greatly enhance both the NK cell and ADCC activities of neonatal MNCs and increase the number of NK cells in longer-term culture. PMID:9455889

  3. The effect of interleukin-2 on canine peripheral nerve sheath tumours after marginal surgical excision: a double-blind randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on outcomes of intraoperative recombinant human interleukin-2 injection after surgical resection of peripheral nerve sheath tumours. In this double-blind trial, 40 patients due to undergo surgical excision (<5 mm margins) of presumed peripheral nerve sheath tumours were randomized to receive intraoperative injection of interleukin-2 or placebo into the wound bed. Results There were no significant differences in any variable investigated or in median survival between the two groups. The median recurrence free interval was 874 days (range 48–2141 days), The recurrence-free interval and overall survival time were significantly longer in dogs that undergone the primary surgery by a specialist-certified surgeon compared to a referring veterinarian regardless of whether additional adjunct therapy was given. Conclusion Overall, marginal excision of peripheral nerve sheath tumours in dogs resulted in a long survival time, but adjuvant treatment with recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) did not provide a survival advantage. PMID:23927575

  4. Inhibition of antigen-induced and interleukin-2-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes by inactivated bovine herpes virus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, D L; Campos, M; Qualtiere, L; Babiuk, L A

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) predisposes cattle to bacterial pneumonia was investigated by using an in vitro system to demonstrate immunosuppression. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.001, live or inactivated BHV-1 induced a 50% inhibition of the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to antigen (vaccinia virus in vaccinia virus-immunized cattle which were BHV-1 negative) or interleukin-2. At this same multiplicity of infection, the mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes was unaffected. This inhibition of antigen and interleukin-2-induced proliferative responses could not be reversed by the addition of excess amounts of interleukin-2 and could not be prevented by the addition of indomethacin to block prostaglandin production. Antibodies to BHV-1, especially those specific for glycoproteins gI and gIV, were able to block the inhibitory effect of BHV-1 in these in vitro assays. These results showed that antibody to BHV-1 blocks the immunosuppressive effect of the virus in vitro and suggested that an appropriate antibody response to BHV-1 could protect cattle from virus-induced immunosuppression leading to secondary bacterial pneumonia. PMID:2166810

  5. Recombinant Interleukin-2 in Patients Aged Younger Than 60 Years With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission

    PubMed Central

    Kolitz, Jonathan E.; George, Stephen L.; Benson, Don M.; Maharry, Kati; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L.; Allen, Steven L.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Shea, Thomas C.; Stock, Wendy; Bakan, Courtney E.; Hars, Vera; Hoke, Eva; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2–activated effector cells. METHODS In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 19808 study, patients with AML in first CR were randomly assigned after all planned chemotherapy to receive a 90-day course of subcutaneously administered rIL-2 or no further therapy. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 treatment arms. A total of 534 patients achieved a CR, 214 of whom were randomized. Six courses of low-dose daily rIL-2 were given for the expansion of cytotoxic effector cells, each followed by 3-day high-dose boluses given to trigger cytotoxicity against minimal residual disease. RESULTS On the protocol-specified intention-to-treat analysis, the hazards ratio for DFS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–1.09; P =.13); the 5-year DFS rate was 42% in the observation arm and 53% in the rIL-2 treatment arm. The hazards ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.23; P =.34); the 5-year OS rate was 58% for the observation arm and 63% for the rIL-2 treatment arm. Twenty-five of the 107 patients randomized to treatment with rIL-2 either refused or were unable to initiate therapy and 30 patients did not complete their assigned therapy. However, significant toxicities were not commonly observed. The trial design did not anticipate the difficulties patients would encounter with protocol compliance. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of immunotherapy with rIL-2 administered after intensive postremission treatment was not assessed as planned because of unexpected refusals by patients and/or their physicians to comply with protocol-directed therapy. Neither DFS nor OS was found to be significantly improved. PMID:24382782

  6. Annual Hospital Volume of High Dose Interleukin-2 and Inpatient Mortality in Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kathan; Appleman, Leonard; Wang, Hong; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Parikh, Rahul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy using high dose interleukin-2 (HD IL2) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma is associated with severe toxicities. The association between annual hospital volume of HD IL2 and inpatient mortality is not well studied. In this study we aim to quantify the impact of annual hospital volume of HD IL2 on inpatient mortality using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. Methods We did a cross-sectional study using NIS, one of the largest inpatient datasets in United States, from 2003 to 2011. Patients with melanoma and RCC receiving HD IL2 were identified by ICD9 procedure code 00.15. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Using Joinpoint regression, which detects change in trend of inpatient mortality with change in annual volume, the hospitals were classified in three volume categories (low: 1–40, medium: 41–120, high: >120). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inpatient mortality controlling for confounders. Results From 2003 to 2011, 29,532 patients with RCC or melanoma who received HD IL2 were identified, and 124 died during the hospitalization (0.4%). The hospitals with low, medium and high annual volume had significant difference in inpatient mortality (0.83%, 0.29% and 0.13% respectively, p = 0.0003). On multivariate analysis, low volume hospitals were associated with significantly higher odds of inpatient mortality (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.6–23.2, p = 0.003) as compared to high volume hospitals. Additionally, the hospitals with annual volume of 1–20 had even higher rates (1.31% vs. 0.13%, p<0.0001) and multivariate odds (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.4–33.2, p = 0.0006) of inpatient mortality as compared to high volume hospitals. Conclusions Lower annual hospital volume of HD IL2 is associated with worse outcomes. Annual hospital volume of 1–40 and 1–20 treatments per year is associated with 6 and 9 times higher odds of inpatient mortality respectively as compared to high volume hospitals. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for a volume-outcome relationship for RCC and melanoma patients undergoing HD IL2 treatment. They support future volume-outcome analyses in relation to other anti-cancer therapies that require special training and expertise. PMID:26799322

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )

    1990-08-15

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

  8. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC).

  9. Lectin interactions with the Jurkat leukemic T-cell line: quantitative binding studies and interleukin-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, G.; Bastin, B.

    1988-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pea lectin, and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) have been used to investigate their binding properties to Jurkat 77 6.8 leukemic human T cells and their ability to induce these cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding studies showed that the Jurkat cells fixed 0.82 +/- 0.11 microgram pea lectin, 2.02 +/- 0.17 micrograms Con A, 1.85 +/- 0.07 micrograms PHA and 8.88 +/- 0.61 micrograms WGA. Scatchard plots were linear, indicating that the binding process was homogeneous with respect to the binding constant. PHA and Con A bound with the highest affinity (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 9 x 10(9) M-1), followed by pea lectin and WGA (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 3 x 10(9) M-1). The number of lectin binding sites was in agreement with the results of saturation experiments. We also evaluated the effect of the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the binding process. Results show that there were no gross alterations in the value of (apparent) Kass in the case of PHA and WGA. In contrast, the presence of TPA decreased the affinity of Con A and modified the Scatchard profile for pea lectin, which was curvilinear with a concavity turned upward. In this case, data were (apparent) K1 = 17.7 x 10(9) M-1 (high-affinity sites) and (apparent) K2 = 2.6 x 10(9) M-1 (low-affinity sites). The four lectins shared the ability to stimulate Jurkat 77 6.8 cells to secrete IL-2. Optimal lectin concentrations were 20 micrograms/ml (PHA) and 50 micrograms/ml (WGA and Con A). Pea lectin failed to display a dose-response relationship, and IL-2 production increased proportionally with lectin concentration. Con A was the most efficient stimulator (250 U/ml), followed by WGA (160 U/ml) and PHA (108 U/ml).

  10. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is a thyroid hormone-dependent early-response marker in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Smallridge, R C; Tsokos, G C; Burman, K D; Porter, L; Cranston, T; Sfikakis, P P; Solomon, B L

    1997-01-01

    Thyrotoxic patients exhibit increased levels of immune activation molecules (soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 [ELAM-1]) in serum, although the clinical significance of these measurements remains unclear. In a randomized 4-week study, we have recently shown that in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, the combination of cholestyramine and methimazole (MMI) resulted in faster lowering of serum thyroid-hormone levels than did MMI alone. Stored serial serum samples from patients participating in this randomized treatment trial were analyzed for sIL-2R, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble ELAM-1 (sELAM-1). The levels of all three molecules were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the levels of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 remained elevated through the 4-week follow-up period in both groups of patients, the sIL-2R levels (normal levels, 1.0 to 4.2 ng/ml) decreased significantly in the 10 patients who received cholestyramine in addition to MMI (week 0, 14.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; week 2, 10.8 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; week 4, 8.9 +/- 1.5 ng/ml). In eight patients who received MMI alone, sIL-2R decreased less rapidly (week 0, 12.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml; week 2, 12.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; week 4, 10.9 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 were elevated at baseline but did not decrease during therapy. In the former group, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine decreased faster. These data show that levels of sIL-2R in serum, but not those of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1, may be of clinical use in the early follow-up evaluation of medically treated patients. PMID:9302209

  11. Immunotherapy (recombinant interleukin 2), hormone therapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate) and antioxidant agents as combined maintenance treatment of responders to previous chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, G; Maccio, A; Madeddu, C; Massa, E; Mudu, M C; Mulas, C; Gramignano, G; Massidda, S; Murgia, V; Lusso, M R; Mura, L

    2001-02-01

    An open, non-randomized phase II study was carried out including all patients treated with whatever chemotherapy or combined modality regimen for whatever cancer who were in clinical objective response or stable disease (SD) for more than three months, to receive maintenance treatment with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) plus antioxidant agents alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The main study endpoints were clinical outcome and toxicity. The secondary endpoints were effects of treatment on cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome (CACS) symptoms, on serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-2, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin as well as the evaluation of quality of life (QL). rIL-2 was administered at a dose of 1.8 MIU subcutaneously three times/week on alternate days for the first two weeks of every month and MPA was given orally at a dose of 500 mg once a day at alternate days without interruption. ALA 300 mg/day orally and NAC 1800 mg/day orally were also administered. The treatment was administered until progression of disease or appearance of toxicity. From July 1998 to May 2000, 16 patients were enrolled in the study (M/F ratio: 15/1; mean age: 62 years, range 45-71). The median duration of maintenance treatment was 10 months (range 5-22). The response to maintenance treatment at September 2000 was: CR (persistent throughout the treatment) 4 patients (25%); SD 1 patient (6.2%); PD 11 patients (68.8%). The median duration of response was 9.8 months (range: 5-22+). The median follow-up duration was 19 months (range: 8-102). The median OS was not reached. The median PFS was 14 months (range 1-29). The 1-year survival rate was 25%. At September 2000, 9 patients are still surviving. No grade 3/4 toxicity was observed. One Grade 2 skin toxicity was observed and Grade 1: 2 fever, 2 thrombocytopenia, 1 neutropenia and 1 skin were observed. The ECOG PS did worsen significantly, the body weight and BMI increased significantly after treatment, whereas the appetite did not change significantly. The QL evaluation showed a significant amelioration of cognitive functions and a borderline significant amelioration of emotional functions after treatment, whereas a borderline worsening of dyspnea was observed. The absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly after the maintenance treatment, as well as the serum IL-2, TNFalpha decreased at borderline statistical significance; the serum levels of leptin did not change significantly. The evaluation of patient subgroups showed that responders/survivors had a pattern superimposable to that of whole patient population, the patients who rapidly progressed and died exhibited no significant changes of these parameters during treatment. The results of the present study suggest that the host immune response, evaluated by several parameters, after IL-2 administration, (e.g. lymphocytosis), are worth further study as potential markers for the major end points of cancer treatment, i.e. OS and QL, in an adequate number of patients. PMID:11172608

  12. Treatment of advanced renal cell cancer with sequential intravenous recombinant interleukin-2 and subcutaneous alpha-interferon.

    PubMed

    Besana, C; Borri, A; Bucci, E; Citterio, G; Di Lucca, G; Fortis, C; Matteucci, P; Tognella, S; Tresoldi, M; Baiocchi, C

    1994-01-01

    Starting from in vitro studies suggesting synergistic antitumour activity against renal cell cancer (RCC) of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and alpha-interferon (IFN), a phase II trial was initiated to test the clinical activity of this combination. The two cytokines were administered sequentially, with the aim of reducing the risk of additive toxicity and enhancing the immunological reaction against the tumour. The original treatment schedule consisted of rIL-2 18 x 10(6) U/m2/day by continuous intravenous infusion for 120 h days 1-5, and alpha-IFN 2b, at a flat dose of 9 x 10(6) U by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection thrice in a week, from day 8 to 28. Treatment was planned to be continued for six or more 28-day cycles, depending on clinical response. 12 patients were treated according to this schedule; as some cardiovascular toxicity was experienced in this set of patients, 11 further patients were treated with half-dose rIL-2 (i.e. 9 x 10(6) U/m2/day). 17 out of 23 enrolled patients completed at least one cycle of treatment and were evaluated for response. We observed six major responses [one complete response (CR) + five partial responses (PR)] for an objective response rate of 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17-59%]. 5 additional patients achieved stabilisation of disease; one of them reached CR after surgical extirpation of a lung mass. Sites of response included lung, nodes and bone. Duration of response is 12+ months for CR; 17, 16, 12+, 9 and 9 months for PRs. Median survival is 16 months. Response was not significantly different between full-dose and half-dose rIL-2. Considering stable disease (SD) as responses, there seemed to be a higher chance of response for patients with smaller tumour burden (P = 0.032). The toxicity of rIL-2 treatment, mainly cardiovascular, was substantial; 9 patients experienced severe cardiotoxicity, consisting of major arrhythmias, myocardial ischaemia, reduction of ejection fraction measured with heart radionuclide scan, and were excluded from continuing treatment. Other rIL-2-related toxicities forcing exclusion from the study were severe thrombocytopenia (1 case), and generalised exfoliative dermatitis requiring steroids (1 case). Otherwise, treatment was well tolerated; rIL-2-related toxicities promptly recovered after rIL-2 discontinuation in the majority of cases, and no treatment-related deaths were reported. The half-dose rIL-2 regimen was significantly less toxic in terms of hypotension (P = 0.014), fever (P = 0.014), oliguria (P = 0.042), serum creatinine elevation (P = 0.009) and prothrombin time elongation (P = 0.038).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7999416

  13. Hydroxyurea and Zileuton Differentially Modulate Cell Proliferation and Interleukin-2 Secretion by Murine Spleen Cells: Possible Implication on the Immune Function and Risk of Pain Crisis in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuvibidila, Solo; Warrier, Rajasekharan P.; Haynes, Johnson; Baliga, Surendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea (HU) reduces major complications associated with sickle cell disease in part because of the induction of fetal hemoglobin. However, because of its antiproliferative property, its long-term use may impair immunity. Zileuton, a derivative of HU, also induces fetal hemoglobin and has antiinflammatory properties, a feature that can reduce the risk of sickling. Our goal was to investigate the capacity of both drugs to modulate the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a regulatory cytokine for immune responses. Methods Spleen cells obtained from 11 4-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were incubated without and with 10 μg/mL HU or zileuton, 2.5 μg/mL concanavalin A (ConA), 20 μg/mL phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and 50 ng/mL anti-CD3 antibody for 12-48 h. IL-2 was measured in the supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cell proliferation by 3H-thymidine uptake. Results While HU reduced lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens (P<0.05), zileuton did not. Baseline IL-2 concentration and PHA-induced IL-2 were not significantly affected by either drug. Contrary to what we expected, while HU increased IL-2 supernatant levels 1.17-fold to 6.5-fold in anti-CD3 antibody–treated cells (P<0.05), zileuton decreased them 35%-65% (P<0.05). Zileuton likely reduced IL-2 levels by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, hence leukotriene B4 production, an IL-2 inducer. HU did not decrease IL-2 secretion likely because of its lack of effect on mRNA and protein synthesis. Conclusion Modulation of IL-2 secretion by zileuton and/or reduced lymphocyte proliferation by HU may impair the immune response of patients with sickle cell disease but may also be beneficial by attenuating inflammation independently of fetal hemoglobin induction. PMID:26412995

  14. Induction of myasthenia gravis, myositis, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by high-dose interleukin-2 in a patient with renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Paula G; Rutkove, Seward B; Matheson, Jean K; Fowkes, Mary; Cannon, Marie E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Atkins, Michael B; Gollob, Jared A

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-2 is an effective agent against renal cell carcinoma and melanoma, but it has been associated with autoimmune sequelae such as hypothyroidism and vitiligo. A 64-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and metastatic renal cell carcinoma developed insulin-dependent diabetes after his first cycle of therapy with high-dose (HD) interleukin-2. After additional therapy with interleukin-2, the patient developed generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) and polymyositis, both of which responded to treatment with corticosteroids and plasmapheresis. To investigate the role of IL-2 in the development of these autoimmune complications, autoantibody titers were assayed from serum obtained before and after IL-2 treatment and after treatment with corticosteroids plus plasmapheresis. Before IL-2 treatment, the patient had antibodies directed against insulin, islet cell antigens, and striated muscle. Acetylcholine receptor antibody levels were normal before starting IL-2. After treatment with IL-2, the patient developed acetylcholine receptor binding antibodies and exhibited an increase in the striated muscle antibody titer from 1:40 to 1:160. Recovery from the MG and polymyositis was associated with substantial decreases in the acetylcholine receptor and striated muscle antibody titers. These findings suggest that HD IL-2 accelerated the progression of latent autoimmune diabetes and myositis in this patient whose tolerance to islet cell antigens and striated muscle had already been broken and precipitated a break in tolerance to the acetylcholine receptor resulting in the development of MG. This case demonstrates the importance of prompt recognition of IL-2-induced MG and shows how this complication can be successfully managed with aggressive therapy. PMID:12142560

  15. An Efficient Method for the Delivery of the Interleukin-2 Gene to Human Hematopoietic Cells using the 
Fiber-Modified Recombinant Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhin, V.N.; Logunov, D.Yu.; Shchebliakov, D.V.; Shmarov, M.M.; Khodunova, E.E.; Galtseva, 
I.V.; Belousova, R.V.; Naroditsky, B.S.; Gintsburg, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5/35F-IL2) with modified fibres containing the C-terminal domain fiber-knob of human adenovirus serotype 35, carrying the gene of recombinant human IL-2, has been designed. As a result of the fiber modification, the adenovirus can efficiently deliver the genetic information to bone marrow leukocytes and the tumor blood cells KG-1A (human myeloblastic leukemia cells) and U937 (human histiocytic lymphoma cells), which are normally resistant to Ad5 infection. The flow cytometry data reveal that the modified Ad5/35F penetrates into a population of monocytes, granulocytes, and blast cells of human bone marrow. The expression of interleukin-2 in CAR-negative bone marrow leukocytes (3682.52 ± 134.21 pg/ml) and the cell lines KG-1A (748.3 ± 32.8 pg/ml) and U937 (421.5 ± 59.4 pg/ml) transduced with adenovirus Ad5/35F-IL2 is demonstrated. The fiber-modified adenovirus can be used as a vector for the efficient gene delivery of interleukin-2 to human normal and tumor hematopoietic cells. PMID:22649700

  16. Natural killer T cells constitutively expressing the interleukin-2 receptor α chain early in life are primed to respond to lower antigenic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Mihoko; Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Qing; Wang, Adele Y; Xu, Lixin; Genowati, Indira; Levings, Megan K; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2010-10-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to constitutively express the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in neonates, but the functional consequence of this phenotype is unknown. Here, we show that high numbers of CD25-expressing iNKT cells are present early in gestation and represent a significant proportion of the developing immune system. Despite their activated phenotype, neonatal iNKT cells express high levels of the Krüppel-like factor-2, a transcription factor associated with quiescent T cells, and require de novo T-cell receptor and CD28 co-stimulation to proliferate. In contrast to bona fide CD4/CD25-expressing regulatory T cells, neonatal iNKT cells do not suppress T-cell responses, indicating that they do not represent an immunosuppressive cell subset. Evidence that neonatal iNKT cells respond to dramatically reduced amounts of CD1d-restricted antigen compared with adult iNKT cells or T cells, and that their proliferation can be induced in the absence of early interleukin-2 suggest that constitutive expression of CD25 'primes' neonatal iNKT cells to respond rapidly to low amounts of antigen. This unique phenotype, which is distinct from adult iNKT cells, as well as other CD25-expressing activated T or regulatory T cells, may be important to ensure stability of a structurally limited peripheral iNKT-cell repertoire early in life. PMID:20545784

  17. Cytokine mRNA levels in human fat tissue after injection lipolysis with phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Falk G; Skrygan, Marina; Kreuter, Alexander; Altmeyer, Peter; Gambichler, Thilo

    2008-09-01

    Injections with Lipostabil, a phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate containing substance, have become a popular technique to treat localized fat accumulation and lipomas. It is believed that the injected substance leads to fat cell destruction with subsequent acute panniculitis followed by a repair process of the treated fat tissue. We sought to investigate the mRNA expression of cytokines within the acute stage of panniculitis following Lipostabil injections. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA expression were determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in treated and adjacent non-treated fat tissue of lipomas 48 h after injection in seven patients. Following injection lipolysis with Lipostabil, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA levels were significantly elevated in treated fat tissue compared to non-treated fat. No significant differences were found for IL-4. Both in treated and non-treated fat tissue, mRNA of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-5 was not expressed. Injection lipolysis induces acute panniculitis within the treated fat tissue, associated with changes of the cytokine profile. However, their pathogenetic relevance with respect to clinical dissolving of fat needs further investigation. PMID:18563422

  18. B7-H4 expression and its role in interleukin-2/interferon treatment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, YIPENG; ZHU, SHAOXING; SONG, MEI; LIU, WEIHUI; LIU, CHENGYI; LI, YONGSHENG; WANG, MIN

    2014-01-01

    The immunological mechanism mediated by T cells is the main therapeutic target in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-α. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of B7-H4 in the IL-2, IFN-α and IFN-γ treatment of clear cell RCC (ccRCC). A total of 154 paraffin-embedded ccRCC tissues were studied using immunohistochemistry, which subsequently indicated that positive B7-H4 expression is associated with adverse clinical features in ccRCC. The effects of IL-2, IFN-α and IFN-γ on B7-H4 expression in a ccRCC cell line were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the effect of B7-H4 on the killing activity of T cells was detected. B7-H4 expression was identified to be upregulated by IL-2, IFN-α and IFN-γ, of which, IFN-γ was the most capable. Additionally, blocking of B7-H4/B7-H4 ligand interactions may rescue the killing activity of T cells. Altogether, the observations of the current study showed that the immune escape pathway induced by B7-H4 may be one of the most important reasons for the low efficacy of IL-2 and IFN-α and the inability to observe the efficacy of IFN-γ in mRCC. This indicates that B7-H4 may be used as a new molecular biology marker to select treatment options for patients with ccRCC. PMID:24765159

  19. Proliferative response of Tax1-transduced primary human T cells to anti-CD3 antibody stimulation by an interleukin-2-independent pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, T; Shimotohno, K

    1993-01-01

    The growth properties of human T-cell leukemia virus Tax1-transduced primary human T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared with those of the same subset of T cells transduced with a control vector. Tax1-transduced T cells exhibited slightly elevated responsiveness to externally added interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a markedly higher proliferative response to stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody. The proliferation after anti-CD3 antibody stimulation was mainly via an IL-2-independent pathway. Therefore, some other mechanism than the previously proposed IL-2 autocrine model seems to be involved in the process of deregulation of T-cell proliferation by Tax1. Moreover, Tax1-transduced T cells have continued to proliferate in medium containing IL-2 long after control T cells ceased to grow, and so they are considered to be immortalized. Images PMID:8437212

  20. Separation by cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography of three forms of Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived recombinant human interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Marchese, E; Vita, N; Maureaud, T; Ferrara, P

    1990-04-20

    Purified recombinant (r) interleukin 2 (IL-2) produced by a transformed Chinese hamster ovary cell line shows a single peak when analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, but it can be resolved into three forms by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These three forms were successfully isolated by narrow-bore ion-exchange chromatography through optimization of the elution conditions. The addition of n-propanol as an organic modifier to the mobile phase proved to be essential for the recovery of the protein from the column in a yield of 90% or better based on protein quantification and biological activity determination. This chromatographic method was used for the purification of these three rIL-2 forms which represent variable glycosylation of a single polypeptide chain. A comparison of the biological activities using the murine CTLL-2 cell proliferation assay showed that the specific activities of the three forms are similar. PMID:2341521

  1. Interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and their precursors express the VGO1 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Denegri, J.F.; Peterson, J.; Tilley, P. )

    1989-07-01

    Precursor and effector cells of recombinant interleukin-2 (r-IL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity were investigated for their expression of VGO1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors were purified and separated in a FACS 420 into VGO1+- and VGO1- cell fractions before and after culture for 96 hr with 100 U/ml of r-IL-2. Their lytic activity against K 562 and Daudi cells was measured in a 51Cr release assay. The majority, if not all, of the LAK effector and precursor cells was VGO1+ lymphocytes. The expression of VGO1 by LAK precursor cells remained stable under the culture conditions used in our experiments. VGO1- lymphocytes cultured with r-IL-2 demonstrated neither LAK-induced activity nor expression of VGO1 antigen.

  2. Overexpression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 messenger RNA in a clinical case of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Tagawa, Michihito; Itoh, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 49-month-old Holstein cow with anorexia, tachypnea, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, and difficulty standing up was suspected of bovine leukosis. Hematological examination revealed lymphocytosis with the presence of neoplastic cells. Increased total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isozymes of LDH-2 and LDH-3 activities and thymidine kinase activity were observed. Cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of subiliac lymph nodes indicated lymphosarcoma. Histopathology and antibody analysis confirmed the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukosis, a B-cell bovine lymphoma caused by bovine leukemia virus. Gene expressions known as biomarkers of hematopoietic neoplasia in human were also examined in the present case. Increased messenger RNA expression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase, and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 was observed in the case animal. PMID:23037779

  3. CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells differ in susceptibility to cyclosporin A mediated inhibition of interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Schwinzer, R; Siefken, R

    1996-03-01

    Lymphocytes in different states of activation use different intracellular signalling pathways and may therefore differ in their susceptibility to immunosuppressive agents. In this study we examined the proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by unprimed/naive CD4+CD45RA+ T cells and previously activated/memory CD4+CD45RO+ T cells from human peripheral blood when stimulated in vitro in the presence of cyclosporin A (CsA). Further, the dependency of the IL-2 response on calcium (Ca2+) ions was analysed by the addition of the chelating agent EGTA. The CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells were shown to be less susceptible to CsA and less dependent on the level of Ca+ ions than the naive CD4+CD45RA+ T cells. The subcellular mechanisms involved in this difference and the potential clinical implications are discussed. PMID:8762014

  4. Discovery and structure-activity relationship of 3-aminopyrid-2-ones as potent and selective interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Jean-Damien; Miller, Andrew; Kay, David P; Brenchley, Guy; Twin, Heather C; Collier, Philip N; Ramaya, Sharn; Keily, Shazia B; Durrant, Steven J; Knegtel, Ronald M A; Tanner, Adam J; Brown, Kieron; Curnock, Adam P; Jimenez, Juan-Miguel

    2011-04-14

    Interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) plays a role in T-cell functions, and its inhibition potentially represents an attractive intervention point to treat autoimmune and allergic diseases. Herein we describe the discovery of a series of potent and selective novel inhibitors of Itk. These inhibitors were identified by structure-based design, starting from a fragment generated de novo, the 3-aminopyrid-2-one motif. Functionalization of the 3-amino group enabled rapid enhancement of the inhibitory activity against Itk, while introduction of a substituted heteroaromatic ring in position 5 of the pyridone fragment was key to achieving optimal selectivity over related kinases. A careful analysis of the hydration patterns in the kinase active site was necessary to fully explain the observed selectivity profile. The best molecule prepared in this optimization campaign, 7v, inhibits Itk with a K(i) of 7 nM and has a good selectivity profile across kinases. PMID:21391610

  5. In vivo distribution of recombinant interleukin-2-activated autologous lymphocytes administered by intra-arterial infusion in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Yonese, Y.; Minato, N.

    1987-03-01

    Recombinant interleukin-2 (RIL 2)-activated autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were infused directly into the renal arteries of 3 patients with renal cell carcinoma, and the in vivo distribution of the infused cells was investigated. In vitro studies to define the optimal culture conditions indicated that maximal lymphokine-activated killer activity was observed at around 10-20 days in culture, as judged by the cytotoxicity against fresh allogenic tumor cells. Maximal expression of the interleukin-2 receptor was also obtained at around 10 days. PBL collected by leukopheresis from each patient were thus cultured for 10 days with RIL 2, labeled with /sup 111/In-oxine, and then infused directly into the renal artery of the affected kidney via a catheter. Radioactivity in the infused side of the kidneys increased immediately after the infusion but then gradually decreased. Radioactivity in the lungs also rapidly increased within the first hour but then cleared gradually, whereas that in the liver and spleen tended to increase steadily. Nevertheless, at 48 hours, the infused side of the kidneys retained levels of radioactivity comparable to those seen in the liver and spleen, while the levels seen in the lungs were already close to background levels. The radioactivity in the areas corresponding to tumors remained consistently higher than that in the normal parts of the affected kidneys. The direct comparison of the radioactivity distribution pattern with the macroscopic appearance of surgically resected kidneys indicated that the accumulation of radioactivity was indeed selectively associated with the tumor tissues in the kidneys, except for a case in which the tumor was quite necrotic and hypovascular.

  6. The Interleukin-2-mTORc1 Kinase Axis Defines the Signaling, Differentiation, and Metabolism of T Helper 1 and Follicular B Helper T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, John P; Staron, Matthew M; Shyer, Justin A; Ho, Ping-Chih; Marshall, Heather D; Gray, Simon M; Laidlaw, Brian J; Araki, Koichi; Ahmed, Rafi; Kaech, Susan M; Craft, Joe

    2015-10-20

    The differentiation of CD4(+) helper T cell subsets with diverse effector functions is accompanied by changes in metabolism required to meet their bioenergetic demands. We find that follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells exhibited less proliferation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration, accompanied by reduced mTOR kinase activity compared to T helper 1 (Th1) cells in response to acute viral infection. IL-2-mediated activation of the Akt kinase and mTORc1 signaling was both necessary and sufficient to shift differentiation away from Tfh cells, instead promoting that of Th1 cells. These findings were not the result of generalized signaling attenuation in Tfh cells, because they retained the ability to flux calcium and activate NFAT-transcription-factor-dependent cytokine production. These data identify the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mTORc1 axis as a critical orchestrator of the reciprocal balance between Tfh and Th1 cell fates and their respective metabolic activities after acute viral infection. PMID:26410627

  7. A cis element required for induction of the interleukin 2 enhancer by human T-cell leukemia virus type I binds a novel Tax-inducible nuclear protein.

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Siekevitz, M

    1993-01-01

    The 40-kDa nuclear protein Tax encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) can transcriptionally activate the interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer even in the presence of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, which inhibits the activation of the IL-2 enhancer by T-cell mitogens. We have identified a Tax-responsive element (TxRE) from -164 to -145 bp in the IL-2 enhancer which is sufficient to confer Tax responsiveness. A 45-kDa nuclear protein (TxRE-binding factor [TxREF]), present in Tax-expressing Jurkat cell lines but not in Jurkat cells without Tax, specifically interacts with the 5' TxRE sequence from -164 to -154. Deletion or mutation of this 5' TxRE sequence removes the binding of TxREF in vitro and dramatically reduces Tax activity in vivo. In addition, this site is responsible for the cyclosporin A-resistant expression of the IL-2 enhancer in the presence of Tax. Although the TxREF binding site contains an NF-kappa B like motif, UV cross-linking studies as well as gel retardation analysis reveal that TxREF is distinct from NF-kappa B. These results demonstrate that TxREF is a novel Tax-inducible DNA-binding protein and that TxRE plays a crucial role in mediating Tax-induced IL-2 gene expression. Images PMID:8413248

  8. The immunopathology of sequential tumor biopsies in patients treated with interleukin-2. Correlation of response with T-cell infiltration and HLA-DR expression.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P. J.; Lotze, M. T.; Roberts, J. R.; Rosenberg, S. A.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1987-01-01

    Sequential tumor biopsies from 9 patients with disseminated cancers were obtained before, during, and after treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) with or without the adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Infiltrating lymphoid and tumor cells were characterized in frozen sections by the use of monoclonal antibodies and the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunoperoxidase technique. Five patients had objective tumor regression (1 complete response of a follicular lymphoma, 4 partial responses of melanomas). Four patients (2 melanomas, 1 renal cell carcinoma, 1 breast carcinoma) were nonresponsive after treatment. After treatment, responsive tumors showed a pronounced infiltration of T cells, mainly Leu-2+ (CD8, primarily cytotoxic/suppressor) cells. Macrophages, although increased, were fewer than the T cells, and Leu-7+ or Leu-11+ (NK and K) cells were virtually absent. In nonresponders, there was no significant increase in lymphoid cells after therapy, and no differences were noted between groups before therapy. In 4 of 5 responders, tumor cells were positive for HLA-DR before therapy; and in the remaining responder, the tumor became positive during treatment. Tumor cells in all biopsy specimens from nonresponders were DR- before and after the start of therapy. It is concluded that the expression of HLA-DR by tumor cells may play a role in the response to IL-2 with or without LAK and that marked infiltration by T cells accompanies, and possibly mediates, such a response. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3499823

  9. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor α Gene to Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthésy; Nabholz, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2Rα transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2Rα expression. In cells induced to transiently express IL-2Rα with concanavalin A (which mimics antigen), none of the IL-2rE sites is occupied despite the presence of Elf-1 and STAT1, which bind to the IL-2rE in vitro. The two STAT binding sites are occupied rapidly upon IL-2 stimulation, concomitantly with STAT5 activation. Occupation of the Elf-1 binding site is delayed, although Elf-1 concentration and binding activity are not modified by IL-2. Digestion of T-cell chromatin with DNase I and micrococcal nuclease shows that IL-2 induces the appearance of nuclease-hypersensitive sites flanking the IL-2rE. Thus IL-2, in addition to activating STAT5, appears to regulate IL-2Rα transcription by making IL-2Rα chromatin accessible to transcription factors. PMID:10082534

  10. The pathogenesis of experimental toxic shock syndrome: the role of interleukin-2 in the induction of hypotension and release of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Tokman, M G; Carey, K D; Quimby, F W

    1995-02-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by fever, hypotension, and involvement of three other organ systems. The etiologic agent is a toxigenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus which secretes the exotoxin, TSST-1. The toxin is a superantigen which stimulates the immune system to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We hypothesized that TSST-1 induces the release of IL-2 which in turn is either directly involved or acts via an additional mediator to produce hypotension. We submitted four pairs of normal anesthetized adult female baboons to intravenous boluses of TSST-1. One baboon in each pair received anti-IL-2 intravenously and anti-IL-2 receptor intrathyroidally 15 min prior to TSST-1. The other baboon received the same dose and placement of anti-sheep red blood cell antibody. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded continuously and mean arterial pressure was calculated and plotted. IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF were measured in serum at varying times before and after toxin administration. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in the sham-treated group versus the experimental (anti-IL-2/IL-2R) group (p < .05 for all variables). In addition no differences were seen in any of the measurements between experimentally treated baboons and those receiving no TSST-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749941

  11. Effects of medium quality on the expression of human interleukin-2 at high cell density in fermentor cultures of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, H L; Neway, J O

    1990-01-01

    We examined the ability of transformed Escherichia coli cells in fermentor cultures to accumulate interleukin-2 (IL-2) intracellularly under temperature-regulated control of the phage lambda pL promoter. Induction of expression was undertaken at different culture optical densities, and specific IL-2 accumulation was found to decrease with increasing cell density at induction. Induction at higher culture optical densities was also accompanied by decreased growth during induction and increased acetate accumulation in the culture medium. Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of replacing spent medium by perfusion with fresh medium both before induction and during IL-2 expression at high cell density. Improved IL-2 expression was seen only when perfusion was continued past 1.6 h after the start of induction, and it was accompanied by a significant reduction in acetate buildup. Further improvements were not seen when perfusion was continued beyond hour 3 of induction. Replenishing medium components and decreasing the concentration of diffusible inhibitors before induction did not alleviate acetate buildup, growth limitation, or limitation of IL-2 synthesis. These results suggested that accumulation of diffusible inhibitors such as acetate during induction may be a significant factor limiting IL-2 expression in high-density cultures, but other factors intrinsic to the organism or the protein also played a major role. PMID:2180368

  12. Interleukin 2 production, not the pattern of early T-cell antigen receptor-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation, controls anergy induction by both agonists and partial agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Madrenas, J; Schwartz, R H; Germain, R N

    1996-01-01

    Full activation of T cells requires signaling through the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and additional surface molecules interacting with ligands on the antigen-presenting cell. TCR recognition of agonist ligands in the absence of accessory signals frequently results in the induction of a state of unresponsiveness termed anergy. However, even in the presence of costimulation, anergy can be induced by TCR partial agonists. The unique pattern of early receptor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation events induced by partial agonists has led to the hypothesis that altered TCR signaling is directly responsible for the development of anergy. Here we show that anergy induction is neither correlated with nor irreversibly determined by the pattern of early TCR-induced phosphorylation. Rather, it appears to result from the absence of downstream events related to interleukin 2 receptor occupancy and/or cell division. This implies that the anergic state can be manipulated independently of the precise pattern of early biochemical changes following TCR occupancy, a finding with implications for understanding the induction of self-tolerance and the use of partial agonist ligands in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8790400

  13. Virus-Like Particles Displaying Recombinant Short-Chain Fragment Region and Interleukin 2 for Targeting Colon Cancer Tumors and Attracting Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Deo, Vipin Kumar; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-05-01

    Functionalized virus-like particles (VLPs) can target with specificity as drug delivery systems and can attract macrophages for the destruction of cancer cells. Here, the group antigen capsid protein from the Rous sarcoma virus was used to prepare VLPs, functionalized by displaying glycol-inositol phosphate-anchored recombinant single chain fragment variable (rscFv) and hemagglutinin transmembrane region anchored recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL2) (designated as VLP-rscFv-rhIL2s) in silkworms. The rscFv specifically binds the tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 that is expressed at the surface of colon cancer cells. VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 was affinity purified and had a smooth particle size with a diameter of 50 nm. Calcein-AM-packaged VLP-rscFv-rhIL2s successfully targeted cancer cells as a model for drug delivery system. VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 bound with colon cancer cells that attracted macrophages (human monocytic cell line-1 cells) in chemotaxis chamber assays compared with negative controls. The macrophages secreted tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine that is necessary to destroy cancer cells. These results demonstrate the potential of VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 as an intelligent nano biomaterial that is capable of attracting macrophages. PMID:27037014

  14. Clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukemia detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and conventional cytogenetics after stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides and interleukin-2: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Brejcha, Martin; Stoklasová, Martina; Brychtová, Yvona; Panovská, Anna; Štěpanovská, Kristina; Vaňková, Gabriela; Plevová, Karla; Oltová, Alexandra; Horká, Kateřina; Pospíšilová, Šárka; Mayer, Jiří; Doubek, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients may acquire new chromosome abnormalities during the course of their disease. Clonal evolution (CE) has been detected by conventional chromosome banding (CBA), several groups also confirmed CE with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). At present, there are minimal prospective data on CE frequency determined using a combination of both methods. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively assess CE frequency using a combination of FISH and CBA after stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides and interleukin-2. Between 2008 and 2012, we enrolled 140 patients with previously untreated CLL in a prospective trial evaluating CE using FISH and CBA after stimulation. Patients provided baseline and regular follow-up peripheral blood samples for testing. There was a median of 3 cytogenetic examinations (using both methods) per patient. CE was detected in 15.7% (22/140) of patients using FISH, in 28.6% (40/140) using CBA, and in 34.3% (48/140) of patients by combining both methods. Poor-prognosis CE (new deletion 17p, new deletion 11q or new complex karyotype) was detected in 15% (21/140) of patients and was significantly associated with previous CLL treatment (p=0.013). CBA provides more complex information about cytogenetic abnormalities in CLL patients than FISH and confirms that many patients can acquire new abnormalities during the course of their disease in a relatively short time period. PMID:24246692

  15. Natural Variation in Interleukin-2 Sensitivity Influences Regulatory T-Cell Frequency and Function in Individuals With Long-standing Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jennie H M; Cutler, Antony J; Ferreira, Ricardo C; Reading, James L; Cooper, Nicholas J; Wallace, Chris; Clarke, Pamela; Smyth, Deborah J; Boyce, Christopher S; Gao, Guo-Jian; Todd, John A; Wicker, Linda S; Tree, Timothy I M

