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Protocatechuic acid induces antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression through JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation in murine macrophages.  


Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a main metabolite of anthocyanins, whose daily intake is much higher than that of other polyphenols. PCA has biological effects, e.g., it induces the antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme gene expression. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for PCA-induced over-expression of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPx) and GSH reductase (GR) in J774 A.1 macrophages. New evidence is provided that PCA increases GPx and GR expression by inducing C-JUN NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated phosphorylation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). RNA and proteins were extracted from cells treated with PCA (25 ?M) for different time points. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses showed a rapid increase in mRNA (>60%) and protein (>50%) for both the enzymes. This was preceded by the up-regulation of Nrf2, in terms of mRNA and protein, and by its significant activation as assessed by increased Nrf2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (+60%). By using specific kinase inhibitors and detecting the activated form, we showed that JNK was the main upstream kinase responsible for Nrf2 activation. Convincing evidence is provided of a causal link between PCA-induced Nrf2 activation and increased enzyme expression. By silencing Nrf2 and using a JNK inhibitor, enzyme enhancement was counteracted. Finally, with the ChIP assay, we demonstrated that PCA-activated Nrf2 specifically bound ARE sequences in enzyme gene promoters. Our study demonstrates for the first time that PCA improves the macrophage endogenous antioxidant potential by a mechanism in which JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation plays an essential role. This knowledge could contribute to novel diet-based approaches aimed at counteracting oxidative injury by reinforcing endogenous defences. PMID:20621462

Varì, Rosaria; D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Carotenuto, Simona; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta



BNIP3 upregulation by ERK and JNK mediates cadmium-induced necrosis in neuronal cells.  


Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that may cause neurological disorders. We studied the mechanism underlying Cd-mediated cell death in neuronal cells. In Cd-induced neurotoxicity, caspase-3 was only modestly activated, and accordingly, zVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, partially attenuated cell death. However, pretreatment with Necrox-2 or Necrox-5, two novel necrosis inhibitors, suppressed cell death more markedly compared with pretreatment with zVAD-fmk. Moreover, the necrosis inhibitors did not prevent cleavage of caspase-3. These results indicate that caspase-independent necrosis is more prevalent in Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Bcl-2 and adenovirus E1B-19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) has been reported to be related to caspase-independent cell death. Cd treatment caused a dramatic upregulation of BNIP3 mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of BNIP3 greatly inhibited Cd-induced cell death. Importantly, BNIP3 RNAi decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and the percentage of propidium iodide-positive cells, two markers of necrotic cell death due to rupture of the cell membrane, whereas it had no effect on activation of caspase-3 in Cd-treated cells. These data suggest that BNIP3 mediates caspase-independent necrosis, but not apoptosis. Moreover, our results indicate that induction of BNIP3 by Cd may not be related to HIF-1 which is generally regarded as a mediator responsible for BNIP3 expression. Finally, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by Cd in vitro and in vivo; ERK and JNK promote BNIP3 upregulation and subsequent necrosis. Taken together, our results suggest BNIP3, upregulated by activation of ERK and JNK, mediates Cd-induced necrosis in neuronal cells. PMID:24824807

Wang, Bin; Xiao, Jia-Li; Ling, Yi-Hui; Meng, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Bing; Yang, Xin-Yi; Zou, Fei



JNK-mediated turnover and stabilization of the transcription factor p45/NF-E2 during differentiation  

E-print Network

and phosphorylates its Ser157 residue. This reaction leads to the poly-ubiquitination of p45/NF-E2 at one or moreJNK-mediated turnover and stabilization of the transcription factor p45/NF-E2 during characterized the signal transduction pathways regulating the catabolisis of p45/NF-E2, a bZIP factor activating

Tsai, Ming-Daw


In vitro effect of short peptides on expression of interleukin-2 gene in splenocytes.  


Synthetic peptides Vilon (Lys-Glu), Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), and Cortagen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Pro) in vitro activated interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis in splenocytes from CBA mice in the absence of specific inductors. The intensity of interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis in splenocytes depended on the type, concentration, and duration of treatment with the peptides. Vilon and Epithalon were most potent, while Cortagen produced a less pronounced effect on interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis. PMID:12447482

Kazakova, T B; Barabanova, S V; Khavinson, V Kh; Glushikhina, M S; Parkhomenko, E P; Malinin, V V; Korneva, E A



Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.  


Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection. PMID:25116390

Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong



A JNK-mediated autophagy pathway that triggers c-IAP degradation and necroptosis for anticancer chemotherapy.  


Killing cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis is one of the main mechanisms of chemotherapy. However, numerous cancer cells have primary or acquired apoptosis resistance, resulting in chemoresistance. In this study, using a novel chalcone derivative chalcone-24 (Chal-24), we identified a novel anticancer mechanism through autophagy-mediated necroptosis (RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necrosis). Chal-24 potently killed different cancer cells with induction of necrotic cellular morphology while causing no detectable caspase activation. Blocking the necroptosis pathway with either necrostatin-1 or by knockdown of RIP1 and RIP3 effectively blocked the cytotoxicity of Chal-24, suggesting that Chal-24-induced cell death is associated with necroptosis. Chal-24 robustly activated JNK and ERK and blockage of which effectively suppressed Chal-24-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, Chal-24 strongly induced autophagy that is dependent on JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and dissociation of Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL from Beclin-1. Importantly, suppression of autophagy, with either pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNAs targeting the essential autophagy components ATG7 and Beclin-1, effectively attenuated Chal-24-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that autophagy activation resulted in c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 degradation and formation of the Ripoptosome that contributes to necroptosis. These results thus establish a novel mechanism for killing cancer cells that involves autophagy-mediated necroptosis, which may be employed for overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:23831571

He, W; Wang, Q; Srinivasan, B; Xu, J; Padilla, M T; Li, Z; Wang, X; Liu, Y; Gou, X; Shen, H-M; Xing, C; Lin, Y



PINCH-1 promotes Bcl-2-dependent survival signalling and inhibits JNK-mediated apoptosis in the primitive endoderm.  


The focal adhesion (FA) protein PINCH-1 is required for the survival of primitive endoderm (PrE) cells. How PINCH-1 regulates this fundamental process is not known. Here, we use embryoid bodies (EBs) and isolated EB-derived PrE cells to investigate the mechanisms by which PINCH-1 promotes PrE survival. We report that loss of PINCH-1 in PrE cells leads to a sustained activity of JNK and the pro-apoptotic factor Bax. Mechanistically, the sustained JNK activation was due to diminished levels of the JNK inhibitory factor Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1), whose stability was severely reduced upon loss of PINCH-1. Chemical inhibition of JNK attenuated apoptosis of PrE cells but failed to reduce Bax activity. The increased Bax activity was associated with reduced integrin signalling and diminished Bcl-2 levels, which were shown to inhibit Bax. Altogether our findings show that PINCH-1 is a pro-survival factor that prevents apoptosis of PrE cells by modulating two independent signalling pathways; PINCH-1 inhibits JNK-mediated apoptosis by stabilising the PINCH-1 binding protein RSU-1 and promotes Bcl-2-dependent pro-survival signalling downstream of integrins. PMID:22946061

Montanez, Eloi; Karaköse, Esra; Tischner, Denise; Villunger, Andreas; Fässler, Reinhard



Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways  

SciTech Connect

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health. However, fluoride is known to cause cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, no information is available on the effects of NaF on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and the mechanisms involved. NaF treatment greater than 1 mM reduced viability and DNA synthesis in mESCs and induced cell cycle arrest in the G{sub 2}/M phase. The addition of NaF induced cell death mainly by apoptosis rather than necrosis. Catalase (CAT) treatment significantly inhibited the NaF-mediated cell death and also suppressed the NaF-mediated increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) levels. Pre-treatment with SP600125 or z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the NaF-mediated reduction in cell viability. In contrast, intracellular free calcium chelator, but not of sodium or calcium ion channel blockers, facilitated NaF-induced toxicity in the cells. A JNK specific inhibitor (SP600125) prevented the NaF-induced increase in growth arrest and the DNA damage-inducible protein 45?. Further, NaF-mediated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was apparently inhibited by pifithrin-? or CAT inhibitor. These findings suggest that NaF affects viability of mESCs in a concentration-dependent manner, where more than 1 mM NaF causes apoptosis through hydroxyl radical-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. -- Highlights: ? The mode of NaF-induced cell death and the mechanisms involved were examined. ? NaF induced mainly apoptotic death of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). ? NaF induced mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. ? JNK- and p53-mediated pathways are involved in NaF-mediated apoptosis in the cells. ? ROS are the up-stream effector in NaF-mediated activation of JNK and p53 in mESCs.

Nguyen Ngoc, Tam Dan [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)] [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lim, Shin-Saeng [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)] [Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Kim, Jong-Ghee [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jung Sun [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Youngji [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young-Mi, E-mail: [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry (BK21 Program), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate Center for Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Department of Bioactive Material Sciences and Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)



Pharmacokinetics of Recombinant Interleukin 2 in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the pharmacokinetics in humans of recombi nant interleukin 2 (IL-2) given as an i.v. bolus, i.v. or i.p. infusion, and i.m. or s.c. injection. Immediately after an i.v. bolus the serum 11-2 level equals the dose divided by the plasma volume, in a typical human 650 units\\/ml for a dose of III1'units\\/m2. The level initially decreases with

Michael W. Konrad; George Hemstreet; Evan M. Hersh; Peter W. A. Mansell; Roland Mertelsmann; Jonathan E. Kolitz; Edward C. Bradley


Immunoautoradiographic localization of interleukin 2-like immunoreactivity and interleukin 2 receptors (Tac antigen-like immunoreactivity) in the rat brain.  


Immunoautoradiographic techniques were used to determine the topographical distribution of interleukin 2-like immunoreactivity and interleukin 2 receptor-like immunoreactivity (Tac antigen-like immunoreactivity) in rat brain. Interleukin 2 receptors were also visualized by film autoradiography using 125I-recombinant human interleukin 2. Endogenous interleukin 2-like immunoreactive material was present in a limited number of brain regions. The highest densities were localized to the median eminence-arcuate nucleus complex, hippocampal formation, lamina IV of the cerebral cortex, lateral septum, neostriatum and cerebellum. Lower levels of interleukin 2-like immunoreactive material were present in the thalamus, medial septum and granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Tac antigen-like immunoreactivity was observed in virtually the same brain regions, and within these brain regions showed the same distribution as interleukin 2-like immunoreactivity. In contrast, [125I]interleukin 2 binding sites were only detected in the hippocampal formation and the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Quantitative analyses confirmed that there was a positive correlation between the densities of interleukin 2-like immunoreactivity and interleukin 2 receptor immunoreactivity (Tac antigen-like immunoreactivity) in various brain regions, suggesting that interleukin 2 is synthesized and/or stored in the vicinity of the site of interaction with the Tac antigen of its receptor. Overall, the presence of endogenous interleukin 2-like immunoreactive material and interleukin 2 receptor-like immunoreactive material in selective regions of the rat brain suggests that this neurokine may normally act to regulate a variety of brain functions in the adult rat. PMID:1770995

Lapchak, P A; Araujo, D M; Quirion, R; Beaudet, A



ISSN 1360-1725 Mathematical Modelling Of The Interleukin-2  

E-print Network

solution. We show that mathematical models that incorporate a time-lag in the cell division phase are more division. Specifically, we study the Interleukin-2-dependent cell division of phytohemagglutinin stimulated for Interleukin-2 (IL-2) T-cell growth. The first approach models the cell division using only ordinary

Paul, Christopher A.H.


Development of an interleukin 2 receptor targeted gene therapy vehicle  

E-print Network

The effectiveness of most chemotherapeutic regimens is limited by the toxicity of the therapy to normal healthy cells. Therapies to selectively modulate abnormal T cells bearing the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) have been developed to treat...

Wattanakaroon, Wanida



Interleukin2 Activation of Cytotoxic Cells in Postmastectomy Seroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes were isolated from breast seroma fluids and used to study the mechanism of activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and possible role of immunological potentiation following surgery in breast cancer patients. Single or serial samples were obtained from patients who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node dissection. Lymphocytes were activated with rIL-2 (interleukin-2) and their cytotoxic activity was studied

Cicek Gercel-Taylor; John P. Hoffman; Douglas D. Taylor; Keith J. Owens; Burton L. Eisenberg



Elevated CSF levels of interleukin-2 in neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients.  


Levels of CSF fluid interleukin-2, but not interleukin-1 alpha, were found to be higher in 10 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients than in 10 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. Because interleukin-2 increases dopaminergic neurotransmission and participates in autoimmunity and cell growth, the authors postulate that elevated levels of central interleukin-2 might contribute to the increased dopaminergic neurotransmission, autoimmune phenomena, and abnormal brain morphology described in some patients with schizophrenia. PMID:8102512

Licinio, J; Seibyl, J P; Altemus, M; Charney, D S; Krystal, J H



Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.



Detection and quantitation of interleukin-2 from individual cells.  


In this report we present the use of cell blotting for the detection of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-producing lymphocytes. This is a rapid and sensitive immunochemical method analogous to Western blotting of proteins. When combined with image analysis one can determine the percentages of IL-2 positive cells as well as quantitate the amount of IL-2 surrounding each cell. When bovine lymph node cells (bLNC) were stimulated with the combination of concanavalin A (ConA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 24 h, 46.4 +/- 0.6% stained positive for IL-2 and, on average, each cell produced 0.92 +/- 0.6 pg of IL-2 in 24 h. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and TPA-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) produced approximately the same amount. 0.86 +/- 0.4 pg of IL-2 per cell in 24 h; 45.6 +/- 3.6% stained positive for IL-2. PMID:2607145

Viselli, S M; Mastro, A M



Intravenous ascorbic acid as an adjuvant to interleukin-2 immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy has been demonstrated to induce responses in 10-20% of advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients, which translates into durable remissions in up to half of the responsers. Unfortunately the use of IL-2 has been associated with severe toxicity and death. It has been previously observed and reported that IL-2 therapy causes a major drop in circulating levels of ascorbic acid (AA). The IL-2 induced toxicity shares many features with sepsis such as capillary leakage, systemic complement activation, and a relatively non-specific rise in inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, C-reactive protein, and in advanced cases organ failure. Animal models and clinical studies have shown rapid depletion of AA in conditions of sepsis and amelioration associated with administration of AA (JTM 9:1-7, 2011). In contrast to other approaches to dealing with IL-2 toxicity, which may also interfere with therapeutic effects, AA possesses the added advantage of having direct antitumor activity through cytotoxic mechanisms and suppression of angiogenesis. Here we present a scientific rationale to support the assessment of intravenous AA as an adjuvant to decrease IL-2 mediated toxicity and possibly increase treatment efficacy. PMID:24884532



Amino acid sequence and post-translational modification of human interleukin 2.  

PubMed Central

Human interleukin 2 was separated into multiple molecular forms by selective immunoaffinity chromatography and chromatofocusing. For the most part, this heterogeneity was attributed to variations in glycosylation of the threonine residue in position 3 of the polypeptide chain. The various molecular forms of interleukin 2 had nearly identical specific activities in the in vitro proliferation assay, indicating that the glycosylation had no significant effect on this response. The entire primary sequence of interleukin 2, including the location of the intramolecular disulfide bridge, was determined by a combination of peptide mapping and protein sequencing. This information should aid in the determination of the active site(s) of the molecule. PMID:6333684

Robb, R J; Kutny, R M; Panico, M; Morris, H R; Chowdhry, V



Interleukin-2 activation of cytotoxic cells in postmastectomy seroma.  


Lymphocytes were isolated from breast seroma fluids and used to study the mechanism of activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and possible role of immunological potentiation following surgery in breast cancer patients. Single or serial samples were obtained from patients who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node dissection. Lymphocytes were activated with rIL-2 (interleukin-2) and their cytotoxic activity was studied against Daudi and K562 cells and against a breast tumor line (SKBr-3). All of the patients (21/21) responded to IL-2 stimulation by significant activation of cytotoxic activity. The unstimulated cytotoxic activity of these cells against NK targets was low with less than 10% specific release in cytotoxicity assays. In simultaneous experiments, autologous seroma fluid was included during activation of lymphocytes to study possible regulatory molecules that may be present. In 17/21 patients, the presence of their seroma fluid, during the activation period, enhanced or did not effect the cytotoxic potential of their lymphocytes; inhibition was observed when seroma fluids from 4/21 patients were included. Analysis of the cytotoxic population derived from combined IL-2 and seroma treatments indicates the presence of cells with increased expression of CD56, and CD2, as well as in some cases CD16 expression. Cytotoxic lymphocytes derived from IL-2 and seroma treatments appeared to be more effective killers. Modulation of CD2 expression with seroma alone appeared to result in the generation of this highly cytotoxic population. This study demonstrates the role of CD2 expression in the effectiveness of LAK cell killing and also potential benefit of an immunotherapeutic approach to the postoperative treatment of carcinoma of the breast. PMID:8769948

Gercel-Taylor, C; Hoffman, J P; Taylor, D D; Owens, K J; Eisenberg, B L



Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening  

PubMed Central

Adaptive immune function is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Inhibition of T-lymphocyte function has been shown to reduce hypertension, target-organ damage, and vascular stiffness. To study the role of immune inhibitory cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), on vascular stiffness, we stimulated the proliferation of Treg lymphocytes in vivo using a novel cytokine immune complex of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 (mAbCD25). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with IL-2/mAbCD25 concomitantly with continuous infusion of angiotensin type 1 receptor agonist, [Val5]angiotensin II. Our results indicate that the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex effectively induced Treg phenotype expansion by 5-fold in the spleens with minimal effects on total CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers. The IL-2/mAbCD25 complex inhibited angiotensin II-mediated aortic collagen remodeling and the resulting stiffening, analyzed with in vivo pulse wave velocity and effective Young's modulus. Furthermore, the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex suppressed angiotensin II-mediated Th17 responses in the lymphoid organs and reduced gene expression of IL-17 as well as T cell and macrophage infiltrates in the aortic tissue. This study provides data that support the protective roles of Tregs in vascular stiffening and highlights the use of the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex as a new potential therapy in angiotensin II-related vascular diseases. PMID:25258681

Eberson, Lance S.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Larmonier, Nicolas; Larson, Douglas F.



The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta  

SciTech Connect

The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. (Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (USA))



Metformin inhibits the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and enhances the chemosensitivity to sorafenib through a downregulation of the ERK/JNK-mediated NF-?B-dependent pathway that reduces uPA and MMP-9 expression.  