    2015-11-01

    Defective immune homeostasis in the balance between FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells is a likely contributing factor in the loss of self-tolerance observed in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Given the importance of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in the generation and function of Tregs, observations that polymorphisms in genes in the IL-2 pathway associate with T1D and that some individuals with T1D exhibit reduced IL-2 signaling indicate that impairment of this pathway may play a role in Treg dysfunction and the pathogenesis of T1D. Here, we have examined IL-2 sensitivity in CD4+ T-cell subsets in 70 individuals with long-standing T1D, allowing us to investigate the effect of low IL-2 sensitivity on Treg frequency and function. IL-2 responsiveness, measured by STAT5a phosphorylation, was a very stable phenotype within individuals but exhibited considerable interindividual variation and was influenced by T1D-associated PTPN2 gene polymorphisms. Tregs from individuals with lower IL-2 signaling were reduced in frequency, were less able to maintain expression of FOXP3 under limiting concentrations of IL-2, and displayed reduced suppressor function. These results suggest that reduced IL-2 signaling may be used to identify patients with the highest Treg dysfunction and who may benefit most from IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:26224887

  16. The shared and contrasting roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 in the life and death of normal and neoplastic lymphocytes: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) and IL15, members of the 4α-helix bundle family of cytokines, play pivotal roles in the control of the life and death of lymphocytes. Although their heterotrimeric receptors have two receptor subunits in common these two cytokines have contrasting roles in adaptive immune responses. The unique role of IL2 through maintenance of fitness of regulatory T cells (Treg) and activation-induced cell death (AICD) is the elimination of self-reactive T cells to prevent autoimmunity. In contrast to IL2, IL15 is dedicated to the prolonged maintenance of memory T-cell responses to invading pathogens. Blockade of IL2 and IL15 using monoclonal antibodies has been reported to be of value in the treatment of patients with leukemia, autoimmune disorders and in the prevention of allograft rejection. IL2 has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with malignant renal cell cancer and metastatic malignant melanoma. Clinical trials involving recombinant human IL15 given by bolus infusions have been completed, and by subcutaneous and continuous intravenous infusions are underway in patients with metastatic malignancy. Furthermore, clinical trials are being initiated that employ the combination of IL15 with IL15Rα+/− IgFc. PMID:25736261

  17. Ultra-low Dose Interleukin-2 Promotes Immune-modulating Function of Regulatory T Cells and Natural Killer Cells in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sawa; Bollard, Catherine M; Carlsten, Mattias; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Biancotto, Angélique; Wang, Ena; Chen, Jinguo; Kotliarov, Yuri; Cheung, Foo; Xie, Zhi; Marincola, Francesco; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Battiwalla, Minoo; Olnes, Matthew J; Perl, Shira; Schum, Paula; Hughes, Thomas E; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Hensel, Nancy; Muranski, Pawel; Young, Neal S; Barrett, A John

    2014-01-01

    Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that ultra-low dose (ULD) IL-2 could serve as an immune-modulating agent for stem cell donors to prevent GVHD following SCT. However, the safety, dose level, and immune signatures of ULD IL-2 in immune-competent healthy subjects remain unknown. Here, we have characterized the phenotype and function of Tregs and NK cells as well as the gene expression and cytokine profiles of 21 healthy volunteers receiving 50,000 to 200,000 units/m2/day IL-2 for 5 days. ULD IL-2 was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs with increased suppressive function. There was a marked expansion of CD56bright NK cells with enhanced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. Serum cytokine profiling demonstrated increase of IFN-γ induced protein 10 (IP-10). Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in a highly restricted set of genes, including FOXP3, IL-2RA, and CISH. This is the first study to evaluate global immune-modulating function of ULD IL-2 in healthy subjects and to support the future studies administrating ULD IL-2 to stem cell donors. PMID:24686272

  18. Effect of targeted ovarian cancer therapy using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein-human interleukin-2 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YOU, QI; YAO, YUAN; ZHANG, YUANLONG; FU, SONGBIN; DU, MEI; ZHANG, GUANGMEI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) in targeted ovarian cancer therapy in vivo. AF-MSCs were isolated from human second trimester AF and a plasmid, enhanced green fluorescent protein-human interleukin-2 (pEGFP-hIL-2) was formed. The plasmid was stably transfected into the AF-MSCs and the cells were intravenously injected into ovarian cancer nude mice models. Following stable transfection of the vector, tumor formation, and the expression and activity of hIL-2 were investigated, and microscopic pathological examinations of the tumor were performed. It was found that AF-MSCs exhibited high motility during migration in vivo, and the vector, pEGFP-hIL-2 can be stably transfected into AF-MSCs. Following stable transfection, this type of stem cell is able to successfully transport the therapeutic gene, IL-2, migrate to the ovarian cancer tumor site to secrete the functional IL-2 and treat the tumor. Thus, AF-MSCs may serve as transporters for therapeutic genes targeting ovarian tumor sites and, therefore, be involved in the treatment of tumors. PMID:26179662

  19. Cytokine mRNA Expression in Lesions in Cats with Chronic Gingivostomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Harley, R.; Helps, C. R.; Harbour, D. A.; Gruffydd-Jones, T. J.; Day, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays were developed to measure feline interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 (p35 & p40); gamma interferon (IFN-γ); and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA concentrations in biopsies of feline oral mucosa. Biopsies were collected from 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (diseased) prior to each cat receiving one of four treatments. In 23 cases replicate biopsies were collected 3 months after treatment commenced. Biopsies were also analyzed from 11 cats without clinical disease (nondiseased). Expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-γ was detected in most nondiseased biopsies, while IL-6 was detected in a minority, and IL-4 and IL-5 were both undetectable. Compared to nondiseased cats, the diseased population showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-γ. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was unchanged and was only detected in one case. No significant relationship was demonstrable between the change in relative expression of specific cytokine mRNA and the change in clinical severity of the local mucosal lesions over the treatment period. The results demonstrate that the normal feline oral mucosa is biased towards a predominantly (Th) type 1 profile of cytokine expression and that during the development of lesions seen in feline chronic gingivostomatitis there is a shift in the cytokine profile from a type 1 to a mixed type 1 and type 2 response. PMID:10391845

  20. Cytokine mRNA expression in lesions in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Helps, C R; Harbour, D A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    1999-07-01

    Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays were developed to measure feline interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 (p35 & p40); gamma interferon (IFN-gamma); and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA concentrations in biopsies of feline oral mucosa. Biopsies were collected from 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (diseased) prior to each cat receiving one of four treatments. In 23 cases replicate biopsies were collected 3 months after treatment commenced. Biopsies were also analyzed from 11 cats without clinical disease (nondiseased). Expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma was detected in most nondiseased biopsies, while IL-6 was detected in a minority, and IL-4 and IL-5 were both undetectable. Compared to nondiseased cats, the diseased population showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was unchanged and was only detected in one case. No significant relationship was demonstrable between the change in relative expression of specific cytokine mRNA and the change in clinical severity of the local mucosal lesions over the treatment period. The results demonstrate that the normal feline oral mucosa is biased towards a predominantly (Th) type 1 profile of cytokine expression and that during the development of lesions seen in feline chronic gingivostomatitis there is a shift in the cytokine profile from a type 1 to a mixed type 1 and type 2 response. PMID:10391845

  1. Downregulation of JAK3 protein levels in T lymphocytes by prostaglandin E2 and other cyclic adenosine monophosphate-elevating agents: impact on interleukin-2 receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kolenko, V; Rayman, P; Roy, B; Cathcart, M K; O'Shea, J; Tubbs, R; Rybicki, L; Bukowski, R; Finke, J

    1999-04-01

    The Janus kinase, JAK3 plays an important role in interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent signal transduction and proliferation of T lymphocytes. Our findings show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can inhibit upregulation of JAK3 protein in naive T cells and can downregulate its expression in primed cells. Reduction in JAK3 was selective because expression of other tyrosine kinases (JAK1, p56(lck), and p59(fyn)) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5, which are linked to IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling pathway, were not affected. Inhibition of JAK3 may be controlled by intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, as forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), a membrane permeable analogue of cAMP suppressed JAK3 expression. Moreover, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase, potentiated PGE2-induced suppression of JAK3. In naive T cells, but not primed T cells, PGE2 and other cAMP elevating agents also caused a modest reduction in surface expression of the common gamma chain (gammac) that associates with JAK3. The absence of JAK3, but not IL-2R in T cells correlated with impaired IL-2-dependent signal transduction and proliferation. The alteration in IL-2 signaling included decreased tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of STAT5 and poor induction of the c-Myc and c-Jun pathways. In contrast, IL-2-dependent induction of Bcl-2 was unaffected. These findings suggest that suppression of JAK3 levels may represent one mechanism by which PGE2 and other cAMP elevating agents can inhibit T-cell proliferation. PMID:10090941

  2. Cellular activation without proliferation to B cell growth factor and interleukin 2 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia B cells stimulated with phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, P; Inglés, J; de la Calle, O; Gallart, T

    1989-01-01

    Individual leukaemic B cells of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) do not proliferate to B cell growth factor (BCGF) or interleukin 2 (IL-2) when co-stimulated with immunoglobulin (Ig) ligands. To exclude possible defective signalling via surface Ig (sIg), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore (A23187) were used to activate purified CLL B cells and compared with staphylococcal protein A coupled to sepharose beads (Seph-PA). RNA synthesis and phenotypic changes after PMA plus A23187 stimulation indicate that CLL B cells from (10) different individuals are similarly able to undergo the G0 to the G1 phase transition and express surface activation antigens. In contrast, they are variable in the capacity to show DNA synthesis, which occurred in only six out of 10 cases. Even in the presence of BCGF (10%, v/v) or IL-2 (50 U/ml) four out of nine CLL B cells activated with PMA plus A23187 or PMA alone were still unable to proliferate although they were induced to express CD23, 4F2, CD25 and OKT9 antigens by PMA plus A23187. However, PMA plus A23187 induced IgM secretion which increased further in response to IL-2 even in the absence of DNA synthesis. Moreover, in other CLL B cell populations, the unresponsiveness to growth factors upon co-stimulation with Ig ligands (Seph-PA) may simply reflect a defective signalling via sIg cross-linking which can be circumvented by PMA plus A23187 stimulation. Recombinant Interferon-gamma (50 U/ml) failed to affect DNA synthesis and IgM secretion. PMID:2500274

  3. Direct inhibition of interleukin-2 receptor alpha-mediated signaling pathway induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human head-and-neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Deborah J; Dou, Q Ping

    2005-05-15

    Overexpression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha chain in tumor cells is associated with tumor progression and a poor patient prognosis. IL-2Ralpha is responsible for the high affinity binding of the receptor to IL-2, leading to activation of several proliferative and anti-apoptotic intracellular signaling pathways. We have previously shown that human squamous cell carcinoma of a head-and-neck line (PCI-13) genetically engineered to overexpress IL-2Ralpha exhibit increased transforming activity, proliferation, and drug resistance, compared to the vector control cells (J Cell Biochem 2003;89:824-836). In this study, we report that IL-2Ralpha(+) cells express high levels of total and phosphorylated Jak3 protein and are more resistant to apoptosis induced by a Jak3 inhibitor than the control LacZ cells. Furthermore, we used daclizumab, a monoclonal antibody specific to IL-2Ralpha, and determined the effects of IL-2Ralpha inhibition on cell cycle and apoptosis as well as the involvement of potential cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins. We found that daclizumab induces G(1) arrest, associated with down-regulation of cyclin A protein, preferentially in IL-2Ralpha(+) cells, but not in LacZ cells. In addition, daclizumab activates apoptotic death program via Bcl-2 down-regulation preferentially in IL-2Ralpha(+) cells. Finally, daclizumab also sensitizes IL-2Ralpha(+) cells to other apoptotic stimuli, although the effect is moderate. These results indicate that daclizumab inhibits the proliferative potential of IL-2Ralpha(+) cells via inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. PMID:15779002

  4. Relationship between Serum Level of Interleukin-2 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Disease Activity in Comparison with Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Mehrdad; Musavi, Sara; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the large number of surveys, there are not any validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity till now. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum level of IL-2 in patients with SLE and disease activity in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 73 patients with lupus and 73 healthy subjects referred to the rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran).They were studied via convenience sampling during 2011-2012. Blood samples were taken from both groups and serum levels of interleukin -2 measured by Avi Bion Human IL-2 ELISA kit. Serum Level of IL-2 greater than 15 pg/ml defined positive and lesser than this amount defined negative. Disease activity evaluated with SLE disease activity index. Score greater than or equal to three or four defined as active disease. Data analysis conducted by SPSS software (version 16) and by using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results: Serum level of IL-2 was positive in 45.2% of sample studied and negative in 54.8% in case group, while in control group, serum level of IL-2 only in 11% of sample studied was positive and in 89% was negative. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between serum level of IL-2 and the SLE disease activity index (p=0.025). Conclusion: This study showed the relationship between serum levels of IL-2 and disease activity, so this biomarker can be used as a clinical indicator for assessing disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:25177590

  5. Targeting Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) and Resting Lymphocyte Kinase (RLK) Using a Novel Covalent Inhibitor PRN694

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yiming; Dong, Shuai; Strattan, Ethan; Ren, Li; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Thornton, Kelsey; Mishra, Anjali; Porcu, Pierluigi; Bradshaw, J. Michael; Bisconte, Angelina; Owens, Timothy D.; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Hill, Ronald J.; Johnson, Amy J.; Dubovsky, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK or TXK) are essential mediators of intracellular signaling in both normal and neoplastic T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, ITK and RLK inhibitors have therapeutic potential in a number of human autoimmune, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. Here we describe a novel ITK/RLK inhibitor, PRN694, which covalently binds to cysteine residues 442 of ITK and 350 of RLK and blocks kinase activity. Molecular modeling was utilized to design molecules that interact with cysteine while binding to the ATP binding site in the kinase domain. PRN694 exhibits extended target residence time on ITK and RLK and is highly selective for a subset of the TEC kinase family. In vitro cellular assays confirm that PRN694 prevents T-cell receptor- and Fc receptor-induced cellular and molecular activation, inhibits T-cell receptor-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocks proinflammatory cytokine release as well as activation of Th17 cells. Ex vivo assays demonstrate inhibitory activity against T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia cells, and in vivo assays demonstrate durable pharmacodynamic effects on ITK, which reduces an oxazolone-induced delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. These data indicate that PRN694 is a highly selective and potent covalent inhibitor of ITK and RLK, and its extended target residence time enables durable attenuation of effector cells in vitro and in vivo. The results from this study highlight potential applications of this dual inhibitor for the treatment of T-cell- or NK cell-mediated inflammatory, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. PMID:25593320

  6. Rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and p21ras by prolactin and interleukin 2 in rat Nb2 node lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y P; Buckley, D J; Buckley, A R

    1995-10-01

    Several serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase signal transduction pathways have been recently linked to prolactin (PRL) action in lymphoid cells. Utilizing the lactogen-dependent, rat pre-T lymphoma cell line, Nb2-11, and the autonomous subline, Nb2-SFJCD1, studies were conducted to determine whether PRL- or interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated Nb2 cell proliferation is coupled to the activation of p21ras and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Stimulation of Nb2-11 cells, growth-arrested in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle, with PRL or IL-2 rapidly (5-10 min) provoked GTP binding to Ras, enhanced tyrosyl phosphorylation of MAP kinase, significantly increased its enzymatic activity, and caused its nuclear translocation. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which directly activates protein kinase C, similarly activated Ras and MAP kinase but failed to cause its nuclear translocation. Tyrosine kinase antagonism with genistein inhibited PRL-stimulated Ras and MAP kinase activation. In other experiments, Ras and MAP kinase were each found to be constitutively active in the Nb2-SFJCD1 line. The addition of PRL to these cultures enhanced the activity of these signaling proteins. Finally, the effects of PRL, IL-2, TPA, and phosphatase inhibition on Nb2-11 cell population density and [3H]thymidine uptake were compared. The addition of PRL, IL-2, and TPA significantly stimulated[3H] thymidine incorporation, while only the polypeptide growth factors augmented cell density. Phosphatase inhibition had no effect on either parameter. These results indicate that Nb2 cell proliferation is associated with the early activation of Ras and MAP kinase. Moreover, tyrosyl phosphorylation upstream of Ras activation appears to be required for its subsequent stimulation of mediators, which activate MAP kinase. Protein kinase C activation may be coupled to MAP kinase activation but is not sufficient for Nb2 cell proliferation. PMID:8845300

  7. Rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and p21ras by prolactin and interleukin 2 in rat Nb2 node lymphoma cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rao YP; Buckley DJ; Buckley AR

    1995-10-01

    Several serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase signal transduction pathways have been recently linked to prolactin (PRL) action in lymphoid cells. Utilizing the lactogen-dependent, rat pre-T lymphoma cell line, Nb2-11, and the autonomous subline, Nb2-SFJCD1, studies were conducted to determine whether PRL- or interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated Nb2 cell proliferation is coupled to the activation of p21ras and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Stimulation of Nb2-11 cells, growth-arrested in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle, with PRL or IL-2 rapidly (5-10 min) provoked GTP binding to Ras, enhanced tyrosyl phosphorylation of MAP kinase, significantly increased its enzymatic activity, and caused its nuclear translocation. The phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which directly activates protein kinase C, similarly activated Ras and MAP kinase but failed to cause its nuclear translocation. Tyrosine kinase antagonism with genistein inhibited PRL-stimulated Ras and MAP kinase activation. In other experiments, Ras and MAP kinase were each found to be constitutively active in the Nb2-SFJCD1 line. The addition of PRL to these cultures enhanced the activity of these signaling proteins. Finally, the effects of PRL, IL-2, TPA, and phosphatase inhibition on Nb2-11 cell population density and [3H]thymidine uptake were compared. The addition of PRL, IL-2, and TPA significantly stimulated[3H] thymidine incorporation, while only the polypeptide growth factors augmented cell density. Phosphatase inhibition had no effect on either parameter. These results indicate that Nb2 cell proliferation is associated with the early activation of Ras and MAP kinase. Moreover, tyrosyl phosphorylation upstream of Ras activation appears to be required for its subsequent stimulation of mediators, which activate MAP kinase. Protein kinase C activation may be coupled to MAP kinase activation but is not sufficient for Nb2 cell proliferation.

  8. Transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing chicken interleukin 2 stimulated higher cellular immune response in chickens compared with the wild-type parasites.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuoran; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Jingxia; Qin, Mei; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria sp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria sp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria sp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2) expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-γ secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria sp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis. PMID:26082759

  9. Transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing chicken interleukin 2 stimulated higher cellular immune response in chickens compared with the wild-type parasites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuoran; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Jingxia; Qin, Mei; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria sp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria sp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria sp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2) expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-γ secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria sp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis. PMID:26082759

  10. Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon. Lysis of natural killer-resistant fresh solid tumor cells by interleukin 2-activated autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.A.; Mazumder, A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-06-01

    Activation in lectin-free interleukin 2 (IL-2) containing supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBL) from cancer patients or normal individuals resulted in expression of cytotoxicity toward 20 of 21 natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh solid tumor cells tested. Fresh solid tumor cells were resistant to NK-mediated lysis in 10 autologous patients' PBL-tumor interactions, and from 17 normal individuals tested against 13 allogeneic fresh tumors. Culture of PBL in IL-2 for 2-3 d was required for the lymphokine activated killers (LAK) to be expressed, and lytic activity toward a variety of NK-resistant fresh and cultured tumor targets developed in parallel. Autologous IL-2 was functional in LAK activation, as well as interferon-depleted IL-2 preparations. Irradiation of responder PBL before culture in IL-2 prevented LAK development. Precursors of LAK were present in PBL depleted of adherent cells and in NK-void thoracic duct lymphocytes, suggesting that the precursor is neither a monocyte nor an NK cell. LAK effectors expressed the serologically defined T cell markers of OKT.3, Leu-1, and 4F2, but did not express the monocyte/NK marker OKM-1. Lysis of autologous fresh solid tumors by LAK from cancer patients' PBL was demonstrated in 85% of the patient-fresh tumor combinations. Our data present evidence that the LAK system is a phenomenon distinct from either NK or CTL systems that probably accounts for a large number of reported nonclassical cytotoxicities. The biological role of LAK cells is not yet known, although it is suggested that these cells may be functional in immune surveillance against human solid tumors.

  11. Targeting interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK) using a novel covalent inhibitor PRN694.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yiming; Dong, Shuai; Strattan, Ethan; Ren, Li; Butchar, Jonathan P; Thornton, Kelsey; Mishra, Anjali; Porcu, Pierluigi; Bradshaw, J Michael; Bisconte, Angelina; Owens, Timothy D; Verner, Erik; Brameld, Ken A; Funk, Jens Oliver; Hill, Ronald J; Johnson, Amy J; Dubovsky, Jason A

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK or TXK) are essential mediators of intracellular signaling in both normal and neoplastic T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, ITK and RLK inhibitors have therapeutic potential in a number of human autoimmune, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. Here we describe a novel ITK/RLK inhibitor, PRN694, which covalently binds to cysteine residues 442 of ITK and 350 of RLK and blocks kinase activity. Molecular modeling was utilized to design molecules that interact with cysteine while binding to the ATP binding site in the kinase domain. PRN694 exhibits extended target residence time on ITK and RLK and is highly selective for a subset of the TEC kinase family. In vitro cellular assays confirm that PRN694 prevents T-cell receptor- and Fc receptor-induced cellular and molecular activation, inhibits T-cell receptor-induced T-cell proliferation, and blocks proinflammatory cytokine release as well as activation of Th17 cells. Ex vivo assays demonstrate inhibitory activity against T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia cells, and in vivo assays demonstrate durable pharmacodynamic effects on ITK, which reduces an oxazolone-induced delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. These data indicate that PRN694 is a highly selective and potent covalent inhibitor of ITK and RLK, and its extended target residence time enables durable attenuation of effector cells in vitro and in vivo. The results from this study highlight potential applications of this dual inhibitor for the treatment of T-cell- or NK cell-mediated inflammatory, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. PMID:25593320

  12. The immediate-early gene product Egr-1 regulates the human interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain promoter through noncanonical Egr and Sp1 binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, J X; Leonard, W J

    1997-01-01

    The interleukin-2 IL-2 receptor beta-chain (IL-2Rbeta) is an essential component of the receptors for IL-2 and IL-15. Although IL-2Rbeta is constitutively expressed by lymphocytes, its expression can be further induced by a number of stimuli, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). We have now characterized factors that bind to an enhancer region located between nucleotides -170 and -139 of the human IL-2Rbeta promoter. Both Sp1 and Sp3 bound to the 5' portion of this region, whereas a PMA-inducible factor (PIF) mainly bound to its 3' portion and bound to the Sp binding motifs as well. In Jurkat T cells, induction of PIF DNA binding activity was rapidly induced, required de novo protein synthesis, and was sustained at a high level for at least 23 h. Interestingly, PIF was constitutively activated in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-transformed MT-2 cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that PIF is Egr-1 based on its recognition by anti-Egr-1 antisera in gel mobility shift assays, even though the IL-2Rbeta DNA binding motif differed substantially from the canonical Egr-1 binding site. In addition, Egr-1 bound to the Sp binding site. In Jurkat cells, both sites were required for maximal IL-2Rbeta promoter activity, and in HeLaS3 cells, transfection of Egr-1 could drive activity of a reporter construct containing both sites. Moreover, Sp1 and Egr-1 could form a complex with kinetics that correlated with the production of Egr-1 in Jurkat cells upon PMA stimulation. Thus, Sp1 and Egr-1 physically and functionally cooperate to mediate maximal IL-2Rbeta promoter activity. PMID:9199305

  13. Induction of interleukin 2 receptiveness and proliferation in resting peripheral T cells by monoclonal anti-CD3 (T3) antibodies does not require the presence of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, L A; Sinska, A; Landesmann, U; Smolen, J S

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we sought to elucidate the sequence of events by which mitogenic monoclonal anti-CD3 antibodies (anti-CD3-MoAb) initiate T cell activation. In cultures of monocyte-depleted resting T cells, two anti-CD3-MoAb, OKT3 and anti-Leu 4, induced a state of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptiveness which culminated in T lymphocyte proliferation when recombinant IL-2 was provided. Evidence that Fc-receptor mediation by monocytes did not contribute to this mitogenesis was supported by studies showing that polyclonal F(ab')2 anti-mouse IgG Fc antibody did not alter the magnitude of the IL-2 driven T cell proliferative response, and by the use of T cells from donors whose monocytes were unable to assist in the induction of anti-Leu 4 (IgG1 subclass) initiated proliferation. Anti-CD3-MoAb, in the absence of IL-2, induced IL-2 receptor expression on purified T cells, and anti-IL 2 receptor antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the presence of this growth factor. Furthermore, following modulation of the CD3 molecular complex in the presence of monocytes, depletion of accessory cells rendered the modulated T cells mitogenically dependent on exogenous IL-2. IL-2 itself did not suffice to promote T cell proliferation in the absence of anti-CD3-MoAb. These results indicate that the binding of monoclonal antibody to CD3 is capable of initiating, in an accessory cell-independent manner, premitotic alterations in T cells which can culminate in proliferation when exogenous IL-2 is provided. PMID:3115639

  14. Immunofluorescence techniques for the identification of immune effector cells in rat heart: applications to the study of the myocarditis induced by interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Wenthold, R J; Zhang, J; Herman, E H; Ferrans, V J

    1995-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of immunohistochemical methods for identification of various types of immune effector cells in rat heart, involving the use of antibodies conjugated with different fluorochromes for the simultaneous demonstration of 2 or 3 different antigens by means of fluorescence microscopy. The initial results of the application of these techniques to the study of the myocarditis induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) are also presented. Antibodies used included: OX6 antibody (for MHC class II molecules, mainly expressed by dendritic cells): W3/25 and OX8 antibody, for the demonstration of the rat equivalents of CD5 and CD8, respectively: asialo-GM1 ganglioside antibody for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells, and ED2 antibody for labeling of macrophages. Fluorochromes used were: fluorescein isothiocyanate (green), tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (red), Texas red sulfonyl chloride (red), and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (blue). IL-2-induced myocarditis was characterized histologically by infiltration of the myocardium by mononuclear inflammatory cells, microvascular alteration, interstitial edema, and myocyte damage and necrosis. In the initial stages, NK/LAK cells were the predominant type of infiltrating lymphocytes; however, the numbers of these cells decreased sharply in subsequent stages. Macrophages also were initially abundant, and continued to be prevalent throughout the late stages. CD8+ lymphocytes were more numerous than CD4+ lymphocytes. Dendritic-cells showed a diffuse increase in number and also accumulated around foci of myocyte necrosis. Three phenotypes of dendritic cells were recognized, and the possible implications of these findings are discussed. It is hoped that these techniques will prove useful for the immunohistochemical evaluation of various inflammatory diseases of the heart. PMID:7539083

  15. Unique pattern of interleukin 2 receptor expression by lymphocytes in response to anti-LEU 4: relationship to monocyte accessory cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, H.E.; John, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    The relationship between early interleukin 2 receptor (IL2R) expression and subsequent DNA synthesis by mitogen-stimulated human mononuclear cells (MC) was studied. For serial dilutions of a given mitogen, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing IL2R after 1 day of culture was plotted vs /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation on day 3, and the IL2R value associated with 50,000 counts per minute (IL2R-50K) determined. A mean IL2R-50K value of 7 characterized PHA, Con A, and OKT3 responses, while a higher value of 29 characterized anti-Leu 4 (L4) responses. As tested on OKT3 and L4 systems, exogenous IL2 did not alter IL2R-50K values. Because OKT3 and L4 both recognize the lymphocyte CD3 antigen, but react with different monocyte Fc receptors, the role of monocytes in producing elevated L4 IL2R-50K values was explored. MC from healthy L4 nonresponders (NR), induced to proliferate by L4 in the presence of responder (R) monocytes, also yielded an elevated mean IL2R-50K value of 31. In contrast, direct stimulation of R-MC, NR-MC, or NR-MC plus R monocytes by L4-coated sepharose beads produced mean IL2R-50K values of 12 or 13. These findings suggest that crosslinking of lymphocyte-bound soluble L4 by R monocytes leads to uniquely elevated pattern of lymphocyte IL2R expression. Crosslinking mediated by L4-beads, however, leads to a more conventional pattern of IL2R expression, even though R monocytes may be present.

  16. Evidence for a Structural Motif in Toxins and Interleukin-2 That May Be Responsible for Binding to Endothelial Cells and Initiating Vascular Leak Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluna, Roxana; Rizo, Josep; Gordon, Brian E.; Ghetie, Victor; Vitetta, Ellen S.

    1999-03-01

    The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.

  17. Use of Antigen-Specific Interleukin-2 To Differentiate between Cattle Vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Cattle Infected with M. bovis

    PubMed Central

    McKinna, Lucy C.; Steinbach, Sabine; Dean, Gilly S.; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Whelan, Adam O.; Pirson, C.; Jones, Gareth J.; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, H. Martin

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the application of a novel bovine interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antigen-specific IL-2 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and then experimentally challenged with pathogenic M. bovis. Supernatants from whole-blood cultures stimulated with mycobacterial antigen (bovine purified protein derivative [PPDB] or the peptide cocktail ESAT6-CFP10) were assessed using a sandwich ELISA consisting of a new recombinant monoclonal fragment capture antibody and a commercially available polyclonal anti-bovine-IL-2. The production of IL-2 was compared to the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the same antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants. The data show that cattle infected with M. bovis produced quantifiable levels of antigen-specific IL-2, while IL-2 levels in cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG did not. Furthermore, cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG and then challenged with pathogenic M. bovis displayed a more rapid induction of IL-2 but ultimately had lower levels of infection-induced IL-2 than did unvaccinated challenge control cattle. These data suggest that IL-2 responses are not detectable post-BCG vaccination and that these responses may require infection with virulent M. bovis to develop. This may be useful to differentiate infected cattle from uninfected or BCG-vaccinated cattle, although the overall sensitivity is relatively low, particularly in single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT)-negative infected animals. Furthermore, the strength of the IL-2 response may correlate with pathology, which poses interesting questions on the immunobiology of bovine tuberculosis in contrast to human tuberculosis, which is discussed. PMID:24173026

  18. Induction of synthesis of the cytolytic C9 (ninth component of complement)-related protein in human peripheral mononuclear cells by monoclonal antibody OKT3 or interleukin 2: correlation with cytotoxicity and lymphocyte phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.E.; Zalman, L.S.; Jung, G.; Mueller-Eberhard, H.J.

    1987-05-01

    Synthesis of the cytolytic C9-related protein (C9RP) was induced by activation of resting human peripheral T lymphocytes with the anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 or interleukin 2. Comparison of cellular cytotoxicity and C9RP content at various times during activation yielded a coefficient of correlation r = 0.92. During OKT3 stimulation of peripheral mononuclear cells, maximal C9RP content and cytotoxicity were observed by day 2 for 3, with subsequent decline to baseline values by day 5, whereas during interleukin 2 stimulation, both parameters reached the maximal level at days 3-5. After fluorescence-activated cell sorting, C9RP and cytotoxicity were quantitated in CD4/sup +/, CD8/sup +/, and Leu-19/sup +/ subsets. In OKT3-activated CD8/sup +/ cells, C9RP increased to approx. 3 x 10/sup 6/ molecules per cell, with a corresponding increase in lysis of human melanoma cells mediated by anti-CD3-anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody conjugates. Interleukin 2-stimulated CD8/sup +/ cell showed similar increases, but cytotoxicity was conjugate-independent. Activated CD4/sup +/ cells showed minimal increase in C9RP content. Leu-19/sup +/ cells, which exhibit natural killer cell activity, had a high C9RP content before stimulation.

  19. Impairment of the cellular immune response in acute murine toxoplasmosis: regulation of interleukin 2 production and macrophage-mediated inhibitory effects.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S; Khan, I; Haque, A; Kasper, L

    1994-01-01

    Depression of the cellular immune response to Toxoplasma gondii has been reported in both mice and humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics and mechanism of the observed downregulation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production during experimental murine toxoplasmosis. For these investigations, the cell-mediated immune response to the wild type (PTg) was compared with that to the less-virulent mutant parasite (PTgB), which is deficient in the major surface antigen, p30 (SAG-1). Spleen cells from infected A/J mice failed to proliferate in response to Toxoplasma antigens during the first week of infection. Both PTg- and PTgB-infected A/J mice exhibited a significant reduction in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphoproliferative response. Further, the response of splenocytes from mice infected with the wild-type parasite was significantly diminished compared with that of mice infected with PTgB. The lymphoproliferative response to Con A reached its nadir at day 7 and remained below control levels for at least 14 days postinfection. By day 21 postinfection, the response to Con A and to Toxoplasma antigens was restored to the level observed prior to day 7. Con A-stimulated culture supernatants of spleen cells from mice on day 7 postinfection contained significantly less IL-2 than normal mice. There was no significant difference in the numbers of binding sites or capacity of high-affinity IL-2 receptors between infected and normal mouse splenocytes as determined by Scatchard analysis. Exogenous IL-2 at different concentrations failed to restore the proliferative response of lymphocytes from infected mice to Con A. Adherent macrophages from 7-day-infected mice were able to suppress IL-2 production by normal splenocytes following stimulation with Con A. The inhibitory activity mediated by infected cells was reversed by the antibody to IL-10 but not transforming growth factor beta. There were insignificant levels of nitric oxide production in both infected and normal splenocytes. These results indicate that during acute murine toxoplasmosis, there is a well-defined period (day 7) during which both the T-cell mitogen and parasite antigen-associated lymphoproliferative response are reduced. Further, there is a reduction in the production of IL-2 and an increase in IL-10, which appear to mediate, in part, the observed downregulation of immunity to T. gondii. PMID:8005679

  20. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4??mol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.61.4) smaller than the 15.6??mol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9??mol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0207.8) smaller than the 1698.0??mol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.148.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-?. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future. PMID:26288134

  1. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4 μmol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.6÷1.4) smaller than the 15.6 μmol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9 μmol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0÷207.8) smaller than the 1698.0 μmol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.14÷8.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future. PMID:26288134

  2. Pretreatment with cyclosporine and anti-interleukin 2 receptor antibody abrogates the anti-idiotype response in rat recipients of cardiac allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, K; Tilney, N L; Stunkel, K G; Hancock, W W; Diamantstein, T; Kupiec-Weglinski, J W

    1990-01-01

    A 10-day course with ART-18, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the rat interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), prolongs the survival of (LEW x BN)F1 cardiac allografts in LEW recipients to approximately 3 weeks (acute rejection = 8 days, P less than 0.001). We examined host responses against ART-18 idiotype (Id) and mouse immunoglobulin in recipients immunomodulated with ART-18 mAb. Treatment with ART-18 elicited high titers of anti-Id antibodies 14 days after transplantation. However, naive rats given ART-18 before transplantation showed strong anti-Id responses as early as day 4 after engraftment, coinciding with abrogation of the treatment effect (graft survival, approximately 10 days). Preimmunization with irrelevant mouse IgG, which elicited high titers of anti-IgG, did not influence the efficacy of ART-18 upon graft survival (17 days). The use of cyclosporin A (CsA) in conjunction with ART-18 prior to transplantation suppressed the anti-Id response and led to dramatic graft prolongation (greater than 58 days), with two of five grafts surviving indefinitely. This striking effect of CsA plus ART-18 pretreatment did not depend upon CsA per se, as grafts were rejected within 12 days in animals pretreated with CsA alone; in both groups CsA trough levels were comparable. Moreover, administration of CsA before transplantation in concert with control IgG (instead of ART-18) prompted rejection within 2-4 weeks. Thus, discrete interaction(s) between anti-IL-2R mAb and CsA prior to engraftment induces partial host unresponsiveness/tolerance to anti-IL-2R mAb treatment following transplantation and suppresses the neutralizing anti-Id responses, which results in long-term/permanent graft acceptance. This study provides a strategy to overcome the anti-Id response mounted by graft recipients that otherwise limits the efficacy of anti-IL-2R mAb treatment. PMID:2217171

  3. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor ?-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor ?-chain (IL-2R?, also known as CD25), IL-2R?, IL-3R?, IL-4R?, IL-5R?, IL-6R?, IL-7R?, the common ?-chain (?c), ?c, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)R?, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3R?, GM-CSFR?, IL-2R?, ?c, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ?10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFR? and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2R? in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3R?, GM-CSFR?, and IL-2R? correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ?60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2R? was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2R? status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2R? as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2R? alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ?60 years old. PMID:26375984

  4. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  5. Interleukin-13 is a potent activator of JAK3 and STAT6 in cells expressing interleukin-2 receptor-gamma and interleukin-4 receptor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Malabarba, M G; Rui, H; Deutsch, H H; Chung, J; Kalthoff, F S; Farrar, W L; Kirken, R A

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte growth factors interleukin-2 (IL2), IL4, IL7, IL9 and IL15 use the common IL2 receptor-gamma (IL2R gamma) and activate the IL2R gamma-associated tyrosine kinase JAK3 (Janus kinase 3). IL13 is structurally related to IL4, competes with IL4 for binding to cell surface receptors and exhibits many similar biological effects. The molecular basis for this functional overlap between IL4 and IL13 has been attributed mainly to a shared use of the 140 kDa IL4R alpha, since these cytokines appear to be uniquely different in that, according to several recent reports, IL13 does not recruit the IL2R gamma or JAK3. This notion has been supported by the identification of a novel 70 kDa IL13 receptor in certain IL13-responsive cell lines that lack IL2R gamma. The present study sheds new light on the issue of functional overlap between IL13 and IL4, by demonstrating for the first time that, in cells that express both IL2R gamma and IL4R alpha, IL13 can mimic IL4-induced heterodimerization of IL2R gamma and IL4R alpha, with consequent marked activation of JAK3 and the transcription factor STAT6 (IL4-STAT). Reconstitution experiments in BA/F3 cells showed that both cytokines require the simultaneous presence of IL4R alpha and IL2R gamma to mediate JAK3 and proliferative responses, and analysis of 12 IL4R alpha variants showed that IL4 and IL13 signals were equally affected by mutations of the cytoplasmic domain. We conclude that IL13 activates the IL2R gamma-associated JAK3 tyrosine kinase in appropriate cell types, and propose that IL13 is capable of interacting with multiple receptor subunits in a cell-dependent and combinatorial manner. Consequently, we predict that partial disruption of IL13 signal transduction also contributes to the severe combined immuno-deficiency syndromes associated with inactivation of the IL2R gamma or JAK3 genes. PMID:8920992

  6. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of DLK suppresses its ubiquitination to promote neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Wang, Bei; Watkins, Trent; Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Pozniak, Christine D.; Bustos, Daisy; Newton, Kim; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitinproteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults. PMID:23979718

  7. ROS activates JNK-mediated autophagy to counteract apoptosis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guan-yu; Jiang, Xiao-xue; Zhu, Xin; He, Wei-yang; Kuang, You-lin; Ren, Ke; Lin, Yong; Gou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) is hampered by apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In diabetic ED, there is increased oxidative stress and decreased NO in the corpora cavernosa, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis of the transplanted cells. In this study we examined whether and how autophagy was involved in ROS-induced apoptosis of MSCs. Methods: Mouse C3H10 MSCs were treated with H2O2 to simulate the high oxidative condition in diabetic ED. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blot assays. Intracellular autophagosome accumulation was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (50–400 μmol/L) inhibited the cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, H2O2 (300 μmol/L) induced apoptosis, as well as activated autophagy in MSCs. Pretreatment with lysosome inhibitor chloroquine (10 μmol/L) or PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mmol/L) significantly enhanced H2O2-induced cell death. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L) abrogated H2O2-induced accumulation of LC3-II, and attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of Bcl-2 levels in MSCs. Conclusion: ROS induce autophagy to counteract apoptosis in MSCs by activation of JNK. Thus, augmentation of autophagy may reduce apoptosis, prolonging MSC survival and improving MSC-based therapeutic efficacy for diabetic ED. PMID:26592514

  8. Plasmodium falciparum evades mosquito immunity by disrupting JNK-mediated apoptosis of invaded midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, must survive and develop in the mosquito vector to be successfully transmitted to a new host. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene is critical for malaria transmission. Parasites that express Pfs47 (NF54 WT) evade mosquito immunity and survive, whereas Pfs47 knockouts (KO) are efficiently eliminated by the complement-like system. Two alternative approaches were used to investigate the mechanism of action of Pfs47 on immune evasion. First, we examined whether Pfs47 affected signal transduction pathways mediating mosquito immune responses, and show that the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial responses to P. falciparum infection and that Pfs47 disrupts JNK signaling. Second, we used microarrays to compare the global transcriptional responses of A. gambiae midguts to infection with WT and KO parasites. The presence of Pfs47 results in broad and profound changes in gene expression in response to infection that are already evident 12 h postfeeding, but become most prominent at 26 h postfeeding, the time when ookinetes invade the mosquito midgut. Silencing of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes identified caspase-S2 as a key effector of Plasmodium elimination in parasites lacking Pfs47. We provide experimental evidence that JNK pathway regulates activation of caspases in Plasmodium-invaded midgut cells, and that caspase activation is required to trigger midgut epithelial nitration. Pfs47 alters the cell death pathway of invaded midgut cells by disrupting JNK signaling and prevents the activation of several caspases, resulting in an ineffective nitration response that makes the parasite undetectable by the mosquito complement-like system. PMID:25552553

  9. JNK mediates TGF-beta1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transdifferentiation of mouse transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Juan F

    2006-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the role of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway in the TGF-beta1 stimulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), initial stages of epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) and cell migration. TGF-beta1 induces JNK phosphorylation, c-Jun transactivation and AP1 activation. The involvement of JNK was evaluated using dominant negative mutants SEK-1 AL, JNK and cJun, depletion of JNK1,2 proteins by treatment of cells with antisense oligonucleotides, as well as the chemical inhibitor SP600125. Our results demonstrated that the JNK pathway is required in the TGF-beta1 enhancement of uPA, fibronectin, E-cadherin delocalization, actin re-organization and vimentin expression, concomitant with the induction of cell migration. These results allow us to suggest a role of JNK in the TGF-beta1 induction of EMT in relation with the stimulation of malignant properties of mouse transformed keratinocytes. PMID:16989819

  10. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  11. Effects of pulsing procedure of interleukin-12 in combination with interleukin-2 on the activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sawayama, Tomoyuki; Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Senoh, Tomonori; Ohta, Takeyuki; Nishimura, Mamoru; Takaki, Akinobu; Tsuji, Takao; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2003-12-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), natural killer (NK) cell activity decreases significantly, and the reduced activity may be associated with the progression of HCC. In this study we evaluated the effects of pulsing with interleukin (IL)-2 and/or IL-12 on the activation of freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) derived from patients with HCC. PBL obtained from 9 HCC patients, 4 liver cirrhosis patients, and 9 normal subjects were cultured in the presence of IL-2 and/or IL-12. After 24 h of incubation, the levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha presented in the supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production of PBL pulsed by a combination of IL-2 and IL-12 was significantly higher than those of PBL stimulated by either IL-2 or IL-12 alone. The mRNA encoding perforin, granzyme B, as well as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, were markedly enhanced in PBL stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-2. The pulsing procedure of IL-12 in combination with IL-2 resulted in the increase of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and the expression of perforin and granzyme B mRNA in PBL obtained from HCC patients, as well as in those obtained from normal subjects. These results indicate that adoptive immunotherapy based on PBL pulsed with a combination of IL-2 and IL-12 may be a promising adjunctive strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:14726965

  12. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  13. Biomaterials for mRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  14. Extraction of mRNA from soil.

    PubMed

    Mettel, Carsten; Kim, Yongkyu; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liesack, Werner

    2010-09-01

    Here, we report an efficient method for extracting high-quality mRNA from soil. Key steps in the isolation of total RNA were low-pH extraction (pH 5.0) and Q-Sepharose chromatography. The removal efficiency of humic acids was 94 to 98% for all soils tested. To enrich mRNA, subtractive hybridization of rRNA was most efficient. Subtractive hybridization may be followed by exonuclease treatment if the focus is on the analysis of unprocessed mRNA. The total extraction method can be completed within 8 h, resulting in enriched mRNA ranging from 200 bp to 4 kb in size. PMID:20622132

  15. Cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the mRNA clearance as well as mRNA stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the mRNA decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the mRNA fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time affect the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and mRNA turnover mechanisms. PMID:26432921

  16. Inhibition of leukocyte function and interleukin-2 gene expression by 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide, a stable congener of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Ouyang Yanli; Herring, Amy; Yea, Sung Su; Razdan, Raj; Kaminski, Norbert E. . E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu

    2005-06-01

    Arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Characterization of the direct cannabimimetic actions of anandamide has been hampered by its short duration of action and rapid degradation in in vivo and in vitro systems to arachidonic acid, a precursor in the biosynthesis of a broad range of biologically active molecules. In the present studies, we utilized 2-methylarachidonyl-(2'-fluoroethyl)amide (F-Me-AEA), an analog of anandamide resistant to enzymatic degradation, to determine whether F-Me-AEA modulated T cell function similar to that of plant-derived cannabinoids. Indeed, F-Me-AEA at low micromolar concentrations exhibited a marked inhibition of phorbol ester plus calcium ionophore (PMA/Io)-induced IL-2 protein secretion and steady state mRNA expression. Likewise, a modest suppression of the mixed lymphocyte response was observed in the presence of F-Me-AEA indicating an alteration in T cell responsiveness to allogeneic MHC class II antigens. F-Me-AEA was also found to modestly inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in thymocytes and splenocytes, a hallmark of cannabinoid receptor agonists. Further characterization of the influence of F-Me-AEA on the cAMP signaling cascade revealed an inhibition of CREB-1/ATF-1 phosphorylation and subsequently, an inhibition of CRE DNA binding activity. Characterization of nuclear binding proteins further revealed that NF-AT and, to a lesser extent, NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activities were also suppressed. These studies demonstrate that F-Me-AEA modulates T cell function in a similar manner to plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids and therefore can be utilized as an amidase- and hydrolysis-resistant endogenous cannabinoid.

  17. Two unique mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency arising in opposite parental germ lines

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, J.M.; Pepper, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding the gamma chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2 lies in human X13.1 and is mutated in males with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). 27 X-linked SCID mutations have been found in our laboratory. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genomic DNA using primers flanking each of the 8 exons was followed by direct sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments from SCID patients and family members. A 9 bp in-frame duplication insertion was found in IL2RG exon 5 of a patient from a large X-linked SCID pedigree; the resulting duplication of 3 extracellular amino acids, including the first tryptophan of the {open_quotes}WSXWS{close_quotes} cytokine binding motif, is predicted to disrupt interaction of the cytokine receptor chain with its ligand. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated that the grandmaternal X chromosome associated with SCID was contributed to 3 daughters, 2 obligate carriers and 1 woman of unknown status. However, this grandmother`s genomic DNA did not contain the insertion mutation, nor did she have skewed X-chromosome inactivation in her lymphocytes. That both obligate carrier daughters, but not the third daughter, had the insertion proved the grandmother to be a germline mosaic. A second proband had X-linked SCID with a branch point mutation due to substitution of T for A 15 bp 5{prime} of the start of IL2RG exon 3. This mutation resulted in undetectable IL2RG mRNA by Northern blot. Linkage analysis and sequencing of IL2RG DNA in this family proved the mutation to have originated in the germline of the proband`s grandfather, an immunocompetent individual who contributed an X chromosome with normal IL2RG to one daughter and a mutated X to the another.

  18. A CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clone to a conserved epitope on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24: cytotoxic activity and secretion of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6.

    PubMed Central

    Littaua, R A; Oldstone, M B; Takeda, A; Ennis, F A

    1992-01-01

    A CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone, established from the peripheral blood of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive donor, lysed autologous target cells that were infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gag gene of HIV type 1 and target cells pulsed with p24gag construct expressed in Escherichia coli. The recognition of the HLA-DQ-restricted epitope by this clone was further defined by using overlapping synthetic peptides. The epitope recognized by this CD4+ CTL clone (amino acids 140 to 148) overlaps with a CD8+ epitope and is highly conserved among all isolates of HIV type 1 that have been sequenced. Production and secretion of lymphokines such as interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 after specific antigenic stimulation were demonstrated by this gag-specific CD4+ CTL clone. PMID:1370094

  19. Coupling mRNA synthesis and decay.

    PubMed

    Braun, Katherine A; Young, Elton T

    2014-11-15

    What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun. -Ecclesiastes 1:9 (New International Version) Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression has an important role in defining the phenotypic characteristics of an organism. Well-defined steps in mRNA metabolism that occur in the nucleus-capping, splicing, and polyadenylation-are mechanistically linked to the process of transcription. Recent evidence suggests another link between RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and a posttranscriptional process that occurs in the cytoplasm-mRNA decay. This conclusion appears to represent a conundrum. How could mRNA synthesis in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm be mechanistically linked? After a brief overview of mRNA processing, we will review the recent evidence for transcription-coupled mRNA decay and the possible involvement of Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, in this process. PMID:25154419

  20. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  1. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5' end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  2. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  3. Cytokine mRNA expression in lung tissue from toxic oil syndrome patients: a TH2 immunological mechanism.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, V; de Andrés, B; Gallardo, S; Cárdaba, B; de Arruda-Chaves, E; Cortegano, M I; Jurado, A; Palomino, P; Oliva, H; Aguilera, B; Posada, M; Lahoz, C

    1997-03-14

    In 1981, an epidemic occurred in Spain, toxic oil syndrome (TOS), in people who consumed rapeseed oil denatured with 2% aniline, and it was one of the largest intoxication epidemics ever recorded. In 1989, a similar disease, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) was reported in the USA and was associated with the ingestion of L-tryptophan. The pathologic findings in TOS showed primary endothelial injury, with cell proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates. Immunologic mechanisms have presumably been operative in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of TOS. Our previous findings pointed to a T-cell activation during acute phase of the disease. In order to analyze which T-cell subset is involved on TOS, we have developed an mRNA extraction procedure from paraffin-embedded lung tissues in patients with pulmonary involvement. We analyzed mRNA expression from different cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF) and CD25 (interleukin 2 receptor) and CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor), using RT-PCR technique. In lung tissues from these patients a T-cell activation was observed. We found a significant increase in Th1 (P = 0.006) and Th2 (P = 0.003) cytokine profile in TOS patients with respect to controls. The increment in TH2 response with respect to TH1 is significant (P = 0.03) in TOS lung specimens. Non-significant differences were obtained in other cytokines and receptors studied as IL-1, CD25, CD23 and GM-CSF. Data presented in this paper are the first clear evidence that an immunological mechanism is directly implicated in this illness. PMID:9074654

  4. Regulation of cell-type-specific interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain gene expression: potential role of physical interactions between Elf-1, HMG-I(Y), and NF-kappa B family proteins.

    PubMed Central

    John, S; Reeves, R B; Lin, J X; Child, R; Leiden, J M; Thompson, C B; Leonard, W J

    1995-01-01

    The interleukin 2 receptor alpha-chain (IL-2R alpha) gene is rapidly and potently induced in T cells in response to mitogenic stimuli. Previously, an inducible enhancer between nucleotides -299 and -228 that contains NF-kappa B and CArG motifs was identified. We now report the characterization of a second essential positive regulatory element located between nucleotides -137 and -64 that binds Elf-1 and HMG-I(Y). This element had maximal activity in lymphoid cells, paralleling the cell type specificity of Elf-1 expression. Transcription from the IL-2R alpha promoter was inhibited when either the Elf-1 or the HMG-I(Y) binding site was mutated. Coexpression of both proteins activated transcription of the -137 to -64 element in COS-7 cells. Elf-1 physically associated with HMG-I and with NF-kappa B p50 and c-Rel in vitro, suggesting that protein-protein interactions might functionally coordinate the actions of the upstream and downstream positive regulatory elements. This is the first report of a physical interaction between an Ets family member and NF-kappa B family proteins. These findings provide significant new insights into the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that regulate cell-type-specific and inducible IL-2R alpha gene expression and also have implications for other genes regulated by Elf-1 and NF-kappa B family proteins. PMID:7862168

  5. Prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with clonotypic CDR3 peptides: CD4+ FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells suppress interleukin-2-dependent expansion of myelin basic protein-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Buenafe, Abigail C; Andrew, Shayne; Afentoulis, Michael; Offner, Halina; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2010-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR)-derived peptides are recognized by the immune system and are capable of modulating autoimmune responses. Using the myelin basic protein (MBP) TCR 1501 transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that TCR CDR3 peptides from the transgenic TCR can provide a protective effect when therapy is initiated before the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). More importantly, TCR CDR3 peptide therapy can ameliorate the disease when administered after EAE onset. Concurrent with the therapeutic effects, we observed reduced T-cell proliferation and reduced interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels in response to stimulation with MBP-85-99 peptide in splenocyte cultures from mice receiving TCR CDR3 peptides compared with that of control mice. Moreover, we found that Foxp3+ CD4 T cells from mice protected with TCR CDR3 peptide are preferentially expanded in the presence of IL-2. This is supportive of a proposed mechanism where Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells induced by therapy with MBP-85-99 TCR CDR3 peptides limit expansion and the encephalitogenic activity of MBP-85-99-specific T cells by regulating the levels of secreted IL-2. PMID:20059576

  6. Interleukin 2 Induces CD8^+ T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in CD4^+ T Cells and This Effect Overrides Its Ability to Stimulate Virus Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinter, Audrey L.; Bende, Steven M.; Hardy, Elena C.; Jackson, Robert; Fauci, Anthony S.

    1995-11-01

    The nonlytic suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from infected CD4^+ T cells by CD8^+ lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals is one of the most potent host-mediated antiviral activities observed in vitro. We demonstrate that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but not IL-12, is a potent inducer of the CD8^+ HIV suppressor phenomenon. IL-2 induces HIV expression in peripheral blood or lymph node mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals in the absence of CD8^+ T cells. However, IL-2 induces CD8^+ T cells to suppress HIV expression when added back to these cultures, and this effect dramatically supersedes the ability of IL-2 to induce HIV expression. Five to 25 times fewer CD8^+ cells were required to obtain comparable levels of inhibition of viral production if they were activated in the presence of IL-2 as compared with IL-12 or no exogenous cytokine. Furthermore, IL-2 appeared either to induce a qualitative increase in HIV suppressor cell activity or to increase the relative frequency of suppressor cells in the activated (CD25^+) CD8^+ populations. Analyses of proviral levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggest that CD8^+ T cell-mediated lysis of in vivo infected cells is not induced by IL-2. These results have implications for our understanding of the effects of impaired IL-2 production during HIV disease as well as the overall effects of IL-2-based immunotherapy on HIV replication in vivo.

  7. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonist immunosuppression and consecutive viral management in living-donor liver transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C-co-infected patients: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-02-01

    Management of immunosuppression for human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been established. We performed LDLT for two patients with HIV/HCV-co-infected end-stage liver disease. The immunosuppression protocol consisted of early calcineurin inhibitor-free and interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (IL2Ra) induction and methylprednisolone. Maintenance low-dose tacrolimus was started and anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was re-started 1 week after LDLT. Consecutively, pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy were successfully added as pre-emptive therapy for HCV. HIV-RNA and HCV-RNA were undetectable on anti-retroviral therapy and HCV treatment at 17 and 8 months after LDLT, respectively, with normal liver function. This study is the first report of early calcineurin inhibitor-free and IL2Ra induction with methylprednisolone immunosuppression in LDLT for HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with a favorable outcome. Consecutive HIV/HCV treatment was well tolerated. PMID:26661842

  8. Structure based 3D-QSAR studies of Interleukin-2 inhibitors: Comparing the quality and predictivity of 3D-QSAR models obtained from different alignment methods and charge calculations.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Zaheer-ul-Haq

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-2 is an essential cytokine in an innate immune response, and is a promising drug target for several immunological disorders. In the present study, structure-based 3D-QSAR modeling was carried out via Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Six different partial charge calculation methods were used in combination with two different alignment methods to scrutinize their effects on the predictive power of 3D-QSAR models. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with the AM1 charges when used with co-conformer based substructure alignment (CCBSA) method. The obtained models posses excellent correlation coefficient value and also exhibited good predictive power (for CoMFA: q(2)=0.619; r(2)=0.890; r(2)Pred=0.765 and for CoMSIA: q(2)=0.607; r(2)=0.884; r(2)Pred=0.655). The developed models were further validated by using a set of another sixteen compounds as external test set 2 and both models showed strong predictive power with r(2)Pred=>0.8. The contour maps obtained from these models better interpret the structure activity relationship; hence the developed models would help to design and optimize more potent IL-2 inhibitors. The results might have implications for rational design of specific anti-inflammatory compounds with improved affinity and selectivity. PMID:26051521

  9. Gene regulation by mRNA editing

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkenas, J.

    1997-02-01

    The commonly cited figure of 10{sup 5} genes in the human genome represents a tremendous underestimate of our capacity to generate distinct gene products with unique functions. Our cells possess an impressive collection of tools for altering the products of a single gene to create a variety of proteins. The different gene products may have related but distinct functions, allowing cells of different types or at different developmental stages to fine-tune their patterns of gene expression. These tools may act in the cytoplasm, as when proteins undergo post-translational modifications, or in the nucleus, in the processing of pre-mRNA. Two forms of intranuclear fine-tuning are well established and widely studied: alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs and alternative polyadenylation site selection. In recent years it has become clear that cells possess yet another tool to create RNA sequence diversity, mRNA editing. The term {open_quotes}editing{close_quotes} is applied to posttranscriptional modifications of a purine or pyrimidine, which alter an mRNA sequence as it is read, for example, by ribosomes. Covalent changes to the structure of nucleotide bases are well known to occur on tRNA and rRNA molecules, but such changes in mRNA sequence are novel in that they have the capacity to change specific protein sequences. 43 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Inhibition of protein synthesis stabilizes histone mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, E.; Groppi, V.E. Jr.; Coffino, P.

    1984-10-01

    The inhibition of protein synthesis in exponentially growing S49 cells leads to a specific fivefold increase in histone mRNA in 30 min. The rate of transcription of histone mRNA, measured in intact or digitonin-permeabilized cells, is increased slightly, if at all, by cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis. Both approach-to-equilibrium labeling and pulse-chase experiments show that cycloheximide prolongs histone mRNA half-life from approximately 30 min to > 2 h. Histone mRNA made before the addition of cycloheximide becomes stable after the inhibition of protein synthesis, whereas removal of the inhibitor is followed by rapid degradation of histone mRNA. This suggests that the increased stability of histone mRNA during inhibition of protein synthesis results not from alteration of the structure of the mRNA, but from the loss of an activity in the cell which regulates histone mRNA turnover.

  11. Intranasal immunization against herpes simplex virus infection by using a recombinant glycoprotein D fused with immunomodulating proteins, the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Hazama, M; Mayumi-Aono, A; Miyazaki, T; Hinuma, S; Fujisawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish a novel strategy of mucosal immunization against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we studied the immune responses elicited by intranasal immunization with several forms of a recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV-1. A truncated gD (t-gD) co-administered with heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) from Escherichia coli induced both a mucosal immune response involving secretion of anti-gD IgA and serum IgG production. The levels of these responses are comparable to those in mice which have recovered from intranasal HSV-1 infections. The fusion protein (t-gD-LTB), consisting of t-gD and LTB, induced the responses more efficiently than did co-administration of t-gD and LTB, although GM1 ganglioside binding activity was significantly reduced in t-gD-LTB. We found that another fusion protein, consisting of t-gD and human interleukin-2 (t-gD-IL-2), also elicited antibody responses comparable to those induced by t-gD-LTB. Immunity acquired by intranasal immunization with t-gD-IL-2 protected mice from intraperitoneal HSV-1 infections, whereas t-gD-LTB or t-gD alone failed to provide protection against infection. Even in a mouse strain that responded highly to subcutaneously administered gD, intranasally administered t-gD did not elicit antibody responses. The lack of response to gD was clearly abrogated by co-administration with IL-2, and administration of t-gD-IL-2 induced an excellent level of antibody responses in this strain. These results suggest that the IL-2 fusion strategy yields a new type of mucosal immunization, the mechanism of which differs from that speculated for the mucosal adjuvant activity of LTB. Images Figure 1 PMID:8388365

  12. Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Immunotherapy Does Not Improve Outcome of Patients Age 60 Years and Older With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9720

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Maria R.; George, Stephen L.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Sanford, Ben L.; Bothun, Sandra M.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Moore, Joseph O.; Stone, Richard M.; Anastasi, John; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Larson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9720 evaluated subcutaneous low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) maintenance immunotherapy as a strategy for prolonging remission in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods AML patients age 60 years and older in first complete remission after induction and consolidation chemotherapy were randomly assigned to no further therapy or a 90-day regimen of 14-day cycles of low-dose rIL-2, aimed at expanding natural killer (NK) cells, followed by 3-day higher doses aimed at activating cytotoxicity of expanded NK cells to lyse residual AML cells. All randomly assigned patients were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results A total of 163 (64%) of 254 patients who completed induction and consolidation chemotherapy on CALGB 9720 were randomly assigned to rIL-2 (n = 81) or no further therapy (n = 82); the most common reasons for lack of random assignment were patient refusal and relapse. Fifteen patients randomly assigned to rIL-2 never initiated it because of refusal, intercurrent medical problems, or relapse, and 24 patients initiated rIL-2 but stopped early because of toxicity or relapse. Grade 4 toxicities during rIL-2 therapy included thrombocytopenia (65%) and neutropenia (64%), and grade 3 toxicities included anemia (33%), infection (24%) and malaise/fatigue (14%). Forty-two patients (52%) randomly assigned to rIL-2 completed the full 90-day course. Patients in both arms had similar distributions of both disease-free (combined median = 6.1 months; P = .47) and overall survival (combined median = 14.7 months; P = .61) after random assignment. Moreover, the 42 patients who completed all planned therapy did not show prolongation of disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion Low-dose rIL-2 maintenance immunotherapy is not a successful strategy in older AML patients. PMID:18591543

  13. Enhanced protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis afforded by BCG prime-DNA boost regimen in an early challenge mouse model is associated with increased splenic interleukin-2-producing CD4 T-cell frequency post-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han; Yuan, Qin; Ma, Hui; Hu, Zhi-Dong; Han, De-Ping; Wu, Kang; Lowrie, Douglas B; Fan, Xiao-Yong

    2014-12-01

    The development of improved vaccines and vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. Simple measurement of interferon-γ frequency or production per se does not provide adequate prediction of immune protection. In this study, we examined the relationship between T-cell immune responses and protective efficacy conferred by the heterologous vaccination strategy, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime-Ag85A DNA boost (B/D), in an early challenge mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results demonstrated that mice vaccinated with the B/D regimen had a significantly reduced bacillary load compared with BCG-vaccinated mice, and the reduction in colony-forming units was associated with decreased pathology and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in the infected lungs. Further analysis of immunogenicity showed that the superior protection afforded by the B/D regimen was associated with significantly increased frequency of splenic interleukin-2 (IL-2) -producing CD4 T cells and increased IL-2 production when measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensity post-vaccination as well. These data suggest that measurement of elevated frequency of IL-2-producing CD4 T cells or IL-2 production in the spleens of vaccinated mice can predict vaccine efficacy, at least in the B/D strategy, and add to the accumulating body of evidence suggesting that BCG prime-boost strategies may be a useful approach to the control of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24965530

  14. Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-gamma were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-gamma (ChIFN-gamma) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killedvaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-gamma did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208

  15. Priming of tumor-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes after immunization with interleukin 2-secreting tumor cells: three consecutive stages may be required for successful tumor vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, G; Schmidt, W; Berger, M; Schilcher, F; Koszik, F; Schneeberger, A; Stingl, G; Birnstiel, M L; Schweighoffer, T

    1995-01-01

    Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are clearly required to generate long-lasting anti-tumor immunity induced by s.c. vaccination with interleukin 2 (IL-2)-transfected, irradiated M-3 clone murine melanoma cells, some controversy continues about the site and mode of T-cell activation in this system. Macrophages, granulocytes, and natural killer cells infiltrate the vaccination site early after injection into either syngeneic euthymic DBA/2 mice or athymic nude mice and eliminate the inoculum within 48 hr. We could not find T cells at the vaccination site, which argues against the concept that T-cell priming by the IL-2-secreting cancer cells occurs directly at that location. However, reverse transcription-PCR revealed transcripts indicative of T-cell activation and expansion in the draining lymph nodes of mice immunized with the IL-2-secreting vaccine but not in mice vaccinated with untransfected, irradiated M-3 cells. We therefore propose that the antigen-presenting cells, which invade the vaccination site, process tumor-derived antigens and, subsequently, initiate priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. These findings suggest a three-stage process for the generation of effector T cells after vaccination with IL-2-secreting tumor cells: (i) tumor-antigen uptake and processing at the site of injection by antigen-presenting cells, (ii) migration of antigen-presenting cells into the regional draining lymph nodes, where T-cell priming occurs, and (iii) circulation of activated T cells that either perform or initiate effector mechanisms leading to tumor cell destruction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777545

  16. Identification of a gene for an ancient cytokine, interleukin 15-like, in mammals; interleukins 2 and 15 co-evolved with this third family member, all sharing binding motifs for IL-15Rα.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Johannes M; Takizawa, Fumio; Fischer, Uwe; Friedrich, Maik; Soto-Lampe, Veronica; Lefèvre, Christophe; Lenk, Matthias; Karger, Axel; Matsui, Taei; Hashimoto, Keiichiro

    2014-02-01

    Interleukins 2 and 15 (IL-2 and IL-15) are highly differentiated but related cytokines with overlapping, yet also distinct functions, and established benefits for medical drug use. The present study identified a gene for an ancient third IL-2/15 family member in reptiles and mammals, interleukin 15-like (IL-15L), which hitherto was only reported in fish. IL-15L genes with intact open reading frames (ORFs) and evidence of transcription, and a recent past of purifying selection, were found for cattle, horse, sheep, pig and rabbit. In human and mouse the IL-15L ORF is incapacitated. Although deduced IL-15L proteins share only ~21 % overall amino acid identity with IL-15, they share many of the IL-15 residues important for binding to receptor chain IL-15Rα, and recombinant bovine IL-15L was shown to interact with IL-15Rα indeed. Comparison of sequence motifs indicates that capacity for binding IL-15Rα is an ancestral characteristic of the IL-2/15/15L family, in accordance with a recent study which showed that in fish both IL-2 and IL-15 can bind IL-15Rα. Evidence reveals that the species lineage leading to mammals started out with three similar cytokines IL-2, IL-15 and IL-15L, and that later in evolution (1) IL-2 and IL-2Rα receptor chain acquired a new and specific binding mode and (2) IL-15L was lost in several but not all groups of mammals. The present study forms an important step forward in understanding this potent family of cytokines, and may help to improve future strategies for their application in veterinarian and human medicine. PMID:24276591

  17. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    PubMed

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes. PMID:26398940

  18. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1). We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study delineates both unique and overlapping functions of distinct TFs that cooperatively promote aberrant expression of target genes, leading to malignant tumor phenotypes. PMID:26398940

  19. Methotrexate Promotes Platelet Apoptosis via JNK-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage: Alleviation by N-Acetylcysteine and N-Acetylcysteine Amide.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manoj; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Thushara, Ram M; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Somyajit, Kumar; West, Robert; Basappa; Nayaka, Siddaiah C; Zakai, Uzma I; Nagaraju, Ganesh; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in methotrexate (MTX)-treated cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients connotes the interference of MTX with platelets. Hence, it seemed appealing to appraise the effect of MTX on platelets. Thereby, the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets was dissected. MTX (10 μM) induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bax and Bad through JNK phosphorylation leading to ΔΨm dissipation, cytochrome c release and caspase activation, culminating in apoptosis. The use of specific inhibitor for JNK abrogates the MTX-induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downstream events confirming JNK phosphorylation by MTX as a key event. We also demonstrate that platelet mitochondria as prime sources of ROS which plays a central role in MTX-induced apoptosis. Further, MTX induces oxidative stress by altering the levels of ROS and glutathione cycle. In parallel, the clinically approved thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and its derivative N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) proficiently alleviate MTX-induced platelet apoptosis and oxidative damage. These findings underpin the dearth of research on interference of therapeutic drugs with platelets, despite their importance in human health and disease. Therefore, the use of antioxidants as supplementary therapy seems to be a safe bet in pathologies associated with altered platelet functions. PMID:26083398

  20. Platycodin D induces apoptosis and triggers ERK- and JNK-mediated autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Xu, Xiao-huang; Tang, Zheng-hai; Wang, Ya-fang; Leung, Chung-hang; Ma, Dik-lung; Chen, Xiu-ping; Wang, Yi-tao; Chen, Yi; Lu, Jin-jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Platycodin D, the main saponin isolated from Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, exhibits anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines. Here we evaluated its anticancer action against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and elucidated the relationship between platycodin D-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Methods: The viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells was evaluated with MTT assay, and the apoptosis was examined using Annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33342 staining assays. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining was used to label autophagic vacuoles. The proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. For studying its anticancer action in vivo, platycodin D (5 and 10 mg· kg−1·d−1) was intraperitoneally injected to BEL-7402-bearing mice for 21 days. Results: Platycodin D (5–40 μmol/L) inhibited the cell proliferation in vitro with IC50 values of 37.70±3.99, 24.30±2.30 and 19.70±2.36 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Platycodin D (5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased BEL-7402 cell apoptosis, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the levels of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3, and decreased the level of Bcl-2. Furthermore, platycodin D (5–20 μmol/L) induced autophagy in BEL-7402 cells, as evidenced by formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, increased amounts of LC3-II, and increased numbers of MDC-positive cells. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (5 μmol/L) or BAF (50 nmol/L) significantly enhanced platycodin D-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Moreover, platycodin D (20 μmol/L) activated the ERK and JNK pathways in BEL-7402 cells, and simultaneous blockage of the two pathways effectively suppressed platycodin D-induced autophagy and enhanced platycodin D-induced apoptosis. In BEL-7402-bearing mice, platycodin D (10 mg·kg−1•d−1) significantly reduced relative tumor volume with decreased body weight. Conclusion: Platycodin D not only inhibits the proliferation of BEL-7402 cells but also suppresses BEL-7402 xenograft tumor growth. Platycodin D-induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis are amplified by co-treatment with autophagy inhibitors PMID:26592509

  1. Cocaine Induces Nuclear Export and Degradation of Neuronal Retinoid X Receptor-? via a TNF-?/JNK-Mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Langford, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse represents an immense societal health and economic burden for which no effective treatment currently exists. Among the numerous intracellular signaling cascades impacted by exposure to cocaine, increased and aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS has been observed. Additionally, we have previously reported a decrease in retinoid-X-receptor-gamma (RXR-?) in brains of mice chronically exposed to cocaine. Through obligate heterodimerization with a number of nuclear receptors, RXRs serve as master regulatory transcription factors, which can potentiate or suppress expression of a wide spectrum of genes. Little is known about the regulation of RXR levels, but previous studies indicate cellular stressors such as cytokines negatively regulate levels of RXRs in vitro. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the cocaine-induced decreases in RXR-? levels observed in vivo, we exposed neurons to cocaine in vitro and examined pathways which may contribute to disruption in RXR signaling, including activation of stress pathways by cytokine induction. In these studies, we provide the first evidence that cocaine exposure disrupts neuronal RXR-? signaling in vitro by promoting its nuclear export and degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate this effect may be mediated, at least in part, by cocaine-induced production of TNF-? and its downstream effector c-Jun-NH-terminal kinase (JNK). Findings from this study are therefore applicable to both cocaine abuse and to pathological conditions characterized by neuroinflammatory factors, such as neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25586717

  2. Methotrexate Promotes Platelet Apoptosis via JNK-Mediated Mitochondrial Damage: Alleviation by N-Acetylcysteine and N-Acetylcysteine Amide

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manoj; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Thushara, Ram M.; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Somyajit, Kumar; West, Robert; Basappa; Nayaka, Siddaiah C.; Zakai, Uzma I.; Nagaraju, Ganesh; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in methotrexate (MTX)-treated cancer and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients connotes the interference of MTX with platelets. Hence, it seemed appealing to appraise the effect of MTX on platelets. Thereby, the mechanism of action of MTX on platelets was dissected. MTX (10 μM) induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bax and Bad through JNK phosphorylation leading to ΔΨm dissipation, cytochrome c release and caspase activation, culminating in apoptosis. The use of specific inhibitor for JNK abrogates the MTX-induced activation of pro-apoptotic proteins and downstream events confirming JNK phosphorylation by MTX as a key event. We also demonstrate that platelet mitochondria as prime sources of ROS which plays a central role in MTX-induced apoptosis. Further, MTX induces oxidative stress by altering the levels of ROS and glutathione cycle. In parallel, the clinically approved thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and its derivative N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) proficiently alleviate MTX-induced platelet apoptosis and oxidative damage. These findings underpin the dearth of research on interference of therapeutic drugs with platelets, despite their importance in human health and disease. Therefore, the use of antioxidants as supplementary therapy seems to be a safe bet in pathologies associated with altered platelet functions. PMID:26083398

  3. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  4. Myc and mRNA capping.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Sianadh; Cowling, Victoria H

    2015-05-01

    c-Myc is upregulated in response to growth factors and transmits the signal to proliferate by altering the gene expression landscape. When genetic alterations result in growth factor-independent c-Myc expression, it can become an oncogene. The majority of human tumour types exhibit a degree of c-Myc deregulation, resulting in unrestrained cell proliferation. c-Myc binds proximal to the promoter region of genes and recruits co-factors including histone acetyltransferases and RNA pol II kinases, which promote transcription. c-Myc also promotes formation of the cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA. The cap is 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide of RNA pol II transcripts via a 5' to 5' triphosphate bridge. The cap is added to the first transcribed nucleotide by the capping enzymes, RNGTT and RNMT-RAM. During the early stages of transcription, the capping enzymes are recruited to RNA pol II phosphorylated on Serine-5 of the C-terminal domain. The mRNA cap protects transcripts from degradation during transcription and recruits factors which promote RNA processing including, splicing, export and translation initiation. The proportion of transcripts with a cap structure is increased by elevating c-Myc expression, resulting in increased rates of translation. c-Myc promotes capping by promoting RNA pol II phosphorylation and by upregulating the enzyme SAHH which neutralises the inhibitory bi-product of methylation reactions, SAH. c-Myc-induced capping is required for c-Myc-dependent gene expression and cell proliferation. Targeting capping may represent a new therapeutic opportunity to inhibit c-Myc function in tumours. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24681440

  5. Progression of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T cell lymphoma lines to IL-2-independent growth following activation of a gene (Gfi-1) encoding a novel zinc finger protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gilks, C B; Bear, S E; Grimes, H L; Tsichlis, P N

    1993-01-01

    During progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV)-induced rat T cell lymphomas, growth selection results in the expansion of cell clones carrying increasing numbers of integrated proviruses. These new provirus insertions reproducibly contribute to enhanced growth, allowing the emergence of cell clones from the initially heterogeneous population of tumor cells. The Mo-MuLV-induced rat T cell lymphoma lines 2780d and 5675d, which are dependent on interleukin-2 (IL-2) for growth in culture (IL-2d), were placed in IL-2-free medium to select for IL-2-independent (IL-2i) mutants. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from these mutants, which was hybridized to a Mo-MuLV long terminal repeat probe, revealed that all mutants carried new provirus insertions (from one to four new proviruses per cell line). A locus of integration identified through cloning of the single new provirus detected in one of the IL-2i mutants, 2780i.5, was found to be the target of provirus insertion in 1 additional IL-2i cell line of 24 tested. A full-length cDNA of a gene (growth factor independence-1 [Gfi-1]) activated by promoter insertion in the 2780i.5 cells was cloned and shown to encode a novel zinc finger protein. Gfi-1 is expressed at low levels in IL-2d cell lines cultured in IL-2-containing medium and at high levels in most IL-2i cell lines, including the two harboring a provirus at this locus. Gfi-1 expression in adult animals is restricted to the thymus, spleen, and testis. In mitogen-stimulated splenocytes, Gfi-1 expression begins to rise at 12 h after stimulation and reaches very high levels after 50 h, suggesting that it may be functionally involved in events occurring after the interaction of IL-2 with its receptor, perhaps during the transition from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. In agreement with this, Gfi-1 does not induce the expression of IL-2. Expression of Gfi-1 in 2780d cells following transfer of a Gfi-1/LXSN retrovirus construct contributes to the emergence of the IL-2i phenotype. Images PMID:8441411

  6. Overexpression of interleukin-2 receptor alpha in a human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cell line is associated with increased proliferation, drug resistance, and transforming ability.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Deborah J; Smith, David M; Pross, Seth; Whiteside, Theresa L; Dou, Q Ping

    2003-07-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that human carcinomas express interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha, beta, and gamma chains. The beta and gamma chains of IL-2R have intermediate binding affinity for IL-2 and are responsible for the intracellular signaling cascades after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2Ralpha lacks the cytoplasmic domain, but is essential for increasing the IL-2-binding affinity of other receptors. Overexpression of IL-2Ralpha in tumor cells is associated with tumor progression and a poor patient prognosis. To define molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects associated with IL-2Ralpha expression, ex vivo experiments were performed with the squamous cell carcinoma head-and-neck cancer line, PCI-13, which was genetically engineered to overexpress the IL-2Ralpha chain. While IL-2Ralpha-overexpressing PCI-13 cells were capable of forming colonies in soft agar, PCI-13 cells transfected with the control vector or those expressing IL-2Rgamma did not. Consistently, IL-2Ralpha-expressing tumor cells proliferated more rapidly than the control or IL-2Rgamma+ cells, associated with increased levels of cyclins A and D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk(s)) 2 and 4 proteins. In addition, IL-2Ralpha-expressing cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis induction by a tripeptidyl proteasome inhibitor (ALLN) and two chemotherapeutic drugs (VP-16 and taxol) than the control or IL-2Rgamma+ cells. Accompanying the drug resistance, high levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 proteins were found in the mitochondria-containing fraction of IL-2Ralpha-expressing tumor cells. Treatment of IL-2Ralpha-expressing cells with a specific Janus kinase 3 (Jak3) inhibitor decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin D1, Bcl-X(L), and Bcl-2 proteins. Finally, high levels of ubiquitinated proteins were detected in the proliferating IL-2Ralpha-expressing cells. Our data suggest that increased proliferation rates and decreased drug sensitivity of IL-2Ralpha-expressing tumor cells are responsible for the enhanced tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical prognosis of patients whose tumors express IL-2Ralpha. PMID:12858347

  7. A phase 1b study of humanized KS-interleukin-2 (huKS-IL2) immunocytokine with cyclophosphamide in patients with EpCAM-positive advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Humanized KS-interleukin-2 (huKS-IL2), an immunocytokine with specificity for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), has demonstrated favorable tolerability and immunologic activity as a single agent. Methods Phase 1b study in patients with EpCAM-positive advanced solid tumors to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety profile of huKS-IL2 in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide. Treatment consisted of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/m2 on day 1), and escalating doses of huKS-IL2 (0.5–4.0 mg/m2 IV continuous infusion over 4 hours) on days 2, 3, and 4 of each 21-day cycle. Safety, pharmacokinetic profile, immunogenicity, anti-tumor and biologic activity were evaluated. Results Twenty-seven patients were treated for up to 6 cycles; 26 were evaluable for response. The MTD of huKS-IL2 in combination with 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide was 3.0 mg/m2. At higher doses, myelosuppression was dose-limiting. Transient lymphopenia was the most common grade 3/4 adverse event (AE). Other significant AEs included hypotension, hypophosphatemia, and increase in serum creatinine. All patients recovered from these AEs. The huKS-IL2 exposure was dose-dependent, but not dose-proportional, accumulation was negligible, and elimination half-life and systemic clearance were independent of dose and time. Most patients had a transient immune response to huKS-IL2. Immunologic activity was observed at all doses. Ten patients (38%) had stable disease as best response, lasting for ≥ 4 cycles in 3 patients. Conclusion The combination of huKS-IL2 with low-dose cyclophosphamide was well tolerated. Although no objective responses were observed, the combination showed evidence of immunologic activity and 3 patients showed stable disease for ≥ 4 cycles. Trial registration http://NCT00132522 PMID:23320927

  8. Adjuvant low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a phase III, randomized, multicentre trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research (GOIRC).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Caminiti, Caterina; Buti, Sebastiano; Porta, Camillo; Camisa, Roberta; Braglia, Luca; Tomasello, Gianluca; Vaglio, Augusto; Labianca, Roberto; Rondini, Ermanno; Sabbatini, Roberto; Nastasi, Giuseppe; Artioli, Fabrizio; Prati, Andrea; Potenzoni, Michele; Pezzuolo, Debora; Oliva, Elena; Alberici, Federico; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standard therapy to reduce the recurrence rate after surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of adjuvant treatment with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2)+interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable RCC. The patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week cycle of low-dose IL-2+IFN-α or observation after primary surgery for RCC. Treatment cycles were repeated every 4 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months for the subsequent 3 years. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); safety; and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number was NCT00502034. 303/310 randomized patients (156 in the immunotherapy arm and 154 in the observation group) were evaluable at the intention-to-treat analyses. The 2 arms were well balanced. At a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 12-151 mo), RFS, and OS were similar, with an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.31; P=0.44] and of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.64-1.79; P=0.79), respectively in the 2 groups. Unplanned, subgroup analysis showed a positive effect of the treatment for patients with age 60 years and younger, pN0, tumor grades 1-2, and pT3a stage. Among patients with the combined presence of ≥ 2 of these factors, immunotherapy had a positive effect on RFS (HR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82; P ≤ 0.01), whereas patients with <2 factors in the treatment arm exhibited a significant poorer OS (HR=2.27; 95% CI, 1.03-5.03 P=0.037). Toxicity of immunotherapy was mild and limited to World Health Organization grade 1-2 in most cases. Adjuvant immunotherapy with IL-2+IFN-α showed no RFS or OS improvement in RCC patients who underwent radical surgery. The results of subset analysis here presented are only hypothesis generating. PMID:25304727

  9. Influence of thyroxine and thyroxine with growth hormone and prolactin on splenocyte subsets and on the expression of interleukin-2 and prolactin receptors on splenocyte subsets of Snell dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Gala, R R

    1995-11-01

    A number of immune parameters were examined in Snell dwarf mice and compared with normal littermates. The number of splenocytes per gram of body weight were significantly decreased in dwarf animals, and the decrease was distributed throughout the CD4, CD8, B220, and MAC-1 subsets. The percentage of CD4 and CD8 splenocytes was markedly increased, and the percentage of B220 and MAC-1 splenocytes markedly decreased, in dwarf animals. In addition, the percentage of splenocyte T cells constitutively expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors and prolactin (PRL) receptors was decreased, with the CD4 subset presenting the most dramatic effect. The effects of replacing the hormones deficient in the Snell dwarf mouse (i.e., growth hormone [GH], prolactin [PRL], and thyroxine [T4] on the above immune parameters were also examined. The administration of T4 alone for 10 days corrected the defect in splenocyte cell numbers per grams body weight for both the CD4 and CD8 subsets, but only partially corrected the defect for the B220 and MAC-1 subsets. The addition of rbGH and rbPRL for the last 3 days of T4 injection had little additive effect on the number of CD4 and CD8 cells but increased the number of B220 and MAC-1 subsets to values comparable to those of normal animals on the basis of body weight. The decrease in the percentage of CD4 splenocytes in dwarf animals constitutively expressing IL-2R was partially corrected by T4 injection and completely corrected by the addition of rbGH and rbPRL for the last 3 days. The decrease in CD4 splenocytes constitutively expressing PRLR was partially corrected by T4 injection alone and the addition of rbGH and rPRL resulted in percentages comparable to that of normal animals. The results indicate that Snell dwarf animals are deficient in immune parameters and that the administration of the hormones lacking in this animal can correct the deficiencies. PMID:7568281

  10. Protection of chicken against very virulent IBDV provided by in ovo priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine and the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ho; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung Il

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of in ovo prime-boost vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) using a DNA vaccine to prime in ovo followed by a killed-vaccine boost post hatching. In addition, the adjuvant effects of plasmid-encoded chicken interleukin-2 and chicken interferon-γ were tested in conjunction with the vaccine. A plasmid DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) encoding the VP2, VP4, and VP3 proteins of the very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) SH/92 strain was injected into the amniotic sac alone or in combination with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) or chicken IFN-γ (ChIFN-γ) at embryonation day 18, followed by an intramuscular injection of a commercial killed IBD vaccine at 1 week of age. The chickens were orally challenged with the vvIBDV SH/92 strain at 3 weeks of age and observed for 10 days. In ovo DNA immunization followed by a killed-vaccine boost provided significantly better immunity than the other options. No mortality was observed in this group after a challenge with the vvIBDV. The prime-boost strategy was moderately effective against bursal damage, which was measured by the bursa weight/body weight ratio, the presence of IBDV RNA, and the bursal lesion score. In ovo DNA vaccination with no boost did not provide sufficient immunity, and the addition of ChIL-2 or ChIFN-γ did not enhance protective immunity. In the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation assay of peripheral blood lymphocyte collected 10 days post-challenge, there was greater proliferation responses in the DNA vaccine plus boost and DNA vaccine with ChIL-2 plus boost groups compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine is an effective strategy for protecting chickens against vvIBDV. PMID:19461208

  11. [Effect of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 on ovary in the ovulatory period--establishment of the new ovarian perfusion system and influence of interleukins on ovulation rate and steroid secretion].