Metformin has been shown to exert anti-cancer activities in several cancer cells and animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anti-metastatic activities remain poorly understood and warrant further investigation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ability of metformin to inhibit the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and identify its effects on signaling pathways. Our data indicate that metformin inhibits the migration and invasion of human HCC cells. Metformin was also found to significantly inhibit the expression and secretion of MMP-9 and uPA in HCC cells, and suppress the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or JNK1/2 inhibitor (SP600125) enhanced the inhibitory effects of metformin on the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Moreover, metformin-induced inhibition of MMP-9 and uPA promoter activity also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-?B and its binding to the MMP-9 and uPA promoters, and these suppressive effects were further enhanced by PD98059 or SP600125. Moreover, metformin markedly enhanced the anti-metastatic effects of sorafenib. In conclusion, metformin inhibits the migration and invasion of HCC cells by suppressing the ERK/JNK-mediated NF-?B-dependent pathway, and thereby reducing uPA and MMP-9 expression. Additionally, combination treatment with metformin and sorafenib yielded synergistic inhibitory effects in suppressing cell migration and invasion of HCC cells. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-metastatic effects of metformin, as well as its ability to enhance the chemosensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib. PMID:25245054

Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Jen-Pi; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tang, Meng-Ju; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien



White blood cell and lymphocyte populations following interleukin-2 administration in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  


The immune system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Recently interleukin-2 has been reported to inhibit the development of hypertension in the SHR, but no measures of different lymphocyte populations were made. To test the effect of interleukin-2 we repeated the protocol in the report by injecting forty two day old, male SHR and WKY rats, and in addition, analyzed lymphocyte subpopulations. Untreated, age matched rats of the same strain were used as a control. At three and four months of age blood was drawn from all animals. Monoclonal antibodies were used to fluorescently label different lymphocyte subpopulations. The populations examined were the total T-cells, T-nonhelper cells, T-helper cells and B-cells. Total numbers of lymphocytes and white blood cells were also examined. Blood pressures were measured in conscious, restrained animals at two and four months of age. The results showed no attenuation of blood pressure in the interleukin-2 treated SHR at either age. The interleukin-2 treated SHR had a decrease in the percentage of B-cells and an increase in the percentage of T-nonhelper cells relative to the control SHR. Both treated and untreated SHR had increased numbers of white blood cells and lymphocytes compared to both groups of WKY. We conclude that the interleukin-2 used was active but failed to have any effect on blood pressure or absolute numbers of white blood cells and lymphocytes in the treated animals. PMID:1424219

Fannon, L D; Phillips, M I



The p75 Peptide is the Receptor for Interleukin 2 Expressed on Large Granular Lymphocytes and is Responsible for the Interleukin 2 Activation of These Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least two interleukin 2 (IL-2) binding peptides: one is the Mr 55,000 peptide (p55) reactive with the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody, and the other is a Mr 75,000 non-Tac IL-2 binding peptide (p75). Independently existing Tac or p75 peptides represent low-affinity IL-2 receptors, whereas high-affinity IL-2 receptors are expressed when both peptides are present and associated in a

Mitsuru Tsudo; Carolyn K. Goldman; Kathleen F. Bongiovanni; Wing C. Chan; Elliott F. Winton; Masato Yagita; Elizabeth A. Grimm; Thomas A. Waldmann



Demonstration of a Non-Tac Peptide that Binds Interleukin 2: A Potential Participant in a Multichain Interleukin 2 Receptor Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor system plays a key role in the T-cell immune response. Although IL-2 binding was reported to be restricted to the Tac peptide, we have identified an IL-2 binding peptide that does not react with anti-human IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies, including anti-Tac on MLA 144, a gibbon ape T-cell line. The MLA 144 cell line expressed

Mitsuru Tsudo; Robert W. Kozak; Carolyn K. Goldman; Thomas A. Waldmann



Activation of Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 2 Receptor (Tac) Promoter Expression by the Trans-Activator (tat) Gene Product of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus, Type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotransfection of cDNA encoding the transactivator gene product of human T-cell leukemia virus, type I (HTLV-I) (tat-I), which acts in trans to augment viral gene expression, has revealed strong regulatory effects of this viral protein on the inducible cellular promoters governing human interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor (Tac) gene expression. The tat-I protein stimulates a 3- to 6-fold increase

M. Siekevitz; M. B. Feinberg; N. Holbrook; F. Wong-Staal; W. C. Greene



Differential Gene Expression in Response to Adjunctive Recombinant Human Interleukin-2 Immunotherapy in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Administration of low-dose recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhuIL-2) in combination with multidrug chemotherapy to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) induces measurable changes in in vitro immune response parameters which are associated with changes in the clinical and bacteriologic status of the patients. To determine the molecular basis of these changes, we have used semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR (RT-PCR) and differential display technology. During rhuIL-2 treatment of MDR TB patients, decreased levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) relative to baseline levels were observed. However, at the site of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD), the expression of cellular IFN-? and IL-2 mRNAs was increased during rhuIL-2 therapy. Levels of other cytokine mRNAs were not significantly affected by rhuIL-2 administration. Using differential-display RT-PCR, we identified several genes expressed at the DTH skin test site which were up- or down-regulated during rhuIL-2 treatment. Cytochrome oxidase type I mRNA was increased in response to rhuIL-2 therapy relative to baseline levels, as was heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein G mRNA. CD63, clathrin heavy chain, and ?-adaptin mRNAs, all of which encode proteins associated with the endocytic vacuolar pathway of cells, were also differentially regulated by rhuIL-2 administration. The differential effects of IL-2 were confirmed in vitro by using PBMC obtained from PPD-positive individuals stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IL-2. The differential expression of genes may provide a surrogate marker for leukocyte activation at a mycobacterial antigen-specific response site and for the development of an enhanced antimicrobial response which may result in improved outcomes in MDR TB patients. PMID:9596698

Johnson, Barbara J.; Estrada, Iris; Shen, Zhu; Ress, Stan; Willcox, Paul; Colston, M. Joseph; Kaplan, Gilla



77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...obtain approval from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the product for field testing. To determine...



Interleukin2 liposomes for primary immune deficiency using the aerosol route  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of aerosol interleukin 2 (IL-2) liposome administration to individuals with immune deficiency. Parenteral IL-2 therapy has shown beneficial effects in some patients with cancer, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but is problematic because of side effects including fever and malaise as well as local swelling (delayed type hypersensitivity like reaction) after

R. M Ten; P. M Anderson; N. N Zein; Z Temesgen; Mary Lou Clawson; W Weiss



Deregulated T Cell Activation and Autoimmunity in Mice Lacking Interleukin 2 Receptor beta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice lacking the interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rbeta), T cells were shown to be spontaneously activated, resulting in exhaustive differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and the appearance of high serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G1 and E as well as autoantibodies that cause hemolytic anemia. Marked infiltrative granulocytopoiesis was also apparent, and the animals died after about 12

Haruhiko Suzuki; Thomas M. Kundig; Caren Furlonger; Andrew Wakeham; Emma Timms; Toshifumi Matsuyama; Rudolf Schmits; John J. L. Simard; Pamela S. Ohashi; Henrik Griesser; Tadatsugu Taniguchi; Christopher J. Paige; Tak W. Mak



Cytotoxic Activity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes, Activated by Interleukin-2/?-Cyclodextrin Nanocomposition against Androgen Receptor-Negative Prostate Cancers.  


Nanocomposition comprised of interleukin-2 in suboptimal noneffective concentration and ?-cyclodextrin was studied in vitro. This preparation as well as interleukin-2 in optimal concentration was shown to increase natural killer activity to K-562 cells and cytotoxicity of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) against PC-3 and DU 145 cells. At the same time ?-cyclodextrin or interleukin-2 in equimolar concentrations did not influence the spontaneous killer activity of PBMC. This combination of cyclodextrin + interleukin-2 led to the decrease of interleukin-2 effective concentration by an order. This phenomenon could be explained by cyclodextrins ability to promote the formation of nanoparticles with drugs, which results in enhancing their water solubility and bioavailability. Besides, interleukine-2/?-cyclodextrin nanocomposition as opposed to interleukin-2 alone led to increasing the number of not only lymphocytes, but also macrophages contained in activated PBMC population. Application of low concentration of interleukin-2 allowing for good clinical efficiency may significantly mitigate the side effects of the drug and enable to develop adoption of immunotherapy for patients with androgen-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22084730

Anisimova, Natalia Yu; Sosnov, Andrey V; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Baronzio, Gianfranco; Kiselevsky, Mikhail V



Soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels in families of people with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several authors have reported increased soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL2R?) concentrations in schizophrenia. The aim of this work was to examine serum sIL2R? in the first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: We sampled 51 first degree relatives of patients with DSM IIIR schizophrenia. These relatives were unaffected by psychosis and included nine fathers, thirteen mothers, seventeen sisters and

Fiona Gaughran; Evonne O'Neill; Pak Sham; Robert J. Daly; Fergus Shanahan



Alteration of dacarbazine pharmacokinetics after interleukin-2 administration in melanoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to improve the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, we evaluated the sequential administration of the chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the biological response modifier interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in a phase I–II study. Since the combination of biological response modifiers and chemotherapeutic agents could alter drug disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of DTIC and its major metabolite, 5-aminoimidazole 4-carboxamide

Guy G. Chabot; Lawrence E. Flaherty; Manuel Valdivieso; Laurence H. Baker




Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 2 (IL-2), 1 also known as T cell growth factor, discovered by Morgan et al. (1), is a lymphokine produced by normal peripheral blood lymphocytes after antigen or mitogen stimulation (2, 3) and is required for the proliferation and function of T cells (2, 3), natural killer cells (4-6), and cytotoxic effector cells in vitro and in vivo (7-9).



Interleukin2—Induced renal dysfunction in cancer patients is reversed by low-dose dopamine infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is widely used in patients with advanced cancer to enhance killer cell functions. However, the main drawback of rIL-2 therapy is the frequent development of oliguric acute renal failure (ARF), presumably due to a vascular leak syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose dopamine infusion on this form of ARF. Nine

Bruno Memoli; Luca De Nicola; Carmelo Libetta; Antonella Scialò; Giulia Pacchiano; Paolo Romano; Giovanna Palmieri; Alessandro Morabito; Rossella Lauria; Giuseppe Conte; Vittorio E. Andreucci



Interleukin2 Receptor gamma Chain: A Functional Component of the Interleukin7 Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain (IL-2Rgamma) is a necessary component of functional IL-2 receptors. IL-2Rgamma mutations result in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) in humans, a disease characterized by the presence of few or no T cells. In contrast, SCID patients with IL-2 deficiency and IL-2-deficient mice have normal numbers of T cells, suggesting that IL-2Rgamma is part of more

Masayuki Noguchi; Yoshiaki Nakamura; Sarah M. Russell; Steven F. Ziegler; Monica Tsang; Xiqing Cao; Warren J. Leonard



Delivery of methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin by interleukin 2-activated NK cells: effect in mice bearing hepatic metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated natural killer cells (A-NK) to carry methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin (MMDX; PNU 152243) to liver-infiltrating tumours was explored in mice bearing 2-day established M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma hepatic metastases. In vitro, MMDX was 5.5-fold more potent than doxorubicin against M5076 tumour cells. MMDX uptake by A-NK cells correlated linearly with drug concentration in the incubation

L Quintieri; A Rosato; N Amboldi; C Vizler; D Ballinari; P Zanovello; D Collavo



Requirement of Nuclear Prolactin for Interleukin2Stimulated Proliferation of T Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolactin (PRL) is necessary for the proliferation of cloned T lymphocytes in response to interleukin-2 (IL-2). Translocation of PRL into the nucleus occurs during IL-2-stimulated mitogenesis. Therefore, the function of intranuclear PRL in T cell proliferation was tested. Eukaryotic expression vectors were prepared to express wild-type PRL [PRL(WT)], PRL that lacks the signal sequence for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum

Charles V. Clevenger; Scott W. Altmann; Michael B. Prystowsky



Interleukin2 production by persons with the generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 heterosexual persons, 43 asymptomatic homosexual men, 34 homosexual men with generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome (GLS), and 21 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Asymptomatic heterosexual and homosexual subjects produced comparable amounts of IL-2, but 8 of 11 AIDS patients with opportunistic infections and two of three

Charles H. Kirkpatrick; Kathleen C. Davis; Charles R. Horsburgh; David L. Cohn; Kent Penley; Franklyn N. Judson



Phase II Trial of Systemic Recombinant Interleukin2 in the Treatment of Refractory Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine produced by activated T cells, which has shown powerful immunostimulatory and antineoplastic properties. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus-associated cancer with abundant lymphocyte infiltration histologically. The activity of IL-2 in the treatment of NPC patients is currently unknown. A phase II study was, therefore, initiated to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity and immunological consequences

Kwan-Hwa Chi; Jeffrey N. Myers; Kuan C. Chow; Wing K. Chan; Yuk-Wah Tsang; Yee Chao; Sang H. Yen; Michael T. Lotze



Molecular signatures induced by interleukin-2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cell subsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Experimentally, interleukin-2 (IL-2) exerts complex immunological functions promoting the proliferation, survival and activation of T cells on one hand and inducing immune regulatory mechanisms on the other. This complexity results from a cross talk among immune cells which sways the effects of IL-2 according to the experimental or clinical condition tested. Recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear

Ping Jin; Ena Wang; Maurizio Provenzano; Sara Deola; Silvia Selleri; Jiaqiang Ren; Sonia Voiculescu; David Stroncek; Monica C Panelli; Francesco M Marincola



Interleukin 2 production in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 2 production was studied in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance. Autoimmune manifestations seemed to be associated with the HLA haplotype containing the C4Q0 allele, which was shared by all four ill family members. Concentrations of interleukin 2, however, did not associate either with the haplotype or with the clinical or serological manifestations, as diminished concentrations of interleukin 2 were found in only two subjects with SLE. Thus the defect in this family seemed to be acquired rather than genetically conditioned. PMID:1888202

Gutierrez, C; Cabrero, E; Vicario, J L; Martin Villa, M; Rengel, M A; Gomez Campdera, F J; Yebra, M; Fernandez-Cruz, E; Arnaiz Villena, A



Partial restoration of impaired interleukin-2 production and Tac antigen (putative interleukin-2 receptor) expression in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome by isoprinosine treatment in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro effects of isoprinosine (ISO) on interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, the expression of Tac antigen (IL-2 receptor) on lymphocytes, and the ability of Leu 3(+) cells to absorb interleukin-1 (IL-1) were investigated in 10 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 9 of the 10 patients, production of IL-2 from mononuclear cells and Leu 3(+) cells was depressed; expression of Tac antigen on mononuclear cells and Leu 2(+) cells was found to be depressed in 9 of 10 patients. The ability of the Leu 3(+) lymphocytes to absorb IL-1 was depressed in all (four of four) patients studied. After ISO treatment, IL-2 production, Tac antigen expression and IL-1 absorption were restored to normal or near normal levels in most of the patients. These results suggest that ISO has an immunostimulating capacity in AIDS patients and that the potential of ISO in immune response restoration in AIDS patients deserves critical consideration. PMID:2581997

Tsang, K Y; Fudenberg, H H; Galbraith, G M; Donnelly, R P; Bishop, L R; Koopmann, W R



Prostaglandin E2 regulates both interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene expression in bovine lymphocytes.  


Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to inhibit interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and to increase granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In many species with hemochorial placentation, down-regulation of IL-2 appears necessary to impede early embryonic demise, whereas up-regulation of GM-CSF increases embryonic growth and survival. It is not known whether the same mechanisms are involved in a species with a less invasive placenta. PGE2 is synthesized during early bovine gestation by the endometrium and by the embryo, and it may therefore be involved in regulating IL-2 and GM-CSF in this species. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of PGE2 on cellular proliferation and on IL-2 and GM-CSF gene expression in bovine PBL. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine was used to study DNA synthesis. Gene expression was estimated by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction using bovine-specific primers and by Northern analysis using amplified bovine cDNAs as probes. The DNA synthesis and IL-2 mRNA levels of bovine PBL stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) were greatly reduced by PGE2 in direct-treatment studies. Under the same conditions, GM-CSF gene expression was also inhibited. However, pretreatment of PBL for 72 h with ConA and PGE2, followed, after washing, by an incubation with ConA alone for 12 h resulted in reduced DNA synthesis, stable expression of IL-2, and a dramatic increase of GM-CSF mRNA levels. This is the first evidence in the bovine model that direct treatment with PGE2 down-regulates IL-2 and GM-CSF mRNA levels and that preconditioning with PGE2 stimulates GM-CSF gene expression. We propose that PGE2, either from embryonic or from endometrial compartments, induces bovine PBL to undergo functional changes, affecting cellular proliferation and cytokine production in order to accommodate the developing conceptus. PMID:9472935

Emond, V; Fortier, M A; Murphy, B D; Lambert, R D



Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy.  


Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) delivered by rNDV. We demonstrated that rNDV expressing TRAIL (rNDV-TRAIL) or both human IL-2 and TRAIL (rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL) significantly enhanced inherent anti-neoplastic of rNDV by inducing apoptosis. And we showed that apoptosis-related genes mRNA expression was increased after treated with rNDV-TRAIL or rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL compared with rNDV and rNDV-IL-2. We also demonstrated that both rNDV-IL-2 and rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL induced proliferation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) in treated mice and elicited expression of TNF-? and IFN-? antitumor cytokines. These mice treated with oncolytic agents exhibited significant reduction in tumor development compared with mice treated with the parental virus. In addition, experiments in both hepatocellular carcinoma and melanoma-bearing mice demonstrated that the genetically engineered rNDV-IL-2-TRAIL exhibited prolonged animals' survival compared with rNDV, rNDV-IL-2, and rNDV-TRAIL. In conclusion, the immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy properties of NDV can be enhanced by the introduction of IL-2 and TRAIL genes, whose products initiated a broad cascade of immunological affects and induced tumor cells apoptosis in the microenvironment of the immune system. PMID:24971746

Bai, Fu-Liang; Yu, Yin-Hang; Tian, Hui; Ren, Gui-Ping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Bing; Han, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Qing-Zhong; Li, De-Shan



[Lymphocyte subpopulations and the soluble interleukin-2 receptor in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis].  


There are no univocal experimental data in literature about T cell clone alterations in the peripheral blood during Hashimoto's thyroiditis (TH), autoimmune disease, and during subacute thyroiditis (TSA), an inflammatory thyroid lesion with possibility of "self-perpetuation". The object of our research was to examine the T cell clones, soluble fraction of interleukin 2 receptor and HLA-DR modifications in patients with TH and TSA compared with healthy population. Our results show significant increase of sIL-2r in the TSA compared with normal subjects and with patients TH, where on the contrary, a constant increase of HLA-DR was observed. PMID:2147885

Aiello, A; Cristofaro, M; Carrozza, F; Verdone, F; Carile, L



Effects of interferons and interleukin 2 on natural killing of cytomegalovirus-infected fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

The ability of nonadherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells of normal individuals to lyse noninfected and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected human fibroblasts was enhanced by preincubation with recombinant human alpha interferon (alpha-rIFN) or beta (beta-rIFN). In contrast, recombinant human gamma IFN (gamma-rIFN) augmented natural killing (NK) against both targets relatively poorly. Recombinant or natural human interleukin 2(IL-2) also augmented NK against noninfected and CMV-infected targets. Augmentation of NK by IFN or IL-2 could be blocked by the addition of corresponding antisera. IL-2-enhanced NK against CMV-infected targets was usually independent of alpha-IFN production. PMID:2440628

Bandyopadhyay, S; Miller, D S; Matsumoto-Kobayashi, M; Clark, S C; Starr, S E



Ability of isoprinosine to restore interleukin-2 production and T cell proliferation in autoimmune mice.  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune mice bearing the single autosomal recessive gene 1pr are unable to produce the T cell growth factor, interleukin-2 (IL-2). A physiological consequence of this defect is the inability of T cells from C57B1/6J-lpr/lpr mice to respond to antigen presented by macrophages. In an attempt to reverse these abnormalities, we administered the inosine containing drug isoprinosine. Injection of isoprinosine after antigen immunization restored both antigen presentation and IL-2 production. PMID:2412742

Fischbach, M; Talal, N



Transduction of Interleukin2 Antiapoptotic and Proliferative Signals via Akt Protein Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R) is composed of three subunits. Of these, IL-2Ralpha is required for high-affinity IL-2 binding, while IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma c are required for the transduction of IL-2-generated signals. Signals transduced via the S region of the IL-2Rbeta (amino acids 267-322) in BAF\\/3 cells activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and induce the expression of Bcl-2 and c-myc.

Naheed N. Ahmed; H. Leighton Grimes; Alfonso Bellacosa; Tung O. Chan; Philip N. Tsichlis



Identification of three critical regions within mouse interleukin 2 by fine structural deletion analysis.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed structure--function relationships of the protein hormone murine interleukin 2 by fine structural deletion mapping. A total of 130 deletion mutant proteins, together with some substitution and insertion mutant proteins, was expressed in Escherichia coli and analyzed for their ability to sustain the proliferation of a cloned murine T cell line. This analysis has permitted a functional map of the protein to be drawn and classifies five segments of the protein, which together contain 48% of the sequence, as unessential to the biological activity of the protein. A further 26% of the protein is classified as important, but not crucial, for the activity. Three regions, consisting of amino acids 32-35, 66-77 and 119-141 contain the remaining 26% of the protein and are critical to the biological activity of the protein. The functional map is discussed in the context of the possible role of the identified critical regions in the structure of the hormone and its binding to the interleukin 2 receptor complex. Images PMID:3261239

Zurawski, S M; Zurawski, G



L-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway.  


In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao



Interleukin-2-Inducible T-Cell Kinase (ITK) Deficiency - Clinical and Molecular Aspects.  


In patients with underlying immunodeficiency, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may lead to severe immune dysregulation manifesting as fatal mononucleosis, lymphoma, lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and dysgammaglobulinemia. Several newly discovered primary immunodeficiencies (STK4, CD27, MAGT1, CORO1A) have been described in recent years; our group and collaborators were able to reveal the pathogenicity of mutations in the Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell Kinase (ITK) in a cohort of nine patients with most patients presenting with massive EBV B-cell lymphoproliferation. This review summarizes the clinical and immunological findings in these patients. Moreover, we describe the functional consequences of the mutations and draw comparisons with the extensively investigated function of ITK in vitro and in the murine model. PMID:25339095

Ghosh, Sujal; Bienemann, Kirsten; Boztug, Kaan; Borkhardt, Arndt



Rapidly Progressed Primary Intestinal Follicular Lymphoma with Elevation of Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor Levels  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old Japanese male was diagnosed with primary intestinal follicular lymphoma involving the duodenum, jejunum, and rectum without lymph node involvement. The patient was classified as low risk by the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) system. Treatment was deferred because he had no symptoms. Eleven months after the diagnosis, his soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels had risen from 383 to 617?U/mL. Lymphoma progression involving an enlarged perigastric lymph node was also documented. This report illustrates a case of rapidly progressed intestinal follicular lymphoma, suggesting the possible usefulness of sIL-2R levels as an indicator of lymphoma progression. PMID:24876980

Iwamuro, Masaya; Takenaka, Ryuta; Mori, Atsushi; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Miyake, Takayoshi; Asakura, Shoji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide



Expression of cytokine mRNA in canine anal furunculosis lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of expression of cytokine MRNA in the lesions of anal furunculosis was evaluated in tissue biopsies from 15 dogs, and compared with the pattern in control skin samples from 24 dogs, by reversetranscriptase PCR using canine cytokine-specific primers and a semi-quantitative multiplex PCR assay. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was detected in 1 1 of the 15 affected dogs but in

A. House; S. P. Gregory; B. Catchpole



Lysis of Neuroblastoma Cell Lines by Human Natural Killer Cells Activated by Interleukin2 and Interleukinl2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial, solid tu- mor in children. Despite intensive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, the 5-year projected survival rate is 20% to 25%. In vitro studies have shown enhanced nat- ural killer cell (NK) lysis of tumor cells after exposure of NK cells to interleukin-2 (IL-2). In vivo studies have demon- strated similar immunologic effects but

Anne R. Rossi; Federica Pericle; Stephen Rashleigh; Jerry Janiec; Julie Y. Djeu



Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels, Temperament and Character in Formerly Depressed Suicide Attempters Compared with Normal Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An imbalance of the immune system and mixed personality profiles in suicide attempters have been reported. As suicidal behavior is common in patients with psychiatric disorders within the spectrum of depressive features, in this study we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and…

Rothenhausler, Hans-Bernd; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter



Longitudinal study on the production of and cellular response to interleukin-2 in patients with systemic lupus erythematocus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been proven to be a defective element in immune regulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, its course in time is unknown. We studied its production and cellular response in the peripheral blood cells of 30 SLE patients and 12 healthy subjects. In addition, we studied the spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced production of IL-1, which have

J. Alcocer-Varela; D. Alarcón-Segovia



Inhibition of Interleukin-2 Gene Expression by Human Herpesvirus 6B U54 Tegument Protein.  


Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a ubiquitous pathogen causing lifelong infections in approximately 95% of humans worldwide. To persist within its host, HHV-6B has developed several immune evasion mechanisms, such as latency, during which minimal proteins are expressed, and the ability to disturb innate and adaptive immune responses. The primary cellular targets of HHV-6B are CD4(+) T cells. Previous studies by Flamand et al. (L. Flamand, J. Gosselin, I. Stefanescu, D. Ablashi, and J. Menezes, Blood 85:1263-1271, 1995) reported on the capacity of HHV-6A as well as UV-irradiated HHV-6A to inhibit interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in CD4(+) lymphocytes, suggesting that viral structural components could be responsible for this effect. In the present study, we identified the HHV-6B U54 tegument protein (U54) as being capable of inhibiting IL-2 expression. U54 binds the calcineurin (CaN) phosphatase enzyme, causing improper dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) proteins, resulting in suboptimal IL-2 gene transcription. The U54 GISIT motif (amino acids 293 to 297), analogous to the NFAT PXIXIT motif, contributed to the inhibition of NFAT activation. IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are associated with an increasing number of pathologies. These viruses have developed strategies to avoid the immune response allowing them to persist in the host. Several studies have illustrated mechanisms by which HHV-6A and HHV-6B are able to disrupt host defenses (reviewed in L. Dagna, J. C. Pritchett, and P. Lusso, Future Virol. 8:273-287, 2013, doi:10.2217/fvl.13.7). Previous work informed us that HHV-6A is able to suppress synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a key immune growth factor essential for adequate T lymphocyte proliferation and expansion. We obtained evidence that HHV-6B also inhibits IL-2 gene expression and identified the mechanisms by which it does so. Our work led us to the identification of U54, a virion-associated tegument protein, as being responsible for suppression of IL-2. Consequently, we have identified HHV-6B U54 protein as playing a role in immune evasion. These results further contribute to our understanding of HHV-6 interactions with its human host and the efforts deployed to ensure its long-term persistence. PMID:25122797

Iampietro, Mathieu; Morissette, Guillaume; Gravel, Annie; Flamand, Louis



The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the ? and ? subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the ? subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2R? subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ? Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ? Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ? Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ? The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

Cervia, Davide, E-mail: [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy) [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy)] [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy)] [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)] [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy)] [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)] [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)



Evaluation of interleukin-2 treatment for prevention of intramammary infections in cows after calving.  


A low-dose treatment based on interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated for preventing mastitis in dairy cows. The treatment consisted of a single dose of IL-2 injected into the skin region drained by the supramammary lymph node 3-5 days after calving. The study included 45 cows (23 treated and 22 controls) from three commercial dairy herds. The results showed that the treatment had no side effects. The treatment with IL-2 induced the significant increase of several milk markers related to leukocyte and epithelial cell functions, i.e. SCC (somatic cell counts), serum amyloid A (SAA), lactoferrin and NAGase. The increased concentration of milk markers suggested also an activity of IL-2 on epithelial cells, resulting in a higher resistance to invading pathogens. Indeed, the increased efficiency of cells in the udder is supported by the higher frequency of healthy quarters observed in the treated group until day 17-19 after calving, in comparison with the control one. PMID:18571236

Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata; Fiorina, Silvia; Cabrini, Luca; Daprà, Valentina; Amadori, Massimo



Growth of AKR T cell leukemia lymphoblasts in medium containing interleukin 2 (IL-2).  


Long-term cloned mouse leukemic T cell lines were established in vitro using interleukin-2 (IL-2) conditioned media. The cell lines were tested for retention of both antigenic expression and tumorigenicity, as well as for growth characteristics. Several important findings resulted from these studies. A reliable method was developed for consistent success in the culturing and cloning of leukemic T cell lines. Cultured cells from IL-2-dependent lines were found to retain their original histocompatibility and differentiation antigen characteristics for up to 2 yr. Mortality patterns, comparing long-term cloned leukemic T cell lines with fresh AKR leukemia cells, showed that the cloned cells had greater tumorigenicity. An especially interesting finding was that cell lines established both from different mice and from a single organ of an individual mouse were heterogeneous with respect to antigenic makeup, cell growth kinetics, and tumorigenicity. Finally, because of their dependence on IL-2, the cloned tumor cell lines provided excellent index cells to quantify IL-2 activity. PMID:6605296

Shih, C Y; Truitt, R L; Andreani, M; Bortin, M M



Cytomegalovirus immediate early genes prevent the inhibitory effect of cyclosporin A on interleukin 2 gene transcription.  

PubMed Central

The use of cyclosporin A (CsA) as an immunosuppressive agent has markedly improved the clinical outcome in solid organ transplantation. However, posttransplantation infection remains a significant problem and may contribute to subsequent organ rejection. In this study the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early (IE) gene products on interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene transcription in the absence and presence of CsA was investigated using a transient transfection system. Jurkat T cells were transfected with plasmids expressing the CMV IE gene products or with a control plasmid. The presence of the CMV IE2 gene product abolished the inhibitory effect of CsA on IL-2 promoter activation and gene transcription. This effect was noted regardless of the time of CsA addition relative to the time of stimulation and was independent of CsA concentration. CsA had no effect on the CMV or the IL-2 receptor promoters. These studies suggest that the CMV IE gene products may play a role in graft rejection after solid organ transplantation. Images PMID:1331182

Geist, L J; Monick, M M; Stinski, M F; Hunninghake, G W



Ectodomain Shedding of Interleukin-2 Receptor ? and Generation of an Intracellular Functional Fragment*  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) regulates different functions of various lymphoid cell subsets. These are mediated by its binding to the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) composed of three subunits (IL2-R?, -?, and -?c). IL-2R? is responsible for the activation of several signaling pathways. Ectodomain shedding of membrane receptors is thought to be an important mechanism for down-regulation of cell surface receptor abundance but is also emerging as a mechanism that cell membrane-associated molecules require for proper action in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that IL-2R? is cleaved in cell lines of different origin, including T cells, generating an intracellular 37-kDa fragment (37?ic) that comprises the full intracellular C-terminal and transmembrane domains. Ectodomain shedding of IL-2R? decreases in a mutant deleted of the juxtamembrane region, where cleavage is predicted to occur, and is inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3. 37?ic is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associates with STAT-5, a canonic signal transducer of IL-2R. Finally, lymphoid cell transfection with a truncated form of IL-2R? mimicking 37?ic increases their proliferation. These data indicate that IL-2R? is subject to ectodomain shedding generating an intracellular fragment biologically functional, because (i) it is phosphorylated, (ii) it associates with STAT5A, and (iii) it increases cell proliferation. PMID:20495002

de Oca B., Pavel Montes; Malarde, Valerie; Proust, Richard; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Gesbert, Franck



Requirement of nuclear prolactin for interleukin-2--stimulated proliferation of T lymphocytes.  


Prolactin (PRL) is necessary for the proliferation of cloned T lymphocytes in response to interleukin-2 (IL-2). Translocation of PRL into the nucleus occurs during IL-2--stimulated mitogenesis. Therefore, the function of intranuclear PRL in T cell proliferation was tested. Eukaryotic expression vectors were prepared to express wild-type PRL [PRL(WT)], PRL that lacks the signal sequence for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum [PRL(ER-)], and chimeric PRL in which the signal peptide was replaced with the sequence that directs the nuclear translocation of the SV40 large T antigen [PRL(NT+)]. Expression of these constructs in a T cell line (Nb2) responsive to PRL and IL-2 resulted in localization of PRL in the extracellular milieu, cytoplasm, or nucleus, respectively. Stimulation with IL-2 alone resulted in a five- to tenfold increase in the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by cells expressing PRL(NT+) or PRL(WT) as compared to PRL(ER-) or the parental Nb2 cells. Only the PRL(NT+) clone proliferated continuously with IL-2 stimulation in the presence of antiserum to PRL. These results demonstrate that nuclear PRL is necessary for IL-2--stimulated proliferation and suggest that a peptide hormone can function in the nucleus without binding to its cell surface receptor. PMID:2063207

Clevenger, C V; Altmann, S W; Prystowsky, M B



Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation.

Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.



Decreased in vitro production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in whole blood of patients with schizophrenia during treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pattern of aberrations in the T-cell cytokine system that is typical for autoimmune disorders has also been reported in patients with schizophrenia, namely a decreased interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and increased levels of the soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). It has also been reported that the production of interferon-? (IFN-?) may be lowered. In a longitudinal design, we studied the production

V Arolt; M Rothermundt; K-P Wandinger; H Kirchner



Interleukin2-activated killer cell activity in colorectal tumor patients: evaluation of in vitro effects by prothymosin ? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of prothymosin a1 (Pro a1) in combination with interleukin-2 (IL-2) on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 50 colorectal tumor patients at different stages were studied with respect to immunocytotoxicity, adhesion to cultured SW620 colon carcinoma cells, secretion of cytokines and expression of adhesion and surface marker molecules. On average, the patients showed lower natural killer (NK) cell activity than

K. Eckert; E. Griinberg; P. Immenschuh; F. Garbin; E. D. Kreuser; H. R. Maurer



A Pilot Study on the Use of the Humanized Anti–Interleukin2 Receptor Antibody Daclizumab in Active Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Medical therapy of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with long-term side effects of cyclosporine and steroids. Because cyclosporine acts by inhibiting interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, we studied the efficacy and safety of humanized anti-IL2 receptor (CD25) antibodies daclizumab for refractory UC in an open label pilot study.METHODS:Ten patients with chronically active UC received daclizumab, 1 mg\\/kg i.v. twice with a

Gert Van Assche; Ignace Dalle; Maja Noman; Isolde Aerden; Caroline Swijsen; Katrien Asnong; Bart Maes; Jan Ceuppens; Karel Geboes; Paul Rutgeerts



Kappa B--Specific DNA Binding Proteins: Role in the Regulation of Human Interleukin2 Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional activation of the human interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene, like induction of the IL-2 receptor alpha (IL-2Ralpha ) gene and the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), is shown to be modulated by a kappa B-like enhancer element. Mutation of a kappa B core sequence identified in the IL-2 promoter (-206 to -195) partially inhibits both mitogen- and HTLV-I Tax-mediated activation

Beatrice Hoyos; Dean W. Ballard; Ernst Bohnlein; Miriam Siekevitz; Warner C. Greene



Maternal serum levels of interferon-  and interleukin-2 soluble receptor-  predict the outcome of early IVF pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated maternal serum levels of interleukin-2 soluble receptor-a (IL-2 sRa), tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interferon-g (IFN-g) have been associated with pregnancy loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of these cytokines in the outcome of early IVF pregnancies. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine consecutive IVF patients who were subsequently diagnosed to have a

S. J. Fasouliotis; S. D. Spandorfer; S. S. Witkin; G. Schattman; H. C. Liu; J. E. Roberts; Z. Rosenwaks



Comparative analysis of the expression of c-Fos and interleukin-2 proteins in hypothalamus cells during various treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to perform a combined analysis of the degree of activation of the anterior hypothalamus of\\u000a the rat and expression of the interleukin-2 gene during treatments of different types: mild stress (“handling”) and adaption\\u000a to it, as well as intranasal administration of physiological saline and the peptides Vilon (Lys-Glu) and Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly).\\u000a Changes in

S. V. Barabanova; Z. E. Artyukhina; K. T. Ovchinnikova; T. V. Abramova; T. B. Kazakova; V. Kh. Khavinson; V. V. Malinin; E. A. Korneva



Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural killer cells and their efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy against murine fibrosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer (NK) cells are spontaneously cytotoxic against tumour target cells. Their number was found to be four times\\u000a more in the spleen of tumour-bearing Swiss albino mice. After activation with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), NK cells\\u000a were tested and found to seek out the tumour site when injected intravenously in tumour-bearing mice. Their potential for\\u000a fighting tumours in vivo was

Anuradha Rai; Ashim K. Chakravarty



Inhibition of interleukin-2-induced T-cell proliferation by sera from patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from 22 patients with either lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome were examined for their effect on the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced proliferative response of an IL-2-dependent cytotoxic T-cell line, CTL-20. All of the patient sera included in this study were positive for the presence of antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus

Raymond P. Donnelly; K. Y. Tsang; G. M. P. Galbraith; J. I. Wallace



Leukocyte orchestration in blood and tumour tissue following interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of evaluating leukocyte orchestration in situ, serial blood samples and tumour tissue core needle biopsies were obtained at baseline and repeated after 1 month of therapy, among 49 consecutive single-institution patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients were treated with outpatient low-dose subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon a (IFN-a) alone ( n=23) or in combination with

Frede Donskov; Karen Marie Bennedsgaard; Marianne Hokland; Niels Marcussen; Rune Fisker; Hans Henrik Torp Madsen; Kirsten Fode; Hans von der Maase



Taenia taeniaeformis: inhibition of mitogen induced proliferation and interleukin-2 production in rat splenocytes by larval in vitro product.  


Splenocytes from rats infected with Taenia taeniaeformis showed an early decreased proliferative response to the mitogen concanavalin A with larval growth. When larvae culture supernatant (in vitro product) was added to normal rat splenocytes, there was a decrease in the proliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. The ability of infected rat splenocytes to produce interleukin-2 was decreased with larval growth. Addition of in vitro product to culture medium significantly depressed interleukin-2 production by normal as well as infected rat spleen cells. Culturing normal rat splenocytes with in vitro product for 3 days induced a suppressor cell population. When these cultured cells were admixed with fresh normal rat splenocytes plus concanavalin A, the proliferative response of the fresh cells was significantly reduced. The present results suggest that in vitro product secreted by larvae in hepatic cysts causes subversion of the cellular immune response in the host. Induction of a suppressor cell population could suppress interleukin-2 production which may lead to the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. PMID:2943603

Burger, C J; Rikihisa, Y; Lin, Y C



Treatment of disseminated ocular melanoma with sequential fotemustine, interferon ?, and interleukin 2  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanoma of the uvea is remarkable for purely haematogenous dissemination and its tendency to metastasise to the liver. Although the liver is involved in up to 95% of patients, 50% of these also develop extrahepatic metastases, most often in the lungs, bone, skin, and brain. The only effective treatments reported to date relied on hepatic arterial chemoembolisation or -perfusion. The objective of this study was to establish a therapy protocol addressing patients with both sole liver involvement and systemic disease. Forty-eight patients with metastatic ocular melanoma received fotemustine 100?mg?m?2 either as 60-min infusion into the hepatic artery or as 15-min infusion via a peripheral vein, depending on the metastatic sites involved, i.e., restriction to the liver or hepatic together with extrahepatic disease. For the first treatment cycle this infusion was repeated after one week. For all cycles, subsequent to a three week resting period, patients received an immunotherapy consisting of subcutaneous interleukin 2 and interferon ?2. Although objective responses were more frequent within the cohort receiving intraarterial fotemustine (21.7 vs 8%), this difference did not translate into a significant benefit in overall survival, i.e., 369 and 349 days, respectively. Of note, this overall survival is much longer than that repeatedly reported for stage IV uveal melanoma not treated with fotemustine, suggesting a therapeutic activity of this cytostatic drug even after systemic administration. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 840–845. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600521 © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12373596

Becker, J C; Terheyden, P; Kampgen, E; Wagner, S; Neumann, C; Schadendorf, D; Steinmann, A; Wittenberg, G; Lieb, W; Brocker, E-B



Mechanism whereby ouabain inhibits human T lymphocyte activation: effect on the interleukin 2 pathway.  


Through the blockade of the Na-K-ATPase, ouabain inhibits several biochemical and biological events leading to the proliferation of activated lymphocytes. Since we already found that interleukin 1 production was not prevented by ouabain, we investigated by which mechanism this drug inhibits mitogen-induced human T lymphocyte activation, with respect to the interleukin 2 (IL 2) pathway. Our data revealed that at concentrations lower than 0.2 microM, IL 2 accumulation was not reduced in ouabain-treated cultures, even when cell proliferation was completely inhibited (0.1-0.2 microM ouabain). Moreover, in this concentration range, ouabain stimulated in a dose-dependent manner the accumulation of IL 2 in the supernatant of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes (optimum for 0.05 microM corresponding to half inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation). Such an effect, which appears correlated to the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase, suggests a failure of the cell to utilize IL 2. At concentrations higher than 0.3 microM, ouabain inhibited both lymphocyte proliferation and IL 2 production. These observations show that the glycosteroid interacts differently with the different cell populations involved in the cascade of reactions leading to cell proliferation, and suggest that the mitogenic inhibition resulting from the blockade of Na-K-ATPase is not related to the blockade of IL 2 production. On the other hand, we observed that: ouabain inhibited the expression of the receptors for IL 2, an obligatory step in lymphocyte proliferation; ouabain blocked the proliferation of an IL 2 sensitive human T cell line; in both cases the inhibition paralleled that of lymphocyte proliferation. Our data suggest that the essential steps of lymphocyte proliferation in which Na-K-ATPase-dependent K+ fluxes play a critical role are the expression of IL 2 receptors and the IL 2-dependent proliferative step. PMID:3091487

Dornand, J; Favero, J; Bonnafous, J C; Mani, J C



Prophylactic administration of interleukin-2 protects mice from lethal challenge with gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Prophylactic administration of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) in mice enhanced survival and produced complete recovery from an otherwise lethal acute bacterial infection. IL-2 was administered as a single intraperitoneal or intravenous bolus dose to CDI mice 18 h before challenge with a lethal dose of a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli type O2 (minimal 100% lethal dose, 6 X 10(7) CFU per mouse). At IL-2 dosages of 7 X 10(6) U/kg, 90% of treated CDI mice survived as compared to 0% for the excipient buffer control animals (P less than 0.001). This protective effect was also demonstrable in immune-deficient beige mice. The IL-2 effect was dose dependent; protection was consistently observed in mice pretreated with IL-2 at doses ranging from 1.8 X 10(6) to 7 X 10(6) U/kg. However, at 3.5 X 10(5) U/kg the protective effect was more variable. The route of administration of IL-2 was shown to play an important role; when IL-2 and challenge bacteria were given by the same route (either intravenously or intraperitoneally), protection was readily observable, but when IL-2 and challenge bacteria were given by different routes, little or no protective effect was observed. The protective effect was fully inducible as early as 1 h after IL-2 administration and was effective against various strains of gram-negative bacteria, indicating that the probable mode of action represents control of the establishment of infection by increased activity of the nonspecific host defense mechanisms. The IL-2 effect was abrogated by the administration of carrageenan, suggesting a possible role of macrophages. These data demonstrate that IL-2 may be a potentially useful adjunct for the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in both clinical and veterinary medicine. PMID:3546134

Chong, K T



Cyclotides Suppress Human T-Lymphocyte Proliferation by an Interleukin 2-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a diverse and abundant group of ribosomally synthesized plant peptides containing a unique cyclic cystine-knotted topology that confers them with remarkable stability. Kalata B1, a representative member of this family of mini-proteins, has been found to inhibit the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of T-cell proliferation upon treatment with chemically synthesized kalata B1 mutants revealed a region comprising inter-cysteine loops 1 and 2 of the cyclotide framework to be important for biological activity. Cytokine signaling analysis using an ‘active’ kalata B1 mutant [T20K], and the reference drug cyclosporin A (CsA) demonstrated that treatment of activated T-lymphocytes with these compounds decreased the expression of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) surface receptor as well as IL-2 cytokine secretion and IL-2 gene expression, whereas the ‘inactive’ kalata B1 mutant [V10K] did not cause any effects. The anti-proliferative activity of [T20K] kalata B1 was antagonized by addition of exogenous IL-2. Furthermore, treatment with [T20K] kalata B1 led to an initial reduction of the effector function, as indicated by the reduced IFN-? and TNF-? production, but the levels of both cytokines stabilized over time and returned to their normal levels. On the other hand, the degranulation activity remained reduced. This indicated that cyclotides interfere with T-cell polyfunctionality and arrest the proliferation of immune-competent cells through inhibiting IL-2 biology at more than one site. The results open new avenues to utilize native and synthetically-optimized cyclotides for applications in immune-related disorders and as immunosuppressant peptides. PMID:23840803

Grundemann, Carsten; Thell, Kathrin; Lengen, Karin; Garcia-Kaufer, Manuel; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huber, Roman; Craik, David J.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W.