    PubMed

    Mikuni, M

    1995-07-01

    Cytokines are not only mediators of inflammation and the immune system but are also important factors in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell-to-cell communication. Cytokines have been identified within follicular fluid and some authors indicated that they are playing some roles in ovulation and ovarian steroidogenesis. Interleukin-2 (IL-2), mainly secreted by activated T-cells, influences other T-cells, B-cells, Macrophages, NKcells, etc. and is a major proliferating and differentiation factor of lymphocytes. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known to be secreted from and influence immune cells and/or non-immune cells such as fibroblasts, hepatic cells, endothelial cells, etc. The in vitro ovarian perfusion system has some advantages, compared with in vivo study, that is, it is devoid of systemic or unnecessary factors which are not focused on. In this study, the effects of IL-2 and IL-6 on ovulation and steroidogenesis were examined using the newly developed in vitro ovarian perfusion system and the culture of follicular granulosa cells. In the perfusion experiment, 100 ng/ml of IL-6 suppressed LH (100ng/ml)-induced estradiol (E2) secretion but did not influence progesterone (P4) secretion, while IL-2 had no effect on steroid secretion. Both IL-2 (100ng/ml) and IL-6 (100ng/ml) significantly suppressed LH-induced ovulation (ovulation rate; 8.3 +/- 1.5, mean +/- SE), to 2.2 +/- 1.1 and 3.2 +/- 1.0, respectively. Addition of 1.0, 3.0, 10 ng/ml of IL-6 decreased FSH (50ng/ml)-induced E2 secretion dose-dependently in the culture experiments of granulosa cells. IL-6 also suppressed FSH-induced P4 secretion in concentrations of 3.0 and 10 ng/ml. On the other hand, IL-2 concentrations of 10 and 30 ng/ml increased FSH-induced P4 secretion although 100 ng/ml of IL-2 showed no effect. Any dosage of IL-2 did not influence E2 secretion induced by FSH. All of these results obtained in the present study suggest that IL-2 and IL-6 may directly and/or indirectly suppress some mechanisms of ovulation, but with still unclarified different pathways. PMID:7590603

  12. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) DNA vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Du, Yijun; Lu, Yu; Wang, Xinglong; Qi, Jing; Liu, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Li, Feng; Wu, Jiaqiang; Guo, Lihui; Liu, Junzhen; Tao, Haiying; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Cong, Xiaoyan; Ren, Sufang; Shi, Jianli; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinbao; Huang, Baohua; Wan, Renzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections. PMID:24603502

  13. Adoptive immunotherapy with MUC1-mRNA transfected dendritic cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes plus gemcitabine for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported the clinical efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We also reported that gemcitabine (GEM) enhances anti-tumor immunity by suppressing regulatory T cells. Therefore, in the present study, we performed combination therapy with AIT and GEM for patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer. Patients and methods Forty-two patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer were treated. DCs were generated by culture with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 and then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α. Mature DCs were transfected with MUC1-mRNA by electroporation (MUC1-DCs). MUC1-CTLs were induced by co-culture with YPK-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, and then with interleukin-2. Patients were treated with GEM, while MUC1-DCs were intradermally injected, and MUC1-CTLs were intravenously administered. Results Median survival time (MST) was 13.9 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 51.1%. Of 42 patients, one patient had complete response (2.4%), three patients had partial response (7.1%) and 22 patients had stable disease (52.4%). The disease control ratio was 61.9%. The MST and 1-year survival rate of 35 patients who received more than 1 × 107 MUC1-DCs per injection was 16.1 months and 60.3%, respectively. Liver metastasis occurred in only 5 patients among 35 patients without liver metastasis before treatment. There were no severe toxicities associated with AIT. Conclusion AIT with MUC1-DCs and MUC1-CTLs plus GEM may be a feasible and effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24947606

  14. Transcriptional Elongation and mRNA Export Are Coregulated Processes

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Navarro, Maria Micaela; Martinez-Jimenez, Celia Pilar; Rodriguez-Navarro, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin structure complexity requires the interaction and coordinated work of a multiplicity of factors at different transcriptional regulation stages. Transcription control comprises a set of processes that ensures proper balance in the gene expression under different conditions, such as signals, metabolic states, or development. We could frame those steps from epigenetic marks to mRNA stability to support the holistic view of a fine-tune balance of final mRNA levels through mRNA transcription, export, stability, translation, and degradation. Transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is a key process in regulated gene expression. Transcriptional elongation and mRNA export are coregulated steps that determine the mature mRNA levels in the cytoplasm. In this paper, recent insights into the coordination of these processes in eukaryotes will be summarised. PMID:22567364

  15. Expression of gamma-IFN mRNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlates with early acute allograft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, A; Bagga, A; Toyoda, M; Nicolaidou, E; Jordan, S C; Ross, D

    1999-04-01

    Various cytokines are upregulated in acute allograft rejection (AR). Local production of Th-1 cytokines is suggested to play a pathogenic role in AR, and Th-2 cytokines in the development of allograft tolerance. The purpose of this study was to correlate the expression of Th-1 [interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN)], and Th-2 [interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with AR in lung transplant (LT) recipients. The role of Th-1 dominance expressed as IgG2/IgG1 ratio in BAL in AR was also examined. The mRNA expression for IL-2, gamma-IFN and IL-10 was examined in 64 BAL specimens from 23 LT recipients using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IgG1 and IgG2 levels were measured in 55 BAL specimens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression on mRNA for these cytokines, and the ratio of IgG2/IgG1 was correlated with AR (early AR occurring within 3 months of transplant and late AR occurring after 3 months). Ten patients had 17 episodes of biopsy proven AR. Twelve episodes of AR (6 patients) occurred within the first 3 months of transplantation. In 5 patients, AR was diagnosed 4, 5, 6, 9 and 24 months post-transplantation. Detection of gamma-IFN mRNA correlated significantly with early AR (p < 0.001), whereas it lacked correlation with late AR. Expression of IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA did not correlate with AR. IL-10 was present in most samples irrespective of the presence or absence of AR. The ratio of IgG2/IgG1 was similar in patients with or without AR. Our findings suggest that the detection of gamma-IFN mRNA in BAL by RT-PCR is useful for immune monitoring of early AR in LT recipients. Absence of elevated IgG2/IgG1 ratio, and presence of IL-10 in BAL during AR suggests that Th-1 cytokines may not be the sole mediator of rejection in LT recipients. PMID:10202618

  16. An expanding universe of mRNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of mRNA can be regulated by internal base modifications, with the currently known modified bases being N6-methyladenosine, 5-methylcytosine, and inosine. Three new studies show that yeast and human mRNA also contain pseudouridine residues and that pseudouridylation is induced in various stress states, hinting at a new pathway for post-transcriptional control of mRNA. PMID:25372308

  17. mRNA vaccine delivery using lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Andreas M; Oberli, Matthias A; Jeklenec, Ana; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    mRNA vaccines elicit a potent immune response including antibodies and cytotoxic T cells. mRNA vaccines are currently evaluated in clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy applications, but also have great potential as prophylactic vaccines. Efficient delivery of mRNA vaccines will be key for their success and translation to the clinic. Among potential nonviral vectors, lipid nanoparticles are particularly promising. Indeed, lipid nanoparticles can be synthesized with relative ease in a scalable manner, protect the mRNA against degradation, facilitate endosomal escape, can be targeted to the desired cell type by surface decoration with ligands, and as needed, can be codelivered with adjuvants. PMID:27075952

  18. mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

  19. Characterization of the effects on ovalbumin mRNA of aminomethyl-trimethylpsoralen photoreaction with hen oviduct mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Liarakos, C D; Reinhart, G; Kopper, R A; Maddox, R P

    1987-01-01

    We have described the reaction of 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) with hen oviduct mRNA and have investigated the specific effects of AMT photoaddition on ovalbumin mRNA which constitutes 60-70% of oviduct mRNA. The photoreaction of AMT with hen oviduct mRNA appeared to occur in two phases - a rapid monoaddition followed by a slower conversion of monoadducts to diadducts (i.e. crosslinking). Both nondenaturing and denaturing gel electrophoresis revealed a photoreaction time dependent increase in ovalbumin mRNA electrophoretic mobility indicating the formation of a progressively more compact molecular structure. Identical analysis of photoreacted rabbit globin mRNA revealed no change in electrophoretic mobility suggesting that AMT was stabilizing the AU rich secondary structure of ovalbumin mRNA but having no similar effect on the relatively GC rich secondary structure of globin mRNA. Ovalbumin-specific DNA primer extension was used to demonstrate the selective and secondary structure specific photoaddition of AMT to uracil bases at the 5' end of ovalbumin mRNA. Images PMID:3671087

  20. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs.

    PubMed

    MacNicol, Melanie C; Cragle, Chad E; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  1. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    MacNicol, Melanie C.; Cragle, Chad E.; Arumugam, Karthik; Fosso, Bruno; Pesole, Graziano; MacNicol, Angus M.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs) but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease. PMID:26197342

  2. A numbers game underpins cytoplasmic mRNA transport.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael; Kiebler, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Microtubule-based mRNA transport participates in the establishment of cell asymmetries. An in vitro reconstitution assay demonstrates that localization signals present in an mRNA influence motor copy number on single RNA molecule cargoes, ultimately leading to highly polarized distributions of transcripts. PMID:22469827

  3. Here, there, everywhere. mRNA localization in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Singer-Krüger, Birgit; Jansen, Ralf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    mRNA localization and localized translation is a common mechanism that contributes to cell polarity and cellular asymmetry. In metazoan, mRNA transport participates in embryonic axis determination and neuronal plasticity. Since the mRNA localization process and its molecular machinery are rather complex in higher eukaryotes, the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an attractive model to study mRNA localization. Although the focus has so far been on the mechanism of ASH1 mRNA transport, it has become evident that mRNA localization also assists in protein sorting to organelles, as well as in polarity establishment and maintenance. A diversity of different pathways has been identified that targets mRNA to their destination site, ranging from motor protein-dependent trafficking of translationally silenced mRNAs to co-translational targeting, in which mRNAs hitch-hike to organelles on ribosomes during nascent polypeptide chain elongation. The presence of these diverse pathways in yeast allows a systemic analysis of the contribution of mRNA localization to the physiology of a cell. PMID:25482891

  4. Probing dimensionality beyond the linear sequence of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-05-01

    mRNA is a nexus entity between DNA and translating ribosomes. Recent developments in deep sequencing technologies coupled with structural probing have revealed new insights beyond the classic role of mRNA and place it more centrally as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation, cellular localization, and mRNA degradation. Here, we highlight emerging approaches to probe mRNA secondary structure on a global transcriptome-wide level and compare their potential and resolution. Combined approaches deliver a richer and more complex picture. While our understanding on the effect of secondary structure for various cellular processes is quite advanced, the next challenge is to unravel more complex mRNA architectures and tertiary interactions. PMID:26650615

  5. Surviving hypoxia by modulation of mRNA translation rate

    PubMed Central

    Fähling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cells can survive hypoxia/anoxia by metabolic rate depression, which involves lowering of mRNA translation rates in an ATP-dependent manner. By activating anaerobic ATP production (glycolysis), the inhibitory influence on mRNA translation in hypoxia can be abolished. In severe hypoxia, glycolysis cannot fully restore the ATP demand, thus causing a long-lasting inhibition of global protein synthesis. During moderate hypoxia, fermentative ATP production may maintain normal ATP levels. However, an activation of hypoxia tolerance mechanisms, including specific mRNA translation, also takes place. The latter may be attributed to oxygen-dependent (but not ATP dependent) processes such as the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor cascade. In summary, hypoxia-induced decline in cellular ATP level can be counteracted by suppression of global mRNA translation rate. Sustained protein synthesis seems to be attributed to the activation of specific mRNA translation under long-term hypoxic conditions. PMID:19674191

  6. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Cole, John A.; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.

    2015-01-01

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript’s half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories. PMID:26669443

  7. Heritable variation of mRNA decay rates in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Andrie, Jennifer M.; Wakefield, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression levels are determined by the balance between rates of mRNA transcription and decay, and genetic variation in either of these processes can result in heritable differences in transcript abundance. Although the genetics of gene expression has been a subject of intense interest, the contribution of heritable variation in mRNA decay rates to gene expression variation has received far less attention. To this end, we developed a novel statistical framework and measured allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates in a diploid yeast hybrid created by mating two genetically diverse parental strains. We estimate that 31% of genes exhibit allelic differences in mRNA decay rates, of which 350 can be identified at a false discovery rate of 10%. Genes with significant allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates have higher levels of polymorphism compared to other genes, with all gene regions contributing to allelic differences in mRNA decay rates. Strikingly, we find widespread evidence for compensatory evolution, such that variants influencing transcriptional initiation and decay have opposite effects, suggesting that steady-state gene expression levels are subject to pervasive stabilizing selection. Our results demonstrate that heritable differences in mRNA decay rates are widespread and are an important target for natural selection to maintain or fine-tune steady-state gene expression levels. PMID:25258386

  8. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Joseph R; Cole, John A; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A

    2015-12-29

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript's half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories. PMID:26669443

  9. Polyadenylation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, Ellie

    1974-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) mRNA isolated from infected cell polysomes contains polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] sequences. Detergent-activated purified virions in vitro can transcribe complementary RNA, which has sedimentation properties similar to mRNA, and this RNA also contains poly(A) sequences. Digestion of virion RNA with U2 RNase under conditions where hydrolysis is specific for purine linkages leaves no sequences of polyuridylic acid corresponding in length to the poly(A) on the transcripts. Growth of infectious virus is not inhibited by 3-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) under conditions in which it inhibits polyadenylation of cellular mRNA. The virus-specific mRNA produced in the presence of cordycepin has poly(A) sequences of the same size distribution as that synthesized in the absence of cordycepin. PMID:4363251

  10. Translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, Théophile; Mengardi, Chloé; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA. In this review we will describe the mechanism used by the full-length mRNA to initiate translation highlighting the role of co-factors within this process. A particular emphasis will be given to the role of the DDX3 RNA helicase in HIV-1 mRNA translation initiation. PMID:26779410

  11. Multiple crosstalks between mRNA biogenesis and SUMO.

    PubMed

    Rouvire, Jrme O; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Palancade, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    mRNA metabolism involves the orchestration of multiple nuclear events, including transcription, processing (e.g., capping, splicing, polyadenylation), and quality control. This leads to the accurate formation of messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) that are finally exported to the cytoplasm for translation. The production of defined sets of mRNAs in given environmental or physiological situations relies on multiple regulatory mechanisms that target the mRNA biogenesis machineries. Among other regulations, post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, whose prominence in several cellular processes has been largely demonstrated, also plays a key role in mRNA biogenesis. Analysis of the multiple available SUMO proteomes and functional validations of an increasing number of sumoylated targets have revealed the key contribution of SUMO-dependent regulation in nuclear mRNA metabolism. While sumoylation of transcriptional activators and repressors is so far best documented, SUMO contribution to other stages of mRNA biogenesis is also emerging. Modification of mRNA metabolism factors by SUMO determine their subnuclear targeting and biological activity, notably by regulating their molecular interactions with nucleic acids or protein partners. In particular, sumoylation of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators interfere with their association to target sequences or chromatin modifiers. In addition, the recent identification of enzymes of the SUMO pathway within specialized mRNA biogenesis machineries may provide a further level of regulation to their specificity. These multiple crosstalks between mRNA metabolism and SUMO appear therefore as important players in cellular regulatory networks. PMID:23584125

  12. mRNA redistribution during permanent focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Monique K; Jamison, Jill T; Dunbar, Joseph C; DeGracia, Donald J

    2013-12-01

    Translation arrest occurs in neurons following focal cerebral ischemia and is irreversible in penumbral neurons destined to die. Following global cerebral ischemia, mRNA is sequestered away from 40S ribosomal subunits as mRNA granules, precluding translation. Here, we investigated mRNA granule formation using fluorescence in situ histochemistry out to 8 h permanent focal cerebral ischemia using middle cerebral artery occlusion in Long Evans rats with and without diabetes. Neuronal mRNA granules colocalized with PABP, HuR, and NeuN, but not 40S or 60S ribosomal subunits, or organelle markers. The volume of brain with mRNA granule-containing neurons decreased exponentially with ischemia duration, and was zero after 8 h permanent focal cerebral ischemia or any duration of ischemia in diabetic rats. These results show that neuronal mRNA granule response has a limited range of insult intensity over which it is expressed. Identifying the limits of effective neuronal stress response to ischemia will be important for developing effective stroke therapies. PMID:24323415

  13. Pseudouridine in mRNA: Incorporation, Detection, and Recoding.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guowei; Huang, Chao; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that pseudouridine (Ψ) is the most abundant modified nucleotide in stable RNAs, including tRNA, rRNA, and snRNA. Recent studies using massive parallel sequencing have uncovered the presence of hundreds of Ψs in mRNAs as well. In eukaryotes and archaea, RNA pseudouridylation is introduced predominantly by box H/ACA RNPs, RNA-protein complexes each consisting of a single RNA moiety and four core proteins. It has been well established that Ψ plays an essential role in regulating the structure and function of stable RNAs in several model organisms, including yeast, Xenopus laevis, and humans. However, the functional role of Ψ in mRNA remains to be elucidated. One possibility (and true for stop/termination codons) is that Ψ influences decoding during translation. It is imperative, therefore, to establish a system, in which one can site-specifically introduce pseudouridylation into target mRNA and biochemically test the impact of mRNA pseudouridylation on protein translation. Here, we present a method for (1) site-specific conversion of uridine into Ψ in mRNA by designer box H/ACA RNP, (2) detection of Ψ in target mRNA using site-specific labeling followed by nuclease digestion and thin layer chromatography, and (3) analysis of recoding of pseudouridylated premature termination codon in mRNA during translation. PMID:26253972

  14. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Nanoparticle Tumour Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kyle K.L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-01-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA’s biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research. PMID:24904987

  15. Nebulisation of IVT mRNA Complexes for Intrapulmonary Administration

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shan; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    During the last years the potential role of in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA as a vehicle to deliver genetic information has come into focus. IVT mRNA could be used for anti-cancer therapies, vaccination purposes, generation of pluripotent stem cells and also for genome engineering or protein replacement. However, the administration of IVT mRNA into the target organ is still challenging. The lung with its large surface area is not only of interest for delivery of genetic information for treatment of e.g. for cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but also for vaccination purposes. Administration of IVT mRNA to the lung can be performed by direct intratracheal instillation or by aerosol inhalation/nebulisation. The latter approach shows a non-invasive tool, although it is not known, if IVT mRNA is resistant during the process of nebulisation. Therefore, we investigated the transfection efficiency of non-nebulised and nebulised IVT mRNA polyplexes and lipoplexes in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). A slight reduction in transfection efficiency was observed for lipoplexes (Lipofectamine 2000) in the nebulised part compared to the non-nebulised which can be overcome by increasing the amount of Lipofectamine. However, Lipofectamine was more than three times more efficient in transfecting 16HBE than DMRIE and linear PEI performed almost 10 times better than its branched derivative. By contrast, the nebulisation process did not affect the cationic polymer complexes. Furthermore, aerosolisation of IVT mRNA complexes did neither affect the protein duration nor the toxicity of the cationic complexes. Taken together, these data show that aerosolisation of cationic IVT mRNA complexes constitute a potentially powerful means to transfect cells in the lung with the purpose of protein replacement for genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis or alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency or for infectious disease vaccines, while bringing along the advantages of IVT mRNA as compared to pDNA as transfection agent. PMID:26352268

  16. Protein targeting to subcellular organelles via MRNA localization.

    PubMed

    Weis, Benjamin L; Schleiff, Enrico; Zerges, William

    2013-02-01

    Cells have complex membranous organelles for the compartmentalization and the regulation of most intracellular processes. Organelle biogenesis and maintenance requires newly synthesized proteins, each of which needs to go from the ribosome translating its mRNA to the correct membrane for insertion or transclocation to an a organellar subcompartment. Decades of research have revealed how proteins are targeted to the correct organelle and translocated across one or more organelle membranes ro the compartment where they function. The paradigm examples involve interactions between a peptide sequence in the protein, localization factors, and various membrane embedded translocation machineries. Membrane translocation is either cotranslational or posttranslational depending on the protein and target organelle. Meanwhile research in embryos, neurons and yeast revealed an alternative targeting mechanism in which the mRNA is localized and only then translated to synthesize the protein in the correct location. In these cases, the targeting information is coded by the cis-acting sequences in the mRNA ("Zipcodes") that interact with localization factors and, in many cases, are transported by the molecular motors on the cytoskeletal filaments. Recently, evidence has been found for this "mRNA based" mechanism in organelle protein targeting to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and the photosynthetic membranes within chloroplasts. Here we review known and potential roles of mRNA localization in protein targeting to and within organelles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:23457718

  17. Paclitaxel inhibits mRNA transport in axons.

    PubMed

    Bobylev, Ilja; Joshi, Abhijeet R; Barham, Mohammed; Ritter, Christian; Neiss, Wolfram F; Höke, Ahmet; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-10-01

    Paclitaxel is an integral component of solid tumor treatment. This chemotherapeutic agent provokes an often irreversible peripheral sensory neuropathy with pathological features of distal axonal degeneration. Current pathological concepts assume that polymerization of axonal microtubules and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. The relationship, however, between microtubule stabilization, mitotoxicity and axonal degeneration is still not completely understood. To explore the function of axonal mitochondria we treated transgenic mice that harbor cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-labeled neuronal mitochondria with repeated doses of paclitaxel and assessed neuropathic changes by nerve conduction and histological studies. In addition, mitochondrial content and morphology was determined by ex vivo imaging of axons containing CFP-labeled mitochondria. Using quantitative RT-PCR and fluorescence-labeled mRNA we determined axonal mRNA transport of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins. Prolonged treatment with high doses of paclitaxel-induced a predominant sensory neuropathy in mice. Although mitochondrial velocity in axons per se was not altered, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial morphology, suggesting that paclitaxel treatment impairs the dynamics of axonal mitochondria. These changes were caused by decreased levels of nuclear encoded mRNA, including the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery. Moreover, impaired axonal mRNA transport in vitro resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent axonal degeneration. Taken together, our experiments provide evidence that disrupted axonal transport of nuclear derived mRNA plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of paclitaxel-induced sensory neuropathy. PMID:26188177

  18. mRNA Localization Mechanisms in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Lysangela R.; Guerra-Slompo, Eloise P.; de Oliveira, Arthur V.; Malgarin, Juliane S.; Goldenberg, Samuel; Dallagiovanna, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric mRNA localization is a sophisticated tool for regulating and optimizing protein synthesis and maintaining cell polarity. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulated localization of transcripts are widespread in higher eukaryotes and fungi, but not in protozoa. Trypanosomes are ancient eukaryotes that branched off early in eukaryote evolution. We hypothesized that these organisms would have basic mechanisms of mRNA localization. FISH assays with probes against transcripts coding for proteins with restricted distributions showed a discrete localization of the mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Moreover, cruzipain mRNA was found inside reservosomes suggesting new unexpected functions for this vacuolar organelle. Individual mRNAs were also mobilized to RNA granules in response to nutritional stress. The cytoplasmic distribution of these transcripts changed with cell differentiation, suggesting that localization mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of stage-specific protein expression. Transfection assays with reporter genes showed that, as in higher eukaryotes, 3′UTRs were responsible for guiding mRNAs to their final location. Our results strongly suggest that Trypanosoma cruzi have a core, basic mechanism of mRNA localization. This kind of controlled mRNA transport is ancient, dating back to early eukaryote evolution. PMID:24324687

  19. Nuclear Retention of mRNA in Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Caspi, Inbal; Lemze, Doron; Levy, Maayan; Landen, Shanie; Elinav, Eran; Ulitsky, Igor; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2015-01-01

    Summary mRNA is thought to predominantly reside in the cytoplasm, where it is translated and eventually degraded. Although nuclear retention of mRNA has a regulatory potential, it is considered extremely rare in mammals. Here, to explore the extent of mRNA retention in metabolic tissues, we combine deep sequencing of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions with single-molecule transcript imaging in mouse beta cells, liver, and gut. We identify a wide range of protein-coding genes for which the levels of spliced polyadenylated mRNA are higher in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. These include genes such as the transcription factor ChREBP, Nlrp6, Glucokinase, and Glucagon receptor. We demonstrate that nuclear retention of mRNA can efficiently buffer cytoplasmic transcript levels from noise that emanates from transcriptional bursts. Our study challenges the view that transcripts predominantly reside in the cytoplasm and reveals a role of the nucleus in dampening gene expression noise. PMID:26711333

  20. Control of Cell Migration Through Mrna Localization and Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guoning; Mingle, Lisa; Van De Water, Livingston; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target these proteins to the site of function, cells use a variety of mechanisms such as protein transport and mRNA localization-mediated local protein synthesis. In contrast to the former which is intensively investigated and relatively well understood, the latter has been under-studied and relatively poorly understood. However, recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and local translation have demonstrated that mRNA localization and local translation are specific and effective ways for protein localization and are crucial for embryo development, neuronal function and many other cellular processes. There are excellent reviews on mRNA localization, transport and translation during development and other cellular processes. This review will focus on mRNA localization-mediated local protein biogenesis and its impact on somatic cell migration. PMID:25264217

  1. Nonsense-Mediated Decay of Human HEXA mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Rajavel, Kavitha S.; Neufeld, Elizabeth F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), the loss of mRNAs carrying premature stop codons, is a process by which cells recognize and degrade nonsense mRNAs to prevent possibly toxic effects of truncated peptides. Most mammalian nonsense mRNAs are degraded while associated with the nucleus, but a few are degraded in the cytoplasm; at either site, there is a requirement for translation and for an intron downstream of the early stop codon. We have examined the NMD of a mutant HEXA message in lymphoblasts derived from a Tay-Sachs disease patient homozygous for the common frameshift mutation 1278ins4. The mutant mRNA was nearly undetectable in these cells and increased to approximately 40% of normal in the presence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. The stabilized transcript was found in the cytoplasm in association with polysomes. Within 5 h of cycloheximide removal, the polysome-associated nonsense message was completely degraded, while the normal message was stable. The increased lability of the polysome-associated mutant HEXA mRNA shows that NMD of this endogenous mRNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that expression of an intronless HEXA minigene harboring the frameshift mutation or a closely located nonsense codon resulted in half the normal mRNA level. Inclusion of multiple downstream introns decreased the abundance further, to about 20% of normal. Thus, in contrast to other systems, introns are not absolutely required for NMD of HEXA mRNA, although they enhance the low-HEXA-mRNA phenotype. PMID:11463833

  2. Mechanism of mRNA binding to bovine mitochondrial ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Denslow, N D; Michaels, G S; Montoya, J; Attardi, G; O'Brien, T W

    1989-05-15

    The binding of mRNA to bovine mitochondrial ribosomes was investigated using triplet codons, homopolymers and heteropolymers of various lengths, and human mitochondrial mRNAs. In the absence of initiation factors and initiator tRNA, mitochondrial ribosomes do not bind triplet codons (AUG and UUU) or homopolymers (oligo(U] shorter than about 10 nucleotides. The RNA binding domain on the 28 S mitoribosomal subunit spans approximately 80 nucleotides of the mRNA, judging from the size of the fragments of poly(U,G) and natural mRNAs protected from RNase T1 digestion by this subunit, but the major binding interaction with the ribosome appears to occur over a 30-nucleotide stretch. Human mitochondrial mRNAs coding for subunits II and III of cytochrome c oxidase and subunit 1 of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) were used in studying in detail the binding of mRNA to the small subunit of bovine mitochondrial ribosomes. We have determined that these mRNAs have considerable secondary structure in their 5'-terminal regions and that the initiation codon of each mRNA is sequestered in a stem structure. Little mRNA was bound to ribosomes in a manner conferring protection of the 5' termini from RNase T1 digestion, under standard conditions supporting the binding of artificial templates, but such binding was greatly stimulated by the addition of a mitochondrial extract. Initiation factors and tRNAs from Escherichia coli were unable to stimulate the 5' terminus protected binding of these mRNA molecules, demonstrating a requirement for homologous factors. Our results strongly suggest that mitochondrial initiation factors are required for the proper recognition and melting of the secondary structure in the 5'-terminal region of mitochondrial mRNAs, as a prerequisite for initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian mitochondria. PMID:2542274

  3. Alternative ferritin mRNA translation via internal initiation

    PubMed Central

    Daba, Alina; Koromilas, Antonis E.; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Ferritin stores and detoxifies an excess of intracellular iron, and thereby plays an important role in the metabolism of this metal. As unshielded iron promotes oxidative stress, ferritin is crucial in maintaining cellular redox balance and may also modulate cell growth, survival, and apoptosis. The expression of ferritin is controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In light of the well-established transcriptional induction of ferritin by inflammatory signals, we examined how ferritin mRNA translation responds to stress conditions. We first used HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells engineered for coumermycin-inducible expression of PKR, a stress kinase that inhibits protein synthesis in virus-infected cells by phosphorylating eIF2α. In this setting, iron triggered partial ferritin mRNA translation despite a PKR-induced global shutdown in protein synthesis. Moreover, iron-mediated ferritin synthesis was evident in cells infected with an attenuated strain of poliovirus; when eIF4GI was cleaved, eIF2α was phosphorylated, and host protein synthesis was inhibited. Under global inhibition of protein synthesis or specific inhibition of ferritin mRNA translation in cells overexpressing PKR or IRP1, respectively, we demonstrate association of ferritin mRNA with heavy polysomes. Further experiments revealed that the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of ferritin mRNA contains a bona fide internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Our data are consistent with the existence of an alternative, noncanonical mechanism for ferritin mRNA translation, which may primarily operate under stress conditions to protect cells from oxidative stress. PMID:22271759

  4. Post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate the mRNA noise and to increase the mRNA gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Changhong; Wang, Shuqiang; Zhou, Tianshou; Jiang, Yiguo

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is ubiquitous in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, but how it impacts gene expression remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze a simple gene model in which we assume that mRNAs are produced in a constitutive manner but are regulated post-transcriptionally by a decapping enzyme that switches between the active state and the inactive state. We derive the analytical mRNA distribution governed by a chemical master equation, which can be well used to analyze the mechanism of how post-transcription regulation influences the mRNA expression level including the mRNA noise. We demonstrate that the mean mRNA level in the stochastic case is always higher than that in the deterministic case due to the stochastic effect of the enzyme, but the size of the increased part depends mainly on the switching rates between two enzyme states. More interesting is that we find that in contrast to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation tends to attenuate noise in mRNA. Our results provide insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulation in controlling the transcriptional noise.

  5. The histone mRNA 3' end is required for localization of histone mRNA to polyribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J; Pilch, D R; Marzluff, W F

    1992-01-01

    The final step in mRNA biosynthesis is transport of the mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Histone genes from which the 3' stem-loop has been deleted are transcribed to give RNAs with heterogeneous 3' ends. These RNAs are localized in the nucleus and are stable. Addition of the histone 3' processing signal either on short (< 250 nts) or long (> 1000 nts) transcripts restores 3' processing and transport of the mRNA to the cytoplasm. In addition chimeric histone-U1 snRNA genes which produced RNAs with either histone or U1 3' ends were analyzed. Transcripts which ended with U1 snRNA 3' ends were not efficiently localized to polyribosomes. However, transcripts containing the same sequences including the snRNA 3' end followed by the histone 3' end were present in the cytoplasm on polyribosomes. Taken together these results suggest that the histone 3' end is required for export of histone mRNA to the cytoplasm and association of the mRNA with polyribosomes. Images PMID:1461736

  6. BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION AT THE MRNA LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Denslow, Nancy D., Christopher J. Bowman, Gillian Robinson, H. Stephen Lee, Ronald J. Ferguson, Michael J. Hemmer and Leroy C. Folmar. 1999. Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption at the mRNA Level. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for ...

  7. Mapping of the three species of polyoma mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Trler, H; Salomon, C; Allet, B; Weil, R

    1976-01-01

    The polyoma mRNA's present in the cytoplasm of primary cultures of mouse kidney cells during lytic infection were characterized by sedimentation velocity analysis and by hybridization to polyoma DNA fragments generated by a specific endonuclease of Hemophilus parainfluenzae (Hpa II). Images PMID:179087

  8. Yeast phospholipid biosynthesis is linked to mRNA localization.

    PubMed

    Hermesh, Orit; Genz, Christian; Yofe, Ido; Sinzel, Monika; Rapaport, Doron; Schuldiner, Maya; Jansen, Ralf-Peter

    2014-08-01

    Regulation of the localization of mRNAs and local translation are universal features in eukaryotes and contribute to cellular asymmetry and differentiation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, localization of mRNAs that encode membrane proteins requires the She protein machinery, including the RNA-binding protein She2p, as well as movement of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) to the yeast bud. In a screen for ER-specific proteins necessary for the directional transport of WSC2 and EAR1 mRNAs, we have identified enzymes that are involved in phospholipid metabolism. Loss of the phospholipid methyltransferase Cho2p, which showed the strongest impact on mRNA localization, disturbs mRNA localization, as well as ER morphology and segregation, owing to an increase in the amount of cellular phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). Mislocalized mRNPs containing She2p colocalize with aggregated cER structures, suggestive of the entrapment of mRNA and She2p by the elevated PtdEtn level. This was confirmed by the elevated binding of She2p to PtdEtn-containing liposomes. These findings underscore the importance of ER membrane integrity in mRNA transport. PMID:24906800

  9. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The precise temporal and spatial coordination of gene activity, based on the integration of internal and external signals, is crucial for the accurate functioning of all biological processes. Although the basic principles of gene expression were established some 60 years ago, recent research has revealed a surprising complexity in the control of gene activity. Many of these gene regulatory mechanisms occur at the level of the mRNA, including sophisticated gene control tasks mediated by structured mRNA elements. We now know that mRNA folds can serve as highly specific receptors for various types of molecules, as exemplified by metabolite-binding riboswitches, and interfere with pro- and eukaryotic gene expression at the level of transcription, translation, and RNA processing. Gene regulation by structured mRNA elements comprises versatile strategies including self-cleaving ribozymes, RNA-folding-mediated occlusion or presentation of cis-regulatory sequences, and sequestration of trans-acting factors including other RNAs and proteins. PMID:24780087

  10. Molecular cloning of human ornithine aminotransferase mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Inana, G.; Totsuka, S.; Redmond, M.; Dougherty, T.; Nagle, J.; Shiono, T.; Ohura, T. Kominami, E.; Katunuma, N.

    1986-03-01

    The isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for the mRNA of human ornithine aminotransferase (OATase; ornithine-oxo-acid aminotransferase; L-ornithine:2-oxo-acid aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.13), a nonabundant mitochondrial matrix enzyme that is severely deficient in a hereditary chorioretinal degenerative disease (gyrate atrophy), is described. Human liver, retina, and retinoblastoma (Y79) mRNAs were prepared and tested for the OATase mRNA content by in vitro translation, immunoprecipitation, and NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The retinoblastoma cells were found to be expressing this enzyme at a relatively high level. The primary translation product of the OATase mRNA is larger than the pure OATase protein on NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. lambdagt11 cDNA libraries were prepared from the human mRNAs, and the recombinant clones were immunoscreened as plaques with two different preparations of rabbit anti-human OATase antibodies. The amino acid sequences of seven tryptic peptides (115 amino acid residues) of the pure human OATase were obtained by microsequencing. When the tryptic peptide and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were compared, homologies in 111 of 115 residues, including a match of 20 consecutive residues, were observed. An RNA blot hybridization of /sup 32/P-labeled OATase cDNA to normal human retina and retinoblastoma mRNAs demonstrated an OATase mRNA species of approx. = 2.2 kilobases.

  11. Analysis of mRNA recognition by human thymidylate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Brunn, NicholasD.; Dibrov, SergeyM.; Kao, MelodyB.; Ghassemian, Majid; Hermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Expression of hTS (human thymidylate synthase), a key enzyme in thymidine biosynthesis, is regulated on the translational level through a feedback mechanism that is rarely found in eukaryotes. At low substrate concentrations, the ligand-free enzyme binds to its own mRNA and stabilizes a hairpin structure that sequesters the start codon. When in complex with dUMP (2?-deoxyuridine-5?-monophosphate) and a THF (tetrahydrofolate) cofactor, the enzyme adopts a conformation that is unable to bind and repress expression of mRNA. Here, we have used a combination of X-ray crystallography, RNA mutagenesis and site-specific cross-linking studies to investigate the molecular recognition of TS mRNA by the hTS enzyme. The interacting mRNA region was narrowed to the start codon and immediately flanking sequences. In the hTS enzyme, a helixloophelix domain on the protein surface was identified as the putative RNA-binding site. PMID:25423174

  12. Recruitment of Nanos to hunchback mRNA by Pumilio

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Junichiro; Wharton, Robin P.

    1999-01-01

    Translational regulation of hunchback (hb) mRNA is essential for posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo. This regulation is mediated by sequences in the 3′-untranslated region of hb mRNA (the Nanos response elements or NREs), as well as two trans-acting factors—Nanos and Pumilio. Pumilio recognizes the NREs via a conserved binding motif. The mechanism of Nanos action has not been clear. In this report we use protein–protein and protein–RNA interaction assays in yeast and in vitro to show that Nanos forms a ternary complex with the RNA-binding domain of Pumilio and the NRE. Mutant forms of the NRE, Nos, and Pum that do not regulate hb mRNA normally in embryos do not assemble normally into a ternary complex. In particular, recruitment of Nos is dependent on bases in the center of the NRE, on the carboxy-terminal Cys/His domain of Nos, and on residues in the eighth repeat of the Pum RNA-binding domain. These residues differ in a closely related human protein that also binds to the NRE but cannot recruit Drosophila Nos. Taken together, these findings suggest models for how Nos and Pum collaboratively target hb mRNA. More generally, they suggest that Pum-like proteins from other species may also act by recruiting cofactors to regulate translation. PMID:10541556

  13. Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs). mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed. PMID:25184662

  14. Differential protein occupancy profiling of the mRNA transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate mRNA biogenesis, translation and decay. We recently developed an approach to profile transcriptome-wide RBP contacts on polyadenylated transcripts by next-generation sequencing. A comparison of such profiles from different biological conditions has the power to unravel dynamic changes in protein-contacted cis-regulatory mRNA regions without a priori knowledge of the regulatory protein component. Results We compared protein occupancy profiles of polyadenylated transcripts in MCF7 and HEK293 cells. Briefly, we developed a bioinformatics workflow to identify differential crosslinking sites in cDNA reads of 4-thiouridine crosslinked polyadenylated RNA samples. We identified 30,000 differential crosslinking sites between MCF7 and HEK293 cells at an estimated false discovery rate of 10%. 73% of all reported differential protein-RNA contact sites cannot be explained by local changes in exon usage as indicated by complementary RNA-seq data. The majority of differentially crosslinked positions are located in 3′ UTRs, show distinct secondary-structure characteristics and overlap with binding sites of known RBPs, such as ELAVL1. Importantly, mRNA transcripts with the most significant occupancy changes show elongated mRNA half-lives in MCF7 cells. Conclusions We present a global comparison of protein occupancy profiles from different cell types, and provide evidence for altered mRNA metabolism as a result of differential protein-RNA contacts. Additionally, we introduce POPPI, a bioinformatics workflow for the analysis of protein occupancy profiling experiments. Our work demonstrates the value of protein occupancy profiling for assessing cis-regulatory RNA sequence space and its dynamics in growth, development and disease. PMID:24417896

  15. Role of polyadenylation in nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Carmichael, G C

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of polyadenylation in the nuclear export of mRNA, we have replaced the poly(A) signal in a Rev-responsive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based reporter gene with a cis-acting hammerhead ribozyme. Transcripts from this gene thus acquire a 3' terminus by cis-ribozyme cleavage rather than by polyadenylation. The nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of transcripts was investigated using transient gene expression and quantitative RNase protection assays. In the absence of Rev, a basal level of polyadenylated unspliced mRNA transcribed from a poly(A) signal-containing control reporter gene was detected in the cytoplasm of transfected COS7 cells. However, cytoplasmic ribozyme-cleaved unspliced RNA was only barely detectable. The nuclear/cytoplasmic (n/c) ratio of polyadenylated RNAs was 3.8, while the n/c ratio for ribozyme cis-cleaved RNAs was 33. The cytoplasmic localization of the polyadenylated unspliced mRNA was enhanced about 10-fold in the presence of Rev and the Rev-responsive element. In marked contrast to this, ribozyme cleaved RNA accumulated almost exclusively (n/c ratio of 28) in the nucleus in the presence of Rev. Actinomycin D time course analysis suggested that the low levels of the cytoplasmic ribozyme-cleaved RNAs in both the presence and absence of Rev were due to serve export deficiency of ribozyme-cleaved RNA. Finally, by inserting a 90-nucleotide poly(A) stretch directly upstream of the ribozyme cassette, we have demonstrated that a long stretch of poly(A) near the 3' end of a ribozyme-cleaved transcript is not sufficient for directing mRNA export. Taken together, these results suggest that polyadenylation is required for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA and that Rev interaction with the Rev-responsive element cannot bypass this requirement. PMID:8657127

  16. The Current Status of Vertebrate Cellular mRNA IRESs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites/segments (IRESs) were first discovered over 20 years ago in picornaviruses, followed by the discovery of two other types of IRES in hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the dicistroviruses, which infect invertebrates. In the meantime, reports of IRESs in eukaryotic cellular mRNAs started to appear, and the list of such putative IRESs continues to grow to the point in which it now stands at ∼100, 80% of them in vertebrate mRNAs. Despite initial skepticism from some quarters, there now seems universal agreement that there is genuine internal ribosome entry on the viral IRESs. However, the same cannot be said for cellular mRNA IRESs, which continue to be shrouded in controversy. The aim of this article is to explain why vertebrate mRNA IRESs remain controversial, and to discuss ways in which these controversies might be resolved. PMID:23378589

  17. Measurements of mRNA degradation in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Linda; Borchert, J Simmons; Bergeron, Jennifer; Snow, Santina; Schlax, Paula Jean

    2013-11-01

    The importance of gene regulation in the enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, is well established. B. burgdorferi regulates gene expression in response to changes in environmental stimuli associated with changing hosts. In this study, we monitored mRNA decay in B. burgdorferi following transcriptional arrest with actinomycin D. The time-dependent decay of transcripts encoding RNA polymerase subunits (rpoA and rpoS), ribosomal proteins (rpsD, rpsK, rpsM, rplQ, and rpsO), a nuclease (pnp), outer surface lipoproteins (ospA and ospC), and a flagellar protein (flaB) have different profiles and indicate half-lives ranging from approximately 1 min to more than 45 min in cells cultured at 35C. Our results provide a first step in characterizing mRNA decay in B. burgdorferi and in investigating its role in gene expression and regulation. PMID:23974029

  18. The utility of protein and mRNA correlation

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic measurements are revolutionizing the way we model and predict cellular behavior, and multi-omic comparisons are being published with increased regularity. Some have expected a trivial and predictable correlation between mRNA and protein; however, the manifest complexity of biological regulation suggests a more nuanced relationship. Indeed, observing this lack of strict correlation provides clues for new research topics, and has the potential for transformative biological insight. PMID:25467744

  19. Cell biology. TAPping into mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Moore, M J; Rosbash, M

    2001-11-30

    There seem to be numerous pathways for exporting mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. But working out which set of export adaptors and receptors transport individual mRNAs has been very difficult. In a Perspective, Moore and Rosbash discuss a new strategy using cell-penetrating peptide inhibitors for unraveling the routes of mRNA export in living cells (Gallouzi and Steitz). PMID:11729289

  20. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

  1. Mechanisms Coordinating ELAV/Hu mRNA Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura E.; Keene, Jack D.

    2013-01-01

    The 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) function as platforms that can determine the fate of each mRNA individually and in aggregate. Multiple mRNAs that encode proteins that are functionally related often interact with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that coordinate their expression in time and space as RNA regulons within the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) infrastructure we term the ribonome. Recent ribonomic methods have emerged that can determine which mRNAs are bound and regulated by RBPs and ncRNAs, some of which act in combination to determine global outcomes. ELAV/Hu proteins bind to AU-rich elements (ARE) in mRNAs and regulate their stability from splicing to translation, and the ubiquitous HuR protein has been implicated in cancerous cell growth. Recent work is focused on mechanistic models of how ELAV/Hu proteins increase mRNA stability and translation by repressing microRNAs (miRs) and the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) via ARE-based ribonucleosomes that may affect global functions of mRNA regulons. PMID:23312841

  2. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  3. Sequence and regulation of European eel prolactin mRNA.

    PubMed

    Quérat, B; Cardinaud, B; Hardy, A; Vidal, B; D'Angelo, G

    1994-06-01

    cDNA clones encoding the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) prolactin were isolated from a pituitary cDNA library constructed in gamma gt10, using a rainbow trout Prl cDNA fragment as a probe. Four different inserts were subcloned into the pGEM 3Z plasmid after PCR amplification. The 1082 bp-long nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 627 bp encoding a 24 amino acid-long signal peptide followed by a 185 amino acid-long mature protein. Comparison studies showed 60-70% homology with other known teleost fish prolactins and 30-45% with non-teleost fish, amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian prolactins. In situ hybridization studies using labelled prolactin RNA probe showed a strong signal in the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland. We next examined the physiological regulation of this prolactin synthesis in vivo using Northern blot analysis and prolactin cDNA probe labelled by random priming. The pituitary prolactin mRNA level was markedly decreased 3 weeks after transfer of eels from freshwater to sea water. Implants of thyroid hormones left for up to three weeks were ineffective on prolactin mRNA. Estradiol administered as implant, alone or in combination with 500 micrograms testosterone, was also unable to significantly alter the pituitary mRNA level for prolactin in the freshwater silver eels whatever the dose used (20-500 micrograms) and whatever the duration of treatment (from 4 days to 10 weeks). PMID:7926267

  4. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  5. Screening of mRNA Chemical Modification to Maximize Protein Expression with Reduced Immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Itaka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of nucleosides in mRNA is an important technology to regulate the immunogenicity of mRNA. In this study, various previously reported mRNA formulations were evaluated by analyzing in vitro protein expression and immunogenicity in multiple cell lines. For the macrophage-derived cell line, RAW 264.7, modified mRNA tended to have reduced immunogenicity and increased protein expression compared to the unmodified mRNA. In contrast, in some cell types, such as hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), protein expression was decreased by mRNA modification. Further analyses revealed that mRNA modifications decreased translation efficiency but increased nuclease stability. Thus, mRNA modification is likely to exert both positive and negative effects on the efficiency of protein expression in transfected cells and optimal mRNA formulation should be determined based on target cell types and transfection purposes. PMID:26213960

  6. Screening of mRNA Chemical Modification to Maximize Protein Expression with Reduced Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Itaka, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of nucleosides in mRNA is an important technology to regulate the immunogenicity of mRNA. In this study, various previously reported mRNA formulations were evaluated by analyzing in vitro protein expression and immunogenicity in multiple cell lines. For the macrophage-derived cell line, RAW 264.7, modified mRNA tended to have reduced immunogenicity and increased protein expression compared to the unmodified mRNA. In contrast, in some cell types, such as hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), protein expression was decreased by mRNA modification. Further analyses revealed that mRNA modifications decreased translation efficiency but increased nuclease stability. Thus, mRNA modification is likely to exert both positive and negative effects on the efficiency of protein expression in transfected cells and optimal mRNA formulation should be determined based on target cell types and transfection purposes. PMID:26213960

  7. Immunity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSY5 mRNA to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Obenoskey, Jesseeca; Lane, Dakota R.; Atkin, Audrey L.; Kebaara, Bessie W.

    2014-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway is a specialized pathway that triggers the rapid degradation of select mRNAs. Initially, identified as a pathway that degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons, NMD is now recognized as a pathway that also regulates some natural mRNAs. Since natural mRNAs do not typically contain premature termination codons, these mRNAs contain features that target them to NMD. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNAs with atypically long 3′-UTRs are usually degraded by NMD, however in some conditions a constitutively expressed SSY5 mRNA with multiple NMD targeting signals including an atypically long 3′-UTR is an exception. We investigated the features of the SSY5 mRNAs that confer immunity to NMD. We found that the SSY5 mRNA 3′-UTRs are sufficient to target NMD insensitive mRNA to the pathway. Replacing the SSY5 3′-UTRs with the cyc1-512 3′-UTRs, known to target mRNAs to NMD or with the CYC1 3′-UTR, known not to target mRNAs to NMD, resulted in production of SSY5 mRNAs that were regulated by NMD. These observations suggest that the SSY5 mRNAs require sequences both within the 5′-UTR and/or ORF as well as the 3′-UTR to escape decay by NMD. PMID:25988166

  8. Allelic mRNA expression of sortilin-1 (SORL1) mRNA in Alzheimer's autopsy brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Houda; Kataki, Maria; Scharre, Douglas W; Papp, Audrey; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2008-12-19

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding SORL1, involved in cellular trafficking of APP, have been implicated in late-onset Alzheimer's disease, by a mechanism thought to affect mRNA expression. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we have measured allele-specific mRNA expression of SORL1 in human autopsy tissues from the prefrontal cortex of 26 Alzheimer's patients, and 51 controls, using two synonymous marker SNPs (rs3824968 in exon 34 (11 heterozygous AD subjects and 16 controls), and rs12364988 in exon 6 (8 heterozygous AD subjects)). Significant allelic expression imbalance (AEI), indicative of the presence of cis-acting regulatory factors, was detected in a single control subject, while allelic ratios were near unity for all other subjects. We genotyped 7 SNPs in two haplotype blocks that had previously been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Since each of these SNPs was heterozygous in several subjects lacking AEI, this study fails to support a regulatory role for SORL1 polymorphisms in mRNA expression. PMID:18938222

  9. Differential regulation of plastid mRNA stability. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    Our goal is to identify cis-acting sequences and transacting factors that function in plastid mRNA maturation, stabilization, and/or decay through an in vitro and in vivo analysis of mRNA:protein interactions. Our previous results emphasized the study of 3{prime}end inverted repeat sequences (IRs) that serve both as mRNA processing elements and stability determinants, and associate with plastid proteins that potentially play enzymatic, structural and/or regulatory roles. We seek to define, by single base and internal deletion mutagenesis, the sequence and structural requirements for protein binding to the 3{prime} IRs of petD and psbA mRNAs; to purify RNA-binding proteins that demonstrate gene- or sequence-specific binding, or that are implicated in RNA stabilization or decay; and to investigate the native form of mRNA in the plastid, by attempting to purify ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles from organelles. Our view of mRNA decay is that it is regulated by three interactive components: RNA structure, ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. We have used mutagenesis to study the role of RNA structure in regulating RNA decay rates, and to identify protein binding and endonuclease recognition sites. We have identified at least three endonuclease activities; one that cleaves psbA RNA; and two whose cleavage patterns with petD 3{prime} IR-RNA has been studied (endoC1 and endoC2). Additionally, we have continued to analyze the properties of the major RNA processing exoribonuclease. We have concentrated our efforts on three RNA-binding proteins. A 100 kd protein with properties suggestive of a mammalian RNP component has been purified. A protein of 55 kd that may also be an endonuclease has been partially purified. We have studied the interaction of a 29 kd protein with the petD stem/loop, and its role in RNA processing. Recently, we have used a novel gel shift/SDS-PAGE technique to identify new RNA-binding proteins.

  10. Bakuchiol sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL through ROS- and JNK-mediated upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of survival proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Kim, Jong Han; Chung, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Ho

    2016-04-29

    We investigated whether bakuchiol, an analog of resveratrol enhances the apoptosis ability of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in cancer cells. Bakuchiol enhanced expression of cell death receptor (DR) in TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of bakuchiol with TRAIL significantly inhibited cell growth of TRAIL sensitive HCT116 and TRAIL resistant HT-29 cells. The expression of TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 was significantly increased by treatment of bakuchiol, however, the expression of survival proteins (e.g., cFLIP, survivin, XIAP and Bcl2) was suppressed. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9 and PARP was increased by combination treatment of bakuchiol and TRAIL. Depletion of DR4 or DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed the cell growth inhibitory effects of bakuchiol in HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the bakuchiol induced cell growth inhibitory effects. The collective results suggest that bakuchiol facilitates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells through up-regulation of the TRAIL receptors; DR4 and DR5 via ROS/JNK pathway signals. PMID:27033605

  11. Mucin1 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2 at the C-terminal and linker regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Liu, Guomu; Li, Qiongshu; Wang, Fang; Xie, Fei; Zhai, Ruiping; Guo, Yingying; Chen, Tanxiu; Zhang, Nannan; Ni, Weihua; Yuan, Hongyan; Tai, Guixiang

    2015-01-01

    Mucin1 (MUC1), as an oncogene, plays a key role in the progression and tumorigenesis of many human adenocarcinomas. In this study, wound-healing, transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays showed that MUC1 promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell migration and invasion by MUC1 gene silencing and overexpressing. Treatment with exogenous transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1, TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, TGF-β1 siRNAs, or activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor to MUC1-overexpressing HCC cells revealed that MUC1-induced autocrine TGF-β via JNK/AP-1 pathway promotes the cell migration and invasion. In addition, the migration and invasion of HCC cells were more significantly inhibited by JNK inhibitor compared with that by TβRI inhibitor or TGF-β1 siRNAs. Further studies demonstrated that MUC1-mediated JNK activation not only enhances the phosphorylation of Smad2 C-terminal at Ser-465/467 site (Smad2C) through TGF-β/TβRI, but also directly enhances the phosphorylation of Smad2 linker region at Ser-245/250/255 site (Smad2L), and then both of them collaborate to upregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-mediated cell migration and invasion of HCC. These results indicate that MUC1 is an attractive target in liver cancer therapy. PMID:26057631

  12. Cocaine induces nuclear export and degradation of neuronal retinoid X receptor-γ via a TNF-α/JNK- mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Langford, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    Cocaine abuse represents an immense societal health and economic burden for which no effective treatment currently exists. Among the numerous intracellular signaling cascades impacted by exposure to cocaine, increased and aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS has been observed. Additionally, we have previously reported a decrease in retinoid-X-receptor-gamma (RXR-γ) in brains of mice chronically exposed to cocaine. Through obligate heterodimerization with a number of nuclear receptors, RXRs serve as master regulatory transcription factors, which can potentiate or suppress expression of a wide spectrum of genes. Little is known about the regulation of RXR levels, but previous studies indicate cellular stressors such as cytokines negatively regulate levels of RXRs in vitro. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the cocaine-induced decreases in RXR-γ levels observed in vivo, we exposed neurons to cocaine in vitro and examined pathways which may contribute to disruption in RXR signaling, including activation of stress pathways by cytokine induction. In these studies, we provide the first evidence that cocaine exposure disrupts neuronal RXR-γ signaling in vitro by promoting its nuclear export and degradation. Furthermore, we demonstrate this effect may be mediated, at least in part, by cocaine-induced production of TNF-α and its downstream effector c-Jun-NH-terminal kinase (JNK). Findings from this study are therefore applicable to both cocaine abuse and to pathological conditions characterized by neuroinflammatory factors, such as neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25586717

  13. Nucleolin mediates microRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation but increases translation of CSF-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K

    2013-06-01

    CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3'UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of nucleolin's actions on CSF-1 mRNA and describe the dependence of miR-130a- and miR-301a-directed CSF-1 mRNA decay and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell motility on nucleolin. PMID:23471483

  14. Subcellular mRNA localisation at a glance.

    PubMed

    Parton, Richard M; Davidson, Alexander; Davis, Ilan; Weil, Timothy T

    2014-05-15

    mRNA localisation coupled to translational regulation provides an important means of dictating when and where proteins function in a variety of model systems. This mechanism is particularly relevant in polarised or migrating cells. Although many of the models for how this is achieved were first proposed over 20 years ago, some of the molecular details are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, advanced imaging, biochemical and computational approaches have started to shed light on the cis-acting localisation signals and trans-acting factors that dictate the final destination of localised transcripts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide an overview of mRNA localisation, from transcription to degradation, focusing on the microtubule-dependent active transport and anchoring mechanism, which we will use to explain the general paradigm. However, it is clear that there are diverse ways in which mRNAs become localised and target protein expression, and we highlight some of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms. PMID:24833669

  15. Drosha mediates destabilization of Lin28 mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chong; Ma, Jing; Xu, Jie; Xie, Mingyi; Ma, Wei; Huang, Yingqun

    2012-01-01

    Lin28 plays important roles in development, stem cell maintenance, oncogenesis and metabolism. As an RNA-binding protein, it blocks the biogenesis primarily of let-7 family miRNAs and also promotes translation of a cohort of mRNAs involved in cell growth, metabolism and pluripotency, likely through recognition of distinct sequence and structural motifs within mRNAs. Here, we show that one such motif, shared by multiple Lin28-responsive elements (LREs) present in Lin28 mRNA targets also participates in a Drosha-dependent regulation and may contribute to destabilization of its cognate mRNAs. We further show that the same mutations in the LREs known to abolish Lin28 binding and stimulation of translation also abrogate Drosha-dependent mRNA destabilization, and that this effect is independent of miRNAs, uncovering a previously unsuspected coupling between Drosha-dependent destabilization and Lin28-mediated regulation. Thus, Lin28-dependent stimulation of translation of target mRNAs may, in part, serve to compensate for their intrinsic instability, thereby ensuring optimal levels of expression of genes critical for cell viability, metabolism and pluripotency. PMID:22935707

  16. Avian erythroblastosis virus produces two mRNA's.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S M; Hayward, W S; Neel, B G; Hanafusa, H

    1980-01-01

    We analyzed the viral mRNA's present in fibroblast nonproducer clones transformed by avian erythroblastosis virus. Two size classes of mRNA (28 to 30S and 22 to 24S) were identified by solution hybridization with both complementary DNA strong stop and complementary DNA made against the unique sequences of avian erythroblastosis virus. Based upon the kinetics of hybridization with complementary DNA made against the unique sequences of avian erythroblastosis virus, we estimated that there were 400 to 500 copies of the 28 to 30S RNA per cell and 200 to 250 copies of the 22 to 24S RNA per cell. Both RNA species were packaged in the virion. In vitro translation of the 28 to 30S virion RNA yielded a 75,000-dalton protein which was the 75,000-dalton gag-related polyprotein found in avian erythroblastosis virus-transformed cells. In vitro translation of the 22 to 24S virion RNA yielded two proteins (46,000 and 48,000 daltons). This indicates that there may be two genes in avian erythroblastosis virus, one coding for the 75,000-dalton gag-related polyprotein and the second coding for the 46,000- or 48,000-dalton protein or both. Images PMID:6257919

  17. Motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Koen

    2004-11-01

    Ribosomes move along messenger RNA to translate a sequence of ribonucleotides into a corresponding sequence of amino acids that make up a protein. Efficient motion of ribosomes along the mRNA requires hydrolysis of GTP, converting chemical energy into mechanical work, like better known molecular motors such as kinesin. However, motion is just one of the many tasks of the ribosome, whereas for kinesin, motion itself is the main goal. In keeping with these functional differences, the ribosome is also much larger consisting of more than 50 proteins and with half of its mass made up of ribosomal RNA. Such structural complexity enables indirect ways of coupling GTP hydrolysis to directed motion. In order to elucidate the mechanochemical coupling in ribosomes we have developed a single-molecule assay based on using optical tweezers to record the motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA. Translation rates of 2-4 codons/s have been observed. However, when increasing the force opposing motion, we observe backward slippage of ribosomes along homopolymeric poly(U) messages. Currently, it is not clear if the motor operates in reverse or if backward motion has become completely uncoupled from GTP hydrolysis. Interestingly, force-induced backward motion is of biological relevance because of its possible role in -1 frameshifting, a mechanism used by viruses to regulate gene expression at the level of translation.

  18. mRNA quality control at the 5' end.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Li-ting; Xiang, Song

    2014-05-01

    All eukaryotic mRNAs are capped at their 5' end. Capping of mRNAs takes place co-transcriptionally and involves three steps. The intermediates of the capping process, as well as the uncapped 5' tri-phosphate RNA, are resistant to decapping and degradation by known factors, leading to the assumption that the capping process always proceeds to completion. This view was recently drastically changed. A novel family of enzymes, including the yeast proteins Rai1, Dxo1/Ydr370C, and the mammalian protein DXO/Dom3Z, has been identified. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of the improperly capped mRNAs to 5' mono-phosphate RNA, allowing them to be degraded by 5'-3' exoribonucleases. Several of these enzymes also possess 5'-3' exoribonuclease activities themselves, and can single-handedly clear the improperly capped mRNAs. Studying of these enzymes has led to the realization that mRNA capping does not always proceed to completion, and the identification of an mRNA capping quality control mechanism in eukaryotes. In this paper, we briefly review recent advances in this area. PMID:24793761

  19. Differential regulation of host mRNA translation during obligate pathogen-plant interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infection reprograms the plant messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptome by activating or interfering with a variety of signaling pathways, but the effects on host mRNA translation have not been explored on a genome-wide scale. To address this issue, Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA transcripts were quantif...

  20. Regulation of aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and taurine cotransporter mRNA in rat medulla.

    PubMed

    Martial, S; Price, S R; Sands, J M

    1995-05-01

    The regulation of mRNA for aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and the Na+/Cl-/taurine cotransporter was studied with three in vivo models in which urinary concentration is reduced: Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing a water diuresis or fed a low-protein diet or Brattleboro rats. In Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days of water diuresis reduced inner medullary aldose reductase mRNA abundance 6.5-fold compared with untreated rats, whereas sorbitol dehydrogenase and taurine cotransporter mRNA were unchanged. When water diuretic rats were acutely deprived of water, urine osmolality increased significantly after 4 h but aldose reductase mRNA did not increase until 12 h. Heat shock protein-70 mRNA was not increased by water deprivation. Second, in rats fed a low-protein diet for 3 wk, aldose reductase mRNA increased two-fold, whereas sorbitol dehydrogenase and taurine cotransporter mRNA were unchanged. Finally, in Brattleboro rats, urine osmolality and levels of aldose reductase and taurine cotransporter mRNA increased in response to 1 day of water deprivation, whereas sorbitol dehydrogenase mRNA was unchanged. Administering vasopressin (1 U/day) to Brattleboro rats for 8 days also increased urine osmolality and aldose reductase mRNA but did not alter sorbitol dehydrogenase or taurine cotransporter mRNA. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that changes in urine osmolality induce changes in aldose reductase mRNA abundance that are independent of vasopressin. It was concluded that, in rat inner medulla: (1) aldose reductase mRNA abundance varies with changes in water balance or dietary protein, whereas sorbitol dehydrogenase and taurine cotransporter mRNA do not; and (2) heat shock protein-70 mRNA abundance is not increased during acute osmotic stress. PMID:7620095

  1. Lymphocyte Subsets and Interleukin-2 Receptors in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Douglas R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 10 male autistic children, ages 7-15 years, and 10 controls. The children with autism had a lower percentage of helper-inducer cells and a lower helper:suppressor ratio, with both measures inversely related to the severity of autistic symptoms. (Author/DB)

  2. Inhibition of tumor growth by histoincompatible cells expressing interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Roth, C; Mir, L M; Cressent, M; Quintin-Colonna, F; Ley, V; Fradelizi, D; Kourilsky, P

    1992-12-01

    Murine tumor cells engineered to express IL-2 have been shown to be rejected by the syngeneic host, which is then protected against a subsequent tumorigenic challenge. To assess whether IL-2 has to be produced by the tumor cells themselves, or whether its local delivery would be sufficient to promote such beneficial effects, the syngeneic tumor cells were co-inoculated with allogeneic or xenogeneic cells secreting IL-2, selected after gene transfection. In several murine systems, it was observed that this is an efficient approach for controlling the growth of the syngeneic tumor. However, animals which rejected the tumor were not protected against a subsequent challenge. Several lines of evidence indicate that NK cells play a major role in tumor rejection induced by the IL-2 expressing histoincompatible vector cells. Thus, while local delivery of IL-2 in the vicinity of a tumor might not be sufficient to promote a systemic long-term specific antitumor immune response, it can control the growth of the primary syngeneic tumor. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using genetically engineered histoincompatible cells (which are rejected by the host's immune system) as a transient delivery system in vivo. PMID:1286066

  3. Rituximab Plus Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-05

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  4. Increased polyamines may downregulate interleukin 2 production in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Flescher, E; Bowlin, T L; Ballester, A; Houk, R; Talal, N

    1989-01-01

    Polyamines downregulate immune reactivity. RA is associated with decreased IL 2 production. In this study, we present evidence to suggest that excessive polyamines can contribute to the IL 2 deficiency in RA. Blocking polyamine production with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase results in increased IL 2 production by RA PBMC. Moreover, polyamine oxidase (PAO) inhibitors and catalase also increase IL 2 production by RA PBMC. This effect of PAO inhibition is monocyte mediated. After 3 d in culture, RA PBMC produce three times more IL 2 than do normal PBMC. This rise is prevented by exogenous spermidine but only in the presence of monocytes. The concentration of polyamines in RA PBMC and synovial fluid MNC is 2-20-fold higher than in normal cells. Thus, polyamines and their oxidation products downregulate IL 2 production by RA PBMC and may account for the decreased T cell effector function seen in this disease. PMID:2784801

  5. Multiple interleukin-2 signaling pathways differentially regulated by microgravity.

    PubMed

    Licato, L L; Grimm, E A

    1999-11-01

    Defects in innate immunity have been demonstrated in astronauts after space flight. To investigate the role of microgravity on innate immune function, we evaluated NK and LAK activity of human PBMC stimulated with IL-2 under conditions of simulated microgravity, by using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) culture system. Under these conditions, both NK and LAK activity were generated at levels comparable to those found in static flask cultures. The phenotype of the activated PBMC was similar between the two culture conditions, with one notable exception: the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25), which failed to be upregulated in simulated microgravity. To further investigate this change in IL-2 signaling, we examined the ability of IL-2 to induce secondary cytokines. The production of IFNgamma, IL-1beta, and TNFalpha was almost completely abrogated in the microgravity cultures, suggesting that the IL-2 signaling pathways leading to various IL-2-mediated effects are differentially regulated under bioreactor culture conditions. PMID:10598884

  6. Regulatory anatomy of the murine interleukin-2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Novak, T J; White, P M; Rothenberg, E V

    1990-01-01

    We have cloned the mouse IL2 gene and sequenced 2800 bp of 5' flanking DNA. Comparison to the previously reported human sequence revealed extensive identity (approximately 86%) between the two genes from +1 to -580 with additional small islands of homology further upstream. Proximal sites which have been shown to be important in regulation of the human IL2 gene are well conserved in sequence and location. Transfection experiments using hybrid gene constructs containing varying lengths of the mouse 5' flanking DNA linked to a CAT reporter gene have demonstrated the presence of several novel positive and negative regulatory elements. One negative regulatory region lying between -750 and -1000 consists primarily of alternating purines and pyrimidines and is absent from the human gene. The conserved region from -321 and -578, an upstream segment from -1219 to -1332, and another region of approximately 450 bp from -1449 to -1890, which contained a well-conserved sequence of 60 bp, were each associated with enhanced levels of expression. We found no evidence for intragenic or downstream enhancer elements in this gene. All the elements identified affect only the magnitude of the inducible response, for no region when deleted had the effect of altering either the need for induction, the kinetics of stimulation, or the cell-type specificity of expression. Deletion studies suggest a strong requirement for NFAT binding even in the presence of extensive 5' flanking sequence. Therefore we conclude that IL2 gene expression is controlled primarily through a central TH1-specific signaling pathway, which acts through proximal elements, while distal cis-elements exert a secondary modulating effect. Images PMID:2388832

  7. Biomarkers of endocrine disruption at the mRNA level

    SciTech Connect

    Denslow, N.D.; Bowman, C.J.; Robinson, G.; Lee, H.S.; Ferguson, R.J.; Hemmmer, M.J.; Folmar, L.C.

    1999-07-01

    A large number of estrogen-mimicking, anthropogenic chemicals capable of disrupting normal reproductive function have been identified. The ubiquitous distribution of these compounds, many as components of complex industrial or municipal waste, has spurred an effort to develop methods to screen for chemicals which disrupt normal endocrine regulation of reproduction. The authors have developed assays that both allow exposure of animals in vivo and measure the response at the level of gene activation. The authors have developed a probe for measuring the induction of vitellogenin mRNA by Northern Blot in livers of sheepshead minnows treated with 17-{beta}-estradiol. The authors have also developed a strategy for using Differential Display Polymerase Chain Reaction for determining gene induction profiles following exposure to estradiol. These methods should be adaptable to a variety of structurally diverse estrogen mimics.

  8. Prolyl carboxypeptidase mRNA expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Diano, Sabrina

    2014-01-13

    Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a serine protease, is widely expressed in the body including liver, lung, kidney and brain, with a variety of known substrates such as plasma prekallikrein, bradykinin, angiotensins II and III, and α-MSH, suggesting its role in the processing of tissue-specific substrates. In the brain, PRCP has been shown to inactivate hypothalamic α-MSH, thus modulating melanocortin signaling in the control of energy metabolism. While its expression pattern has been reported in the hypothalamus, little is known on the distribution of PRCP throughout the mouse brain. This study was undertaken to determine PRCP expression in the mouse brain. Radioactive in situ hybridization was performed to determine endogenous PRCP mRNA expression. In addition, using a gene-trap mouse model for PRCP deletion, X-gal staining was performed to further determine PRCP distribution. Results from both approaches showed that PRCP gene is broadly expressed in the brain. PMID:24161824

  9. Picornavirus Modification of a Host mRNA Decay Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rozovics, Janet M.; Chase, Amanda J.; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D.; Palusa, Saiprasad; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Semler, Bert L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the limited coding capacity of picornavirus genomic RNAs, host RNA binding proteins play essential roles during viral translation and RNA replication. Here we describe experiments suggesting that AUF1, a host RNA binding protein involved in mRNA decay, plays a role in the infectious cycle of picornaviruses such as poliovirus and human rhinovirus. We observed cleavage of AUF1 during poliovirus or human rhinovirus infection, as well as interaction of this protein with the 5′ noncoding regions of these viral genomes. Additionally, the picornavirus proteinase 3CD, encoded by poliovirus or human rhinovirus genomic RNAs, was shown to cleave all four isoforms of recombinant AUF1 at a specific N-terminal site in vitro. Finally, endogenous AUF1 was found to relocalize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells to sites adjacent to (but distinct from) putative viral RNA replication complexes. PMID:23131833

  10. Analyzing Subcellular mRNA Localization via Cell Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Nwosu, Christine; Nicchitta, Christopher V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The partitioning of secretory and membrane protein-encoding mRNAs to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and their translation on ER-associated ribosomes, governs access to the secretory/exocytic pathways of the cell. As mRNAs encoding secretory and membrane proteins comprise approximately 30% of the transcriptome, the localization of mRNAs to the ER represents an extraordinarily prominent, ubiquitous, and yet poorly understood RNA localization phenomenon. The partitioning of mRNAs to the ER is generally thought to be achieved by the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. In this pathway, mRNA localization to the ER is determined by the translation product – translation yields an N-terminal signal sequence or topogenic signal that is recognized by the SRP and the resulting mRNA-ribosome-SRP complex is then recruited to the ER membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated that mRNAs can be localized to the ER via a signal sequence and/or translation-independent pathway(s) and that discrete sets of cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs are enriched on the ER membrane, though they lack an encoded signal sequence. These key findings reopen investigations into the mechanism(s) that govern mRNA localization to the ER. In this contribution, we describe two independent methods that can be utilized to study this important and poorly understood aspect of eukaryotic cell biology. These methods comprise two independent means of fractionating tissue culture cells to yield free/cytosolic polyribosomes and ER membrane-bound polyribosomes. Detailed methods for the fractionation and characterization of the two polyribosome pools are provided. PMID:21431749

  11. Identification of proteins specifically interacting with YB-1 mRNA 3' UTR and the effect of hnRNP Q on YB-1 mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Lyabin, D N; Nigmatullina, L F; Doronin, A N; Eliseeva, I A; Ovchinnikov, L P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, proteins specifically interacting with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA of the multifunctional Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) were identified. One of these, hnRNP Q, was shown to specifically interact with the regulatory element (RE) in YB-1 mRNA 3' UTR and to inhibit translation of this mRNA. Its binding to the RE was accompanied by displacement from this element of the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a positive regulator of YB-1 mRNA translation, and by enhanced binding of the negative YB-1 mRNA translation regulator - YB-1 itself. PMID:23980891

  12. Differential signal transduction pathways regulating interleukin-2 synthesis and interleukin-2 receptor expression in stimulated human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Szamel, M; Leufgen, H; Kurrle, R; Resch, K

    1995-04-12

    In human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated via the T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex IL-2 synthesis and cellular proliferation were effectively inhibited by a concentration of ouabain as low as 50 nM, whilst the expression of high affinity IL-2 receptors was not influenced. Binding of the monoclonal antibody, BMA 031 to the T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex resulted in a bimodal activation of protein kinase C. The activation of protein kinase C-alpha in the early phase of T-lymphocyte activation was not affected by 50 nM ouabain, in contrast sustained activation of protein kinase C-beta, between 90-240 min of stimulation was completely abolished by the cardiac glycoside. When protein kinase C was directly activated by PMA + ionomycin, 50 nM ouabain was ineffective in inhibiting protein kinase C activation, as well as subsequent IL-2 synthesis, suggesting that the glycoside interfered with signal transducing mechanism(s) upstream of the activation of protein kinase C. Ouabain had no influence on the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration in BMA 031 stimulated lymphocytes, ruling out the possibility that it interfered with the T-cell antigen receptor dependent phosphatidylinositol response. In contrast, lysophosphatide acyltransferase catalysed elevated incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids was effectively inhibited by low concentrations of ouabain in BMA 031-stimulated T-lymphocytes, whereas stimulation with PMA + ionomycin had no influence on the plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid metabolism. These results suggest, that differential signal transduction pathways are involved in the activation of protein kinases C-alpha and -beta. They implicate that elevated incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into plasma membrane phospholipids might contribute to sustained activation of protein kinase C-beta, and establish a link between activation of protein kinase C-beta and induction of IL-2 synthesis in human lymphocytes. PMID:7718605

  13. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction through Expansion of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhipeng; Yu, Kunwu; Chen, Long; Li, Weihua; Xiao, Hong; Huang, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have protective effects in wound healing and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesize that the interleukin- (IL-) 2 complex comprising the recombinant mouse IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1) attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI through the expansion of Treg. Mice were subjected to surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and treated with either PBS or IL-2 complex. The IL-2 complex significantly attenuates ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by reduced infarct size, improved left ventricular (LV) function, and attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The IL-2 complex increased the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, which may be recruited to the infarcted heart, and decreased the frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper (Th) cells among the CD4+Foxp3− T cells in the spleen. Furthermore, the IL-2 complex inhibited the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines as well as macrophage infiltrates in the infarcted myocardium and induced the differentiation of macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype in border zone of infarcted myocardium. Our studies indicate that the IL-2 complex may serve as a promising therapeutic approach to attenuate adverse remodeling after MI through expanding Treg cells specifically. PMID:27144181

  14. qPCR based mRNA quality score show intact mRNA after heat stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Oskar; Segerström, Lova; Sjöback, Robert; Nylander, Ingrid; Borén, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of multiple analytes from biological samples can be challenging as different analytes require different preservation measures. Heat induced enzymatic inactivation is an efficient way to preserve proteins and their modifications in biological samples but RNA quality, as measured by RIN value, has been a concern in such samples. Here, we investigate the effect of heat stabilization compared with standard snap freezing on RNA quality using two RNA extraction protocols, QiaZol with and without urea pre-solubilization, and two RNA quality measurements: RIN value, as defined by the Agilent Bioanalyzer, and an alternative qPCR based method. DNA extraction from heat stabilized brain samples was also examined. The snap frozen samples had RIN values about 1 unit higher than heat stabilized samples for the direct QiaZol extraction but equal with stabilized samples using urea pre-solubilization. qPCR based RNA quality measurement showed no difference in quality between snap frozen and heat inactivated samples. The probable explanation for this discrepancy is that the RIN value is an indirect measure based on rRNA, while the qPCR score is based on actual measurement of mRNA quality. The DNA yield from heat stabilized brain tissue samples was significantly increased, compared to the snap frozen tissue, without any effects on purity or quality. Hence, heat stabilization of tissues opens up the possibility for a two step preservation protocol, where proteins and their modifications can be preserved in the first heat based step, while in a second step, using standard RNA preservation strategies, mRNA be preserved. This collection strategy will enable biobanking of samples where the ultimate analysis is not determined without loss of sample quality. PMID:27077049