Induction with interleukin-2 antagonist for transplantation of kidneys from older deceased donors: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The most important limiting factor in kidney transplantation is the scarcity of donor organs. Consequently, there is an increased use worldwide of kidneys from older deceased donors. High donor age is a known risk factor for acute cellular rejection and premature graft failure, and the optimal immunosuppressive regimen in these circumstances remains to be established. Methods We investigated whether induction treatment with an interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor antagonist improves graft survival and reduces rejection episodes in recipients of kidneys from deceased donors aged ? 60 years. Data were retrieved for all recipients transplanted at our center from 2004 to 2009 with a kidney from a deceased donor aged > 60 years. The outcome was compared between recipients treated with (IL-2 plus) or without (IL-2 minus) an IL-2 receptor antagonist. All recipients received a calcineurin inhibitor, steroids and mycophenolate. Results A total of 232 first-transplant recipients were included (IL-2 plus = 149, IL-2 minus = 83). IL-2 minus was associated with increased risk of early acute rejection (OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 4.68, P = 0.009) and steroid-resistant rejection (OR 8.04; 2.77 to 23.25, P< 0.001). IL-2 plus patients had superior two-year estimated uncensored (87% versus 70%, P = 0.001) and death-censored (95% versus 79%, P< 0.001) graft survival. Conclusions Induction treatment with IL-2 receptor antagonist was associated with a reduction in acute rejection episodes and improved two-year graft survival in patients transplanted with kidneys from older deceased donors. PMID:23799993



Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting functional interleukin-2 enhances gamma interferon production by splenocytes.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis BCG was genetically engineered to express and secrete mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2) and rat IL-2. Genes encoding IL-2 were inserted into an Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle plasmid under the control of the BCG HSP60 promoter. To facilitate study of proteins produced in this system, the IL-2 gene product was expressed (i) alone, (ii) with the mycobacterial alpha-antigen secretion signal sequence at the amino terminus, (iii) with an influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope tag at the amino terminus, and (iv) with both the secretion signal sequence and the epitope tag. When expressed with the alpha-antigen signal sequence, biologically active IL-2 was secreted into the extracellular medium. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the intracellular IL-2 and extracellular IL-2 revealed that the secretion signal was appropriately cleaved from the recombinant lymphokine upon secretion. To assess the ability of recombinant BCG to stimulate cytokine production in a splenocyte population, mouse splenocytes were cultured together with wild-type or IL-2-producing BCG. IL-2-secreting BCG clones stimulated substantial increases in gamma interferon production, which could be reproduced by the addition of exogenous IL-2 to BCG. Levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not significantly changed, while IL-4 and IL-5 remained undetectable (less than 50 pg/ml). The enhanced production of gamma interferon in response to IL-2-secreting BCG was strain independent. Recombinant BCG expressing mammalian cytokines provides a novel means to deliver cytokines and may augment the immunostimulatory properties of BCG in immunization and cancer therapy. Images PMID:8188376

O'Donnell, M A; Aldovini, A; Duda, R B; Yang, H; Szilvasi, A; Young, R A; DeWolf, W C



Modulation of cellular immune responses in mice with disseminated histoplasmosis by recombinant interleukin-2.  

PubMed Central

Depression of the cellular immune responses in mice with disseminated histoplasmosis is associated with deficient production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by splenocytes. Therefore, we examined whether a highly purified preparation of IL-2, recombinant human IL-2 (rIL-2), could modify the cellular immune responses in infected mice and whether this lymphokine could alter the severity of histoplasmosis in animals. Exogenous rIL-2, at concentrations of up to 1,000 U/ml, failed to augment the proliferative responses to concanavalin A by unfractionated splenocytes or splenic T cells from mice infected for 1 week. In addition, rIL-2 did not modulate the plaque-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes by splenocytes from these same mice. However, at week 3, rIL-2 in concentrations ranging from 10 to 1,000 U/ml considerably augmented the proliferative response to concanavalin A and plaque-forming cell response to sheep erythrocytes by splenocytes from infected mice. Kinetics studies demonstrated that rIL-2 exerted maximal immunoregulatory activity when added on day 0 or 1 to cultures of splenocytes. In vivo administration of rIL-2, 200 to 20,000 U/day, for 10 days to normal and 3-week-infected mice did not alter the proliferative activity of splenocytes to concanavalin A; 200,000 U of rIL-2 per day actually depressed the proliferative responses of splenocytes from normal and infected mice. In vivo, rIL-2 did not modify delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to sheep erythrocytes or to histoplasmin by normal and infected mice. Moreover, treatment with rIL-2 in vivo did not reduce the number of Histoplasma CFU in spleens of mice. Thus, despite the immunoenhancing effect of rIL-2 in vitro, this lymphokine failed to exert similar effects in vivo. PMID:3487507

Deepe, G S; Taylor, C L; Harris, J E; Bullock, W E



Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Therapy: A Driver of an Imbalance between Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) is a characteristic of autoimmune diseases, and is dependent on homeostatic cytokines, including IL-2. Actually, inherent defects in the IL-2 signaling pathway and/or levels leading to Treg compromised function and numbers as well as Th17 expansion have been attributed to autoimmune disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In particular, we highlight the impact of the dysregulated IL-2 pathway on disruption of the Treg/Th17 balance, reversal of which appears to be a possible mechanism of the low-dose IL-2 treatment. The negative effects of IL-2 on the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and pathogenic Th17 cells, both of which contribute to autoimmunity, is emphasized in the paper as well. We also compare the current IL-2-based therapies of animal and human subjects with immune-mediated diseases aimed at boosting the Treg population, which is the most IL-2-dependent cell subset desirable for sufficient control of autoimmunity. New perspectives of therapeutic approaches focused on selective delivery of IL-2 to inflamed tissues, thus allowing local activity of IL-2 to be combined with its reduced systemic and pleiotropic toxicity, are also proposed in this paper. PMID:25322151

Kosmaczewska, Agata



The activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the complement system during immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2.  

PubMed Central

The toxicity due to interleukin-2 (IL-2) strongly resembles the clinical picture seen during septic shock. In septic shock activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the complement system contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of the condition. We therefore investigated whether similar events contributed to the toxicity observed with IL-2. Four patients received seven cycles of escalating dose IL-2 (18.0 to 72.0 X 10(6) IU m-2 day-1) and 16 were treated with 20 cycles of fixed dose IL-2 (12.0 or 18.0 X 10(6) IU m-2 day-1). Toxicity, as judged by hypotension (P = less than 0.005) and capillary leakage (fall in serum albumin 18.2 vs 4.0 gm l-1; P = less than 0.0005 and weight gain 4.0 vs 1.2 kg; P = less than 0.025) were worse with the esc. dose protocol. PMN became activated following IL-2 with mean peak elastase/alpha 1-antitrypsin (E alpha 1 A) and lactoferrin values of 212 (SEM = 37) and 534 (SEM = 92) ng ml-1 respectively occurring 6 h after the IL-2. Peak values for the esc. dose IL-2 group being generally higher than 500 ng ml-1. Activation of the complement cascade was evidenced by a dose dependent elevation of peak C3a values (fixed dose 9.1 (SEM = 0.6); esc. dose 25.7 (SEM = 6.33); P = less than 0.005) on day 5 of IL-2. There was a significant correlation between C3a levels and the degree of hypotention during the first 24 h after IL-2 (r = 0.91) and parameters of capillary leakage such as weight gain and fall in serum albumin (r = 0.71). These data suggest that activation of PMN initiates endothelial cell damage which subsequently leads to activation of the complement cascade. This latter system then contributes to the haemodynamic changes and capillary leakage seen in IL-2 treated patients. PMID:1733448

Baars, J. W.; Hack, C. E.; Wagstaff, J.; Eerenberg-Belmer, A. J.; Wolbink, G. J.; Thijs, L. G.; Strack van Schijndel, R. J.; van der Vall, H. L.; Pinedo, H. M.



Immunomodulatory effects of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in patients with malignancy.  


A phase I trial of simultaneously administered recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and recombinant human IL-4 (rHuIL-4) was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and the clinical and immunologic effects of this cytokine combination. Thirty-nine eligible patients with refractory malignancy were treated at eight different dose levels (1A to 3B): 1-3 of rIL-2 [3.0, 12.0, and 48.0 x 10(6) IU/m(2) i.v. three times weekly (TIW)] and A-C of rHuIL-4 (40, 120, and 400 mu g/m(2) s.c. TIW). The toxicity of these two cytokines was moderate and was comparable with that seen with rIL-2 alone. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination was not reached because of lack of sufficient rHuIL-4 but is at least 48.0 x 10(6) IU/m(2) of rIL-2 and 120 mu g/m(2) of rHuIL-4. Two patients with melanoma had partial responses. The immunologic effects included increases in absolute lymphocyte numbers, and the CD3- /CD56+/ CD2+, total CD56+, CD8+, and CD16c+ lymphocyte subsets with increasing rIL-2 dose levels, but not with rHuIL-4. This increase in natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood was accompanied by an increase over baseline in NK lytic activity against K562 targets; however, concomitant increases in lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity (Daudi targets) were not seen. The CD3+, CD4+, and CD3+/CD25+/HLA-Dr+ T-cell subsets also increased, and these increases were related to both increasing rIL-2 and rRuIL-4 doses. Finally, in four of six patients, serial tumor biopsies demonstrated increases in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II antigen expression on tumor cells or increasing T-cell infiltrates during cytokine therapy or both. This trial demonstrated that rIL-2 and rHuIL-4 can be administered simultaneously with acceptable toxicity. The immunologic findings demonstrated the expected rIL-2-associated increases of CD56+ and CD16c+ lymphocytes and NK activity, and interestingly, no development of LAK activity. These findings suggest regulatory effects of rHuIL-4 on rIL-2-related effects in vivo. PMID:8859726

Olencki, T; Finke, J; Tubbs, R; Tuason, L; Greene, T; McLain, D; Swanson, S J; Herzog, P; Stanley, J; Edinger, M; Budd, G T; Bukowski, R M



Role of CD4 molecule in the induction of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2 receptor in class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen-specific T helper clones. T cell receptor/CD3 complex transmits CD4-dependent and CD4-independent signals.  

PubMed Central

The CD4 molecule plays an essential role in antigen-induced activation of T helper (Th) cells, but its contribution to signal transduction events resulting in physiologic T cell function is ill defined. By utilizing anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize distinct epitopes of CD4, we have investigated the role of CD4 molecule in antigen-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) alpha chain expression in class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen-specific human Th clones. Pretreatment of the Th clones with Leu3a resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of antigen-induced proliferative responses, inositol phosphate accumulation, increase in free cytoplasmic calcium ions ([Ca2+]i), IL-2 mRNA accumulation, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression. IL-2R mRNA accumulation, however, was unaffected even at highest Leu3a concentrations. Leu3a treatment did not affect bypass activation of T cells with PMA plus ionomycin or activation via CD2 molecule. The MAb OKT4, which binds another domain of CD4, was not inhibitory. These results suggest that after T cell antigen receptor-CD3 activation, IL-2 gene induction, IL-2 secretion, and membrane IL-2R expression are absolutely dependent upon participation of CD4 molecules, phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis, and increase in [Ca2+]i. The requirement for IL-2R gene induction, however, occurs independently of CD4 molecule participation and PI hydrolysis. Images PMID:1534818

Oyaizu, N; Chirmule, N; Pahwa, S



Simple purification of Escherichia coli -derived recombinant human interleukin-2 expressed with N-terminus fusion of glucagon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple procedures have been devised for purifying recombinant human interleukin-2 (hIL-2), which was expressed inEscherichia coli using sequences of glucagon molecules and enterokinase cleavage site as an N-terminus fusion partner. The insoluble aggregates\\u000a of recombinant fusion protein produced inE. coli cytoplasm were easily dissolved by simple alkaline pH shift (8?12?8). Following enterokinase cleavage, the recombinant hIL-2\\u000a was finally purified by

Hye-Soon Won; Jeewon Lee; In-Ho Kim; Young-Hoon Park



Interleukin-2 receptor-specific fusion toxin inhibits barotrauma-induced arterial atherosclerosis.  


Immunocytochemical analyses of human plaques and experimental arterial lesions have implicated activated lymphocytes and monocytes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as demonstrated by the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) membrane receptors and major histocompatibility complex class II epitopes. The objective is to determine if targeting these cells with an IL-2 receptor-specific chimeric toxin, DAB486-IL-2, can inhibit experimental post-angioplasty vascular neointimal thickening. Twenty-two atherogenically modeled rabbits were treated in vivo with DAB486-IL-2 (0.1 mg/kg per day i.v.; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for 10 days following aortic balloon angioplasty (4 atm x 30 s each x 2 dilatations). In vitro 3H-leucine incorporation studies of mononuclear leukocyte and vascular smooth muscle cell protein synthesis inhibition by DAB486-IL-2 were also performed. Angioplasty sites were examined for evidence of hyperproliferative atherosclerotic narrowing by quantitative angiography and histomorphometry of neointimal cross-sectional area at baseline and 6 weeks after injury. In vitro Concanavalin-A stimulated rabbit mononuclear leukocyte protein synthesis was 50% inhibited by DAB486-IL-2 at a concentration (IC50) of 6 x 10(-11) M. Rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells were approximately 150-fold less sensitive to DAB486-IL-2 (IC50 = 10(-8) M). In vivo studies showed no change in angioplasty site angiographic minimum luminal diameter at 6 weeks in DAB486-IL-2 treated animals (from 2.96 +/- 0.52 to 2.96 +/- 0.48 mm; percent cross-sectional area reduction = 1 +/- 10%; P = N.S.). In control animals, luminal diameter decreased from 2.79 +/- 0.4 to 2.32 +/- 0.52 mm at 6 weeks, and percent cross-sectional area was reduced by 34 +/- 14% (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). Quantitative histomorphometric angioplasty segmental intimal cross-sectional area reduction of treated and placebo vessels also differed significantly (19 +/- 16% vs. 31 +/- 21%; P < 0.05). DAB486-IL-2 caused no adverse effects on animal survival, weight or hepatic transaminase levels. We conclude that post-angioplasty administration of the chimeric toxin DAB486-IL-2 inhibits angiographic narrowing and neointimal thickening in the atherogenic rabbit model. Although this IL-2 receptor-specific molecule was cytotoxic in vitro for activated mononuclear leukocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, systemic toxicity did not occur in vivo at a dose comparable to that evaluated in clinical trials of this agent. Potential anti-proliferative effects of this chimeric toxin may be mediated by direct local inhibition of leukocyte-mediated inflammation, or through the indirect modification of vascular cell mitogenesis and cytokine release. PMID:8879429

Miller, D D; Bach, R G; Tio, F O; Bailey, S R; Waters, C A; Woodworth, T G; Nichols, J C; Paige, S B; Farrar, M



[Parallel analysis of c-Fos protein and interleukin-2 expression in hypothalamic cells under different influence].  


The objective of this work was to perform a parallel analysis of activation of the rat anterior hypothalamus cells as judged by c-Fos protein expression, and of the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) under different influences, i. e., mild stress (handling) and adaptation to it, and intranasal administration of saline and the peptides Vilon (Lys-Glu) and Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly). Changes in the counts of cells positive for c-Fos- and IL-2 proteins were studied in structures of the lateral (LHA) area, anterior (AHN), supraoptic (SO) and paraventricular (PVH) nuclei of Wistar rat hypothalamus. Quantity of the interleukin-2-positive and c-Fos-positive cells was calculated. The findings were: a negative correlation between the activation of cells and the amount of IL-2 in the cells in the hypothalamic structures under study, and the specific patterns of changes in the counts of cells positive for c-Fos and IL-2 under stress and adaptation to stress. PMID:17461018

Barabanova, S V; Artiukhina, Z E; Ovchinnikova, K T; Abramova, T V; Kazakova, T B; Khavinson, V Kh; Malinin, V V; Korneva, E A



Orf Virus Encodes a Novel Secreted Protein Inhibitor of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleukin-2  

PubMed Central

The parapoxvirus orf virus encodes a novel soluble protein inhibitor of ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). The GM-CSF- and IL-2-inhibitory factor (GIF) gene was expressed as an intermediate-late viral gene in orf virus-infected cells. GIF formed homodimers and tetramers in solution, and it bound ovine GM-CSF with a Kd of 369 pM and ovine IL-2 with a Kd of 1.04 nM. GIF did not bind human GM-CSF or IL-2 in spite of the fact that orf virus is a human pathogen. GIF was detected in afferent lymph plasma draining the skin site of orf virus reinfection and was associated with reduced levels of lymph GM-CSF. GIF expression by orf virus indicates that GM-CSF and IL-2 are important in host antiviral immunity. PMID:10627542

Deane, David; McInnes, Colin J.; Percival, Ann; Wood, Ann; Thomson, Jackie; Lear, Andrea; Gilray, Janice; Fleming, Stephen; Mercer, Andrew; Haig, David



hNT neurons express an immunosuppressive protein that blocks T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production.  


Ntera2/D1 cells had an A1 B8 Bw6 Cw7 DR3 DR52 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype. Its neuronal derivative, hNT neurons, expressed A1 B8 Bw6 MHC class I molecules, but did not activate, and its hNT supernatant suppressed allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) >98% (p<0.01), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T-cell proliferation >87% (p<0.01), even 48 h after stimulation, suppressed phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-induced T-cell proliferation >99% (p<0.001), and reduced interleukin-2 (IL-2) production (p<0.01), while maintaining T cells in a quiescent G(0)/G(1) state without lowering their viability. This immunosuppressive activity was attributed to a 40-100-kDa anionic hNT protein with an isoelectric point of 4.8. PMID:11960646

Gower, W R; Sanberg, P R; Brown, P G; Salyani, S; Pasqual, C J; McGrogan, M; Good, R A; Engelman, R W



Effects of amorphous and crystalline nickel sulfide on induction of induction of interferons-. alpha. /. beta. and -. gamma. and interleukin-2  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of rat spleen cells with crystalline or amorphous nickel sulfide (NiS) did not inhibit induction of interferon-{gamma} or interleukin-2 by concanavalin A. In contrast, pretreatment of murine L-929 cells with crystalline NiS inhibited severely IFN-{alpha}/{beta} induction by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid, while amorphous NiS did not show any effect. This difference in the effects of both forms of NiS on the spleen and L-929 cells correlated with the cellular internalization of the compound; L-929 cells actively phagocytosed crystalline NiS while the uptake of amorphous NiS by the same type of cells was minimal. The uptake of both crystalline and amorphous NiS by spleen cells was very low.

Jaramillo, A.; Sonnenfeld, G. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))



Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus expressing interleukin 2 induces regression and immunity in a murine breast cancer model.  

PubMed Central

Rodent tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 are rejected by syngeneic recipients due to an enhanced antitumor host immune response. An adenovirus vector (AdCAIL-2) containing the human IL-2 gene has been constructed and shown to direct secretion of high levels of human IL-2 in infected tumor cells. AdCAIL-2 induces regression of tumors in a transgenic mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma following intratumoral injection. Elimination of existing tumors in this way results in immunity against a second challenge with tumor cells. These findings suggest that adenovirus vectors expressing cytokines may form the basis for highly effective immunotherapies of human cancers. PMID:7667323

Addison, C L; Braciak, T; Ralston, R; Muller, W J; Gauldie, J; Graham, F L



Intratumoral Injection of an Adenovirus Expressing Interleukin 2 Induces Regression and Immunity in a Murine Breast Cancer Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodent tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 are rejected by syngeneic recipients due to an enhanced antitumor host immune response. An adenovirus vector (AdCAIL-2) containing the human IL-2 gene has been constructed and shown to direct secretion of high levels of human IL-2 in infected tumor cells. AdCAIL-2 induces regression of tumors in a transgenic mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma following intratumoral injection. Elimination of existing tumors in this way results in immunity against a second challenge with tumor cells. These findings suggest that adenovirus vectors expressing cytokines may form the basis for highly effective immunotherapies of human cancers.

Addison, Christina L.; Braciak, Todd; Ralston, Robert; Muller, William J.; Gauldie, Jack; Graham, Frank L.