  15. qPCR based mRNA quality score show intact mRNA after heat stabilization.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Segerström, Lova; Sjöback, Robert; Nylander, Ingrid; Borén, Mats

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of multiple analytes from biological samples can be challenging as different analytes require different preservation measures. Heat induced enzymatic inactivation is an efficient way to preserve proteins and their modifications in biological samples but RNA quality, as measured by RIN value, has been a concern in such samples. Here, we investigate the effect of heat stabilization compared with standard snap freezing on RNA quality using two RNA extraction protocols, QiaZol with and without urea pre-solubilization, and two RNA quality measurements: RIN value, as defined by the Agilent Bioanalyzer, and an alternative qPCR based method. DNA extraction from heat stabilized brain samples was also examined. The snap frozen samples had RIN values about 1 unit higher than heat stabilized samples for the direct QiaZol extraction but equal with stabilized samples using urea pre-solubilization. qPCR based RNA quality measurement showed no difference in quality between snap frozen and heat inactivated samples. The probable explanation for this discrepancy is that the RIN value is an indirect measure based on rRNA, while the qPCR score is based on actual measurement of mRNA quality. The DNA yield from heat stabilized brain tissue samples was significantly increased, compared to the snap frozen tissue, without any effects on purity or quality. Hence, heat stabilization of tissues opens up the possibility for a two step preservation protocol, where proteins and their modifications can be preserved in the first heat based step, while in a second step, using standard RNA preservation strategies, mRNA be preserved. This collection strategy will enable biobanking of samples where the ultimate analysis is not determined without loss of sample quality. PMID:27077049

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA isoforms and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA expression in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Adamek, Agnieszka; Przybyszewska, Wies?awa; Pyda, Przemys?aw; Szmeja, Jacek; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Lanzafame, Agata; Surdacka, Anna; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Koczorowska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the expression of different insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNA isoforms and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected livers. METHODS: Thirty-four liver biopsy specimens from chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) patients were obtained before anti-viral therapy. Inflammatory activity (grading) and advancement of fibrosis (staging) were evaluated using a modified point scale of METAVIR. The samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR technique. From fragments of liver biopsies and control liver that were divided and ground in liquid nitrogen, RNA was isolated using RNeasy Fibrous Tissue Mini Kit according to the manufacturers instruction. Expression levels of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms (IGF-1A, IGF-1B, IGF-1C, P1, and P2) and IGF-1R mRNA were determined through normalization of copy numbers in samples as related to reference genes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and hydroxymethylbilane synthase. Results on liver expression of the IGF-1 mRNA isoforms and IGF-1R transcript were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies and with selected clinical data in the patients. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PL v. 9 software. RESULTS: The study showed differences in quantitative expression of IGF-1 mRNA variants in HCV-infected livers, as compared to the control. Higher relative expression of total IGF-1 mRNA and of IGF-1 mRNAs isoforms (P1, A, and C) in HCV-infected livers as compared to the control were detected. Within both groups, expression of the IGF-1A mRNA isoform significantly prevailed over expressions of B and C isoforms. Expression of P1 mRNA was higher than that of P2 only in CH-C. Very high positive correlations were detected between reciprocal expressions of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms P1 and P2 (r = 0.876). Expression of P1 and P2 mRNA correlated with IGF-1A mRNA (r = 0.891; r = 0.821, respectively), with IGF-1B mRNA (r = 0.854; r = 0.813, respectively), and with IGF-1C mRNA (r = 0.839; r = 0.741, respectively). Expression of IGF-1A mRNA significantly correlated with isoform B and C mRNA (r = 0.956; r = 0.869, respectively), and B with C isoforms (r = 0.868) (P < 0.05 in all cases). Lower expression of IGF-1A and B transcripts was noted in the more advanced liver grading (G2) as compared to G1. Multiple negative correlations were detected between expression of various IGF-1 transcripts and clinical data (e.g., alpha fetoprotein, HCV RNA, steatosis, grading, and staging). Expression of IGF-1R mRNA manifested positive correlation with grading and HCV-RNA. CONCLUSION: Differences in quantitative expression of IGF-1 mRNA isoforms in HCV-infected livers, as compared to the control, suggest that HCV may induce alteration of IGF-1 splicing profile. PMID:25852271

  17. Staufen1-mediated mRNA decay induces Requiem mRNA decay through binding of Staufen1 to the Requiem 3′UTR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Young; Park, Jungyun; Lee, Jong Joo; Ha, Dae Hyun; Kim, Jonghwan; Kim, Chan Gil; Hwang, Jungwook; Kim, Chul Geun

    2014-01-01

    Requiem (REQ/DPF2) was originally identified as an apoptosis-inducing protein in mouse myeloid cells and belongs to the novel Krüppel-type zinc finger d4-protein family of proteins, which includes neuro-d4 (DPF1) and cer-d4 (DPF3). Interestingly, when a portion of the REQ messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR), referred to as G8, was overexpressed in K562 cells, β-globin expression was induced, suggesting that the 3′UTR of REQ mRNA plays a physiological role. Here, we present evidence that the REQ mRNA 3′UTR, along with its trans-acting factor, Staufen1 (STAU1), is able to reduce the level of REQ mRNA via STAU1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD). By screening a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) expression library with an RNA–ligand binding assay, we identified STAU1 as an interactor of the REQ mRNA 3′UTR. Specifically, we provide evidence that STAU1 binds to putative 30-nucleotide stem–loop-structured RNA sequences within the G8 region, which we term the protein binding site core; this binding triggers the degradation of REQ mRNA and thus regulates translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that siRNA-mediated silencing of either STAU1 or UPF1 increases the abundance of cellular REQ mRNA and, consequently, the REQ protein, indicating that REQ mRNA is a target of SMD. PMID:24799437

  18. Evaluation of CTX-M steady-state mRNA, mRNA half-life and protein production in various STs of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Chelsie N.; Fowler, Randal C.; Johnson, James R.; Johnston, Brian; Weissman, Scott J.; Hawkey, Peter; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High levels of β-lactamase production can impact treatment with a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination. Goals of this study were to: (i) compare the mRNA and protein levels of CTX-M-15- and CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from 18 different STs and 10 different phylotypes; (ii) evaluate the mRNA half-lives and establish a role for chromosomal- and/or plasmid-encoded factors; and (iii) evaluate the zones of inhibition for piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam. Methods Disc diffusion was used to establish zone size. RNA analysis was accomplished using real-time RT–PCR and CTX-M protein levels were evaluated by immunoblotting. Clinical isolates, transformants and transconjugants were used to evaluate mRNA half-lives. Results mRNA levels of CTX-M-15 were up to 165-fold higher compared with CTX-M-14. CTX-M-15 protein levels were 2–48-fold less than their respective transcript levels, while CTX-M-14 protein production was comparable to the observed transcript levels. Nineteen of 25 E. coli (76%) had extended CTX-M-15 mRNA half-lives of 5–15 min and 16 (100%) CTX-M-14 isolates had mRNA half-lives of <2–3 min. Transformants had mRNA half-lives of <2 min for both CTX-M-type transcripts, while transconjugant mRNA half-lives corresponded to the half-life of the donor. Ceftolozane/tazobactam zone sizes were ≥19 mm, while piperacillin/tazobactam zone sizes were ≥17 mm. Conclusions CTX-M-15 mRNA and protein production did not correlate. Neither E. coli ST nor phylotype influenced the variability observed for CTX-M-15 mRNA or protein produced. mRNA half-life is controlled by a plasmid-encoded factor and may influence mRNA transcript levels, but not protein levels. PMID:26612874

  19. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, M.A.; D'Agostino, J.B.; Frazier, M.L.; Besch, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a /sup 32/P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II.

  20. PABPN1-Dependent mRNA Processing Induces Muscle Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Yotam; van Putten, Maaike; Paniagua-Soriano, Guillem; Krom, Yvonne D.; Florea, Bogdan I.; Raz, Vered

    2016-01-01

    Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is a multifunctional regulator of mRNA processing, and its expression levels specifically decline in aging muscles. An expansion mutation in PABPN1 is the genetic cause of oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy (OPMD), a late onset and rare myopathy. Moreover, reduced PABPN1 expression correlates with symptom manifestation in OPMD. PABPN1 regulates alternative polyadenylation site (PAS) utilization. However, the impact of PAS utilization on cell and tissue function is poorly understood. We hypothesized that altered PABPN1 expression levels is an underlying cause of muscle wasting. To test this, we stably down-regulated PABPN1 in mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscles by localized injection of adeno-associated viruses expressing shRNA to PABPN1 (shPab). We found that a mild reduction in PABPN1 levels causes muscle pathology including myofiber atrophy, thickening of extracellular matrix and myofiber-type transition. Moreover, reduced PABPN1 levels caused a consistent decline in distal PAS utilization in the 3’-UTR of a subset of OPMD-dysregulated genes. This alternative PAS utilization led to up-regulation of Atrogin-1, a key muscle atrophy regulator, but down regulation of proteasomal genes. Additionally reduced PABPN1 levels caused a reduction in proteasomal activity, and transition in MyHC isotope expression pattern in myofibers. We suggest that PABPN1-mediated alternative PAS utilization plays a central role in aging-associated muscle wasting. PMID:27152426

  1. Intracellular Calcium Regulates Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Nickless, Andrew; Jackson, Erin; Marasa, Jayne; Nugent, Patrick; Mercer, Robert W.; Piwnica-Worms, David; You, Zhongsheng

    2014-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway selectively eliminates aberrant transcripts containing premature translation termination codons (PTCs) and regulates the levels of a number of physiological mRNAs. NMD modulates the clinical outcome of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and many genetic disorders, and may represent an important target for therapeutic intervention. Here we have developed a novel multicolored, bioluminescence-based reporter system that can specifically and effectively assay NMD in live human cells. Using this reporter system, we conducted a robust high-throughput small-molecule screen in human cells and, unpredictably, identified a group of cardiac glycosides including ouabain and digoxin as potent inhibitors of NMD. Cardiac glycoside-mediated effects on NMD are dependent on binding and inhibiting the Na+/K+-ATPase on the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium levels. Induction of calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum also leads to inhibition of NMD. Thus, this study reveals intracellular calcium as a key regulator of NMD and has important implications for exploiting NMD in the treatment of disease. PMID:25064126

  2. Intronic hammerhead ribozymes in mRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; de la Peña, Marcos

    2012-11-01

    Small self-cleaving ribozymes are a group of natural RNAs that are capable of catalyzing their own and sequence-specific endonucleolytic cleavage. One of the most studied members is the hammerhead ribozyme (HHR), a catalytic RNA originally discovered in subviral plant pathogens but recently shown to reside in a myriad of genomes along the tree of life. In eukaryotes, most of the genomic HHRs seem to be related to short interspersed retroelements, with the main exception of a group of strikingly conserved ribozymes found in the genomes of all amniotes (reptiles, birds and mammals). These amniota HHRs occur in the introns of a few specific genes, and clearly point to a preserved biological role during pre-mRNA biosynthesis. More specifically, bioinformatic analysis suggests that these intronic ribozymes could offer a new form of splicing regulation of the mRNA of higher vertebrates. We review here the latest advances in the discovery and biological characterization of intronic HHRs of vertebrates, including new conserved examples in the genomes of the primitive turtle and coelacanth fish. PMID:23109545

  3. PABPN1-Dependent mRNA Processing Induces Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Muhammad; Raz, Yotam; van Putten, Maaike; Paniagua-Soriano, Guillem; Krom, Yvonne D; Florea, Bogdan I; Raz, Vered

    2016-05-01

    Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is a multifunctional regulator of mRNA processing, and its expression levels specifically decline in aging muscles. An expansion mutation in PABPN1 is the genetic cause of oculopharyngeal muscle dystrophy (OPMD), a late onset and rare myopathy. Moreover, reduced PABPN1 expression correlates with symptom manifestation in OPMD. PABPN1 regulates alternative polyadenylation site (PAS) utilization. However, the impact of PAS utilization on cell and tissue function is poorly understood. We hypothesized that altered PABPN1 expression levels is an underlying cause of muscle wasting. To test this, we stably down-regulated PABPN1 in mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscles by localized injection of adeno-associated viruses expressing shRNA to PABPN1 (shPab). We found that a mild reduction in PABPN1 levels causes muscle pathology including myofiber atrophy, thickening of extracellular matrix and myofiber-type transition. Moreover, reduced PABPN1 levels caused a consistent decline in distal PAS utilization in the 3'-UTR of a subset of OPMD-dysregulated genes. This alternative PAS utilization led to up-regulation of Atrogin-1, a key muscle atrophy regulator, but down regulation of proteasomal genes. Additionally reduced PABPN1 levels caused a reduction in proteasomal activity, and transition in MyHC isotope expression pattern in myofibers. We suggest that PABPN1-mediated alternative PAS utilization plays a central role in aging-associated muscle wasting. PMID:27152426

  4. Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfuss, G; Adam, S A; Choi, Y D

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 (38K) become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows mostly cytoplasmic and some nuclear staining. These observations demonstrate that commonly used inhibitors of transcription affect the physical state of messenger ribonucleoproteins in vivo. Images PMID:6717428

  5. Differential stability of mRNA species of Alcaligenes eutrophus soluble and particulate hydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Oelmüller, U; Schlegel, H G; Friedrich, C G

    1990-01-01

    The functional half-lives of Alcaligenes eutrophus hydrogenase mRNAs were determined by physiological studies. Evidence was obtained for a functional half-life of about 1 h for the soluble NAD-linked hydrogenase (HoxS) mRNA and 14 min for the particulate hydrogenase (HoxP) mRNA. The synthesis of active HoxS continued for about 4 h, albeit at a decreasing rate after inhibition of transcription, e.g., by rifampin. In this strain, the mRNA of HoxS appeared to be stable, while the mRNA of HoxP did not. Different species of hoxS mRNA were detected by the Northern (RNA) hybridization technique using as a probe plasmid pCH139 carrying hoxS structural genes. The sizes of the major hoxS mRNA species were 7.6, 6.2, 5.0, and 0.9 kb. The chemical half-lives of these species ranged from 1 h (5.0-kb mRNA) to 7 h (0.9-kb mRNA). Evidence for a specific cleavage of the 6.2-kb transcript yielding the 0.9-kb species was obtained from RNA-DNA hybridizations with subcloned hoxS DNA. The chemical half-life of total hoxP mRNA was 8 min. Images PMID:1701427

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Mechanisms governing the control of mRNA translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Mark; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2010-06-01

    The translation of cellular mRNA to protein is a tightly controlled process often deregulated in diseases such as cancer. Furthering our understanding of mRNA structural elements and the intracellular proteins and signaling pathways that affect protein expression is crucial in the development of new therapies. In this review, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of detecting and determining the role of mRNA sequence elements in regulating the initiation of mRNA translation and the therapeutic strategies that exploit this knowledge to treat disease.

  7. Regulation of neuronal oxytocin mRNA by ovarian steroids in the mature and developing hypothalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, F D; Ozimek, G; Milner, R J; Bloom, F E

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the changes in neuronal expression of oxytocin mRNA in the perinatal and mature female rat as a function of endogenous gonadal steroids. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a significant developmental increase in the abundance of oxytocin mRNA in the female brain concomitant with puberty. Ovariectomy of adult females decreased total brain oxytocin mRNA to significantly lower levels. In contrast, lactating mothers had increased levels of neuronal oxytocin mRNA. In situ hybridization analysis of neuronal oxytocin mRNA in adolescent, mature virgin, and ovariectomized virgin female brains demonstrated that the location and number of neurons expressing oxytocin mRNA was unchanged and that total brain oxytocin mRNA differences were attributable to amounts expressed per neuron. Differences in mRNA abundance were noted in oxytocin neurons throughout the hypothalamus, including those known to project as magnocellular neurons to the neurohypophysis and those of parvocellular origin thought to make wholly intracerebral connections. This developmental and dynamic regulation of oxytocin mRNA levels during gonadal maturation may coordinate the peripheral and central effects of this peptide on the reproductive biology of the female rat. Images PMID:2928343

  8. Coupling mRNA processing with transcription in time and space.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David L

    2014-03-01

    Maturation of mRNA precursors often occurs simultaneously with their synthesis by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The co-transcriptional nature of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of coupling mechanisms that coordinate transcription with mRNA capping, splicing, editing and 3' end formation. Recent experiments using sophisticated new methods for analysis of nascent RNA have provided important insights into the relative amount of co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional processing, the relationship between mRNA elongation and processing, and the role of the Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) in regulating these processes. PMID:24514444

  9. In vitro Splicing of Influenza Viral NS1 mRNA and NS1-β -globin Chimeras: Possible Mechanisms for the Control of Viral mRNA Splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotch, Stephen J.; Krug, Robert M.

    1986-08-01

    In influenza virus-infected cells, the splicing of the viral NS1 mRNA catalyzed by host nuclear enzymes is controlled so that the steady-state amount of the spliced NS2 mRNA is only 5-10% of that of the unspliced NS1 mRNA. Here we examine the splicing of NS1 mRNA in vitro, using nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We show that in addition to its consensus 5' and 3' splice sites, NS1 mRNA has an intron branch-point adenosine residue that was functional in lariat formation. Nonetheless, this RNA was not detectably spliced in vitro under conditions in which a human β -globin precursor was efficiently spliced. Using chimeric RNA precursors containing both NS1 and β -globin sequences, we show that the NS1 5' splice site was effectively utilized by the β -globin branch-point sequence and 3' splice site to form a spliced RNA, whereas the NS1 3' splice site did not function in detectable splicing in vitro, even in the presence of the β -globin branch-point sequence or in the presence of both the branch-point sequence and 5' exon and splice site from β -globin With the chimeric precursors that were not detectably spliced, as with NS1 mRNA itself, a low level of a lariat structure containing only intron and not 3' exon sequences was formed. The inability of the consensus 3' splice site of NS1 mRNA to function effectively in in vitro splicing suggests that this site is structurally inaccessible to components of the splicing machinery. Based on these results, we propose two mechanisms whereby NS1 mRNA splicing in infected cells is controlled via the accessibility of its 3' splice site.

  10. Herpes simplex virus virion stimulatory protein mRNA leader contains sequence elements which increase both virus-induced transcription and mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, E D; Blair, C C; Wagner, E K

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the role of 5' noncoding leader sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mRNA in infected cells, the promoter for the 65,000-dalton virion stimulatory protein (VSP), a beta-gamma polypeptide, was introduced into plasmids bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene together with various lengths of adjacent viral leader sequences. Plasmids containing longer lengths of leader sequence gave rise to significantly higher levels of CAT enzyme in transfected cells superinfected with HSV-1. RNase T2 protection assays of CAT mRNA showed that transcription was initiated from an authentic viral cap site in all VSP-CAT constructs and that CAT mRNA levels corresponded to CAT enzyme levels. Use of cis-linked simian virus 40 enhancer sequences demonstrated that the effect was virus specific. Constructs containing 12 and 48 base pairs of the VSP mRNA leader gave HSV infection-induced CAT activities intermediate between those of the leaderless construct and the VSP-(+77)-CAT construct. Actinomycin D chase experiments demonstrated that the longest leader sequences increased hybrid CAT mRNA stability at least twofold in infected cells. Cotransfection experiments with a cosmid bearing four virus-specified transcription factors (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and VSP-65K) showed that sequences from -3 to +77, with respect to the viral mRNA cap site, also contained signals responsive to transcriptional activation. Images PMID:3037112

  11. Genome wide assessment of mRNA in astrocyte protrusions by direct RNA sequencing reveals mRNA localization for the intermediate filament protein nestin.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Rune; Pallesen, Jonatan; Daugaard, Tina F; Børglum, Anders D; Nielsen, Anders L

    2013-11-01

    Subcellular RNA localization plays an important role in development, cell differentiation, and cell migration. For a comprehensive description of the population of protrusion localized mRNAs in astrocytes we separated protrusions from cell bodies in a Boyden chamber and performed high-throughput direct RNA sequencing. The mRNAs with localization in astrocyte protrusions encode proteins belonging to a variety of functional groups indicating involvement of RNA localization for a palette of cellular functions. The mRNA encoding the intermediate filament protein Nestin was among the identified mRNAs. By RT-qPCR and RNA FISH analysis we confirmed Nestin mRNA localization in cell protrusions and also protrusion localization of Nestin protein. Nestin mRNA localization was dependent of Fragile X mental retardation syndrome proteins Fmrp and Fxr1, and the Nestin 3'-UTR was sufficient to mediate protrusion mRNA localization. The mRNAs for two other intermediate filament proteins in astrocytes, Gfap and Vimentin, have moderate and no protrusion localization, respectively, showing that individual intermediate filament components have different localization mechanisms. The correlated localization of Nestin mRNA with Nestin protein in cell protrusions indicates the presence of a regulatory mechanism at the mRNA localization level for the Nestin intermediate filament protein with potential importance for astrocyte functions during brain development and maintenance. PMID:24009167

  12. Degradation of intestinal mRNA: A matter of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heumüller-Klug, Sabine; Sticht, Carsten; Kaiser, Karin; Wink, Elvira; Hagl, Cornelia; Wessel, Lucas; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the influence of location, species and treatment upon RNA degradation in tissue samples from the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: The intestinal samples were stored in different medium for different times under varying conditions: different species (human and rat), varying temperature (storage on crushed ice or room temperature), time point of dissection of the submucous-mucous layer from the smooth muscle (before or after storage), different rinsing methods (rinsing with Medium, PBS, RNALater or without rinsing at all) and different regions of the gut (proximal and distal small intestine, caecum, colon and rectum). The total RNA from different parts of the gut (rat: proximal and distal small intestine, caecum, colon and rectum, human: colon and rectum) and individual gut layers (muscle and submucosal/mucosal) was extracted. The quality of the RNA was assessed by micro capillary electrophoresis. The RNA quality was expressed by the RNA integrity number which is calculated from the relative height and area of the 18 S and 28 S RNA peaks. From rat distal small intestine qPCR was performed for neuronal and glial markers. RESULTS: RNA obtained from smooth muscle tissue is much longer stable than those from submucosal/mucosal tissue. At RT muscle RNA degrades after one day, on ice it is stable at least three days. Cleaning and separation of gut layers before storage and use of RNALater, maintains the stability of muscle RNA at RT for much longer periods. Different parts of the gut show varying degradation periods. RNA obtained from the submucosal/mucosal layer always showed a much worse amplification rate than RNA from muscle tissue. In general RNA harvested from rat tissue, either smooth muscle layer or submucosal/mucosal layer is much longer stable than RNA from human gut tissue, and RNA obtained from smooth muscle tissue shows an increased stability compared to RNA from submucosal/mucosal tissue. At RT muscle RNA degrades after one day, while the stability on ice lasts at least three days. Cleaning and separation of gut layers before storage and use of RNALater, maintains the stability of muscle RNA at RT for much longer periods. Different parts of the gut show varying degradation periods. The RNA from muscle and submucosal/mucosal tissue of the proximal small intestine degrades much faster than the RNA of distal small intestine, caecum or colon with rectum. RNA obtained from the submucosal/mucosal layer always showed a much more reduced amplification rate than RNA from muscle tissue [β-Tubulin III for muscle quantification cycle (Cp): 22.07 ± 0.25, for β-Tubulin III submucosal/mucosal Cp: 27.42 ± 0.19]. CONCLUSION: Degradation of intestinal mRNA depends on preparation and storage conditions of the tissue. Cooling, rinsing and separating of intestinal tissue reduce the degradation of mRNA. PMID:25834314

  13. Balancing Arc Synthesis, mRNA Decay, and Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Soulé, Jonathan; Alme, Maria; Myrum, Craig; Schubert, Manja; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Bramham, Clive R.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling induces Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate early gene crucial for synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that dictate Arc mRNA and protein dynamics during and after cholinergic epochs are little understood. Using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) stimulation triggers Arc synthesis, whereas translation-dependent RNA decay and proteasomal degradation strictly limit the amount and duration of Arc expression. Chronic application of the mAchR agonist, carbachol (Cch), induces Arc transcription via ERK signaling and release of calcium from IP3-sensitive stores. Arc translation requires ERK activation, but not changes in intracellular calcium. Proteasomal degradation of Arc (half-life ∼37 min) was enhanced by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic calcium-ATPase pump. Similar mechanisms of Arc protein regulation were observed in cultured rat hippocampal slices. Functionally, we studied the impact of cholinergic epoch duration and temporal pattern on Arc protein expression. Acute Cch treatment (as short as 2 min) induces transient, moderate Arc expression, whereas continuous treatment of more than 30 min induces maximal expression, followed by rapid decline. Cholinergic activity associated with rapid eye movement sleep may function to facilitate long term synaptic plasticity and memory. Employing a paradigm designed to mimic intermittent rapid eye movement sleep epochs, we show that application of Cch in a series of short bursts generates persistent and maximal Arc protein expression. The results demonstrate dynamic, multifaceted control of Arc synthesis during mAchR signaling, and implicate cholinergic epoch duration and repetition as critical determinants of Arc expression and function in synaptic plasticity and behavior. PMID:22584581

  14. Application of a Master Equation for Quantitative mRNA Analysis Using qRT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The qRT-PCR has been widely accepted as the assay of choice for mRNA quantification. Gene expression as measured by mRNA dynamics varies in response to different conditions and environmental stimuli. For conventional practice, housekeeping genes have been applied as internal reference for data nor...

  15. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 regulates transport of ITPR1 mRNA for synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Daisuke; Kuroda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Motoki; Namba, Takashi; Iizuka, Yukihiko; Taya, Shinichiro; Shinoda, Tomoyasu; Hikita, Takao; Muraoka, Shinsuke; Iizuka, Michiro; Nimura, Ai; Mizoguchi, Akira; Shiina, Nobuyuki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-05-01

    Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a susceptibility gene for major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. DISC1 has been implicated in neurodevelopment in relation to scaffolding signal complexes. Here we used proteomic analysis to screen for DISC1 interactors and identified several RNA-binding proteins, such as hematopoietic zinc finger (HZF), that act as components of RNA-transporting granules. HZF participates in the mRNA localization of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1), which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. DISC1 colocalizes with HZF and ITPR1 mRNA in hippocampal dendrites and directly associates with neuronal mRNAs, including ITPR1 mRNA. The binding potential of DISC1 for ITPR1 mRNA is facilitated by HZF. Studies of Disc1-knockout mice have revealed that DISC1 regulates the dendritic transport of Itpr1 mRNA by directly interacting with its mRNA. The DISC1-mediated mRNA regulation is involved in synaptic plasticity. We show that DISC1 binds ITPR1 mRNA with HZF, thereby regulating its dendritic transport for synaptic plasticity. PMID:25821909

  16. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25494492

  17. Sodium regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA expression in rat kidney cortex and medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Ingelfinger, J R; Pratt, R E; Ellison, K; Dzau, V J

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver angiotensinogen cDNA (pRang 3) and mouse renin cDNA (pDD-1D2) were used to identify angiotensinogen and renin mRNA sequences in rat kidney cortex and medulla in rats on high and low salt diet. Angiotensinogen mRNA sequences were present in renal cortex and medulla in apparently equal proportions, whereas renin mRNA sequences were found primarily in renal cortex. Average relative signal of rat liver to whole kidney angiotensinogen mRNA was 100:3. Densitometric analysis of Northern blots demonstrated that renal cortical angiotensinogen mRNA concentrations increased 3.5-fold (P less than 0.001) and medulla, 1.5-fold (P less than 0.005) on low sodium compared with high sodium diet, whereas renal cortex renin mRNA levels increased 6.8-fold (P less than 0.0005). Dietary sodium did not significantly influence liver angiotensinogen mRNA levels. These findings provide evidence for sodium regulation of renal renin and angiotensinogen mRNA expressions, which supports potential existence of an intrarenally regulated RAS and suggest that different factors regulate renal and hepatic angiotensinogen. Images PMID:3533999

  18. Axonal Amphoterin mRNA Is Regulated by Translational Control and Enhances Axon Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Coleman, Jennifer; Kim, Hak Hee; Kumar Sahoo, Pabitra; Gomes, Cynthia; Brito-Vargas, Paul; Rauvala, Heikki; Blesch, Armin; Yoo, Soonmoon

    2015-01-01

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins concentrate in the nucleus, interacting with chromatin. Amphoterin is an HMG protein (HMGB1) that has been shown to have extranuclear functions and can be secreted from some cell types. Exogenous amphoterin can increase neurite growth, suggesting that the secreted protein may have growth promoting activities in neurons. Consistent with this, we show that depletion of amphoterin mRNA from cultured adult rat DRG neurons attenuates neurite outgrowth, pointing to autocrine or paracrine mechanisms for its growth-promoting effects. The mRNA encoding amphoterin localizes to axonal processes and we showed recently that its 3′-UTR is sufficient for axonal localization of heterologous transcripts (Donnelly et al., 2013). Here, we show that amphoterin mRNA is transported constitutively into axons of adult DRG neurons. A preconditioning nerve injury increases the levels of amphoterin protein in axons without a corresponding increase in amphoterin mRNA in the axons. A 60 nucleotide region of the amphoterin mRNA 3′-UTR is necessary and sufficient for its localization into axons of cultured sensory neurons. Amphoterin mRNA 3′-UTR is also sufficient for axonal localization in distal axons of DRG neurons in vivo. Overexpression of axonally targeted amphoterin mRNA increases axon outgrowth in cultured sensory neurons, but axon growth is not affected when the overexpressed mRNA is restricted to the cell body. PMID:25855182

  19. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Bartholomäus, Alexander; Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-10-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  20. Messenger RNAs bearing tRNA-like features exemplified by interferon alfa 5 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Toledano, Rosa; Gómez, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to ascertain whether liver mRNA species share common structural features with hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA that allow them to support the RNase-P (pre-tRNA/processing enzyme) cleavage reaction in vitro. The presence of RNase-P competitive elements in the liver mRNA population was determined by means of biochemical techniques, and a set of sensitive mRNA species were identified through microarray screening. Cleavage specificity and substrate length requirement of around 200 nts, were determined for three mRNA species. One of these cleavage sites was found in interferon-alpha 5 (IFNA5) mRNA between specific base positions and with the characteristic RNase-P chemistry of cleavage. It was mapped within a cloverleaf-like structure revealed by a comparative structural analysis based on several direct enzymes and chemical probing methods of three RNA fragments of increasing size, and subsequently contrasted against site-directed mutants. The core region was coincident with the reported signal for the cytoplasmic accumulation region (CAR) in IFNAs. Striking similarities with the tRNA-like element of the antagonist HCV mRNA were found. In general, this study provides a new way of looking at a variety of viral tRNA-like motifs as this type of structural mimicry might be related to specific host mRNA species rather than, or in addition to, tRNA itself. PMID:25900662

  1. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  2. PROLONGED FASTING AND CORTISOL REDUCE MYOSTATIN MRNA LEVELS IN TILAPIA LARVAE, SHORT-TERM FASTING ELEVATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indices in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA...

  3. Tissue distribution of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in man.

    PubMed

    Krief, S; Lönnqvist, F; Raimbault, S; Baude, B; Van Spronsen, A; Arner, P; Strosberg, A D; Ricquier, D; Emorine, L J

    1993-01-01

    Expression of mRNA for beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-adrenergic receptors (beta 1-, beta 2-, and beta 3-AR) was investigated in human tissues. beta 1- and beta 2-AR mRNA distribution correlated with that of the cognate receptors established by pharmacological studies. beta 3-AR transcripts were abundant in infant perirenal brown adipose tissue, characterized by the presence of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA. In adult whole adipose tissues, beta 3-AR mRNA levels were high in deep deposits such as perirenal and omental, and lower in subcutaneous. In these deposits, UCP mRNA levels paralleled those of beta 3-AR. However, isolated omental and subcutaneous adipose cells, enriched in white adipocytes, expressed beta 3-AR but no UCP transcripts. beta 3-AR mRNA was highly expressed in gallbladder, and to a much lower extent in colon, independently of UCP mRNA. Quadriceps or abdominal muscles, heart, liver, lung, kidney, thyroid, and lymphocytes did not express intrinsic beta 3-AR mRNA. This study demonstrates that substantial amounts of brown adipocytes exist throughout life in adipose deposits, which are generally classified as white. These deposits are the main sites of beta 3-AR expression, which also occurs in gallbladder and colon. beta 3-AR may thus be involved in the control of lipid metabolism, possibly from fat assimilation in the digestive tract, to triglyceride storage and mobilization in adipose tissues. PMID:8380813

  4. Chemokines mRNA expression in relation to the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) mRNA and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in the microenvironment of endometrial cancer tissue and normal endometrium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giannice, Raffaella; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Buscaglia, Mauro; Tozzi, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    Tumor microenvironment inflammatory cells play a major role in cancer progression. Among these, the Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) infiltration depends on the kind of chemokine, cytokines and growth factors secreted by the tumor cells and by the stroma in response to the cancer invasion. TAMs have been found to promote anti-tumor response in early stages and to stimulate neovascularization and metastases in advanced disease. In the microenvironment chemo-attractants of many human cancers, MIF and VEGF correlate with an increased TAMs recruitment. In addition, MIF enhances tumor cells metastases by modulating the immune responses and by promoting the angiogenesis related to VEGF. On the contrary the inhibition of MIF can lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Some chemokines (e.g. CXCL12, CXCL11, CXCL8) and their receptors, thanks to their ability to modulate migration and proliferation, are involved in the angiogenetic process. In this study we compared the expression of MIF mRNA with VEGF mRNA expression and with mRNA expression of other chemokines related to neo-angiogenesis, such as CXCL12, CXCL11, CXCL8 and CXCR4, in human endometrial cancer tissue (EC) and normal endometrium (NE). Fresh samples of EC tissue and NE were extracted from 15 patients with FIGO stage I-III undergoing primary surgery. Some of the tissue was sent for histology and part of it was treated with RNA later and stored at -80°C. Four patients dropped out. A significant up-regulation of MIF mRNA in EC tissue versus NE samples (P=0.01) was observed in all 11 patients. The MIF mRNA over-expression was coincident with a VEGF mRNA overexpression in 54% of patients (P=NS). MIF mRNA was inversely related to CXCL12 mRNA expression (P=0.01). MIF over-expression was significantly related to low grading G1-2 (P=0.01), endometrial type I (P=0.05), no lymphovascular spaces invasion (P=0.01) and 3years DFS (P=0.01). As reported in previous studies on patients with breast cancer, our data suggest that the up-regulation of MIF in patients with endometrial cancer might be related to the inhibition of distant and lymphatic spread. PMID:23985752

  5. Towards Targeted Delivery Systems: Ligand Conjugation Strategies for mRNA Nanoparticle Tumor Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kyle K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles encapsulating messenger RNA (mRNA) as a vaccine has recently attracted much attention because of encouraging results achieved in many nonviral genetic antitumor vaccination studies. Notably, in all of these studies, mRNA nanoparticles are passively targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) through careful selection of vaccination sites. Hence, DC-targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccines may be an imminent next step forward. In this brief report, we will discuss established conjugation strategies that have been successfully applied to both polymeric and liposomal gene delivery systems. We will also briefly describe promising DC surface receptors amenable for targeting mRNA nanoparticles. Practicable conjugation strategies and receptors reviewed in this paper will provide a convenient reference to facilitate future development of targeted mRNA nanoparticle vaccine. PMID:26819957

  6. In the right place at the right time: visualizing and understanding mRNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Adina R.; Haimovich, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The spatial regulation of protein translation is an efficient way to create functional and structural asymmetries in cells. Recent research has furthered our understanding of how individual cells spatially organize protein synthesis, by applying innovative technology to characterize the relationship between mRNAs and their regulatory proteins, single-mRNA trafficking dynamics, physiological effects of abrogating mRNA localization in vivo and for endogenous mRNA labelling. The implementation of new imaging technologies has yielded valuable information on mRNA localization, for example, by observing single molecules in tissues. The emerging movements and localization patterns of mRNAs in morphologically distinct unicellular organisms and in neurons have illuminated shared and specialized mechanisms of mRNA localization, and this information is complemented by transgenic and biochemical techniques that reveal the biological consequences of mRNA mislocalization. PMID:25549890

  7. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Nanoflares for mRNA Detection in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua; Li, Qijun; Wu, Qian; Cheng, Gary J; Yang, Mingyang; Sun, Yaocheng

    2016-02-16

    The expression level of tumor-related mRNA can reveal significant information about tumor progression and prognosis, so specific mRNA in cells provides an important approach for biological and disease studies. Here, fluorescence lifetime imaging of nanoflares in living cells was first employed to detect specific intracellular mRNA. We characterized the lifetime changes of the prepared nanoflares before and after the treatment of target mRNA and also compared the results with those of fluorescence intensity-based measurements both intracellularly and extracellularly. The nanoflares released the cy5-modified oligonucleotides and bound to the targets, resulting in a fluorescence lifetime lengthening. This work puts forward another dimension of detecting specific mRNA in cells and can also open new ways for detection of many other biomolecules. PMID:26813157

  8. Treatment of neurological disorders by introducing mRNA in vivo using polyplex nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Baba, Miyuki; Itaka, Keiji; Kondo, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-03-10

    Sensory nerve disorders are difficult to cure completely considering poor nerve regeneration capacity and difficulties in accurately targeting neural tissues. Administering mRNA is a promising approach for treating neurological disorders because mRNA can provide proteins and peptides in their native forms for mature non-dividing neural cells, without the need of entering their nuclei. However, direct mRNA administration into neural tissues in vivo has been challenging due to too unstable manner of mRNA and its strong immunogenicity. Thus, using a suitable carrier is essential for effective mRNA administration. For this purpose, we established a novel carrier based on the self-assembly of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyamino acid block copolymer, i.e. polyplex nanomicelles. To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of mRNA administration for the treatment of sensory nerve disorders, we used a mouse model of experimentally induced olfactory dysfunction. Intranasal administration of mRNA-loaded nanomicelles provided an efficient and sustained protein expression for nearly two days in nasal tissues, particularly in the lamina propria which contains olfactory nerve fibers, with effectively regulating the immunogenicity of mRNA. Consequently, once-daily intranasal administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-expressing mRNA using polyplex nanomicelles remarkably enhanced the neurological recovery of olfactory function along with repairing the olfactory epithelium to a nearly normal architecture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show the therapeutic potential of introducing exogenous mRNA for the treatment of neurological disorders. These results indicate the feasibility and safety of using mRNA, and provide a novel strategy of mRNA-based therapy. PMID:25599855

  9. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  10. Characterization of cis-acting element in renal NaPi-2 cotransporter mRNA that determines mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Moz, Yulia; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2003-04-01

    Hypophosphatemia leads to an increase in Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter (NaPi-2) mRNA levels. This increase is posttranscriptional and correlates with a more stable transcript mediated by the terminal 698 nt of the NaPi-2 mRNA. A 71-nt binding element was identified with renal proteins from rats fed control and low-P(i) (-P(i)) diet. The binding of -P(i) renal proteins to this transcript was increased compared with control proteins. The functionality of the cis element was demonstrated by an in vitro degradation assay. -P(i) renal proteins stabilized transcripts that included the cis element compared with control renal extracts. The full-length NaPi-2 transcript, but not control transcripts, was stabilized by -P(i) extracts. Insertion of the binding element into green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene decreased chimeric GFP mRNA levels in transfection experiments. Our results suggest that the protein-binding region of the NaPi-2 mRNA functions as a cis-acting instability element. In hypophosphatemia there is increased binding to the cis-acting element and subsequent stabilization of NaPi-2 mRNA. PMID:12475748

  11. Experiment K-6-11. Actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA concentrations in the tricepts brachia muscle of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Morrison, P. R.; Thomason, D. B.; Oganov, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that some skeletal muscles atrophy as a result of weightlessness (Steffen and Musacchia 1986) and as a result of hindlimb suspension (Tischler et al., 1985, Thomason et al., 1987). Because the content of protein is determined by the rates of protein synthesis and degradation, a decrease in protein synthesis rate, or an increase in the protein degradation, or changes in both could produce the atrophy. Indeed, an increased protein degradation (Tischler et al., 1985) and a decreased protein synthesis (Thomason et al., 1988) have been observed in skeletal muscles of suspended hindlimbs of rats. Any decrease in protein synthesis rate could be caused by decreases in mRNA concentrations. Such decreases in the concentration and content of alpha-actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA have been noted in skeletal muscles of hindlimb suspended rats (Babij and Booth, 1988). From these findings researchers hypothesized that alpha-actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA would decrease in the triceps brachia muscle of Cosmos 1887 rats.

  12. Poly(rC) binding proteins mediate poliovirus mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Murray, K E; Roberts, A W; Barton, D J

    2001-08-01

    The 5'-terminal 88 nt of poliovirus RNA fold into a cloverleaf RNA structure and form ribonucleoprotein complexes with poly(rC) binding proteins (PCBPs; AV Gamarnik, R Andino, RNA, 1997, 3:882-892; TB Parsley, JS Towner, LB Blyn, E Ehrenfeld, BL Semler, RNA, 1997, 3:1124-1134). To determine the functional role of these ribonucleoprotein complexes in poliovirus replication, HeLa S10 translation-replication reactions were used to quantitatively assay poliovirus mRNA stability, poliovirus mRNA translation, and poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis. Ribohomopoly(C) RNA competitor rendered wild-type poliovirus mRNA unstable in these reactions. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap prevented the degradation of wild-type poliovirus mRNA in the presence of ribohomopoly(C) competitor. Ribohomopoly(A), -(G), and -(U) did not adversely affect poliovirus mRNA stability. Ribohomopoly(C) competitor RNA inhibited the translation of poliovirus mRNA but did not inhibit poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis when poliovirus replication proteins were provided in trans using a chimeric helper mRNA possessing the hepatitis C virus IRES. A C24A mutation prevented UV crosslinking of PCBPs to 5' cloverleaf RNA and rendered poliovirus mRNA unstable. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap blocked the degradation of C24A mutant poliovirus mRNA. The C24A mutation did not inhibit the translation of poliovirus mRNA nor diminish viral negative-strand RNA synthesis relative to wild-type RNA. These data support the conclusion that poly(rC) binding protein(s) mediate the stability of poliovirus mRNA by binding to the 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure of poliovirus mRNA. Because of the general conservation of 5' cloverleaf RNA sequences among picornaviruses, including C24 in loop b of the cloverleaf, we suggest that viral mRNA stability of polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses is mediated by interactions between PCBPs and 5' cloverleaf RNA. PMID:11497431

  13. Poly(rC) binding proteins mediate poliovirus mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, K E; Roberts, A W; Barton, D J

    2001-01-01

    The 5'-terminal 88 nt of poliovirus RNA fold into a cloverleaf RNA structure and form ribonucleoprotein complexes with poly(rC) binding proteins (PCBPs; AV Gamarnik, R Andino, RNA, 1997, 3:882-892; TB Parsley, JS Towner, LB Blyn, E Ehrenfeld, BL Semler, RNA, 1997, 3:1124-1134). To determine the functional role of these ribonucleoprotein complexes in poliovirus replication, HeLa S10 translation-replication reactions were used to quantitatively assay poliovirus mRNA stability, poliovirus mRNA translation, and poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis. Ribohomopoly(C) RNA competitor rendered wild-type poliovirus mRNA unstable in these reactions. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap prevented the degradation of wild-type poliovirus mRNA in the presence of ribohomopoly(C) competitor. Ribohomopoly(A), -(G), and -(U) did not adversely affect poliovirus mRNA stability. Ribohomopoly(C) competitor RNA inhibited the translation of poliovirus mRNA but did not inhibit poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis when poliovirus replication proteins were provided in trans using a chimeric helper mRNA possessing the hepatitis C virus IRES. A C24A mutation prevented UV crosslinking of PCBPs to 5' cloverleaf RNA and rendered poliovirus mRNA unstable. A 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap blocked the degradation of C24A mutant poliovirus mRNA. The C24A mutation did not inhibit the translation of poliovirus mRNA nor diminish viral negative-strand RNA synthesis relative to wild-type RNA. These data support the conclusion that poly(rC) binding protein(s) mediate the stability of poliovirus mRNA by binding to the 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure of poliovirus mRNA. Because of the general conservation of 5' cloverleaf RNA sequences among picornaviruses, including C24 in loop b of the cloverleaf, we suggest that viral mRNA stability of polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses is mediated by interactions between PCBPs and 5' cloverleaf RNA. PMID:11497431

  14. Elevated TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes in schizophrenia but not major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuta; Kawabe, Kentaro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Mori, Yoko; Yoshida, Taku; Iga, Junichi; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) have not been clarified, but the microglia hypothesis has recently been discussed. We previously reported that the mRNA for a protein related to activation of microglia, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 2 (TREM2), is expressed higher in peripheral leukocytes in SCZ than controls. In this study, we analyzed TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from both SCZ and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. We compared 50 SCZ patients and 42 MDD patients with age-matched controls. Levels of TREM2 mRNA in leukocytes were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR method using TaqMan probe. TREM2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in leukocytes of SCZ subjects than controls, but the expression level was non-significantly different in MDD subjects. We observed a decrease in TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes from one SCZ patient after clozapine treatment. The expression did not change following ECT, but the expression level in this patient was still significantly higher than that in controls. We conclude that the high amount of TREM2 mRNA expression in leukocytes is specific to SCZ but not MDD and that changes in TREM2 mRNA expression may be a trait biomarker for SCZ. PMID:27130565

  15. Membrane-association of mRNA decapping factors is independent of stress in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Huch, Susanne; Gommlich, Jessie; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Beckham, Carla; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the degradation of mRNA occurs on translating ribosomes or alternatively within RNA granules called P bodies, which are aggregates whose core constituents are mRNA decay proteins and RNA. In this study, we examined the mRNA decapping proteins, Dcp1, Dcp2, and Dhh1, using subcellular fractionation. We found that decapping factors co-sediment in the polysome fraction of a sucrose gradient and do not alter their behaviour with stress, inhibition of translation or inhibition of the P body formation. Importantly, their localisation to the polysome fraction is independent of the RNA, suggesting that these factors may be constitutively localised to the polysome. Conversely, polysomal and post-polysomal sedimentation of the decapping proteins was abolished with the addition of a detergent, which shifts the factors to the non-translating RNP fraction and is consistent with membrane association. Using a membrane flotation assay, we observed the mRNA decapping factors in the lower density fractions at the buoyant density of membrane-associated proteins. These observations provide further evidence that mRNA decapping factors interact with subcellular membranes, and we suggest a model in which the mRNA decapping factors interact with membranes to facilitate regulation of mRNA degradation. PMID:27146487

  16. Overexpression of nucleolin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces stabilization of bcl2 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Otake, Yoko; Soundararajan, Sridharan; Sengupta, Tapas K; Kio, Ebenezer A; Smith, James C; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Stuart, Robert K; Spicer, Eleanor K; Fernandes, Daniel J

    2007-04-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of clonal B cells that are resistant to apoptosis as a result of bcl2 oncogene overexpression. Studies were done to determine the mechanism for the up-regulation of bcl-2 protein observed in CD19+ CLL cells compared with CD19+ B cells from healthy volunteers. The 11-fold higher level of bcl-2 protein in CLL cells was positively correlated with a 26-fold elevation in the cytosolic level of nucleolin, a bcl2 mRNA-stabilizing protein. Measurements of the bcl2 heterogeneous nuclear/bcl2 mRNA (hnRNA)/mRNA ratios and the rates of bcl2 mRNA decay in cell extracts indicated that the 3-fold higher steady-state level of bcl2 mRNA in CLL cells was the result of increased bcl2 mRNA stability. Nucleolin was present throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm of CLL cells, whereas in normal B cells nucleolin was only detected in the nucleus. The addition of recombinant human nucleolin to extracts of normal B cells markedly slowed the rate of bcl2 mRNA decay. SiRNA knockdown of nucleolin in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased levels of bcl2mRNA and protein but no change in beta-actin. These results indicate that bcl-2 overexpression in CLL cells is related to stabilization of bcl2 mRNA by nucleolin. PMID:17179226

  17. Impact of STAT/SOCS mRNA Expression Levels after Major Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brumann, M.; Matz, M.; Kusmenkov, T.; Stegmaier, J.; Biberthaler, P.; Kanz, K.-G.; Mutschler, W.; Bogner, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fulminant changes in cytokine receptor signalling might provoke severe pathological alterations after multiple trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the posttraumatic imbalance of the innate immune system with a special focus on the STAT/SOCS family. Methods. 20 polytraumatized patients were included. Blood samples were drawn 0 h–72 h after trauma; mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3 were quantified by qPCR. Results. IL-10 mRNA expression increased significantly in the early posttraumatic period. STAT 3 mRNA expressions showed a significant maximum at 6 h after trauma. SOCS 1 levels significantly decreased 6 h–72 h after trauma. SOCS 3 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors 6 h after trauma. Conclusion. We present a serial, sequential investigation in human neutrophil granulocytes of major trauma patients evaluating mRNA expression profiles of IL-10, STAT 3, SOCS 1, and SOCS 3. Posttraumatically, immune disorder was accompanied by a significant increase of IL-10 and STAT 3 mRNA expression, whereas SOCS 1 mRNA levels decreased after injury. We could demonstrate that death after trauma was associated with higher SOCS 3 mRNA levels already at 6 h after trauma. To support our results, further investigations have to evaluate protein levels of STAT/SOCS family in terms of posttraumatic immune imbalance. PMID:24648661

  18. PURE mRNA display for in vitro selection of single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Yu; Fujiwara, Kei; Horisawa, Kenichi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Nobuhide

    2016-05-01

    mRNA display is a method to form a covalent linkage between a cell-free synthesized protein (phenotype) and its encoding mRNA (genotype) through puromycin for in vitro selection of proteins. Although a wheat germ cell-free translation system has been previously used in our mRNA display system, a protein synthesis using recombinant elements (PURE) system is a more attractive approach because it contains no endogenous nucleases and proteases and is optimized for folding of antibodies with disulphide bonds. However, when we used the PURE system for mRNA display of single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies, the formation efficiency of the mRNA-protein conjugates was quite low. To establish an efficient platform for the PURE mRNA display of scFv, we performed affinity selection of a library of scFv antibodies with a C-terminal random sequence and obtained C-terminal sequences that increased the formation of mRNA-protein conjugates. We also identified unexpected common substitution mutations around the start codon of scFv antibodies, which were inferred to destabilize the mRNA secondary structure. This destabilization causes an increase in protein expression and the efficiency of the formation of mRNA-protein conjugates. We believe these improvements should make the PURE mRNA display more efficient for selecting antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26711234

  19. Membrane-association of mRNA decapping factors is independent of stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Gommlich, Jessie; Muppavarapu, Mridula; Beckham, Carla; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the degradation of mRNA occurs on translating ribosomes or alternatively within RNA granules called P bodies, which are aggregates whose core constituents are mRNA decay proteins and RNA. In this study, we examined the mRNA decapping proteins, Dcp1, Dcp2, and Dhh1, using subcellular fractionation. We found that decapping factors co-sediment in the polysome fraction of a sucrose gradient and do not alter their behaviour with stress, inhibition of translation or inhibition of the P body formation. Importantly, their localisation to the polysome fraction is independent of the RNA, suggesting that these factors may be constitutively localised to the polysome. Conversely, polysomal and post-polysomal sedimentation of the decapping proteins was abolished with the addition of a detergent, which shifts the factors to the non-translating RNP fraction and is consistent with membrane association. Using a membrane flotation assay, we observed the mRNA decapping factors in the lower density fractions at the buoyant density of membrane-associated proteins. These observations provide further evidence that mRNA decapping factors interact with subcellular membranes, and we suggest a model in which the mRNA decapping factors interact with membranes to facilitate regulation of mRNA degradation. PMID:27146487

  20. Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

  1. T3 acutely increases GH mRNA translation rate and GH secretion in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, F Goulart da; Giannocco, G; Luchessi, A D; Curi, R; Nunes, M T

    2010-04-12

    Cytoskeleton controls the stability of transcripts, by mechanisms that involve mRNAs and eEF1A attachment to it. Besides, it plays a key role in protein synthesis and secretion, which seems to be impaired in somatotrophs of hypothyroid rats, whose cytoskeleton is disarranged. This study investigated the: eEF1A and GH mRNA binding to cytoskeleton plus GH mRNA translation rate and GH secretion, in sham-operated and thyroidectomized rats treated with T3 or saline, and killed 30min thereafter. Thyroidectomy reduced: (a) pituitary F-actin content, and eEF1A plus GH mRNA binding to it; (b) GH mRNA recruitment to polysome; and (c) liver IGF-I mRNA expression, indicating that GH mRNA stability and translation rate, as well as GH secretion were impaired. T3 acutely reversed all these changes, which points toward a nongenomic action of T3 on cytoskeleton rearrangement, which might contribute to the increase on GH mRNA translation rate and GH secretion. PMID:20015464

  2. Mechanism of decay of the cry1Aa mRNA in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Cruz, C; Olmedo-Alvarez, G

    1997-01-01

    We undertook the study of the decay process of the cry1Aa mRNA of Bacillus thuringiensis expressed in B. subtilis. The cry1Aa transcript is a 3.7-kb mRNA expressed during sporulation whose transcriptional control has previously been studied in both B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. We found that the cry1Aa mRNA has a half-life of around 9 min and that its decay occurs through endoribonucleolytic cleavages which result in three groups of high-molecular-weight mRNA intermediates ranging in size from 2.7 to 0.5 kb. A comparative study carried out with Escherichia coli showed a similar pattern of degradation intermediates. Primer extension analysis carried out on RNA from B. subtilis revealed that most cleavages occur within two regions located toward the 5' and 3' ends of the mRNA. The most prominent processing site observed for the cry1Aa mRNA isolated from B. subtilis is only two bases away from that occurring on RNA isolated from E. coli. Most cleavage sites occur at seemingly single-stranded RNA segments rich in A and U nucleotides, suggesting that a common and conserved mechanism may process the cry1Aa mRNA. PMID:9335281

  3. The pentatricopeptide repeat MTSF1 protein stabilizes the nad4 mRNA in Arabidopsis mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Haïli, Nawel; Arnal, Nadège; Quadrado, Martine; Amiar, Souad; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Dahan, Jennifer; Briozzo, Pierre; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Mireau, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in plant mitochondria involves a complex collaboration of transcription initiation and termination, as well as subsequent mRNA processing to produce mature mRNAs. In this study, we describe the function of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial stability factor 1 (MTSF1) gene and show that it encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein essential for the 3′-processing of mitochondrial nad4 mRNA and its stability. The nad4 mRNA is highly destabilized in Arabidopsis mtsf1 mutant plants, which consequently accumulates low amounts of a truncated form of respiratory complex I. Biochemical and genetic analyses demonstrated that MTSF1 binds with high affinity to the last 20 nucleotides of nad4 mRNA. Our data support a model for MTSF1 functioning in which its association with the last nucleotides of the nad4 3′ untranslated region stabilizes nad4 mRNA. Additionally, strict conservation of the MTSF1-binding sites strongly suggests that the protective function of MTSF1 on nad4 mRNA is conserved in dicots. These results demonstrate that the mRNA stabilization process initially identified in plastids, whereby proteins bound to RNA extremities constitute barriers to exoribonuclease progression occur in plant mitochondria to protect and concomitantly define the 3′ end of mature mitochondrial mRNAs. Our study also reveals that short RNA molecules corresponding to pentatricopeptide repeat-binding sites accumulate also in plant mitochondria. PMID:23658225

  4. Differential regulation of trypsinogen mRNA translation: full-length mRNA sequences encoding two oppositely charged trypsinogen isoenzymes in the dog pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, S D; LaForge, K S; Scheele, G

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of changes in functional mRNA levels, stimulation of the pancreas with caerulein, a peptide analog of cholecystokinin, has been previously shown to increase the synthesis of anionic but not cationic trypsinogen. To look for structure-function correlations, a high-yield, full-length cDNA library has been constructed from canine pancreatic poly(A)+ mRNA. Full-length clones coding for the two major trypsinogen isoenzyme forms have been identified by colony hybridization and verified by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA in the presence of microsomal membranes and an optimal redox potential. Disulfide-bonded translation products were separated and identified by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis allowed us to deduce the amino acid sequences for the anionic and cationic forms of canine trypsinogen, which contain 232 and 231 residues, respectively (77% amino acid identity), and the 15-residue amino terminal signal sequences (53% amino acid identity) associated with the two presecretory forms. Measurements of relative and absolute mRNA levels, when related to relative protein synthesis values, indicated that the translational efficiency of anionic trypsinogen mRNA exceeded that of cationic trypsinogen mRNA by 1.5- to 2.9-fold under basal conditions. Analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of trypsinogen mRNAs revealed a striking conservation of sequence (10 of 12 bases) between dog and rat anionic trypsinogen forms. This contrasted markedly with the divergence of the 5' noncoding regions observed between dog anionic and cationic trypsinogen mRNAs. Images PMID:3841794

  5. Does HIV-1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region bear an internal ribosome entry site?

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Victoria V; Terenin, Ilya M; Khutornenko, Anastasia A; Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-02-01

    Unspliced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mRNA is capped and therefore can be translated via conventional scanning mechanism. In addition, its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is thought to function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) during G2/M-phase of cell cycle or when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Recently, customary methods of internal initiation demonstrating have been challenged, and consequently existence of certain IRESs of cellular origin has been put under question. Since a precise knowledge of translation initiation mechanism used by HIV may be important for cure development, presence of the IRES in HIV-1 mRNA demands a careful reexamination using contemporary stringent criteria. The key point of our strategy is to compare translation efficiency of bicistronic mRNA bearing HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5' UTR in the intercistronic position to that of the corresponding capped monocistronic mRNA. This approach allows determination of internal initiation contribution into the overall level of particular mRNA translation. We found that both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells monocistronic mRNA with HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is translated significantly better than bicistronic one. Importantly, it is also true for G2/M-phase stalled cells or for cells under conditions of inhibited cap-dependent translation. Thus, in our hands contribution of internal ribosome entry into the overall level of translation driven by HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is negligible, and 5'-dependent scanning is a primary mechanism of its translation initiation. PMID:26700150

  6. Immunostaining for Cell Picking and Real-Time mRNA Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ludger; Kinfe, Thomas; Seeger, Werner; Ermert, Leander; Kummer, Wolfgang; Bohle, Rainer Maria

    2000-01-01

    Microdissection techniques allow a cell-type or even cell-specific mRNA analysis within complex tissues. Furthermore, valid mRNA quantitation can be performed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from a few isolated cells obtained from cryosections. For a more precise access to many cell types, this technique has to be complemented by a cell-type-specific immunostaining. To evaluate its effect on mRNA quantitation, we analyzed alveolar macrophages (AMs) from control rat lungs and those undergoing stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ nebulization. Whereas AMs from the left lung were directly harvested for mRNA extraction by bronchoalveolar lavage, tissue sections of the right lung were stained with an optimized immunofluorescence protocol detecting AMs. Fifteen AM profiles per sample were picked by laser-assisted sampling technique. Normalizing to a standard gene, nitric oxide synthase II (NOSII) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In stimulated lungs, the percentage of picked samples positive for NOSII or TNF-α mRNA increased significantly. Moreover, a marked increase in the ratio of target gene mRNA to standard gene mRNA was noted for both NOSII and TNF-α in picked AMs from stimulated lungs, which matched very well the increase detected in the lavaged AMs undergoing direct RNA extraction. Thus, when using an optimized protocol for immunofluorescence, this approach may be reliably combined with laser-assisted cell picking and real-time mRNA quantitation in a few immunohistochemically characterized cell profiles within complex tissues. PMID:11073806

  7. Negative Regulation of Neuromedin U mRNA Expression in the Rat Pars Tuberalis by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Nagasaka, Mai; Higaki, Yuriko; Sakai, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    The pars tuberalis (PT) is part of the anterior pituitary gland surrounding the median eminence as a thin cell layer. The characteristics of PT differ from those of the pars distalis (PD), such as cell composition and gene expression, suggesting that the PT has a unique physiological function compared to the PD. Because the PT highly expresses melatonin receptor type 1, it is considered a mediator of seasonal and/or circadian signals of melatonin. Expression of neuromedin U (NMU) that is known to regulate energy balance has been previously reported in the rat PT; however, the regulatory mechanism of NMU mRNA expression and secretion in the PT are still obscure. In this study, we examined both the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression in the rat PT and the effects of melatonin on NMU in vivo. In situ hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of laser microdissected PT samples revealed that NMU mRNA expression in the PT has diurnal variation that is high during the light phase and low during the dark phase. Furthermore, melatonin administration significantly suppressed NMU mRNA expression in the PT in vivo. On the other hand, 48 h fasting did not have an effect on PT-NMU mRNA expression, and the diurnal change of NMU mRNA expression was maintained. We also found the highest expression of neuromedin U receptor type 2 (NMUR2) mRNA in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, followed by the arcuate nucleus and the spinal cord. These results suggest that NMU mRNA expression in the PT is downregulated by melatonin during the dark phase and shows diurnal change. Considering that NMU mRNA in the PT showed the highest expression level in the brain, PT-NMU may act on NMUR2 in the brain, especially in the third ventricle ependymal cell layer, with a circadian rhythm. PMID:23843987

  8. Isolation and Amplification of mRNA within a Simple Microfluidic Lab on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Reinholt, Sarah J.; Behrent, Arne; Greene, Cassandra; Kalfe, Ayten; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2014-01-01

    The major modules for realizing molecular biological assays in a micro total analysis system (μTAS) were developed for the detection of pathogenic organisms. The specific focus was the isolation and amplification of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) within a simple, single-channel device for very low RNA concentrations that could then be integrated with detection modules. The hsp70 mRNA from Cryptosporidium parvum was used as a model analyte. Important points of study were surface chemistries within poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic channels that enabled specific and sensitive mRNA isolation and amplification reactions for very low mRNA concentrations. Optimal conditions were achieved when the channel surface was carboxylated via UV/ozone treatment followed by the immobilization of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the surface, thus increasing the immobilization efficiency of the thymidine oligonucleotide, oligo(dT)25, and providing a reliable surface for the amplification reaction, importantly, without the need for blocking agents. Additional chemical modifications of the remaining active surface groups were studied to avoid non-specific capturing of nucleic acids and hindering of the mRNA amplification at low RNA concentrations. Amplification of the mRNA was accomplished using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal, primer-dependent technique. Positive controls consisting of previously generated NASBA amplicons could be diluted 1015 fold and still result in successful on-chip re-amplification. Finally, the successful isolation and amplification of mRNA from as few as 30 C. parvum oocysts was demonstrated directly on-chip and compared to bench-top devices. This is the first proof of successful mRNA isolation and NASBA-based amplification of mRNA within a simple microfluidic device in relevant analytical volumes. PMID:24328414

  9. Message-specific sequestration of maternal histone mRNA in the sea urchin egg.

    PubMed Central

    Showman, R M; Wells, D E; Anstrom, J; Hursh, D A; Raff, R A

    1982-01-01

    Nucleate and anucleate fragments of sea urchin eggs were prepared by centrifugation on sucrose step gradients. The amount of total RNA, poly(A)+ RNA, histone mRNA, actin mRNA, alpha-tubulin mRNA, and mitochondrial rRNA was determined for each fragment. Total RNA, poly(A)+ RNA, actin mRNA, and alpha-tubulin mRNA all distributed in the same ratio as the volume of the fragments. In contrast, the mitochondrial rRNA was found preferentially distributed in the anucleate fragments, coinciding with the distribution of the mitochondria. Histone mRNAs did not follow the fragment volume ratios, but rather were always found associated with the fragment containing the nucleus. To distinguish between nuclear association and possible artifacts associated with centrifugation, eggs were manually cut into nucleate and anucleate fragments and the amount of histone mRNA was determined for each set. Again only the fragments containing the nucleus had detectable amounts of histone mRNA. Although histone mRNAs were always associated with the nucleate fragment, very little histone mRNA was found associated with isolated egg nuclei prepared under gentle isotonic isolation conditions. Furthermore, embryos that have had first nuclear breakdown blocked with 6-dimethylaminopurine still initiated the recruitment of histone mRNAs into polysomes at the same time as control embryos, thus indicating that nuclear breakdown is not necessary for normal histone message utilization. These results demonstrate a message-specific sequestration of maternal histone mRNA which is physically different from that of other maternal mRNAs and which may govern the timing of maternal histone synthesis in sea urchin embryos. Images PMID:6193511

  10. Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Nicholas W; Beas, Blanca S; Montgomery, Karienn S; Haberman, Rebecca P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2013-06-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  11. Prefrontal cortical–striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  12. Pros and cons of pDNA and mRNA transfection to study mRNA translation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Dmitry E; Terenin, Ilya M; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-03-01

    Protein synthesis in eukaryotes is subject to stringent control. The misregulation of translation of certain mRNAs is often a hallmark of many diseases, including malignancies and autoimmune disorders. To understand why and how it happens, it is important to investigate the translational control of specific mRNAs. In this case, one could use reporter mRNAs in order to identify cis-acting elements responsible for regulation. Here we overview plasmid DNA (pDNA) and mRNA transfections, their pitfalls and limitations, as well as some emerging applications for mRNA transfection. PMID:26680098

  13. Polyadenylation of c-mos mRNA as a control point in Xenopus meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Sheets, M D; Wu, M; Wickens, M

    1995-04-01

    c-mos protein, encoded by a proto-oncogene, is essential for the meiotic maturation of frog oocytes. Polyadenylation of c-mos messenger RNA is shown here to be a pivotal regulatory step in meiotic maturation. Maturation is prevented by selective amputation of polyadenylation signals from c-mos mRNA. Injection of a prosthetic RNA, which restores c-mos polyadenylation signals by base pairing to the amputated mRNA, rescues maturation and can stimulate translation in trans. Prosthetic RNAs may provide a general strategy by which to alter patterns of mRNA expression in vivo. PMID:7700377

  14. Transcript Abundance Explains mRNA Mobility Data in Arabidopsis thaliana[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a large population of mRNA was shown to be able to travel between plant organs via sieve elements as a putative long-distance signaling molecule. However, a mechanistic basis by which transcripts are selected for transport has not yet been identified. Here, we show that experimental mRNA mobility data in Arabidopsis can be explained by transcript abundance and half-life. This suggests that the majority of identified mobile transcripts can be accounted for by non-sequence-specific movement of mRNA from companion cells into sieve elements. PMID:26952566

  15. Transcript Abundance Explains mRNA Mobility Data in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav; Morris, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a large population of mRNA was shown to be able to travel between plant organs via sieve elements as a putative long-distance signaling molecule. However, a mechanistic basis by which transcripts are selected for transport has not yet been identified. Here, we show that experimental mRNA mobility data in Arabidopsis can be explained by transcript abundance and half-life. This suggests that the majority of identified mobile transcripts can be accounted for by non-sequence-specific movement of mRNA from companion cells into sieve elements. PMID:26952566

  16. The interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R): the IL-2R alpha subunit alters the function of the IL-2R beta subunit to enhance IL-2 binding and signaling by mechanisms that do not require binding of IL-2 to IL-2R alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Grant, A J; Roessler, E; Ju, G; Tsudo, M; Sugamura, K; Waldmann, T A

    1992-03-15

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2)-mediated signaling through its high-affinity receptor involves a complex interrelationship between IL-2 and two IL-2-binding chains, IL-2R alpha and beta chains. Previously with the reagents available it was difficult to define functional interactions between these two IL-2R subunits involved in IL-2 binding and signal transduction. To extend our understanding of the interplay between the two binding subunits we have done studies with the monoclonal antibody HIEI, which interferes with interaction of IL-2R alpha and beta chains (IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta, respectively). Furthermore, we used two forms of IL-2, recombinant native IL-2 and F42A, an IL-2 analog (Phe-42----Ala substitution) that binds only to IL-2R beta. Analog F42A manifested 75-100% of the bioactivity of wild-type IL-2. This observation is inconsistent with the strict hierarchical IL-2-binding affinity conversion model previously proposed by Saito and coworkers [Saito Y., Sabe, H., Suzuki, N., Kondo, S., Ogura, T., Shimizu, A. & Honjo, T. (1988) J. Exp. Med. 168, 1563-1572] that predicted an ordered sequence of events in which IL-2 must first bind to IL-2R alpha before its interaction with IL-2R beta. Previous investigations using IL-2 variants were interpreted to show that IL-2R alpha merely acts to concentrate IL-2 to the cell surface and that no other meaningful interaction occurred between IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta. However, our data are inconsistent with this view. We draw this conclusion on the basis of our observation that antibody HIEI, which reacts with an epitope of IL-2R alpha and interferes with interaction of this chain and IL-2R beta, inhibits the IL-2-dependent proliferative effects mediated by analog F42A. Furthermore, by blocking interaction of IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta with the antibody HIEI, a decrease in the affinity of radiolabeled analog F42A for IL-2R beta was seen. In our proposed model IL-2R alpha contributes several functions to IL-2-mediated signaling through the high-affinity IL-2R. These functions include concentration of IL-2 within the two-dimensional surface of the plasma membrane as well as alteration of the functional capacity of IL-2R beta, an effect that does not require prior binding of IL-2R to IL-2R alpha. The IL-2R alpha-mediated augmentation of IL-2R beta functions involves affinity conversion of IL-2R beta, increasing its affinity for IL-2, and may involve facilitation of Il-2-mediated signaling after binding of IL-2 to this IL-2R beta. PMID:1549576

  17. The Nuclear PolyA-Binding Protein Nab2p Is Essential for mRNA Production.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Manfred; Olszewski, Pawel; Pelechano, Vicent; Gupta, Ishaan; Steinmetz, Lars M; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2015-07-01

    Polyadenylation of mRNA is a key step in eukaryotic gene expression. However, despite the major impact of poly(A) tails on mRNA metabolism, the precise roles of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) in nuclear mRNA biogenesis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that rapid nuclear depletion of the S. cerevisiae PABP Nab2p leads to a global loss of cellular mRNA, but not of RNA lacking poly(A) tails. Disappearance of mRNA is a nuclear event, but not due to decreased transcription. Instead, the absence of Nab2p results in robust nuclear mRNA decay by the ribonucleolytic RNA exosome in a polyadenylation-dependent process. We conclude that Nab2p is required to protect early mRNA and therefore constitutes a crucial nuclear mRNA biogenesis factor. PMID:26119729

  18. Localization of insulin receptor mRNA in rat brain by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.L.; Porte, D. Jr.; Stahl, W.L.; Baskin, D.G. )

    1990-12-01

    Insulin receptor mRNA was demonstrated in rat brain slices by in situ hybridization with three {sup 35}S-oligonucleotide probes and contact film autoradiography. Specificity was confirmed by showing that (a) excess unlabeled probe abolished the signal, (b) an oligonucleotide probe for rat neuropeptide Y mRNA showed a different distribution of hybridization signal, and (c) the distribution of insulin receptor binding was consistent with the distribution of insulin receptor mRNA. Insulin receptor mRNA was most abundant in the granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, cerebellum and dentate gyrus, in the pyramidal cell body layers of the pyriform cortex and hippocampus, in the choroid plexus and in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

  19. A frameshift mutation prevents Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mRNA accumulation in soybean embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Jofuku, K D; Schipper, R D; Goldberg, R B

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the molecular basis of a soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTi) gene mutation that prevents the accumulation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor protein during seed development. We found that mRNA encoding the major Kunitz trypsin inhibitor protein (KTi3 mRNA) is reduced at least 100-fold in null (KTi-) embryos but that KTi3 gene transcriptional activity is similar in Kunitz trypsin inhibitor producing embryos (KTi+) and in KTi- embryos. We sequenced the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor KTi3 gene from both KTi3+ and KTi3- lines and found that these genes differ by only three nucleotides (+481, +486, and +487) within the KTi3 coding region. Alteration of these nucleotides results in a frameshift within the KTi3- gene that causes premature termination during translation. Our results suggest that the KTi3- frameshift mutation results in KTi3- mRNA destabilization and leads to a drastic reduction in KTi3 mRNA prevalence. PMID:2562563

  20. Luzp4 defines a new mRNA export pathway in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Viphakone, Nicolas; Cumberbatch, Marcus G.; Livingstone, Michaela J.; Heath, Paul R.; Dickman, Mark J.; Catto, James W.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) represented a poorly characterized group of proteins whose expression is normally restricted to testis but are frequently up-regulated in cancer cells. Here we show that one CTA, Luzp4, is an mRNA export adaptor. It associates with the TREX mRNA export complex subunit Uap56 and harbours a Uap56 binding motif, conserved in other mRNA export adaptors. Luzp4 binds the principal mRNA export receptor Nxf1, enhances its RNA binding activity and complements Alyref knockdown in vivo. Whilst Luzp4 is up-regulated in a range of tumours, it appears preferentially expressed in melanoma cells where it is required for growth. PMID:25662211

  1. Evading innate immunity in nonviral mRNA delivery: don't shoot the messenger.

    PubMed

    Devoldere, Joke; Dewitte, Heleen; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    In the field of nonviral gene therapy, in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA has emerged as a promising tool for the delivery of genetic information. Over the past few years it has become widely known that the introduction of IVT mRNA into mammalian cells elicits an innate immune response that has favored mRNA use toward immunotherapeutic vaccination strategies. However, for non-immunotherapy-related applications this intrinsic immune-stimulatory activity directly interferes with the aimed therapeutic outcome, because it can seriously compromise the expression of the desired protein. This review presents an overview of the immune-related obstacles that limit mRNA advance for non-immunotherapy-related applications. PMID:26210957

  2. Screening of Different Organs of Rats for HCA2 Receptor mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Shomali, Tahoora; Mosleh, Najmeh; Kamalpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Interest in hydroxy - carboxylic acid 2 (HCA2) receptor has been raised since it is the target of antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of mRNA of this receptor in different organs of laboratory rat. Twenty two different organs of rats including mesenteric fat, epididymis (head, body and tail), testis, ovary, xiphoid process, liver, adrenal gland, femoral head, proximal epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone marrow of femur, esophagus, glandular stomach, forestomach, intestines, colons, heart, spleen, kidney, trachea, lung, skeletal muscle (quadriceps), cerebrum and cerebellum were removed and examined for HCA2 mRNA by RT- PCR method. The mRNA for HCA2 receptor was detected in all analyzed tissues. In conclusion, the different organs of rat express HCA2 receptor mRNA which makes a proper animal model for future studies on the physiological and pharmacological roles of this receptor in vivo. PMID:25035863

  3. Free Energy Cost of Stretching mRNA Hairpin Loops Inhibits Small RNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuzhong; Aalberts, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Small RNA-mRNA binding is an essential step in RNA interference, an important cellular regulatory process. Calculations of binding free energy have been used in binding site prediction, but the cost of stretching the mRNA loop when the small RNA-mRNA duplex forms requires further exploration. Here, using both polymer physics theory and simulations, we estimate the free energy of a stretched mRNA loop. We find loop stretching significantly increases the free energy of 3′ supplementary/compensatory miRNA binding and siRNA binding to mRNA hairpin loops. We also make the observation that sites where 3′ supplementary binding is available may bind at the seed only, and that loop stretching often favors seed-only binding over seed plus 3′ supplementary binding in mRNA hairpins. PMID:23442870

  4. Quantitative Imaging of Single mRNA Splice Variants in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuwan; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a fundamental process of gene regulation via the precise control of the post-transcriptional step that occurs before mRNA translation. Errors in RNA splicing have been known to correlate with different diseases; however, a key limitation is the lack of technologies for live cell monitoring and quantification to understand the process of alternative splicing. Here, we report a spectroscopic strategy for quantitative imaging of mRNA splice variants in living cells, using nanoplasmonic dimer antennas. The spatial and temporal distribution of three selected splice variants of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1 were monitored at single copy resolution by measuring the hybridization dynamics of nanoplasmonic antennas targeting complementary mRNA sequences in live cells. Our study provides valuable insights on RNA and its transport in living cells, which has the potential to enhance our understanding of cellular protein complex, pharmacogenomics, genetic diagnosis, and gene therapies. PMID:24747838

  5. Visual detection of Akt mRNA in living cell using gold nanoparticle beacon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Tian, Caiping; Li, Siwen; Wang, Zhaohui; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway plays the key role in cell apoptosis and survival, and the components of PI3K /Akt signaling pathway are often abnormally expressed in human tumors. Therefore, determination of the Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression is significantly important in understanding the mechanism of tumor progression. In this study, we designed a special hairpin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) functionalized with gold nanoparticles and fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC) as a beacon for detecting human Akt mRNA. Spectrofluorometer was used to detect the fluorescence quenching and recovery of the beacons, and laser confocal scanning microscopy was adopted to image Akt mRNA in cells. The results showed that this beacon could sensitively and quantitatively measure the Akt mRNA in living cells . This strategy is potentially useful for the cellular imaging of RNA or protein expression in living cells.

  6. Synthesis and activity of a novel inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Victoria J B; Hobbs, Melanie C; Burgin, Ryan; Turton, David; Smythe, Carl; Coldham, Iain

    2016-01-27

    During efforts to prepare the known compound , a new tetracyclic compound, called , was prepared in six steps. This compound was found to have good activity as an inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. PMID:26740124

  7. Astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease gray matter express alpha 1-antichymotrypsin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pasternack, J. M.; Abraham, C. R.; Van Dyke, B. J.; Potter, H.; Younkin, S. G.

    1989-01-01

    The serine protease inhibitor alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) has been shown to be tightly associated with the amyloid found in plaque cores and blood vessels in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the ACT found in plaques could be derived from the high levels of ACT in serum, previous Northern analysis revealed that ACT mRNA is produced locally in AD gray matter at much higher levels than in control gray matter. To determine which brain cells express ACT mRNA, we conducted in situ hybridization with 35S-labeled cRNA probes on hippocampal sections from four AD and three control cases. To identify astrocytes unequivocally, some of the hybridized sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein, which is astrocyte-specific. Our results showed numerous astrocytes that were intensely labeled by the probe for ACT mRNA throughout the subicular gray matter of the AD cases. In contrast, astrocytes in control gray matter were rarely labeled by the probe for ACT mRNA. Examination of plaque cores in the AD subiculum showed that some astrocytes intensely labeled by the probe for ACT mRNA were closely associated with virtually every plaque core. Our results also showed many astrocytes in both AD and control white matter that were intensely labeled by the probe for ACT mRNA, and a small fraction of the astrocytes in a juvenile cerebellar astrocytoma that we examined were found to produce high levels of ACT mRNA. In every area in which astrocytes expressing ACT mRNA were found, astrocytes producing no detectable ACT message were also present. Our findings indicate that astrocytes produce the increased ACT mRNA in AD gray matter observed by Northern analysis, but they also show that ACT mRNA expression by astrocytes is not unique to AD. The presence of astrocytes expressing ACT mRNA near, and extending processes towards, plaque cores strongly suggests that some if not all of the ACT associated with amyloid plaque cores is produced by astrocytes surrounding the cores. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2817081

  8. A stem–loop structure directs oskar mRNA to microtubule minus ends

    PubMed Central

    Jambor, Helena; Mueller, Sandra; Bullock, Simon L.; Ephrussi, Anne

    2014-01-01

    mRNA transport coupled with translational control underlies the intracellular localization of many proteins in eukaryotic cells. This is exemplified in Drosophila, where oskar mRNA transport and translation at the posterior pole of the oocyte direct posterior patterning of the embryo. oskar localization is a multistep process. Within the oocyte, a spliced oskar localization element (SOLE) targets oskar mRNA for plus end-directed transport by kinesin-1 to the posterior pole. However, the signals mediating the initial minus end-directed, dynein-dependent transport of the mRNA from nurse cells into the oocyte have remained unknown. Here, we show that a 67-nt stem–loop in the oskar 3′ UTR promotes oskar mRNA delivery to the developing oocyte and that it shares functional features with the fs(1)K10 oocyte localization signal. Thus, two independent cis-acting signals, the oocyte entry signal (OES) and the SOLE, mediate sequential dynein- and kinesin-dependent phases of oskar mRNA transport during oogenesis. The OES also promotes apical localization of injected RNAs in blastoderm stage embryos, another dynein-mediated process. Similarly, when ectopically expressed in polarized cells of the follicular epithelium or salivary glands, reporter RNAs bearing the oskar OES are apically enriched, demonstrating that this element promotes mRNA localization independently of cell type. Our work sheds new light on how oskar mRNA is trafficked during oogenesis and the RNA features that mediate minus end-directed transport. PMID:24572808

  9. Transport and Localization Elements in Myelin Basic Protein mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ainger, Kevin; Avossa, Daniela; Diana, Amy S.; Barry, Christopher; Barbarese, Elisa; Carson, John H.