Inhibitory effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on proliferative responsiveness of CD8+ lymphocytes to interleukin-2.  


Although several studies have shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is not toxic for CD4+ lymphocytes, its effect on CD8+ cells has never been studied in a systematic way. We purified CD8+ cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and HIV-infected individuals by means of magnetic beads that had been coated with monoclonal antibodies. We report that AZT, but not two other nucleosides tested, inhibited the interleukin-2-dependent proliferation of CD8+ lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. No such effect was observed with regard to CD4(+)-enriched populations. The AZT-mediated antiproliferative effect did not appear to be related to either the CD4+ count or to prior treatment with this drug in the case of HIV-seropositive subjects. PMID:8556489

Mercure, L; Lalonde, R; Phaneuf, D; Brenner, B; Wainberg, M A



T cells in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: mitogenic response, suppressor activity, and interleukin-2 production and receptor generation.  


The functional response of peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by chronic hemodialysis for over 1 year. Proliferation after phytohemagglutinin stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells and of T lymphocyte fractions isolated by either sheep erythrocyte rosetting or by use of a nylon wool column was significantly reduced as compared with that of corresponding fractions from healthy control subjects (P less than 0.001). The induction of suppressor cell activity by concanavalin A in rosetted T cell fractions was higher with cells of hemodialyzed patients than with control cells (P less than 0.025). The expression of class II MHC antigen (HLA-DR) by the T8 lymphocyte subset after concanavalin A induction, as determined by staining with monoclonal antibodies and two-color fluorescence analysis by flow cytometry, was also higher in hemodialyzed subjects (P less than 0.025). Since contamination by non-T cells in such cell fractions and increases in proliferation after indomethacin treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were similar in hemodialyzed and control subjects, it is unlikely that the depressed T lymphocyte responses and the increased suppressor cell activity can be attributed to increased peripheral blood monocyte counts observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Studies of the biological events associated with the activation of lymphocytes of hemodialyzed patients revealed a reduction in expression of interleukin 2 receptor in the plasma membrane of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes as determined by staining with monoclonal antibody (P less than 0.01). In addition, a very low secretion of interleukin 2 by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations was observed in about one-half of patients receiving hemodialysis. PMID:2944684

Raskova, J; Ghobrial, I; Shea, S M; Ebert, E C; Eisinger, R P; Raska, K



Interplay of T-cell receptor and interleukin-2 signalling in V?2V?2 T-cell cytotoxicity.  


Human peripheral blood V?2V?2 T cells are important for host defence and tumour immunity. Their unusual T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes small molecule phosphoantigens; stimulated cells produce inflammatory cytokines and are potently cytotoxic for a variety of tumours. However, molecular mechanisms linking phosphoantigen stimulation and cytotoxicity are incompletely understood. We know that isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/Erk) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathways; specific inhibition of Erk or Akt significantly impairs the functional response to IPP. We now show that interleukin-2 also activates MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt pathways but on its own, fails to induce cytokine expression or cytotoxicity. Hence, MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt activation are necessary but not sufficient to induce effector responses in V?2V?2 T cells and a TCR-dependent signal is still required for tumour cell killing. Cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, blocked calcium-dependent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) and significantly reduced IPP-induced cytokine production, degranulation and cytotoxicity. The IPP-induced calcium mobilization and NFAT translocation were necessary to activate V?2V?2 effector functions; interleukin-2, acting on the MEK/Erk pathway, regulated the strength of these responses. The TCR has a specific role in V?2V?2 T-cell killing of tumour cells, which is distinct from its role in triggering cellular proliferation in response to phosphoantigens. PMID:20738419

Li, Haishan; David Pauza, C



Phase II Study of Interferon-gamma Versus Interleukin2 and Interferon-alpha 2b in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeIn a randomized phase II study we evaluated response, survival and side effects of low dose recombinant interferon-gamma in 30 patients (group 1) versus recombinant interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha2b in 30 (group 2) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Gerd Lummen; Mark Goepel; Stefan Mollhoff; Axel Hinke; Thomas Otto; Herbert Rubben



Increased excretion of soluble interleukin 2 receptors and free light chain immunoglobulins in the urine of patients with active lupus nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of protein from the urine of 23 patients with lupus nephropathy and 15 patients with proteinuria who did not have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were studied for the presence of cytokines, soluble interleukin 2 receptors (sIL-2R), and free light chain immunoglobulins. The patients with lupus nephropathy were divided into two groups with active (nephritis) and inactive inflammation (nephrosis) based

C Y Tsai; T H Wu; K H Sun; W M Lin; C L Yu




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Template for protein synthesis. Each set of three bases, called codons, specifies a certain protein in the sequence of amino acids that comprise the protein. The sequence of a strand of mRNA is based on the sequence of a complementary strand of DNA.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)



Use of a cDNA expression vector for isolation of mouse interleukin 2 cDNA clones: expression of T-cell growth-factor activity after transfection of monkey cells.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA sequence coding for mouse interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been cloned from a cDNA library prepared from mRNA derived from a concanavalin A-activated mouse T-cell clone. The library was constructed by using the pcD vector system, which permits the expression of cDNA inserts in mammalian cells. Screening of the library was performed by transfecting COS-7 monkey cells with pools of cDNA clones in order to express the products encoded by full-length cDNA inserts. By assaying the supernatant fluid, IL-2 cDNA clones that express T-cell growth-factor (TCGF) activity were identified. The DNA sequence codes for a polypeptide of 169 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide. The mouse IL-2 amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA shares extensive homology with the human IL-2 amino acid sequence reported previously. These results demonstrate that identification of full-length cDNA clones for many lymphokines may be achieved entirely on the basis of detection of the functional polypeptides in mammalian cells. Images PMID:3918306

Yokota, T; Arai, N; Lee, F; Rennick, D; Mosmann, T; Arai, K



Development of an attenuated interleukin-2 fusion protein that can be activated by tumour-expressed proteases  

PubMed Central

The ability to alter the cytokine microenvironment has the potential to shape immune responses in many physiological settings, including the immunotherapy of tumours. We set out to develop a general approach in which cytokines could be functionally attenuated until activated. We report the development and initial characterization of fusion proteins in which human or mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent growth factor for immune cells, is joined to a specific IL-2 inhibitory binding component separated by a protease site. The rationale is that upon cleavage by a protease the cytokine is free to dissociate from the inhibitory component and becomes biologically more available. We describe the successful development of two attenuation strategies using specific binding: the first uses the mouse IL-2 receptor alpha chain as the inhibitory binding component whereas the second employs a human antibody fragment (scFv) reactive with human IL-2. We demonstrated that the fusion proteins containing a prostate-specific antigen or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protease cleavage site are markedly attenuated in the intact fusion protein but had enhanced bioactivity of IL-2 in vitro when cleaved. Further, we showed that a fusion protein composed of the IL-2/IL-2 receptor alpha chain with an MMP cleavage site reduced tumour growth in vivo in a peritoneal mouse tumour model. This general strategy should be applicable to other proteases and immune modulators allowing site-specific activation of immunomodulators while reducing unwanted side-effects. PMID:21426339

Puskas, John; Skrombolas, Denise; Sedlacek, Abigail; Lord, Edith; Sullivan, Mark; Frelinger, John



Two mutational hotspots in the interleukin-2 receptor {gamma} chain gene causing human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency  

SciTech Connect

Human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a syndrome of profoundly impaired cellular and humoral immunity, is most commonly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor {gamma} chain (IL2RG). For mutational analysis of IL2RG in males with SCID, SSCP screening was followed by DNA sequencing. Of 40 IL2RG mutations found in unrelated SCID patients, 6 were point mutations at the CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 690-691, encoding amino acid R226. This residue lies in the extracellular domain of the protein in a region not previously recognized to be significantly conserved in the cytokine receptor gene family, 11 amino acids upstream from the highly conserved WSXWS motif. Three additional instances of mutation at another CpG dinucleotide at cDNA 879 produced a premature termination signal in the intracellular domain of IL2RG, resulting in loss of the SH2-homologous intracellular domain known to be essential for signaling from the IL-2 receptor complex. Mutations at these two hotspots constitute >20% of the X-linked SCID mutations found by our group and a similar proportion of all reported IL2RG mutations. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Pepper, A.E.; Puck, J.M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Buckley, R.H. [and others



In vitro assessment of choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) as a vehicle for recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)  

PubMed Central

Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) is an ionic liquid reported to increase thermal stability of model proteins. The current work investigated CDHP effect on structural integrity and biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), a therapeutic protein used for treating advanced melanoma. In vitro CDHP biocompatibility was also evaluated using primary cell cultures, or B16-F10 cell line, chronically exposed to the ionic liquid. Formulation of rhIL-2 in an aqueous 680mM CDHP pH 7.4 solution resulted in a 12.5°C increase in the Tm of rhIL-2 compared to a basic buffer formulation, and provided conformational rhIL-2 stabilization when the solution was heated to 23.3°C above the Tm. CDHP solutions (?80mM), exhibited no cytotoxic activity toward primary splenocytes or B16-F10 cells in culture. However, a 10-fold loss in biological activity was observed when rhIL-2 was used in a 30mM CDHP aqueous solution with NaHCO3 (pH?7.2) compared to controls without CDHP. While increased Tm is associated with a diminished rhIL-2 biological activity, the therapeutic protein remains structurally intact and functional. PMID:24504148

Foureau, David M.; Vrikkis, Regina M.; Jones, Chase P.; Weaver, Katherine D.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Salo, Jonathan C.; McKillop, Iain H.; Elliott, Gloria D.



Effect of various mouthwashes on the levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma in chronic gingivitis.  


The aim of this double blind study was to evaluate the effect of various mouthwashes: Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract, and Povidone iodine on gingival tissue interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in patients with chronic gingivitis. A total of 8O patients (42 boys, 38 girls; mean age 16.0 +/- 1.8 years) were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into four groups of 20 each: Group I--Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract, Group II--Essential oil, Group III--Povidone iodine, and Group IV--Chlorhexidine. They were instructed to use these mouthwashes for two weeks. Plaque and gingival indices scores, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the gingival tissues were measured at baseline and after two weeks of mouthwash use. Results showed the reduction of plaque and gingival indices, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma level with Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, and Povidone iodine, which were found to be statistically significant. Although Neem reduced the level of plaque and gingival indices, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma to a certain level, it was not statistically significant. Therefore, Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, and Povidone iodine mouthwashes can be used as an adjunct to oral prophylaxis in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma in patients with chronic gingivitis. PMID:18389675

Sharma, Shivalal; Saimbi, C S; Koirala, Bandana; Shukla, Rakesh



Normal gamma interferon (IFN-. gamma. ) and decreased interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by copper-deficient mice  

SciTech Connect

The production of both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-{gamma}) was determined in lymphocyte preparations from spleens of copper-deficient ({minus}Cu) and copper adequate control (+Cu) mice. Swiss albino mice were fed a diet low in copper. The +Cu mice drank water with copper added, while {minus}Cu mice drank deionized water. Compared to +Cu controls, {minus}Cu mice had lower hematocrits, reduced levels of liver Cu, low plasma ceruloplasmin activity, and higher levels of liver iron. Production of IL-2 was assessed by the response of an IL-2-dependent cell line (CTLL) to serial dilutions of Con A-stimulated splenic lymphocyte culture supernatants. IFN-{gamma} levels were determined in these same supernatants by an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Analysis indicated that IL-2 production by splenic lymphocytes from {minus}Cu mice was only 62% of the mean +Cu value. IFN-{gamma} levels of {minus}Cu and +Cu splenic lymphocytes, on the other hand, were equivalent. These data indicate differential effects of copper deficiency on two distinct lymphokines elaborated by the same murine T-help subpopulation, T{sub H}1.

Lukasewycz, O.A.; Prohaska, J.R. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth (United States))



A T-cell-selective interleukin 2 mutein exhibits potent antitumor activity and is well tolerated in vivo.  


Human interleukin 2 (IL-2; Proleukin) is an approved therapeutic for advanced-stage metastatic cancer; however, its use is restricted because of severe systemic toxicity. Its function as a central mediator of T-cell activation may contribute to its efficacy for cancer therapy. However, activation of natural killer (NK) cells by therapeutically administered IL-2 may mediate toxicity. Here we have used targeted mutagenesis of human IL-2 to generate a mutein with approximately 3,000-fold in vitro selectivity for T cells over NK cells relative to wild-type IL-2. We compared the variant, termed BAY 50-4798, with human IL-2 (Proleukin) in a therapeutic dosing regimen in chimpanzees, and found that although the T-cell mobilization and activation properties of BAY 50-4798 were comparable to human IL-2, BAY 50-4798 was better tolerated in the chimpanzee. BAY 50-4798 was also shown to inhibit metastasis in a mouse tumor model. These results indicate that BAY 50-4798 may exhibit a greater therapeutic index than IL-2 in humans in the treatment of cancer and AIDS. PMID:11062441

Shanafelt, A B; Lin, Y; Shanafelt, M C; Forte, C P; Dubois-Stringfellow, N; Carter, C; Gibbons, J A; Cheng, S L; Delaria, K A; Fleischer, R; Greve, J M; Gundel, R; Harris, K; Kelly, R; Koh, B; Li, Y; Lantz, L; Mak, P; Neyer, L; Plym, M J; Roczniak, S; Serban, D; Thrift, J; Tsuchiyama, L; Wetzel, M; Wong, M; Zolotorev, A



Cervical mucus granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 soluble receptor in women using copper intrauterine contraceptive devices.  


This study was undertaken to investigate the role of cytokines in intrauterine contraception. Cervical mucus samples were obtained from 20 women with proven fertility 7, 14, 30, and 120 days after insertion of copper-T380 intrauterine devices (IUDs) for the determination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) soluble receptor (IL-2SR) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) concentrations. Both levels of IL-2SR and GM-CSF were significantly elevated after insertion of copper-releasing IUDs. This elevation remained significant through 6 months post-insertion. The mean-fold rise of GM-CSF compared to pre-insertion mean values amounted to 12.4, 11.8, 2.1, and 1.5 at 7, 14, 30, and 120 days post-insertion, respectively. The corresponding values for IL-2SR were 10.4, 8.8, 2.6, and 2.5, respectively. These results demonstrate enhanced local cytokines production in IUD users indicating local inflammatory reaction in the endometrium. This inflammatory reaction together with the cytotoxic effects of these cytokines may produce an environment which adversely affect embryo pre-implantation. This may explain the antifertility effect of copper IUDs. PMID:12204787

Shobokshi, Amal; Shaarawy, Mohamed



4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl grafted gold electrode based platform for label free electrochemical detection of interleukin-2 protein.  


A new platform based on 4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl (FNP) grafted gold disk electrode prepared via electrochemical reduction of 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzene diazonium ion has been developed and utilized for biosensor fabrication. Anti-interleukin-2 (anti-IL2) antibody has been covalently immobilized onto FNP/Au surface and utilized for label free electrochemical impedance based detection of cytokine IL2. FNP acts as a bridge (cross-linker) between gold surface and anti-IL2, where fluoro group of FNP undergoes nucleophilic substitution by amino group of biomolecule and results in its covalent immobilization. The immobilization process and fabricated electrode have been characterized using contact angle (CA) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. CV studies show that FNP grafted surface provides conductive surface for anti-IL2 immobilization. The EIS response of studies as a function of IL2 concentrations exhibits a detection in linear range from 1 pg ml(-1) to 10 ng ml(-1) with minimum detectable concentration of 1 pg ml(-1). The electrode has been found to be selective against other cytokine molecules. PMID:24906083

Arya, Sunil K; Park, Mi Kyoung



Comparative analysis of the expression of c-Fos and interleukin-2 proteins in hypothalamus cells during various treatments.  


The aim of the present work was to perform a combined analysis of the degree of activation of the anterior hypothalamus of the rat and expression of the interleukin-2 gene during treatments of different types: mild stress ("handling") and adaption to it, as well as intranasal administration of physiological saline and the peptides Vilon (Lys-Glu) and Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly). Changes in the numbers of c-Fos-and IL-2-positive cells in structures of the lateral area (LHA) and anterior (AHN), supraoptic (SON), and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus in Wistar rats. Ratios of the quantities of c-Fos-and IL-2-positive cells were determined in intact animals and after activation of brain cells initiated by different treatments; the influences of adaptation to handling on the nature of changes in the expression of these proteins was also studied. Combined analysis of the intensity of expression of these two proteins - c-Fos, a marker of neuron activation and a trans-factor for the IL-2 cytokine gene and other inducible genes, and IL-2 - in intact animals and after various treatments showed that the process of cell activation in most of the hypothalamic structures studied correlated with decreases in the quantity of IL-2-positive cells in these structures; different patterns of changes in the numbers of c-Fos-and IL-2-positive cells were seen in response to different treatments in conditions of stress and adaptation to it. PMID:18264770

Barabanova, S V; Artyukhina, Z E; Ovchinnikova, K T; Abramova, T V; Kazakova, T B; Khavinson, V Kh; Malinin, V V; Korneva, E A



Interleukin 2 Induces Tyrosine Phosphorylation and Activation of p72-74 Raf1 Kinase in a T-Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a lymphokine, produced by T cells upon antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, that is a critical regulator of T-cell proliferation. Although the binding of IL-2 to its receptor has been well characterized, the molecular mechanisms by which IL-2 transmits its signal from the membrane to the interior of the cell are poorly understood. Like most other growth

Bruce Turner; Ulf Rapp; Harald App; Mark Greene; Kunio Dobashi; John Reed



Anti-Tac-H, a Humanized Antibody to the Interleukin 2 Receptor with New Features for Immunotherapy in Malignant and Immune Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M, 55,000 interleukin 2 receptor peptide (Tac; CD25) is not expressed by normal resting T-cells but is markedly up-regulated in adult T-cell leukemia and other malignancies, as well as on T-cells activated in normal immune, autoimmune, allograft, and graft-versus-host settings. Anti-Tac is a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the Tac peptide. Our prior attempts to use this antibody in

R. P. Junghans; T. A. Waldmann; N. F. Landolfi; N. M. Avdalovic; W. P. Schneider; C. Queen



Successful in vivo blockade of CD25 (high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor) on T cells by administration of humanized anti-Tac antibody to patients with psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Daclizumab is a humanized antibody to the ?-subunit (CD25) of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor that blocks normal IL-2 binding to this receptor. Because IL-2 is a major stimulus for T-cell growth, blockade of the IL-2 receptor could be useful in treating T-cell-mediated (autoimmune) diseases. Objective: Our purpose was to determine whether adequate concentrations of antibody were achieved in

James G. Krueger; Ian B. Walters; Megumi Miyazawa; Patricia Gilleaudeau; John Hakimi; Susan Light; Amelia Sherr; Alice B. Gottlieb



Immune Cell Activation in Melioidosis: Increased Serum Levels of Interferon-? and Soluble Interleukin2 Receptors without Change in Soluble CD8 Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate immune cell activation in patients with melioidosis, serum samples were assayed for interferon-? (IFN-?), soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), and soluble CD8 protein (sCD8). Forty patients with sepsis (23 fatal cases, 17 survivors) and 13 with localized disease were studied during acute illness; 12 additional patients were studied after discharge while on maintenance antimicrobial therapy. Serum concentrations of IFN-?

Arthur E. Brown; David A. B. Dance; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Wipada Chaowagul; Somchai Kongchareon; H. Kyle Webster; Nicholas J. White



Association of interleukin-2 and interferon-? production by blood mononuclear cells in infancy with parental allergy skin tests and with subsequent development of atopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms regulating the onset of atopic sensitization in human beings are not yet fully clarified. We assessed the capacity of mitogen-stimulated umbilical and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to produce interferon-? (IFN-?) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) at birth and at 9 months of age in 159 infants. Mononuclear cell production of both IFN-? and IL-2 at 9 months, but not at

Fernando D. Martinez; Debra A. Stern; Anne L. Wright; Catharine J. Holberg; Lynn M. Taussig; Marilyn Halonen



Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon. Lysis of natural killer-resistant fresh solid tumor cells by interleukin 2-activated autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation in lectin-free interleukin 2 (IL-2) containing supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBL) from cancer patients or normal individuals resulted in expression of cytotoxicity toward 20 of 21 natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh solid tumor cells tested. Fresh solid tumor cells were resistant to NK-mediated lysis in 10 autologous patients' PBL-tumor interactions, and from 17 normal individuals tested against 13

E. A. Grimm; A. Mazumder; H. Z. Zhang; S. A. Rosenberg



Treatment of Endometriosis with Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Drainage under GnRH Analogues and Recombinant Interleukin2 Left in the Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To analyze the therapeutic results of one dose of 3 million IU of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) left intracyst (group I) versus two doses with a 1-month interval (group II) after transvaginal ultrasound (US)-guided drainage of endometriomas under the effect of GnRH analogues. Methods: Prospective and randomized clinical trial (helped by a random number table) at a University Hospital. Twenty-four

Pedro Acién; Gloria Pérez-Albert; Francisco J. Quereda; Marisa Sánchez-Ferrer; Ana García-Almela; Irene Velasco



An adenoviral vector expressing functional heterogeneous proteins herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase and human interleukin-2 has enhanced in vivo antitumor activity against medullary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore a more efficient multi-gene antitumor treatment, we developed an adenoviral vector expressing both herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) and human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) (AdCMVTKhIL2). Production of hIL-2 is expected to augment antitumor T cell and natural killer cell activity. Two separate cassettes expressing HSVtk and hIL-2, each under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early gene

R Zhang; L J DeGroot



Loco-regional immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2 and adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells (A-LAK) in recurrent glioblastoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients with recurrent glioblastoma were given autologous adherent lymphokine-activated killer (A-LAK) cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered directly into the tumor cavity through an Ommaya tube placed during surgery\\/biopsy. The immunotherapy was well tolerated and the response rate was 33% (one complete response, two partial responses, four with stable disease and two with progressive disease). However, survival 18 months from

Amerigo Boiardi; Antonio Silvanil; Pier Adelchi Ruffini; Licia Rivoltini; Giorgio Parnliani; Giovanni Broggit; Andrea Salmaggi



Indomethacin up-regulates the generation of lymphokine-activated killer-cell activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by interleukin-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Prostaglandins can inhibit the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2) whereas indomethacin augmented the induction of LAK cells by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. In the present study we demonstrate that prostaglandin E2 substantially inhibited the generation of both LAK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity by IL-2. In addition, indomethacin enhanced the induction of LAK activity and

Avi Eisenthal



Monocytes and neutrophils as ‘bad guys’ for the outcome of interleukin-2 with and without histamine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma – results from a randomised phase II trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histamine (HDC) inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer (NK) and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have explored this potential mechanism clinically in two randomised phase II trials in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In parallel with the clinical

F Donskov; M Hokland; N Marcussen; H H Torp Madsen; H von der Maase



Adoptive immunotherapy of advanced melanoma patients with interleukin-2 (IL2) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes selected in vitro with low doses of IL2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshly isolated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from stage IV melanoma patients were cultured for 2 weeks with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2; 120 IU\\/ml), to select potentially for tumor-specific lymphocytes present in the neoplastic lesion, followed by high doses (6000 IU\\/ml) to achieve lymphocyte expansion. TIL were serially analyzed for their expansion, phenotype and cytotoxic activity against autologous and allogeneic tumor

Flavio Arientil; Filiberto Belli; Licia Rivoltinil; Carlo Gambacorti-Passerinil; Luigi Furlan; Luigi Mascheroni; Augusto Prada; Maurilia Rizzi; Edoardo Marchesil; Maurizio Vaglini; Giorgio Parmianil; Natale Cascinelli



Rapid Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and p21 ras by Prolactin and Interleukin 2 in Rat Nb2 Node Lymphoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several serine\\/threonine and tyrosine kinase signal transdudion pathways have been recently linked to proladin (PRI) action in lymphoid cells. Utilizing the lactogen-dependent, rat pre-T lymphoma cell line, Nb2- 11, and the autonomous subline, Nb2-SFJCD1 , studies were conduded to determine whether PRL- or interleukin-2 (11-2)-stimulated Nb2 cell proliferation is coupled to the adivation of p21 ras and mitogen- activated protein

Yi-Ping Rao; Donna J. Buckley; Arthur R. Buckley


Direct and rapid electrochemical biosensing of the human interleukin-2 DNA in unpurified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified real samples.  


Electrochemical detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified human interleukin-2 (IL-2) coding DNA sample (399bp size) without any purification and pre-treatment is described. To achieve this goal, a sensor was made by immobilization of a 20-mer oligonucleotide (chIL-2) as the probe on the pencil graphite electrode (PGE). This probe is related to the antisense strand of human interleukin-2 gene. The results showed that the electrode could effectively sense the PCR product of human interleukin-2 DNA by anodic differential pulse voltammetry (ADPV) based on guanine oxidation signal. In order to inhibit PCR components interfering effects and improve biosensing performance, various factors were investigated. We found that the desorption of non-specifically adsorbed components of the unpurified PCR samples from PGE surface is easily achieved by washing of the electrode in washing solution for about 300s. The effectiveness of this procedure was confirmed using purified PCR samples. The selectivity of the sensor was assessed with negative control PCR sample and seven different non-complementary PCR products corresponding to 16S rDNA (bigger than 1500bp) of various bacterial genuses. Diagnostic performance of the biosensor is described and the detection limit is found to be 69pM. The reliability of the electrochemical biosensing results was verified by electrophoresis of the PCR products. PMID:18617384

Pournaghi-Azar, Mohammad Hossein; Alipour, Esmaeel; Zununi, Sepideh; Froohandeh, Haleh; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid



Cervical and Vulvar Cancer Risk in Relation to Joint Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Genetic Variation in Interleukin 2  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is an established co-factor to human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and may influence risk through an immunosuppressive pathway. Genetic variation in interleukin 2 (IL2), associated in some studies with inhibition of HPV-targeted immunity, may modify the effect of smoking on the risk of HPV-related anogenital cancers. We conducted a population-based case-only study to measure the departure from a multiplicative joint effect of cigarette smoking and IL2 variation on cervical and vulvar SCC. Genotyping of four IL2 tagSNPs (rs2069762, rs2069763, rs2069777, and rs2069778) was performed in 399 cervical and 486 vulvar SCC cases who had been interviewed regarding their smoking history. Compared to cases carrying the rs2069762 TT genotype, we observed significant departures from multiplicativity for smoking and carriership of the TG or GG genotypes in vulvar SCC risk (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 2.41). Carriership of one of three diplotypes together with cigarette smoking was associated with either a supra-multiplicative (TGCT/GGCC, IOR=2.09, 95% CI: 0.98, 4.46) or sub-multiplicative (TTCC/TGTC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.85 or TGCT/TGCC, IOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.87) joint effect in vulvar cancer risk. For cervical SCC, departure from multiplicativity was observed for smokers homozygous for the rs2069763 variant allele (TT versus GG or GT genotypes) (IOR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.48), and for carriership of the TTCC/TTCC diplotype, (IOR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 4.30). These results suggest that cervical and vulvar SCC risk among cigarette smokers is modified by genetic variation in IL2. PMID:18628433

Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Johnson, Lisa G.; Du, Qin; Malkki, Mari; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.; Daling, Janet R.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Schwartz, Stephen M.



Enhancement of Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity of Neonatal Cells by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12  

PubMed Central

Newborn infants are more susceptible to infections due in part to deficiencies in the cytotoxic functions of their lymphocytes. We investigated the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 to enhance the cytotoxicity of neonatal (cord blood) and adult mononuclear cells (MNCs) in both natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. The cytotoxic activity of cord blood MNCs was less than 50% that of adult MNCs in most assays prior to exposure to cytokines. Incubation with IL-2 (100 U/ml) or IL-12 (1 ng/ml) for 18 h increased the NK cell activity (using K562 target cells) of both cord blood and adult MNCs, and the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased cord blood cytotoxicity threefold, making the cytotoxicity of cord blood cells equivalent to that of adult cells treated with the same cytokines. In ADCC assays with chicken erythrocyte targets, the combination of IL-2 and IL-12 increased the cytotoxicities of both cord blood and adult MNCs, with greater enhancement again seen with cord blood cells. In assays with NK cell-resistant CEM cells coated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 antigen in the presence of hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin, ADCC of cord blood MNCs was about 50% that of adult MNCs; ADCC of cord blood MNCs increased two- to threefold with the addition of IL-2 and IL-12, whereas ADCC of adult MNCs did not increase. Incubation of cord blood cells, but not adult cells, with IL-2 or IL-12 for 1 week increased the percentage of CD16+/CD56+ cells two- to fivefold and enhanced ADCC activity. Thus, IL-2 and IL-12 greatly enhance both the NK cell and ADCC activities of neonatal MNCs and increase the number of NK cells in longer-term culture. PMID:9455889

Nguyen, Quoc H.; Roberts, Robert L.; Ank, Bonnie J.; Lin, Syh-Jae; Lau, Casey K.; Stiehm, E. Richard



Isolation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) from human and mouse lymphocyte culture supernatants by batch adsorption onto silicic acid.  


Described herein is a simple, efficient and inexpensive batch adsorption procedure for the isolation and partial purification of the hydrophobic T cell growth-promoting lymphokine interleukin 2 (IL-2) from crude culture supernatants (SN) of freshly isolated human lymphocytes and leukemic T cells of established lines including human Jurkat J6.2, Gibbon ape MLA-144 and mouse EL-4. In this method, IL-2 was isolated by batch adsorption onto microparticulate silicic acid (SA) by stir-mixing the SA with SN (10 mg/ml; 30 min; 37 degrees C). Thereafter, the SA was pelleted by centrifugation and washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The IL-2 was eluted by adding to the pelleted IL-2-binding SA 5 vols. of ethylene glycol (EG; 50%, v/v) in PBS (pH 7.2) with high salt (1.4 M NaCl). The lymphokine-rich concentrate was then dialyzed (6 kDa MWCO) against PBS to remove the EG and low molecular weight growth inhibitors. The application of the proposed procedure was further defined in experiments in which SA was successfully employed for recovering IL-2 from SN of cultures in which the medium had been supplemented with fetal calf (FCS) or human serum to achieve maximal lymphokine production. Also presented are the results of experiments defining the SA adsorption of proteins from whole sera (e.g., FCS, calf, human and horse) and the relative affinity of different purified proteins for this matrix (e.g., bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, casein hydrolysate, bovine gamma-globulin and bovine beta-lactoglobulin). The proposed SA procedure may prove useful for isolating other hydrophobic immunoregulatory molecules, and a 2-step purification scheme is anticipated in which the SA adsorption procedure will be used as a preparative method preceding reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. PMID:6096448

Pauly, J L; Ovak, G M; Russell, C W



High efficient mammalian expression and secretion of a functional humanized single-chain Fv/human interleukin-2 molecules  

PubMed Central

AIM: To construct and produce a recombinant bispecific humanized single-chain Fv (sFv) /Interleukin-2 (IL-2) fusion protein by using mammalian cells. METHODS: The sFv/IL-2 protein was genetically engineered, and transfected to mammalian cells to determine whether the mammalian protein folding machinery can produce and secrete active sFv/IL-2 with high efficiency. RESULTS: The fusion protein was constructed and high efficiently expressed with yields up to 102 ± 4.2 mg/L in culture supernatant of the stably transfected 293 cell line. This recombinant fusion protein consisted of humanized variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains of monoclonal antibody (mAb) 520C9 directed against the human HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) proto-oncogene product p185, and human IL-2 connected by polypeptide linker. The fusion protein was shown to retain the immunostimulatory activities of IL-2 as measured by IL-2-dependent cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. In addition to its IL-2 activities, this fusion protein also possessed antigen-binding specificity against p185, as determined by indirect ELISA using p185 positive SKOV 3ip1 cells. CONCLUSION: The large-scale preparation of the recombinant humanized sFv antibody/IL-2 fusion protein is performed with 293 cells. The recombinant humanized sFv antibody/IL-2 fusion protein may provide an effective means of targeting therapeutic doses of IL-2 to p185 positive tumors without increasing systemic toxicity or immunogenicity. PMID:16804971

Shen, Yue-Chun; Wang, Xue-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Zao-Lai; Shen, Xi-Ping; Zhao, Chao-Chen; Li, Jun



In vitro maturation of B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. I. Synergistic action of phorbol ester and interleukin 2 in the induction of Tac antigen expression and interleukin 2 responsiveness in leukemic B cells.  


Recent evidence indicates that interleukin 2 (IL 2), formerly thought to serve as growth factor exclusively for activated T cells, is directly involved in human B cell differentiation. We have investigated the role of IL 2 and IL 2 receptors (as defined by monoclonal anti-Tac antibody) in the phorbol ester-induced in vitro maturation of leukemic B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from B cells from CLL patients with high (greater than 10(5)/microliters) white blood cell counts were depleted of residual T lymphocytes and low-density cells (primarily macrophages) by consecutive steps of E rosetting, complement-mediated lysis of OKT3+ and OKT4+ cells, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. No OKT3+ T cells were detectable in these cell populations before or after culture. When incubated for 3 days with phorbol ester plus recombinant human IL 2 (rIL 2), 12 to 57% of highly purified B cells from four of five tested patients expressed Tac antigen. Both phorbol ester and rIL 2 were required for maximal Tac antigen expression. Functional studies revealed that phorbol ester-activated (but not resting) CLL B cells responded to rIL 2 with [3H]thymidine incorporation and with enhanced secretion of IgM. Tac+ B cells were isolated in two cases on a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In one patient, stimulation of Tac+ B cells with rIL 2 resulted in enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation but no change in IgM secretion, as compared with Tac- B cells; in the second patient, stimulation of Tac+ B cells with rIL 2 did not result in [3H]thymidine uptake, but did result in significant IgM secretion. These findings indicate that certain leukemic B lymphocytes can be induced to express IL 2 receptors and respond to IL 2. The use of resting clonal B cell populations arrested at distinct stages of differentiation may help to better define the stage(s) at which IL 2 acts directly on B cells to induce proliferation and/or terminal differentiation. PMID:2993419

Kabelitz, D; Pfeffer, K; von Steldern, D; Bartmann, P; Brudler, O; Nerl, C; Wagner, H



Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model  

SciTech Connect

A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC).

Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))



Recombinant Interleukin-2 in Patients Aged Younger Than 60 Years With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2–activated effector cells. METHODS In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 19808 study, patients with AML in first CR were randomly assigned after all planned chemotherapy to receive a 90-day course of subcutaneously administered rIL-2 or no further therapy. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 treatment arms. A total of 534 patients achieved a CR, 214 of whom were randomized. Six courses of low-dose daily rIL-2 were given for the expansion of cytotoxic effector cells, each followed by 3-day high-dose boluses given to trigger cytotoxicity against minimal residual disease. RESULTS On the protocol-specified intention-to-treat analysis, the hazards ratio for DFS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–1.09; P =.13); the 5-year DFS rate was 42% in the observation arm and 53% in the rIL-2 treatment arm. The hazards ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.23; P =.34); the 5-year OS rate was 58% for the observation arm and 63% for the rIL-2 treatment arm. Twenty-five of the 107 patients randomized to treatment with rIL-2 either refused or were unable to initiate therapy and 30 patients did not complete their assigned therapy. However, significant toxicities were not commonly observed. The trial design did not anticipate the difficulties patients would encounter with protocol compliance. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of immunotherapy with rIL-2 administered after intensive postremission treatment was not assessed as planned because of unexpected refusals by patients and/or their physicians to comply with protocol-directed therapy. Neither DFS nor OS was found to be significantly improved. PMID:24382782

Kolitz, Jonathan E.; George, Stephen L.; Benson, Don M.; Maharry, Kati; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L.; Allen, Steven L.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Shea, Thomas C.; Stock, Wendy; Bakan, Courtney E.; Hars, Vera; Hoke, Eva; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.



Leukocyte orchestration in blood and tumour tissue following interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.  


With the objective of evaluating leukocyte orchestration in situ, serial blood samples and tumour tissue core needle biopsies were obtained at baseline and repeated after 1 month of therapy, among 49 consecutive single-institution patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Patients were treated with outpatient low-dose subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) alone (n = 23) or in combination with histamine dihydrochloride (n = 26). Objective responses were achieved in ten of 49 patients (20%) with an overall median survival of 14 months and an estimated 1- to 4-year survival rate of 57, 35, 24 and 22%, respectively. Toxicity was mild to moderate with no treatment-related deaths. High numbers of blood monocytes and neutrophils were significantly correlated to short survival. By contrast, high numbers of intratumoural CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD57+ lymphocytes were positively correlated to objective response and/or long-term survival. Intratumoural lymphocytes showed low zeta expression, whereas blood lymphocytes showed almost normal levels of zeta expression. Neutrophils, the most frequent peripheral blood leukocyte subset, were scarce within the tumour tissue. Intratumoural eosinophils were not observed. In progressing patients, both the absolute number and the relative composition of leukocyte subsets in blood and tumour tissue remained unaffected by cytokine therapy. However, in responding patients, cytokine therapy was followed by an absolute and relative increase in T cells in blood as well as tumour tissue, an absolute and relative reduction in neutrophils in peripheral blood and a relative reduction of intratumoural macrophages. Histamine did not influence levels of intratumoural or blood leukocyte numbers, zeta-chain expression or cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the present regimen of outpatient low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 and IFN-alpha in mRCC should attract interest based on response, survival and toxicity. In responding patients, cytokine therapy was followed by substantial changes in the blood and tumour tissue leukocyte composition, correlated to response and survival. No discernable differences in immunologic parameters studied could be detected between histamine- and nonhistamine-treated patients. PMID:15088127

Donskov, Frede; Bennedsgaard, Karen Marie; Hokland, Marianne; Marcussen, Niels; Fisker, Rune; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp; Fode, Kirsten; von der Maase, Hans



Effect of heavy-ion beam irradiation on the level of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptors in hamster cheek pouch carcinoma model  

PubMed Central

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) is a glycoprotein derived from ? chain of interleukin 2 receptors of mononuclear as well as T-cell membranes. The aims of this study were to detect the changes of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels following heavy-ion beam irradiation in the hamster model with cheek pouch carcinoma, as well as to examine the impact of immune status of the hamster cheek pouch carcinoma model using heavy-ion beam irradiation. sIL-2R serum levels were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 40 hamsters bearing cheek pouch carcinoma prior to and following exposure to heavy-ion beam irradiation, and 8 normal animals served as the control. The sIL-2R serum level in hamster cheek pouch carcinoma model was significantly increased as compared to the normal control group (P<0.05). Results showed that an increase in the irradiation dose led to a gradual decrease in the sIL-2R serum level. Additionally, a statistical significance was observed compared to the tumor group (P<0.05). In conclusion, alterations in serum sIL-2R expression have an effect on the hamsters cheek pouch carcinoma model subsequent to heavy-ion beam irradiation. An increase in the irradiation dose indicated a decreased tendency in serum sIL-2R content. Detection of serum level changes may lead to an improved understanding of heavy-ion irradiation in vivo immune status, which is crucial for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. It can also provide a sensitive indicator to help estimate the effects of heavy-ion cancer targets. PMID:24748984




An Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Drug Attenuates T- Helper 1 Lymphocytes-Mediated Inflammation in an Acute Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers) was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-?, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60–70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INF?. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. PMID:24595020

Navea, Amparo; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach, Maria; Bosch-Morell, Francisco



Uncoupling of c-myc mRNA expression from G1 events in human T lymphocytes.  


Normal human T-cells were grown in interleukin 2 (IL-2) until they became quiescent. Treatment with the phorbol-ester Phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PBt2) made the cells competent to respond to IL-2 by expression of high affinity IL-2 receptors. These cells could be considered as G1 cells as they also displayed increased uridine incorporation, but they did not proceed into the S phase. c-myc mRNA expression was induced both by the phorbol ester and by IL-2, provided that receptors were present. A pulse with PBt2 increased c-myc mRNA transiently, while responsiveness to IL-2 and IL-2 receptors was maintained long after c-myc expression had subsided. IL-2 induced and maintained c-myc mRNA levels for more than 10h. Thus c-myc mRNA was expressed both when the cells were made competent to respond to the growth factor and when the cells progressed towards and through the S phase. In T lymphocytes c-myc mRNA expression was thus regulated in a complex way and was not necessary for maintaining G1 functions. PMID:3128958

Friedrich, B; Gullberg, M; Lundgren, E



Construction, electrochemically biosensing and discrimination of recombinant plasmid (pEThIL-2) on the basis of interleukine-2 DNA insert.  