    1997-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA is localized to myelin produced by oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system. MBP mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes in primary culture is assembled into granules in the perikaryon, transported along the processes, and localized to the myelin compartment. In this work, microinjection of various deleted and chimeric RNAs was used to delineate regions in MBP mRNA that are required for transport and localization in oligodendrocytes. The results indicate that transport requires a 21-nucleotide sequence, termed the RNA transport signal (RTS), in the 3′ UTR of MBP mRNA. Homologous sequences are present in several other localized mRNAs, suggesting that the RTS represents a general transport signal in a variety of different cell types. Insertion of the RTS from MBP mRNA into nontransported mRNAs, causes the RNA to be transported to the oligodendrocyte processes. Localization of mRNA to the myelin compartment requires an additional element, termed the RNA localization region (RLR), contained between nucleotide 1,130 and 1,473 in the 3′ UTR of MBP mRNA. Computer analysis predicts that this region contains a stable secondary structure. If the coding region of the mRNA is deleted, the RLR is no longer required for localization, and the region between nucleotide 667 and 953, containing the RTS, is sufficient for both RNA transport and localization. Thus, localization of coding RNA is RLR dependent, and localization of noncoding RNA is RLR independent, suggesting that they are localized by different pathways. PMID:9281585

  10. cAMP controls human renin mRNA stability via specific RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Morris, B J; Adams, D J; Beveridge, D J; van der Weyden, L; Mangs, H; Leedman, P J

    2004-08-01

    It is now recognized that post-transcriptional mechanisms are pivotal to renin production. These involve factors that modulate renin mRNA stability. In 2003 new data has emerged from work in Australia and Germany that has identified several of the, as many as, 20 or so proteins involved. These include CP1 (hnRNP E1), HuR, HADHB, dynamin, nucleolin, YP-1, hnRNP K and MINT-homologous protein. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a crucial regulator of renin secretion as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression. Many of the RNA-binding proteins that were identified responded to forskolin, increasing in amount by two to 10-fold. The cAMP mechanisms that regulate renin mRNA target, at least in large part, other genes that presumably encode some of these proteins. The increase in the expression of these then facilitates, sequentially, renin mRNA stabilization and destabilization. Our data, using a battery of different techniques, confirm that CP1 and HuR stabilize renin mRNA, whereas HADHB causes destabilization. These proteins target cis-acting C-rich sequences (in the case of CP1) and AU-rich sequences (HuR) in the distal region of the 3'-untranslated region of renin mRNA. We found HADHB was enriched in juxtaglomerular cells and that that within Calu-6 cells HADHB, HuR and CP1 all localized in nuclear subregions, as well as cytoplasm (HADHB and CP1) and mitochondria (HADHB) commensurate with the role each plays in control of renin mRNA stability. The specific proteins that bind to human renin mRNA have begun to be revealed. Cyclic AMP upregulates the binding of several of these proteins, which in turn affect renin mRNA stability and thus overall expression of renin. PMID:15283747

  11. Relating mRNA and protein biomarker levels in a Dehalococcoides and Methanospirillum-containing community.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Annette R; Mansfeldt, Cresten B; Heavner, Gretchen L; Richardson, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    To better understand the quantitative relationships between messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein biomarkers relevant to bioremediation, we quantified and compared respiration-associated gene products in an anaerobic syntrophic community. Respiration biomarkers for Dehalococcoides, an organohalide reducer, and Methanospirillum, a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, were quantified via qRT-PCR for mRNA and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of proteotypic peptides for protein. mRNA transcripts of the Dehalococcoides reductive dehalogenases PceA, TceA, and DMC1545, and hydrogenase HupL, as well as the Methanospirillum oxidoreductases MvrD and FrcA were shown to be similarly regulated with respect to their temporal responses to substrate addition. However, MvrD was two orders of magnitude lower in mRNA abundance. Per cell, Dehalococcoides protein biomarkers quantified were more abundant than Methanospirillum proteins. Comparing mRNA with protein abundance, poor correlations were observed between mRNA transcript levels and the net protein produced. For example, Dehalococcoides HupL and TceA transcripts were similarly abundant though TceA was far more abundant at the protein level (167 ± 121 vs. 1095 ± 337 proteins per cell, respectively). In Methanospirillum, MvrD maintained comparable per-cell protein abundance to FrcA (42 ± 14 vs. 60 ± 1 proteins per cell, respectively) despite the significantly lower transcript levels. Though no variability in protein decay rates was observed, the mRNA translation rate quantified for TceA was greater than the other Dehalococcoides targets monitored. These data suggest that there is considerable variation in the relationship between mRNA abundance and protein production both across transcripts within an organism and across organisms. This highlights the importance of empirically based studies for interpreting biomarker levels in environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:25467924

  12. A stem-loop structure directs oskar mRNA to microtubule minus ends.

    PubMed

    Jambor, Helena; Mueller, Sandra; Bullock, Simon L; Ephrussi, Anne

    2014-04-01

    mRNA transport coupled with translational control underlies the intracellular localization of many proteins in eukaryotic cells. This is exemplified in Drosophila, where oskar mRNA transport and translation at the posterior pole of the oocyte direct posterior patterning of the embryo. oskar localization is a multistep process. Within the oocyte, a spliced oskar localization element (SOLE) targets oskar mRNA for plus end-directed transport by kinesin-1 to the posterior pole. However, the signals mediating the initial minus end-directed, dynein-dependent transport of the mRNA from nurse cells into the oocyte have remained unknown. Here, we show that a 67-nt stem-loop in the oskar 3' UTR promotes oskar mRNA delivery to the developing oocyte and that it shares functional features with the fs(1)K10 oocyte localization signal. Thus, two independent cis-acting signals, the oocyte entry signal (OES) and the SOLE, mediate sequential dynein- and kinesin-dependent phases of oskar mRNA transport during oogenesis. The OES also promotes apical localization of injected RNAs in blastoderm stage embryos, another dynein-mediated process. Similarly, when ectopically expressed in polarized cells of the follicular epithelium or salivary glands, reporter RNAs bearing the oskar OES are apically enriched, demonstrating that this element promotes mRNA localization independently of cell type. Our work sheds new light on how oskar mRNA is trafficked during oogenesis and the RNA features that mediate minus end-directed transport. PMID:24572808

  13. Ultra-micro samples can be used for mRNA quantification of lung cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sandfeld-Paulsen, Birgitte; Demuth, Christina; Folkersen, Birgitte H; Rasmussen, Torben R; Madsen, Line B; Sorensen, Boe S; Meldgaard, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Background Isolating sufficient material for molecular testing remains challenging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The use of new ultra-microsamples (uMS) is proven sufficient for DNA and mRNA detection, but whether uMS are useful for quantifying mRNA expression is unknown. We investigated if uMS from lung cancer patients can be used to generate quantitative data on mRNA expression. Methods uMS were collected from primary tumors and lymph nodes from patients suspected of having lung cancer. mRNA was isolated, reverse-transcribed into cDNA and quantified with quantitative PCR assays for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and amphiregulin (AREG) mRNA. The fraction of tumor cells to normal cells was estimated in each sample. Results MET, HGF, EGFR, and AREG expression were evaluated in 90 samples (30 containing cancer cells and 60 without cancer cells). MET and EGFR expression were negligible in samples without cancer cells. In samples containing cancer cells, MET and EGFR could be quantified in 13 samples each. Adjustment for tumor-cell fraction made it possible to obtain a quantitative result for the tumor-cell mRNA expression of MET and EGFR. In contrast, AREG and HGF were expressed in samples without tumor cells. These samples were used to establish the AREG and HGF mRNA expression in normal cells. Seven out of 14 AR-positive and two out of eight HGF-positive samples with tumor cells were above a cut-off of the mean + 2SD established in samples without tumor cells. Conclusion We demonstrate that uMS contain high-quality mRNA, and quantitative studies can be performed when the tumor-cell fraction is considered. PMID:26923077

  14. TRPM1 (Melastatin-1/MLSN1) mRNA expression in Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Lori A; Letts, Gary A; Shah, Sonali M; Shackelton, Jeffrey B; Duncan, Lyn M

    2009-07-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1 (TRPM1/Melastatin-1/MLSN-1) expression has been shown to have prognostic utility in the evaluation of primary cutaneous melanoma. We analyzed a series of spindled and epithelioid cell nevi (Spitz) and primary cutaneous nodular melanomas to determine whether the expression of TRPM1 mRNA may be useful in distinguishing between Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas and to further examine the patterns of TRPM1 mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic proliferations. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 95 Spitz nevi and 33 nodular melanomas were analyzed for the expression of TRPM1 mRNA by in situ hybridization using (35)S-labeled riboprobes. Ubiquitous melanocytic expression of TRPM1 mRNA was observed in 56 of 95 (59%) Spitz nevi and 4 of 33 (12%) nodular melanomas. Diffusely scattered loss of TRPM1 mRNA was identified in 38 of 95 (40%) Spitz nevi and 2 of 33 (6%) nodular melanomas. Regional loss of the TRPM1 mRNA expression by a significant subset of dermal tumor cells or a complete absence of TRPM1 expression by the dermal tumor was identified in 27 of 33 (82%) nodular melanomas, but only 1 of 95 (1%) Spitz nevi. These findings suggest that the pattern of TRPM1 mRNA expression may be helpful in the differentiation of Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas. Of the 16 patients who experienced metastasis, 15 (94%) had primary tumors that displayed reduced MLSN mRNA expression by all or a part of the dermal tumor. PMID:19396153

  15. Serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the hypoglossal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Okabe, S; Mackiewicz, M; Kubin, L

    1997-11-01

    Brainstem serotonin (5-HT)-containing cells are remarkable for their widespread axonal projections and having their highest activity during wakefulness and lowest during rapid eye movement sleep. One important site of action of 5-HT is on upper airway motoneurons. However, which of the 14 known 5-HT receptors mediate the effects is uncertain. We used the reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction to detect mRNA for six distinct 5-HT receptors (1A, 1B, 2A, 2C, 3 and 7) in 50 nl micro-punches collected from the hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus and, for comparison, from the viscerosensory nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in adult rats. The relative abundance of the distinct mRNAs was characterized by the minimal number of amplification cycles (25-40) necessary to detect a given mRNA. In the XII nucleus, mRNA for type 1B, 2A and 2C receptors was detectable after 29-31 cycles, detection of type 3 and 7 receptor mRNA required 33-35 cycles; and type 1A receptor mRNA was not detected. In the NTS, detection of mRNA for type 1B, 2C and 7 receptors required 31-33 cycles; type 1A receptor mRNA required 39 cycles; and type 2A receptor mRNA was not detected. The data from the XII nucleus demonstrate that not only the previously recognized type 1B, 2A and 2C receptors, but also type 3 and 7 receptors have the potential to mediate serotonergic effects in XII motoneurons. PMID:9407608

  16. Nuclear m(6)A Reader YTHDC1 Regulates mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Roundtree, Ian A; He, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is emerging as a chemical mark that broadly affects the flow of genetic information in various biological processes in eukaryotes. Recently, Xiao et al. reported that the nuclear m(6)A reader protein YTHDC1 impacts mRNA splicing, providing a transcriptome-wide glance of splicing changes affected by this mRNA methylation reader protein. PMID:27050931

  17. Preparation of pancreatic mRNA: cell-free translation of an insulin-immunoreactive polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Lomedico, P T; Saunders, G F

    1976-01-01

    Total nucleic acid extraction and selection of poly A-containing molecules yield preparative quantities of undegraded mRNA from adult and fetal pancreas. Using a stringent immunoassay, this mRNA is found to direct the synthesis of an immunoreactive insulin polypeptide in the wheat germ translation system. On sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, this polypeptide (12,000-13,000 daltons) is larger than proinsulin (9,000 daltons). PMID:1257052

  18. Role of miRNAs and alternative mRNA 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of their mRNA targets in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soetanto, R; Hynes, C J; Patel, H R; Humphreys, D T; Evers, M; Duan, G; Parker, B J; Archer, S K; Clancy, J L; Graham, R M; Beilharz, T H; Smith, N J; Preiss, T

    2016-05-01

    miRNAs play critical roles in heart disease. In addition to differential miRNA expression, miRNA-mediated control is also affected by variable miRNA processing or alternative 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) of their mRNA targets. To what extent these phenomena play a role in the heart remains unclear. We sought to explore miRNA processing and mRNA APA in cardiomyocytes, and whether these change during cardiac hypertrophy. Thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) was performed to induce hypertrophy in C57BL/6J mice. RNA extracted from cardiomyocytes of sham-treated, pre-hypertrophic (2days post-TAC), and hypertrophic (7days post-TAC) mice was subjected to small RNA- and poly(A)-test sequencing (PAT-Seq). Differential expression analysis matched expectations; nevertheless we identified ~400 mRNAs and hundreds of noncoding RNA loci as altered with hypertrophy for the first time. Although multiple processing variants were observed for many miRNAs, there was little change in their relative proportions during hypertrophy. PAT-Seq mapped ~48,000 mRNA 3'-ends, identifying novel 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) for over 7000 genes. Importantly, hypertrophy was associated with marked changes in APA with a net shift from distal to more proximal mRNA 3'-ends, which is predicted to decrease overall miRNA repression strength. We independently validated several examples of 3'UTR proportion change and showed that alternative 3'UTRs associate with differences in mRNA translation. Our work suggests that APA contributes to altered gene expression with the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and provides a rich resource for a systems-level understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation in physiological and pathological states of the heart. PMID:27032571

  19. The iron-sensing aconitase B binds its own mRNA to prevent sRNA-induced mRNA cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Julie-Anna M.; Mass, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Aconitase is an ironsulfur protein and a major enzyme of the TCA cycle that catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate under iron-rich conditions. In Escherichia coli, aconitase B (AcnB) is a typical moonlighting protein that can switch to its apo form (apo-AcnB) which favors binding its own mRNA 3?UTR and stabilize it when intracellular iron become scarce. The small regulatory RNA (sRNA) RyhB has previously been shown to promote RNase E-dependent degradation of acnB mRNA when it was expressed from an ectopic arabinose-dependent promoter, independently of intracellular iron levels. In marked contrast, we report here that expression of RyhB under low-iron conditions did not result in acnB mRNA degradation even when RyhB was bound to acnB ribosome binding site (RBS). Genetic and biochemical evidence suggested that, under low-iron conditions, apo-AcnB bound to acnB 3?UTR close to a RNase E cleavage site that is essential for RyhB-induced acnB mRNA degradation. Whereas RyhB can block acnB translation initiation, RNase E-dependent degradation of acnB was prevented by apo-AcnB binding close to the cleavage site. This previously uncharacterized regulation suggests an intricate post-transcriptional mechanism that represses protein expression while insuring mRNA stability. PMID:25092924

  20. Inhibition of mRNA deadenylation and degradation by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Winzen, Reinhard; Bollig, Frank; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Redich, Natalie; Ritter, Birgit; Resch, Klaus; Kracht, Michael; Holtmann, Helmut

    2005-12-01

    Post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to the changes in gene expression induced by cell stress. The effect of UV-B light on mRNA degradation in HeLa cells was investigated using a transcriptional chase system to determine the decay kinetics of tet-off vector-derived mRNAs containing or lacking a destabilizing AU-rich element. Degradation of both mRNAs was strongly inhibited in cells exposed to UV-B light. Removal of the poly(A)-tail, considered a crucial step in mRNA degradation, was strikingly impaired. UV light also inhibited deadenylation and degradation of endogenous mRNA of the chemoattractant cytokine interleukin (IL)-8. Both effects occurred rapidly and independently of newly induced genes. Importantly, stabilization of IL-8 mRNA was accompanied by a strong increase in the duration of IL-8 protein formation. Furthermore, general inhibition of protein synthesis, a hallmark of the response to cell stress, required far higher doses of UV-B than inhibition of mRNA deadenylation and degradation. The difference in sensitivity of cells to these effects of UV-B light establishes a dose range in which mRNA stabilization can lead to dramatically enhanced expression of proteins derived from normally unstable mRNAs, such as those of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proto-oncogenes, and thereby have a major impact on the response to UV light. PMID:16336123

  1. Uridylation and PABP Cooperate to Repair mRNA Deadenylated Ends in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Hélène; Scheer, Hélène; Ferrier, Emilie; Sement, François Michaël; Mercier, Pierre; Stupfler, Benjamin; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2016-03-22

    Uridylation emerges as a key modification promoting mRNA degradation in eukaryotes. In addition, uridylation by URT1 prevents the accumulation of excessively deadenylated mRNAs in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that the extent of mRNA deadenylation is controlled by URT1. By using TAIL-seq analysis, we demonstrate the prevalence of mRNA uridylation and the existence, at lower frequencies, of mRNA cytidylation and guanylation in Arabidopsis. Both URT1-dependent and URT1-independent types of uridylation co-exist but only URT1-mediated uridylation prevents the accumulation of excessively deadenylated mRNAs. Importantly, uridylation repairs deadenylated extremities to restore the size distribution observed for non-uridylated oligo(A) tails. In vivo and in vitro data indicate that Poly(A) Binding Protein (PABP) binds to uridylated oligo(A) tails and determines the length of U-extensions added by URT1. Taken together, our results uncover a role for uridylation and PABP in repairing mRNA deadenylated ends and reveal that uridylation plays diverse roles in eukaryotic mRNA metabolism. PMID:26972004

  2. RNase III Controls the Degradation of corA mRNA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Boram; Sim, Se-Hoon; Sim, Minji; Kim, Kyungsub; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Younghoon; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2012-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the corA gene encodes a transporter that mediates the influx of Co2+, Mg2+, and Ni2+ into the cell. During the course of experiments aimed at identifying RNase III-dependent genes in E. coli, we observed that steady-state levels of corA mRNA as well as the degree of cobalt influx into the cell were dependent on cellular concentrations of RNase III. In addition, changes in corA expression levels by different cellular concentrations of RNase III were closely correlated with degrees of resistance of E. coli cells to Co2+ and Ni2+. In vitro and in vivo cleavage analyses of corA mRNA identified RNase III cleavage sites in the 5′-untranslated region of the corA mRNA. The introduction of nucleotide substitutions at the identified RNase III cleavage sites abolished RNase III cleavage activity on corA mRNA and resulted in prolonged half-lives of the mRNA, which demonstrates that RNase III cleavage constitutes a rate-determining step for corA mRNA degradation. These findings reveal an RNase III-mediated regulatory pathway that functions to modulate corA expression and, in turn, the influx of metal ions transported by CorA in E. coli. PMID:22343302

  3. Reduced FMR1 mRNA translation efficiency in fragile X patients with premutations.

    PubMed Central

    Primerano, Beatrice; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Hagerman, Paul; Amaldi, Francesco; Bagni, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    The Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) contains a polymorphic trinucleotide CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the FMR1 messenger. We have characterized three lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from unrelated male carriers of a premutation that overexpress FMR1 mRNA and show reduced FMRP level compared to normal cells. The analysis of polysomes/mRNPs distribution of mRNA in the cell lines with a premutation shows that the polysomal association of FMR1 mRNA, which is high in normal cells, becomes progressively lower with increasing CGG repeat expansion. In addition, we could detect a very low level of FMR1 mRNA in a lymphoblastoid cell line from a patient with a full mutation. In this case, FMR1 mRNA is not at all associated with polysomes, in agreement with the complete absence of FMRP. The impairment of FMR1 mRNA translation in patients with the Fragile X syndrome with FMR1 premutation is the cause of the lower FMRP levels that leads to the clinical involvement. PMID:12515381

  4. HDAC3 regulates stability of estrogen receptor α mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA in MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 is involved in maintaining ERα mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells. ► ERα mRNA instability by knockdown of HDAC3 reduces the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 specific inhibitor will be one of new drugs for ERα-positive breast cancers. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ERα expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ERα mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ERα-positive tumors are higher than those in ERα-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ERα mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive tumors.

  5. Creatine kinase and alpha-actin mRNA levels decrease in diabetic rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, B.; Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac atrophy and isoenzyme redistribution. To determine if tissue specific changes occur in mRNAs coding for ..cap alpha..-actin and creatine kinase (CK), they performed RNA blot analysis. Total ventricular RNA from control (C) and 4 wk old diabetic (D) rats were hybridized with /sup 32/P cDNA probes for ..cap alpha..-actin and CK. A tissue independent cDNA probe, CHOA was also used. Signal intensity was quantified by photodensitometry. D CK mRNA was 47 +/- 16% lower in D vs C. Insulin increases CK mRNA by 20% at 1.5 hs, and completely reverses the deficit after 4 wks. D ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA is 66 +/- 18% lower in D vs C. Insulin normalized ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA by 5 hs. CHOA mRNA is unchanged in D vs C, but D + insulin CHOA mRNA is 30 +/- 2% lower than C. In rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, muscle specific CK and ..cap alpha..-actin mRNAs are decreased. Insulin treatment reverses these changes.

  6. Mammalian transcription in support of hybrid mRNA and protein synthesis in testis and lung.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Carolyn; Sikora, Curtis; Lawson, Vannice; Dong, Karen; Cheng, Min; Oko, Richard; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2006-12-15

    Post-transcriptional mechanisms including differential splicing expand the protein repertoire beyond that provided by the one gene-one protein model. Trans-splicing has been observed in mammalian systems but is low level (sometimes referred to as noise), and a contribution to hybrid protein expression is unclear. In the study of rat sperm tail proteins a cDNA, called 1038, was isolated representing a hybrid mRNA derived in part from the ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (Oaz3) gene located on rat chromosome 2 fused to sequences encoded by a novel gene on chromosome 4. Cytoplasmic Oaz3 mRNA is completely testis specific. However, in several tissues Oaz3 is transcribed and contributes to hybrid 1038 mRNA synthesis, without concurrent Oaz3 mRNA synthesis. 1038 mRNA directs synthesis of a hybrid 14-kDa protein, part chromosome 2- and part chromosome 4-derived as shown in vitro and in transfected cells. Antisera that recognize a chromosome 4-encoded C-terminal peptide confirm the hybrid character of endogenous 14-kDa protein and its presence in sperm tail structures and 1038-positive tissue. Our data suggest that the testis-specific OAZ3 gene may be an example of a mammalian gene that in several tissues is transcribed to contribute to a hybrid mRNA and protein. This finding expands the repertoire of known mechanisms available to cells to generate proteome diversity. PMID:17040916

  7. Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Steven J.; Ma, Jiong; Yang, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE). Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D) movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT) techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms. PMID:25393401

  8. Gravitational loading of a simulated launch alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1996-01-01

    Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1a) were centrifuged under a regime designed to simulate a space shuttle launch (maximum of 3g). Messenger RNA levels for eight genes involved in bone growth and maintenance were determined using RT-PCR. Following 30 min of centrifugation, mRNA level for early response gene c-fos was significantly increased 89% (P < 0.05). The c-fos induction was transient and returned to control levels after 3 h. The mRNA level for the mineralization marker gene osteocalcin was significantly decreased to 44% of control level (P < 0.005) 3 h after centrifugation. No changes in mRNA levels were detected for c-myc, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, cyclophilin A, or actin. No basal mRNA level for TGFbeta3 was detected. In addition, no change in the steady-state synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was detected, possibly due to lack of lipid substrates in serum-deprived cells, suggesting that the increase in c-fos mRNA in response to gravitational loading is a result of mechanical stimulation. These results indicate that a small magnitude mechanical loading, such as that experienced during a shuttle launch, can alter mRNA levels in quiescent osteoblastic cells.

  9. Copper deficiency lowers rat liver glutathione peroxidase activity and mRNA but not selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Prohaska, J.R.; Zinn, K.; Sunde, R.A. )

    1991-03-15

    Copper (Cu) deficiency in rodents leads to lower activity of the liver selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by an unknown mechanism. Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency is known to be accompanied by proportional loss of GSH-Px activity, protein, and mRNA levels. Lower GSH-Px activity in Cu-deficient ({minus}Cu) rodents might be due to changes in liver Se which could then influence the level of GSH-Px mRNA. Cu deficiency was induced by feeding a diet low in Cu but adequate in Se to Sprague Dawley dams beginning the day of parturition. All {minus}Cu rats had significantly lower liver Cu and cuproenzyme activities than +Cu rats. Portions of liver previously frozen in liquid nitrogen from 60-d-old rats were used to determine Se by neutron activation and for measurement of GSH-Px mRNA. Total RNA was isolated and fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis and subjected to Northern blot hybridization. Autoradiograms were quantified by densitometry. Compared to +Cu rats the {minus}Cu male and female rats had lower GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels; however, total Se levels were not different. The correlation between GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels was excellent; over a 3-fold range r{sup 2}=0.94. Lower GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels in Cu deficient rats appears not to be due to a direct effect of lower Se levels.

  10. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Jacob B.; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression. PMID:23675377

  11. The role of cytokine mRNA stability in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Seko, Yuko; Cole, Steven; Kasprzak, Wojciech; Shapiro, Bruce A; Ragheb, Jack A

    2006-05-01

    Inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-17 play an important role in the pathogenesis of cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Cytokine gene expression is tightly regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Cytokine mRNA decay is dependent not only upon cis-elements in the RNA but also upon trans-acting factors such as the RNA binding proteins TTP, HuR, AUF-1, Nucleolin and YB-1. Physiologic signals, for instance signaling through the CD28 receptor on T cells, can modulate the half-life of a select subset of cytokine mRNAs, such as IL-2. Distinct cis- and trans-acting elements in human and mouse IL-2 mRNA may account for the different pattern of CD28-mediated mRNA stabilization in these two species. TTP-deficient mice or mice with a deletion of the TNF-alpha mRNA ARE element develop a complex inflammatory syndrome that is associated with a prolonged TNF-alpha mRNA half-life and elevated levels of circulating TNF-alpha. This syndrome can be prevented by treatment with TNF-alpha blocking antibodies. Evidence from mice with altered cytokine mRNA stability, along with human data, suggests that imbalance between the stability and decay of inflammatory cytokine mRNAs could represent a basic mechanism leading to autoimmunity. PMID:16782553

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690

  13. Targeted Mutagenesis in Plant Cells through Transformation of Sequence-Specific Nuclease mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Thomas J.; Clasen, Benjamin M.; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Demorest, Zachary L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Zhang, Feng; Luo, Song

    2016-01-01

    Plant genome engineering using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) promises to advance basic and applied plant research by enabling precise modification of endogenous genes. Whereas DNA is an effective means for delivering SSNs, DNA can integrate randomly into the plant genome, leading to unintentional gene inactivation. Further, prolonged expression of SSNs from DNA constructs can lead to the accumulation of off-target mutations. Here, we tested a new approach for SSN delivery to plant cells, namely transformation of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). mRNA delivery of a TALEN pair targeting the Nicotiana benthamiana ALS gene resulted in mutation frequencies of approximately 6% in comparison to DNA delivery, which resulted in mutation frequencies of 70.5%. mRNA delivery resulted in three-fold fewer insertions, and 76% were <10bp; in contrast, 88% of insertions generated through DNA delivery were >10bp. In an effort to increase mutation frequencies using mRNA, we fused several different 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) from Arabidopsis thaliana genes to the TALEN coding sequence. UTRs from an A. thaliana adenine nucleotide α hydrolases-like gene (At1G09740) enhanced mutation frequencies approximately two-fold, relative to a no-UTR control. These results indicate that mRNA can be used as a delivery vehicle for SSNs, and that manipulation of mRNA UTRs can influence efficiencies of genome editing. PMID:27176769

  14. Viscum album-mediated COX-2 inhibition implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Saha, Chaitrali; Hegde, Pushpa; Friboulet, Alain; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Kaveri, Srinivas V

    2015-01-01

    Extensive use of Viscum album (VA) preparations in the complementary therapy of cancer and in several other human pathologies has led to an increasing number of cellular and molecular approaches to explore the mechanisms of action of VA. We have recently demonstrated that, VA preparations exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect by selectively down-regulating the COX-2-mediated cytokine-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the important molecular signatures of inflammatory reactions. In this study, we observed a significant down-regulation of COX-2 protein expression in VA-treated A549 cells however COX-2 mRNA levels were unaltered. Therefore, we hypothesized that VA induces destabilisation of COX-2 mRNA, thereby depleting the available functional COX-2 mRNA for the protein synthesis and for the subsequent secretion of PGE2. To address this question, we analyzed the molecular degradation of COX-2 protein and its corresponding mRNA in A549 cell line. Using cyclohexamide pulse chase experiment, we demonstrate that, COX-2 protein degradation is not affected by the treatment with VA whereas experiments on transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, revealed a marked reduction in the half life of COX-2 mRNA due to its rapid degradation in the cells treated with VA compared to that in IL-1β-stimulated cells. These results thus demonstrate that VA-mediated inhibition of PGE2 implicates destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. PMID:25664986

  15. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Mller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends. PMID:26944680

  16. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M.; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D.; Steiner, Michaela C.; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1–7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1–7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3′ untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3′ ends. PMID:26944680

  17. Single-cell detection of mRNA expression using nanofountain-probe electroporated molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Vela, Juan P; Kang, Wonmo; McNaughton, Rebecca L; Zhang, Xuemei; Wile, Brian M; Tsourkas, Andrew; Bao, Gang; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2015-05-01

    New techniques for single-cell analysis enable new discoveries in gene expression and systems biology. Time-dependent measurements on individual cells are necessary, yet the common single-cell analysis techniques used today require lysing the cell, suspending the cell, or long incubation times for transfection, thereby interfering with the ability to track an individual cell over time. Here a method for detecting mRNA expression in live single cells using molecular beacons that are transfected into single cells by means of nanofountain probe electroporation (NFP-E) is presented. Molecular beacons are oligonucleotides that emit fluorescence upon binding to an mRNA target, rendering them useful for spatial and temporal studies of live cells. The NFP-E is used to transfect a DNA-based beacon that detects glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an RNA-based beacon that detects a sequence cloned in the green fluorescence protein mRNA. It is shown that imaging analysis of transfection and mRNA detection can be performed within seconds after electroporation and without disturbing adhered cells. In addition, it is shown that time-dependent detection of mRNA expression is feasible by transfecting the same single cell at different time points. This technique will be particularly useful for studies of cell differentiation, where several measurements of mRNA expression are required over time. PMID:25641752

  18. RPFdb: a database for genome wide information of translated mRNA generated from ribosome profiling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shang-Qian; Nie, Peng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Hongyu; Yang, Zhilong; Liu, Yizhi; Ren, Jian; Xie, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Translational control is crucial in the regulation of gene expression and deregulation of translation is associated with a wide range of cancers and human diseases. Ribosome profiling is a technique that provides genome wide information of mRNA in translation based on deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments (RPF). RPFdb is a comprehensive resource for hosting, analyzing and visualizing RPF data, available at www.rpfdb.org or http://sysbio.sysu.edu.cn/rpfdb/index.html. The current version of database contains 777 samples from 82 studies in 8 species, processed and reanalyzed by a unified pipeline. There are two ways to query the database: by keywords of studies or by genes. The outputs are presented in three levels. (i) Study level: including meta information of studies and reprocessed data for gene expression of translated mRNAs; (ii) Sample level: including global perspective of translated mRNA and a list of the most translated mRNA of each sample from a study; (iii) Gene level: including normalized sequence counts of translated mRNA on different genomic location of a gene from multiple samples and studies. To explore rich information provided by RPF, RPFdb also provides a genome browser to query and visualize context-specific translated mRNA. Overall our database provides a simple way to search, analyze, compare, visualize and download RPF data sets. PMID:26433228

  19. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Environmental and Biotechnology Centre, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 ; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168 ; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  20. Rift Valley fever virus NSS gene expression correlates with a defect in nuclear mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Van Deusen, Nicole M; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the localization of host mRNA during Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that infection with RVFV altered the localization of host mRNA. mRNA accumulated in the nuclei of RVFV-infected but not mock-infected cells. Further, overexpression of the NSS gene, but not the N, GN or NSM genes correlated with mRNA nuclear accumulation. Nuclear accumulation of host mRNA was not observed in cells infected with a strain of RVFV lacking the gene encoding NSS, confirming that expression of NSS is likely responsible for this phenomenon. PMID:26410240

  1. Developmental switches of sericin mRNA splicing in individual cells of Bombyx mori silkgland.

    PubMed

    Couble, P; Michaille, J J; Garel, A; Couble, M L; Prudhomme, J C

    1987-12-01

    Four mRNA of 10.5, 9.0, 4.0, and 2.8 kb are made from the sericin Ser1 gene by alternative maturation of a unique mRNA precursor. By means of RNA blots and in situ hybridization, we investigated variations in the distribution of these mRNA during the last larval instar in different territories of the middle silkgland. Taken together, the results from these two techniques show that 150 out of the 266 cells of this region of the organ express the Ser1 gene, but accumulate distinct mature mRNA species. Of these 150 cells 42 are specialized in a processing pathway resulting in the production of the 2.8-kb Ser1 mRNA throughout the larval instar. The 108 others perform successively three distinct splicing pathways leading to a development-dependent accumulation of, respectively, the 4.0-, the 10.5-, and the 9.0-kb mRNA. This suggests the occurrence of two switches in the splicing capacities of these cells during the fifth instar. The middle silkgland cells also express another sericin gene (Ser2) which encodes two mRNA of 5.4 and 3.1 kb, also arising by differential splicing. At the beginning of development, all the middle silkgland cells express this gene but, as development proceeds, expression becomes restricted to only the anterior cells. The biological consequence of this topological and temporal regulation of the mode of expression of these two genes is the sequential secretion and layering of the different sericins around the silk thread. PMID:3678608

  2. Controlling mRNA stability and translation with the CRISPR endoribonuclease Csy4.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Erin K; Vandoros, Leonidas A; Huang, Michael; Lackey, Patrick E; Marzluff, William F; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-11-01

    The bacterial CRISPR endoribonuclease Csy4 has recently been described as a potential RNA processing tool. Csy4 recognizes substrate RNA through a specific 28-nt hairpin sequence and cleaves at the 3' end of the stem. To further explore applicability in mammalian cells, we introduced this hairpin at various locations in mRNAs derived from reporter transgenes and systematically evaluated the effects of Csy4-mediated processing on transgene expression. Placing the hairpin in the 5' UTR or immediately after the start codon resulted in efficient degradation of target mRNA by Csy4 and knockdown of transgene expression by 20- to 40-fold. When the hairpin was incorporated in the 3' UTR prior to the poly(A) signal, the mRNA was cleaved, but only a modest decrease in transgene expression (∼2.5-fold) was observed. In the absence of a poly(A) tail, Csy4 rescued the target mRNA substrate from degradation, resulting in protein expression, which suggests that the cleaved mRNA was successfully translated. In contrast, neither catalytically inactive (H29A) nor binding-deficient (R115A/R119A) Csy4 mutants were able to exert any of the effects described above. Generation of a similar 3' end by RNase P-mediated cleavage was unable to rescue transgene expression independent of Csy4. These results support the idea that the selective generation of the Csy4/hairpin complex resulting from cleavage of target mRNA might serve as a functional poly(A)/poly(A) binding protein (PABP) surrogate, stabilizing the mRNA and supporting translation. Although the exact mechanism(s) remain to be determined, our studies expand the potential utility of CRISPR nucleases as tools for controlling mRNA stability and translation. PMID:26354771

  3. Self-Digitization Microfluidic Chip for Absolute Quantification of mRNA in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of mRNA in single cells provides direct insight into how intercellular heterogeneity plays a role in disease progression and outcomes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the current gold standard for evaluating gene expression, is insufficient for providing absolute measurement of single-cell mRNA transcript abundance. Challenges include difficulties in handling small sample volumes and the high variability in measurements. Microfluidic digital PCR provides far better sensitivity for minute quantities of genetic material, but the typical format of this assay does not allow for counting of the absolute number of mRNA transcripts samples taken from single cells. Furthermore, a large fraction of the sample is often lost during sample handling in microfluidic digital PCR. Here, we report the absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA transcripts by digital, one-step reverse transcription PCR in a simple microfluidic array device called the self-digitization (SD) chip. By performing the reverse transcription step in digitized volumes, we find that the assay exhibits a linear signal across a wide range of total RNA concentrations and agrees well with standard curve qPCR. The SD chip is found to digitize a high percentage (86.7%) of the sample for single-cell experiments. Moreover, quantification of transferrin receptor mRNA in single cells agrees well with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. The SD platform for absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA can be optimized for other genes and may be useful as an independent control method for the validation of mRNA quantification techniques. PMID:25390242

  4. UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgaard, Louise T.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

  5. Circulating resistin protein and mRNA concentrations and clinical severity of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sopic, Miron; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Andjelkovic, Kristina; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have implicated a strong link between circulating plasma resistin and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resistin mRNA and its plasma protein concentrations between the patients with CAD of different clinical severity. Material and methods This study included 33 healthy subjects as the control group (CG) and 77 patients requiring coronary angiography. Of the latter 30 was CAD negative whereas 47 were CAD positive [18 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 29 with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)]. Circulating resistin was measured by ELISA; PBMC resistin mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Results Resistin protein was significantly higher in the ACS group compared to the CG (P = 0.001) and the CAD negative group (P = 0.018). Resistin mRNA expression did not vary across the study groups, despite the positive correlation seen with plasma resistin (ρ = 0.305, P = 0.008). In patients, plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA negatively correlated with HDL-C (ρ = -0.404, P < 0.001 and ρ = -0.257, P = 0.032, respectively). Furthermore, the highest plasma resistin tertile showed the lowest HDL-C (P = 0.006). Plasma resistin was positively associated with serum creatinine (ρ = 0.353, P = 0.002). Conclusion Significant increase of plasma resistin in patients with ACS compared to CG and CAD negative patients was observed. Despite no change in PBMC resistin mRNA in different disease conditions a positive association between resistin mRNA and resistin plasma protein was evident. Both plasma resistin and PBMC resistin mRNA were negatively associated with plasma HDL-C, and plasma resistin positively with serum creatinine. PMID:26110037

  6. A ribonucleoprotein complex protects the interleukin-6 mRNA from degradation by distinct herpesviral endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2015-05-01

    During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3' untranslated region (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3' UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3' UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 mRNA. PMID:25965334

  7. Monitoring Therapeutic Efficacy by Real-Time Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA Detection in Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Mdivani, Nino; Li, Haijing; Akhalaia, Maka; Gegia, Medea; Goginashvili, Leila; Kernodle, Douglas S.; Khechinashvili, George; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current laboratory methods for monitoring response to therapy for tuberculosis (TB) rely on mycobacterial culture. Their clinical usefulness is therefore limited by the slow growth rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rapid methods to reliably quantify response to anti-TB drug efficacy are desirable. METHODS We developed two real-time PCR assays using hydrolysis probes to target DNA of the IS6110 insertion element and mRNA of antigen 85B, respectively, extracted directly from sodium hydroxide-N-acetyl-L-cysteine decontaminated and concentrated sputum specimens. We prospectively compared these assays to sputum mycobacterial culture in patients receiving anti-TB therapy. RESULTS Sixty-five patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis and receiving a standardized first-line anti-TB drug regimen were evaluated at week 2, and months 1, 2 and 4 after initiating therapy. Both DNA PCR (98.5% positive) and mRNA RT-PCR (95.4% positive) were better than standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques (83.1%) for detecting M. tuberculosis in culture-positive sputum specimens. Overall agreement between culture and mRNA RT-PCR among all 286 sputum specimens was 87.1%, and compared to culture the mRNA RT-PCR diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 85.2% and 88.6%, respectively. For monitoring efficacy of therapy, mRNA RT-PCR results paralleled culture results at the follow-up time points. CONCLUSIONS The continued presence of viable M. tuberculosis by culture and antigen 85B mRNA by RT-PCR correlated clinically with anti-TB drug resistance, whereas the DNA PCR assay showed a high false positive rate. This mRNA RT-PCR assay may allow rapid monitoring of response to anti-TB therapy. PMID:19574468

  8. A Ribonucleoprotein Complex Protects the Interleukin-6 mRNA from Degradation by Distinct Herpesviral Endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mandy; Hutin, Stephanie; Marigold, Oliver; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Al; Glaunsinger, Britt A.

    2015-01-01

    During lytic Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA). However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6), a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3’ untranslated region (UTR) that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL) most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3’ UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3’ UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the