Construction, electrochemically biosensing and discrimination of recombinant pEThIL-2 plasmid, with 5839bp size, on the basis of interleukine-2 (IL-2) DNA insert are described. Plasmid pEThIL-2 was constructed by PCR amplification of IL-2 encoding DNA and subcloning into pET21a(+) vector using BamHI and SacI sites. The recombinant pEThIL-2 plasmid was detected with a label-free DNA hybridization biosensor using a non-inosine substituted probe. The proposed sensor was made up by immobilization of a 20-mer antisense single strand oligonucleotide (chIL-2) related to the human interleukine-2 gene on the pencil graphite electrode (PGE) as a probe and then the sensing of recombinant pEThIL-2 plasmid was conducted by anodic differential pulse voltammetry (ADPV) based on guanine oxidation signal. Selectivity of the detection was assessed with pET21a(+) non-complementary plasmid, with 5443bp size, lacking IL-2 encoding DNA. Different factors such as electrode activation conditions and washing strategy were tested in order to eliminate the nonspecific adsorption of pET21a(+). We have found that the PGE activation for 300s produces a condition in which desorption of nonspecifically adsorbed plasmids from the electrode surface can be achieved by 300s washing of the electrode in 20mM Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.0) containing 20mM NaCl. Diagnostic performance of the biosensor is described and the detection limit is found to be 10.31pg/microL. PMID:18316186

Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid; Pournaghi-Azar, Mohammad Hossein; Alipour, Esmaeel; Karimi, Farrokh



Retinoids synergize with interleukin-2 to augment IFN-gamma and interleukin-12 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  


We have demonstrated previously that cells from both the skin and peripheral blood from patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) have elevated levels of protein and mRNA for Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, and depressed levels of Thl cytokines, IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Furthermore, IL-12 in vitro can restore IFN-gamma production by these patients' cells to near normal levels. Because retinoids exert therapeutic activity in CTCL and are potent modulators of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, we investigated the role of retinoids in modulating Thl cytokine production. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal donors and patients with CTCL were cultured with medium, IL-2, 13-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid, acetretin or etretinate alone, or IL-2 plus the retinoids for 24 h, and levels of IFN-gamma were determined using ELISA. IL-2 or retinoids alone could induce low but significant levels of IFN-gamma. However, when IL-2 was cultured with each retinoid, a synergistic augmentation of IFN-gamma levels (4-fold to 90-fold) was observed except in the case of etretinate. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was the most potent IFN-y inducer. Similar studies performed using PBMC from CTCL patients indicated the IFN-gamma augmentation occurred but in a blunted manner. The IFN-y-inducing effect of ATRA and 13-cis-retinoic acid could be abrogated by addition of anti-IL-12 antibodies, suggesting that IL-12 plays a role in the synergistic upregulation of IFN-gamma. Using an IL-12 p40-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA), we confirmed the presence of IL-12 in IL-2 plus retinoid-treated culture supernatants. Purified monocytes cultured with IL-2 plus ATRA did not secrete IL-12. Only when monocytes were cocultured with lymphocytes was there an increase in IL-12 production, suggesting the involvement of a paracrine feedback loop requiring both monocytes and lymphocytes. These data suggest that retinoids can induce Th1 cytokines from normal and CTCL PBMC and that this induction may be mediated through IL-12 production. PMID:10334392

Fox, F E; Kubin, M; Cassin, M; Niu, Z; Trinchieri, G; Cooper, K D; Rook, A H



Effect of etanercept (Enbrel) on interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and markers of immune activation in HIV-infected subjects receiving interleukin 2.  


The effect of etanercept, a soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor:Fc fusion protein (Enbrel; Immunex, Seattle, WA) on plasma cytokines was evaluated in 11 HIV-infected subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for 28 weeks with or without subcutaneous or intravenous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2). Plasma IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increased after rhIL-2 treatment. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated these increases. Median plasma IL-6 levels were 20.29 pg/ml 4 days after rhIL-2 and 7.87 pg/ml 4 days after etanercept and rhIL-2 (p = 0.22); median CRP levels were 78.73 and 46.16 microg/ml, respectively (p = 0.03). An effect on TNF bioactivity could not be assessed as all measurements were below limits of detection. No significant changes were seen in temperature or plasma levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, interferon gamma, or HIV-1 RNA levels. All subjects had undetectable or low-level HIV-1 RNA levels before etanercept dosing. One subject died; however, her death was thought to be unrelated to etanercept. Pretreatment with etanercept may blunt activation of IL-6 and CRP expression induced by rhIL-2. The safety and utility of etanercept in HIV-infected persons should be explored further. PMID:12079562

Sha, Beverly E; Valdez, Hernan; Gelman, Rebecca S; Landay, Alan L; Agosti, Jan; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Pollard, Richard B; Mildvan, Donna; Namkung, Ann; Ogata-Arakaki, Debra M; Fox, Lawrence; Estep, Scharla; Erice, Alejo; Kilgo, Patrick; Walker, Robert E; Bancroft, Lynne; Lederman, Michael M



65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nishida, Eisuke (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Kubota, Ichiro (Suntory Bio-Pharma Tech Center, Gunma (Japan)); Kohno, Michiaki (Gifu Pharmaceutical Univ., (Japan))



In vitro and in vivo effect of interleukin-2 on the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells  

SciTech Connect

The in vitro and in vivo influence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase activity and natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Incubation of PBMCs in vitro with IL-2 resulted in a considerable secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and in a significant elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, as well as NK activity. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibodies inhibited the elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, but not the IL-2-induced augmentation of NK activity. Additionally, 2-5A synthetase and NK activity of PBMCs was measured in a child with neuroblastoma that was treated with recombinant IL-2 by continuous intravenous application. During the treatment, NK activity against the NK-sensitive cell line K 562 and against autologous tumor cells was not augmented. However, a significant increase of 2-5A synthetase activity in PBMCs was observed during IL-2 treatment, whereas there was no detectable serum level of IFN-gamma. We conclude that measuring 2-5A synthetase activity in patients treated with IL-2 may be helpful in monitoring the immunomodulatory effects of IL-2 on immune effector cells.

Handgretinger, R.; Bruchelt, G.; Kimmig, A.; Lang, P.; Daurer, B.; Dopfer, R.; Treuner, J.; Niethammer, D. (Children's Univ. Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany, F.R.))



Pentoxifylline suppresses interleukin-2-mediated activation of immature human natural killer cells by inhibiting endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion.  


We recently reported that immature human peripheral blood-derived natural killer (NK) cells, the free NK subset, can be activated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) to become killer cells and to undergo proliferation. Activation by IL-2 is dependent on endogenous secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by the free cells. Because pentoxifylline (PTX) inhibits TNF-alpha synthesis and secretion in monocytes, we hypothesized that PTX may also inhibit TNF-alpha secretion by NK cells and thus would inhibit IL-2-mediated activation of free cells. The free NK cells were separated from purified NK cells by flow cytometry and cell sorting of non-target binding cells. IL-2-mediated secretion of TNF-alpha by the free cells was inhibited by PTX. In the presence of PTX, IL-2-mediated activation of free cells into cytotoxic function, proliferation, and recruitment of binder and killer cells was markedly inhibited. Also, PTX inhibited IL-2-triggered upregulation of the expression of CD69, CD25, ICAM-1, and p75TNF-R on the cell surface. These findings demonstrate that PTX has a marked suppression on IL-2-mediated activation of immature free NK cells and that the suppression is due, in large part, to PTX-mediated inhibition of endogenous TNF-alpha secretion. The implication of these findings in the clinical use of PTX for therapy is discussed. PMID:8132735

Jewett, A; Bonavida, B



High-dose systemic interleukin-2 therapy in stage IV neuroblastoma for one year after autologous bone marrow transplantation: pilot study.  


Despite intensified chemotherapy protocols, including autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT), stage IV neuroblastoma has a poor prognosis, and modern therapeutic trends are aimed at the eradication of minimal residual disease, which is though to be the main factor leading to relapse. In this pilot study, we report the systemic administration of high doses of interleukin-2 after ABMT in four patients. Five day cycles of IL-2 at a dose of 18 x 10(6) IU/m2/day were administered at variable time intervals as frequent as it was necessary to maintain the levels of natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity higher than the median control value (40 LU/ml blood) throughout 1 year from the start of first IL-2 treatment. After IL-2 infusion, NK and LAK activities increased significantly (median 742 x 10(-3) LU/ml blood and 186.8 x 10(-3) LU/ml blood, respectively). Toxicities were transient and no life-threatening complications were observed. Fever, anorexia, skin rash and enlarged liver were always present. Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and and eosinophilia occurred following most of the IL-2 courses. Although the small number of patients does not allow an estimation of the immunomodulatory-antineoplasic effects of IL-2, the results seem promising for the management of neuroblastoma patients. PMID:8888813

Pardo, N; Martí, F; Fraga, G; Illa, J; Badell, I; Peiró, M; Bertran, E; García, J; Rueda, F; Cubells, J



The diphtheria toxin transmembrane domain as a pH sensitive membrane anchor for human interleukin-2 and murine interleukin-3.  


We have constructed two fusion proteins T-hIL-2 and T-mIL-3 in which human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) or murine interleukin-3 (mIL-3) are fused to the C-terminus of the diphtheria toxin transmembrane domain (T domain). Two additional fusion proteins, T-(Gly4-Ser)2-hIL-2 and T-(Gly4-Ser)2-mIL-3, were derived by introduction of the (Gly4-Ser)2 spacer between the T domain and cytokine components. Recognition of the hIL-2 receptor or the mIL-3 receptor by the corresponding recombinant proteins was demonstrated by their capacity to stimulate cytokine-dependent cell lines. All proteins retained the capacity of the T domain to insert into phospholipid membranes at acidic pH. Finally, anchoring of both cytokines to the membrane of lipid vesicles or living cells was assessed by specific antibody recognition. Our results show that the T domain fused to the N-terminus of a given protein can function as a pH sensitive membrane anchor for that protein. PMID:9876934

Liger, D; Nizard, P; Gaillard, C; vanderSpek, J C; Murphy, J R; Pitard, B; Gillet, D



Cloning of R kappa B, a novel DNA-binding protein that recognizes the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain kappa B site.  


Transcriptional activation of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL-2R alpha) gene in T cells is dependent on a regulatory element that can bind NF-kappa B but differs in sequence and function from the kappa B site of the immunoglobulin (Ig) enhancer. To define the molecular basis of gene-specific regulation by this variant kappa B site, we have used electrophoretic mobility shift assays to characterize a novel gene product, designated R kappa B, that binds preferentially to the related kappa B site in IL-2R alpha. A cDNA encoding this 107-kD protein has been isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library by screening with a probe containing the IL-2R alpha kappa B site. R kappa B is a tissue-specific transcription factor that contains an amino acid sequence similar to a discrete region of the myogenic regulatory protein MyoD, but is unrelated to other DNA-binding proteins, including those belonging to the rel/dorsal gene family. This novel kappa B binding protein may therefore contribute to the regulation of distinct cellular and viral genes with variant kappa B sites. PMID:1777480

Adams, B S; Leung, K Y; Hanley, E W; Nabel, G J



Expression of avian influenza haemagglutinin (H5) and chicken interleukin 2 (chIL-2) under control of the ptcB promoter in Lactococcus lactis.  


Gram-positive and nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of new, safe systems of heterologous protein expression. Recombinant LAB has been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens, and could be a good alternative to classical attenuated carriers. The main goal of our study was to express the avian influenza haemagglutinin (H5) and chicken interleukin 2 (chIL-2) in Lactococcus lactis. Results of this study were anticipated to lead to construction of lactococcal strain(s) with potential vaccine properties against the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Expression of the cloned H5 gene, its His-tagged variant and chIL-2 gene, under the control of the ptcB gene promoter was attested by RT-PCR on transcriptional level and Western or dot blot analysis on translational level, demonstrating that system can be an attractive solution for production of heterologous proteins. The results of the preliminary animal trial conducted in mice are a promising step toward development of a vaccine against avian bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as antigen carriers. PMID:25273565

Szatraj, Katarzyna; Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K; S?czy?ska, Violetta; Florys, Katarzyna; Gromadzka, Beata; Lepek, Krzysztof; P?ucienniczak, Gra?yna; Szewczyk, Bogus?aw; Zagórski-Ostoja, W?odzimierz; Bardowski, Jacek



Synergistic induction by calcium ionophore and phorbol ester of interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation in autoimmune MRL/MP-lpr mice.  

PubMed Central

MRL/MP-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) mice spontaneously develop an age-related autoimmune disease concomitant with interleukin-2 (IL-2) defects. Induction of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-2 production and subsequent de novo DNA synthesis in MRL/l mice by the tumour-promoting phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and calcium ionophore (A23187) were examined. These two compounds given together induced significant IL-2R expression, IL-2 production, and de novo DNA synthesis of spleen cells from this murine strain, as did concanavalin A (Con A) plus TPA. TPA and A23187 may bypass the early steps of activation by mitogens in murine lymphocytes. However, even though these IL-2 defects could be overcome to some extent, the response of MRL/l mice to these stimuli was considerably lower than the enhanced IL-2R expression and IL-2 production of MRL/MP-+/+(MRL/n) control mice. These results suggested that the failure to respond to mitogens in these mice may be due, at least in part, to failure of receptor signal transduction, and to defects of molecular and biochemical reactions following signal transduction. PMID:3093371

Koizumi, T; Nakao, Y; Matsui, T; Katakami, Y; Nakagawa, T; Fujita, T



Mechanism of action of glucocorticosteroids. Inhibition of T cell proliferation and interleukin 2 production by hydrocortisone is reversed by leukotriene B4.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism whereby glucocorticosteroids are immunosuppressive is unknown. One potential mechanism of action of these compounds is inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism. We found that the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by hydrocortisone or dexamethasone was mimicked by nonspecific lipoxygenase inhibitors and also by a specific 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, but not by a specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Mitogen-stimulated cultures of T cells produce approximately 5 X 10(-9) M leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in 24 h. This production of LTB4 is completely inhibited by concentrations of hydrocortisone or lipoxygenase inhibitors that inhibit mitogen-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation. The inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by either hydrocortisone or by the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor was totally reversed by LTB4 but not by leukotriene C4 or leukotriene D4. LTB4 had no effect on the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by noncorticosteroids such as prostaglandin E2, histamine, or gamma-interferon. The inhibition of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by hydrocortisone or dexamethasone was also completely reversed by exogenous LTB4. LTB4 alone did not cause IL-2 production or cell proliferation when added to resting lymphocytes. Thus, endogenous LTB4 production appears to be necessary but not sufficient for phytohemagglutinin-induced IL-2 production and lymphocyte proliferation. Glucocorticosteroids inhibit IL-2 production and lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting endogenous LTB4 production. Images PMID:3007577

Goodwin, J S; Atluru, D; Sierakowski, S; Lianos, E A



Treatment of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with continuous infusion of low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 in combination with the B-cell-specific monoclonal antibody CLB-CD19  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of a murine monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell-specific antigen CD19 (CLB-CD10), given twice weekly, and continuous infusion of low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). We demonstrated stable serum CLB-CD19 levels throughout the 12 weeks of treatment, and homing of the antibody into the tumour sites. A variable degree of antigenic

L. Tom Vlasveld; Annemarie Hekman; Florry A. Vyth-Dreese; Cornelis J. M. Melief; Johan J. Sein; Arie C. Voordouw; Trees A. M. Dellemijn; Elaine M. Rankin



Effects of systemic in vivo interleukin-2 (IL2) reconstitution in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) on phenotypes and functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of a clinical phase I\\/II therapy study with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), we monitored immunological alterations in four patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and three patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC). By determining the surface phenotypes andin vitro functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before, during, and after treatment with rIL-2, we observed transient changes in

Martin Ernst; Peter Kern; Hans-Dieter Flad; Artur J. Ulmer



Augmented human-tumor-cytolytic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and cells from a mixed lymphocyte\\/tumor culture activated by interleukin-12 plus interleukin-2, and the phenotypic characterization of the cells in patients with advanced carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the ability of combination regimens of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) to induce effective killer cells against human tumors in vitro, in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 15 cancer patients and mixed lymphocyte\\/tumor culture (MLTC) cells from 16 cancer patients, and carried out a phenotypic analysis of the cells responsible for the lysis of the

Shohei Koyama



Serum levels of soluble Fas, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor II, interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-8 as early predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus genotype-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Liver disease progression from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with an imbalance between T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 cytokines. Evaluation of cytokines as possible candidate biomarkers for prediction of HCC was performed using soluble Fas (sFas), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-II (sTNFR-II), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). RESULTS: The following patients

Abdel-Rahman N Zekri; Hanaa M Alam El-Din; Abeer A Bahnassy; Naglaa A Zayed; Waleed S Mohamed; Suzan H El-Masry; Sayed K Gouda; Gamal Esmat



Phase I trial of biochemotherapy with cisplatin, temozolomide, and dose escalation of nab-paclitaxel combined with interleukin-2 and interferon-? in patients with metastatic melanoma.  


The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety, toxicity, and maximum tolerated dose of nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel as part of biochemotherapy for metastatic melanoma and to determine whether substituting nab-paclitaxel for less potent agents could increase response rates and duration. Treatment consisted of intravenous cisplatin (20 mg/m) on days 1-4, oral temozolomide (250 mg/m) on days 1-3, subcutaneous interferon-? (5×10 IU/m) on days 1-5, and continuous intravenous interleukin-2 (9×10 IU/m) for 96 h on days 1-4. A standard 3+3 dose escalation method was used; the nab-paclitaxel starting dose was 100 mg/m on day 1 and 70 mg/m on day 5. The treatment cycle was repeated every 3 weeks and toxicity was assessed weekly. Ten patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities included diarrhea, transaminasemia, and neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose was not identified because the nab-paclitaxel dose on day 1 at the lowest planned dose (80 mg/m) caused dose-limiting toxicity in two of five patients. Of the nine patients who were evaluable for response, five had a partial response. The median time to disease progression was 5.30 months and the median overall survival was 8.73 months. Six patients developed central nervous system metastasis at a median of 5.33 months after treatment initiation. Biochemotherapy including nab-paclitaxel according to the doses and schedule regimen used in the present study has significant toxicity. Substituting dacarbazine with temozolomide did not prevent central nervous system metastasis in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:24743052

Alrwas, Anas; Papadopoulos, Nicholas E; Cain, Suzanne; Patel, Sapna P; Kim, Kevin B; Deburr, Tawania L; Bassett, Roland; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Bedikian, Agop Y; Davies, Michael A; Woodman, Scott E; Hwu, Patrick



A membrane-proximal region of the interleukin-2 receptor gamma c chain sufficient for Jak kinase activation and induction of proliferation in T cells.  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R) consists of three distinct subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma c) and regulates proliferation of T lymphocytes. Intracellular signalling results from ligand-mediated heterodimerization of the cytoplasmic domains of the beta and gamma c chains. To identify the residues of gamma c critical to this process, mutations were introduced into the cytoplasmic domain, and the effects on signalling were analyzed in the IL-2-dependent T-cell line CTLL2 and T-helper clone D10, using chimeric IL-2R chains that bind and are activated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Whereas previous studies of fibroblasts and transformed T cells have suggested that signalling by gamma c requires both membrane-proximal and C-terminal subdomains, our results for IL-2-dependent T cells demonstrate that the membrane-proximal 52 amino acids are sufficient to mediate a normal proliferative response, including induction of the proto-oncogenes c-myc and c-fos. Although gamma c is phosphorylated on tyrosine upon receptor activation and could potentially interact with downstream molecules containing SH2 domains, cytoplasmic tyrosine residues were dispensable for mitogenic signalling. However, deletion of a membrane-proximal region conserved among other cytokine receptors (cytoplasmic residues 5 to 37) or an adjacent region unique to gamma c (residues 40 to 52) abrogated functional interaction of the receptor chain with the tyrosine kinase Jak3. This correlated with a loss of all signalling events analyzed, including phosphorylation of the IL-2R beta-associated kinase Jak1, expression of c-myc and c-fos, and induction of the proliferative response. Thus, it appears in T cells that Jak3 is a critical mediator of mitogenic signaling by the gamma c chain. PMID:8524310

Nelson, B H; Lord, J D; Greenberg, P D



T-independent and T-dependent B lymphoblasts: helper T cells prime for interleukin 2-induced growth and secretion of immunoglobulins that utilize downstream heavy chains  

PubMed Central

Resting B cells enlarge, enter the cell cycle, and change their surface phenotype when activated via the surface immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor, but subsequent cell growth and antibody production is relatively limited. To identify stimuli that might prime B cells for enhanced function in vitro, we have compared the effects of anti-Ig with helper T (Th) cells on the formation of B lymphoblasts and the subsequent ability of the blasts to grow and secrete Ig. The B blasts first were induced by either anti-Ig, anti-Ig plus T cell-derived lymphokines, or alloreactive T blasts. Each population of B blasts showed enhanced expression of cell surface adhesion molecules, interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) p55, and MHC products, as well as decreased expression of IgD. The allo-activated B blasts were distinctive in expressing low levels of Thy-1 and increased reactivity with peanut agglutinin, a marker of germinal center B blasts in situ. The function of the different populations of B blasts was also different. Whereas anti-Ig or anti-Ig plus lymphokines primed for enhanced responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the B blasts induced by Th cells were insensitive to LPS. B lymphoblasts that had been activated in the presence of helper factors or Th cells responded vigorously to recombinant IL-2 with growth and Ig secretion, and this response was enhanced in the presence of anti-Ig. The B blasts activated directly by Th cells, but not by anti-Ig plus lymphokines, were primed to secrete high levels of IgG1 and IgA. Therefore, the phenotype and function of a B lymphoblast depends upon the manner in which it is primed. When primed by Th cells, IL-2 proves to be the predominant mediator of clonal expansion and antibody secretion. PMID:1825505



Pilot trial of interleukin-2 and zoledronic acid to augment ?? T cells as treatment for patients with refractory renal cell carcinoma.  


Prior to the advent of VEGF-targeted therapies, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was among the few solid tumors shown to respond to cytokine-based therapies such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha. Previous work has shown that aminobisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid (ZA), are capable of activating human V?9 V?2 T cells in vitro, and these cells can be further expanded with IL-2. Moreover, these V?9 V?2 T cells have cytolytic activity in vitro to multiple human tumor cell lines. In the current report, we have conducted a pilot trial in patients with metastatic RCC, evaluating different doses of ZA in combination with low-dose IL-2 to determine whether combining these agents can promote in vivo proliferation of V?9 V?2 T cells and elicit an antitumor response. In 12 patients evaluated, no objective clinical responses were observed by RECIST criteria; however, two patients experienced prolonged stable disease. A modest increase in V?9 V?2 T-cell frequency could be detected by Day 8 of therapy in four of the nine patients who received at least one cycle of therapy, but not to the magnitude anticipated from preclinical models. Repeated administration of IL-2 and ZA resulted in both a diminished in vivo percentage of V?9 V?2 T cells as well as impaired expansion in vitro after the first cycle of therapy. These results suggest that repeated administration of IL-2 and ZA, at the doses and schedules used in this trial, may actually inhibit the proliferative capacity of V?9 V?2 T cell in patients with metastatic RCC. PMID:21647691

Lang, Joshua M; Kaikobad, Mahazarin R; Wallace, Marianne; Staab, Mary Jane; Horvath, Dorothea L; Wilding, George; Liu, Glenn; Eickhoff, Jens C; McNeel, Douglas G; Malkovsky, Miroslav



Pilot trial of interleukin-2 and zoledronic acid to augment ?? T cells as treatment for patients with refractory renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Prior to the advent of VEGF-targeted therapies, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was among the few solid tumors shown to respond to cytokine-based therapies such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha. Previous work has shown that aminobisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid (ZA), are capable of activating human V?9 V?2 T cells in vitro, and these cells can be further expanded with IL-2. Moreover, these V?9 V?2 T cells have cytolytic activity in vitro to multiple human tumor cell lines. In the current report, we have conducted a pilot trial in patients with metastatic RCC, evaluating different doses of ZA in combination with low-dose IL-2 to determine whether combining these agents can promote in vivo proliferation of V?9 V?2 T cells and elicit an antitumor response. In 12 patients evaluated, no objective clinical responses were observed by RECIST criteria; however, two patients experienced prolonged stable disease. A modest increase in V?9 V?2 T-cell frequency could be detected by Day 8 of therapy in four of the nine patients who received at least one cycle of therapy, but not to the magnitude anticipated from preclinical models. Repeated administration of IL-2 and ZA resulted in both a diminished in vivo percentage of V?9 V?2 T cells as well as impaired expansion in vitro after the first cycle of therapy. These results suggest that repeated administration of IL-2 and ZA, at the doses and schedules used in this trial, may actually inhibit the proliferative capacity of V?9 V?2 T cell in patients with metastatic RCC. PMID:21647691

Lang, Joshua M.; Kaikobad, Mahazarin R.; Wallace, Marianne; Staab, Mary Jane; Horvath, Dorothea L.; Wilding, George; Liu, Glenn; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Malkovsky, Miroslav



Effect of interleukin-2 on the biodistribution of technetium-99m-labelled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody in mice bearing human tumour xenografts.  


We have evaluated whether interleukin-2 (IL-2) at low doses can enhance delivery of radionuclides to tumour sites by improving the access of the radio-labelled antibody. The effects of 1000 or 2000 units of IL-2 on the biodistribution of technetium-99m-labelled anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, ZCE025, in athymic mice bearing human CEA-positive tumour (MKN45) xenografts were investigated. Treatment with IL-2 resulted in a significantly higher tumour uptake (1.2-1.5-fold) compared with the control group. Some normal organs, such as heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidneys, showed increased 99mTc uptake following the IL-2 treatment. Pretreatment with IL-2 also induced an enhancement of the permeability index for mouse IgG in tumours and in normal organs, whereas the blood flow in both normal organs and tumours remained at control levels. The effects of IL-2 were found to be dose-dependent. The IL-2 treatment increased the plasma CEA levels but not the CEA content in tumour tissues, suggesting that IL-2 enhanced the leakage of CEA from tumour to blood. The enhancement ratios of the tumour 99mTc-ZCE025 uptake following treatment with IL-2 were 1.4 and 1.8 in mice bearing small and large tumours, respectively. Our experimental results indicated that the low dose of IL-2 enhanced the vascular permeability sufficiently to increase the amount of antibody delivered to the tumour target. Administration of IL-2 would render radioimmunotherapy more effective, especially in patients with large tumour burdens. PMID:7995285

Nakamura, K; Kubo, A



Fractalkine (CX3CL1)- and interleukin-2-enriched neuroblastoma microenvironment induces eradication of metastases mediated by T cells and natural killer cells.  


Fractalkine (FKN) is a unique CX3C chemokine (CX3CL1) known to induce both adhesion and migration of leukocytes mediated by a membrane-bound and a soluble form, respectively. Its function is mediated through CX3C receptor (CX3CR), which is expressed by T(H)1 immune cells including T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. FKN was shown to be expressed in >90% of 68 neuroblastoma samples as determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Here, we characterized the effect of FKN in the neuroblastoma microenvironment using a syngeneic model genetically engineered to secrete FKN. We show FKN-mediated migration, adhesion, and IFN-gamma secretion of immune effector cells, but limited antineuroblastoma activity, in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a combined increase of FKN and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the neuroblastoma microenvironment induces an effective antitumor immune response. For this purpose, IL-2 was targeted to ganglioside GD2, which is highly expressed on neuroblastoma tissue, using an anti-GD2 antibody IL-2 immunocytokine (ch14.18-IL-2). Only mice bearing FKN- and IL-2-enriched neuroblastoma tumors exhibited a reduction in primary tumor growth and a complete eradication of experimental liver metastases. The depletion of T cells and NK cells in vivo abrogated the effect, and these effector cells showed the highest cytolytic activity in vitro. Finally, only the FKN- and IL-2-enriched neuroblastoma microenvironment resulted in T-cell activation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, we showed for the first time the immunologic mechanisms by which targeted IL-2 treatment of neuroblastoma with an FKN-rich microenvironment induces an effective antitumor response. PMID:17332365

Zeng, Yan; Huebener, Nicole; Fest, Stefan; Weixler, Silke; Schroeder, Ulrike; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Xiang, Rong; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Lode, Holger N



A randomised dose escalation study of subcutaneous interleukin 2 with and without levamisole in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the efficacy, toxicity and host immunological response of two different dose schedules of interleukin 2 (IL-2) given subcutaneously, daily for 3 months in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or metastatic melanoma (MM). We also examined the effect of adding the immune modulator levamisole to the two different schedules of IL-2. Thirty-nine patients were entered into two sequential phase I/II studies. Eighteen patients entered study 1 and were randomised to receive IL-2, 3 x 10(6) IU m-2 day-1, subcutaneously for 3 months with or without levamisole 50 mg t.d.s. p.o. on days 1-3 on alternate weeks. Twenty-one patients entered study 2 and were randomised to receive 5.4 x 10(6) IU m-2 day-1 subcutaneously for 3 months with or without levamisole 50 mg t.d.s. p.o. on days 1-3 on alternate weeks. Blood was taken for peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) phenotype analysis, and measurement of IL-2, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and neopterin concentration. Two patients with metastatic melanoma, one in each study, responded (11.8%); both received IL-2 alone. Observations of immunological parameters showed that treatment with subcutaneous IL-2 resulted in a significant rise in the percentage of PBLs bearing CD25, CD3/HLA-DR, CD56 and levels of IL-2 receptor and neopterin. The total white blood cell count (WBC) and total lymphocyte count rose significantly on day 18 compared with pretreatment levels. The addition of levamisole to either IL-2 schedule resulted in no significant changes in any immunological parameters. This study illustrates that prolonged subcutaneous IL-2 can be given safely in the outpatient setting. There was no evidence that levamisole acts as an immunomodulator in this study. PMID:8855983

Ahmed, F. Y.; Leonard, G. A.; A'Hern, R.; Taylor, A. E.; Lorentzos, A.; Atkinson, H.; Moore, J.; Nicolson, M. C.; Riches, P. G.; Gore, M. E.



Infection by mink cell focus-forming viruses confers interleukin 2 (IL-2) independence to an IL-2-dependent rat T-cell lymphoma line.  

PubMed Central

The development of T-cell lymphomas in rodents infected with type C retroviruses has been linked to the generation of a class of envelope (env) recombinant viruses called mink cell focus-forming viruses (MCF viruses) in the preleukemic thymus. To determine whether infection by MCF viruses altered the growth phenotype of retrovirus-induced T-cell lymphomas, a Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent rat T-cell lymphoma line (4437A) was infected with MCF-247, modified MCF-V33 (mMCF-V33), or NZB-xenotropic (NZB-X) virus. The effects of virus infection on the IL-2 dependence of these cells was examined by cultivating them in the absence of IL-2. After IL-2 withdrawal, the uninfected and NZB-X-infected cells went through a crisis period characterized by massive death. All the independently maintained cultures of MCF- and mMCF-V33-infected cells, on the other hand, became IL-2 independent without a crisis. All the polytropic virus-infected IL-2-independent cultures contained a population of cells that was polyclonal with regard to polytropic provirus integration. Over this polyclonal background each culture produced multiple clones of cells that were selected rapidly after IL-2 withdrawal. Furthermore, the resulting MCF- or mMCF-V33-infected IL-2-independent cells retained the expression of IL-2 receptor. These data show that MCF and mMCF-V33 viruses may alter the growth phenotype of a T-cell lymphoma line and suggest that their effect on cell growth may be due to the direct interaction of the MCF envelope glycoprotein with cellular components, perhaps the IL-2 receptor. Images PMID:2052545

Tsichlis, P N; Bear, S E



Use of antigen-specific interleukin-2 to differentiate between cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and cattle infected with M. bovis.  


We describe here the application of a novel bovine interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antigen-specific IL-2 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and then experimentally challenged with pathogenic M. bovis. Supernatants from whole-blood cultures stimulated with mycobacterial antigen (bovine purified protein derivative [PPDB] or the peptide cocktail ESAT6-CFP10) were assessed using a sandwich ELISA consisting of a new recombinant monoclonal fragment capture antibody and a commercially available polyclonal anti-bovine-IL-2. The production of IL-2 was compared to the production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) in the same antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants. The data show that cattle infected with M. bovis produced quantifiable levels of antigen-specific IL-2, while IL-2 levels in cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG did not. Furthermore, cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG and then challenged with pathogenic M. bovis displayed a more rapid induction of IL-2 but ultimately had lower levels of infection-induced IL-2 than did unvaccinated challenge control cattle. These data suggest that IL-2 responses are not detectable post-BCG vaccination and that these responses may require infection with virulent M. bovis to develop. This may be useful to differentiate infected cattle from uninfected or BCG-vaccinated cattle, although the overall sensitivity is relatively low, particularly in single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT)-negative infected animals. Furthermore, the strength of the IL-2 response may correlate with pathology, which poses interesting questions on the immunobiology of bovine tuberculosis in contrast to human tuberculosis, which is discussed. PMID:24173026

Rhodes, Shelley G; McKinna, Lucy C; Steinbach, Sabine; Dean, Gilly S; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Whelan, Adam O; Pirson, C; Jones, Gareth J; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, H Martin



Interleukin 2 (IL-2) variants engineered for increased IL-2 receptor alpha-subunit affinity exhibit increased potency arising from a cell surface ligand reservoir effect.  


Proliferation of activated T cells and CD56 bright natural killer (Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 13:169-183, 1995) cells caused by interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been exploited in IL-2-based therapies for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and melanoma (J Clin Oncol 13:688-696, 1995; J Clin Oncol 17: 2105-2116, 1999). In this study, we demonstrate the potentially improved therapeutic value of IL-2 variants engineered to gain 15- to 30-fold increased affinity for the IL-2 receptor alpha-subunit (IL-2Ralpha). A novel pulsed bioassay was used to more closely approximate the rapid systemic clearance pharmacokinetics of cytokines such as IL-2, compared with conventional static bioassays. In this assay, mutants with increased affinity for IL-2Ralpha exhibit significantly increased activity for T-cell proliferation, whereas static bioassays not only fail to reveal the increased activity resulting from enhanced IL-2Ralpha affinity (false negatives), but also suggest improved activity for another mutant without enhanced activity in the pulsed assay (false positive). Our studies on the mechanism leading to increased activity of IL-2 mutants with increased IL-2Ralpha affinity suggest that cell-surface IL-2Ralpha acts as a ligand reservoir for the IL-2 mutants. This leads to increased cell-surface persistence of the IL-2 mutants with increased IL-2Ralpha affinity in cell-surface ligand reservoirs and consequently increased integrated growth signal. Furthermore, a mathematical model predicts increased persistence of cell surface-bound IL-2 in vivo for enhanced IL-2Ralpha-binding IL-2 mutants, suggesting potentially improved therapeutic value of allowing cellular capture of ligands in persistent cell-surface reservoirs. Finally, our findings emphasize the critical choice of appropriate bioassays to evaluate engineered proteins and other drugs. PMID:15385640

Rao, Balaji M; Driver, Ian; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Wittrup, K Dane



Retrospective Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of High-dose Interleukin-2 After Prior Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the most common first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 (HD-IL2) remains the only agent that provides durable complete responses. The optimal sequence of these agents remains uncertain. This retrospective multi-institutional study examined the safety and efficacy of HD-IL2 following TKI therapy. After IRB approval at 7 HD-IL2 centers, data relating to patient, disease, and treatment characteristics among 40 consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with HD-IL2 after at least 1 prior TKI therapy were retrospectively collected. The most common cardiac adverse events were grade 3 hypotension and vascular leak syndrome. Six patients (15%) experienced other grade ?3 cardiac adverse events. There were 2 treatment-related deaths due to congestive heart failure, occurring in 1 patient with short TKI to HD-IL2 interval and another patient with an abnormal baseline cardiac stress test. Best responses included 2 CRs (5%, duration 40+ and 62+ mo), 3 PRs (8%, duration 6, 11, and 24 mo), 13 SD (32%, median duration 12 mo), 20 PD (50%), and 2 not evaluable patients. Median overall survival was 22 months. Administration of HD-IL2 could be safe and effective after TKI therapy; however, careful selection of patients is critical. We recommend baseline cardiac risk factor assessment, screening with both cardiac stress test and echocardiogram, and allowing a TKI to HD-IL2 interval of at least 2 months. PMID:25075565

Wong, Michael K. K.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Redman, Bruce G.; Logan, Theodore; Gao, Dexiang; Flaig, Thomas W.; Lewis, Karl; Poust, Jamie; Monk, Paul; Jarkowski, Anthony; Sendilnathan, Arun; Bolden, Marcus; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Olencki, Thomas



Use of Antigen-Specific Interleukin-2 To Differentiate between Cattle Vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Cattle Infected with M. bovis  

PubMed Central

We describe here the application of a novel bovine interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antigen-specific IL-2 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and then experimentally challenged with pathogenic M. bovis. Supernatants from whole-blood cultures stimulated with mycobacterial antigen (bovine purified protein derivative [PPDB] or the peptide cocktail ESAT6-CFP10) were assessed using a sandwich ELISA consisting of a new recombinant monoclonal fragment capture antibody and a commercially available polyclonal anti-bovine-IL-2. The production of IL-2 was compared to the production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) in the same antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants. The data show that cattle infected with M. bovis produced quantifiable levels of antigen-specific IL-2, while IL-2 levels in cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG did not. Furthermore, cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG and then challenged with pathogenic M. bovis displayed a more rapid induction of IL-2 but ultimately had lower levels of infection-induced IL-2 than did unvaccinated challenge control cattle. These data suggest that IL-2 responses are not detectable post-BCG vaccination and that these responses may require infection with virulent M. bovis to develop. This may be useful to differentiate infected cattle from uninfected or BCG-vaccinated cattle, although the overall sensitivity is relatively low, particularly in single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT)-negative infected animals. Furthermore, the strength of the IL-2 response may correlate with pathology, which poses interesting questions on the immunobiology of bovine tuberculosis in contrast to human tuberculosis, which is discussed. PMID:24173026

McKinna, Lucy C.; Steinbach, Sabine; Dean, Gilly S.; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Whelan, Adam O.; Pirson, C.; Jones, Gareth J.; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, H. Martin



JNK-mediated phosphorylation of DLK suppresses its ubiquitination to promote neuronal apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Neurons are highly polarized cells that often project axons a considerable distance. To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here we describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. These phosphorylation events resulted in increased DLK abundance via reduction of DLK ubiquitination, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase PHR1 and the de-ubiquitinating enzyme USP9X. Abundance of DLK in turn controlled the levels of downstream JNK signaling and apoptosis. Through this feedback mechanism, the ubiquitin–proteasome system is able to provide an additional layer of regulation of retrograde stress signaling to generate a global cellular response to localized external insults. PMID:23979718

Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Wang, Bei; Watkins, Trent; Ghosh, Arundhati Sengupta; Pozniak, Christine D.; Bustos, Daisy; Newton, Kim; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.



The Biology of Interleukin2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin I (IL 1) is a polypeptide that is produced after infection, injury, or antigenic challenge. Although the macrophage is a primary source of IL 1, epidermal, epithelial, lymphoid, and vascular tissues synthesize IL 1. When IL I gains access to the circulation, it acts like a hormone and induces a broad spectrum of systemic changes in neurological, metabolic, hematologic,

Thomas R. Malek



Systems perspectives on mRNA processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of genomic technologies to the study of mRNA processing is increasingly conducted in metazoan organisms in order to understand the complex events that occur during and after transcription. Large-scale systems analyses of mRNA-protein interactions and mRNA dynamics have revealed specificity in mRNA transcription, splicing, transport, translation, and turnover, and have begun to make connections between the different layers

Adrienne E McKee; Pamela A Silver



Lymphocytes infiltrating human ovarian tumors: synergy between tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 in the generation of CD8+ effectors from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.  


Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were isolated by enzymatic digestion and gradient centrifugation from 18 human ovarian carcinomas. These cells were cultured in a complete medium supplemented with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2) alone or recombinant IL2 plus recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and their growth and antitumor cytotoxicity were determined. TIL cultured in the presence of IL2 plus TNF-alpha (1000 units/ml each) for 6 days showed significantly higher cytotoxicity against fresh autologous tumor targets than did TIL cultured with IL2 alone (e.g., mean lytic units/10(7) cells for 8 TIL preparations were 290 versus 74; P less than 0.05). No differences in [3H]thymidine uptake or natural killer cell activity were observed among these TIL cultures. In titration experiments, optimal synergistic concentrations of IL2 and TNF-alpha were determined as 10(2) and 10(3) units/ml, respectively. Using these concentrations for culturing the TIL, effector cells developed which preferentially lysed autologous tumor and displayed a CD8+ phenotype (up to 75% positive). However, the autologous tumor cytotoxicity mediated by these cultured TIL on day 6 was short lived. By day 12, it was replaced by non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted, lymphokine-activated killer cell-like activity mediated by CD3-CD56+ effector cells. Simultaneously, the production of gamma-interferon and interleukin 1 decreased in these cultures. In contrast to TNF-alpha, anti-CD3 antibody synergized with IL2 to increase 2-3-fold TIL proliferation but not their cytotoxic activity against autologous tumor cell targets. These data suggest that TNF-alpha and IL2 synergize early in culture to induce tumor-reactive CD8+ effectors, some of which may be specific for autologous ovarian tumor cells. However, the conditions needed to sustain the specific autologous tumor responses in long-term cultures of human TIL remain to be determined. PMID:2507139

Wang, Y L; Si, L S; Kanbour, A; Herberman, R B; Whiteside, T L



Immunological evaluation of patients with hematological malignancies receiving ambulatory cytokine-mediated immunotherapy with recombinant human interferon-alpha 2a and interleukin-2.  


Immunological parameters were evaluated in patients treated with cytokine-mediated immunotherapy (CMI) consisting of low doses of recombinant human interferon alpha 2a (rIFN alpha) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rIL-2) administered either concomitantly or sequentially by subcutaneous self-injections in an outpatient setting. Twenty-six patients with hematological malignancies and 2 metastatic melanoma patients in a progressive stage were enrolled in this clinical trial. Of the 26 patients, 24 were at a stage of minimal residual disease, including 14 patients who had received autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) 2-5 months previously, 7 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and 3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Two patients (1 CML and 1 mult. myeloma) were treated at a stage of progressive disease. Non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity directed against natural-killer(NK)-resistant (Daudi) and NK-sensitive (K562) target cells was assessed before, during and after CMI, either in fresh peripheral blood samples (spontaneous activity) or after in vitro rIL-2 activation (induced activity). Spontaneous killing activity was low prior to treatment, but increased upon termination of treatment in 10/15 evaluated cycels. rIL-2-activated cytotoxicity in vitro was markedly elevated in 8/12 and 6/8 patients after one and two cycles, respectively, of sequential treatment, as well as in 3/8 CML and 5/6 patients after one and two cycles, respectively, of concomitant treatment. Activation of the T cell mitogenic response was demonstrated in 6/9 patients after concomitant CMI, while no such effect was observed throughout a sequential treatment in lymphoma and leukemia patients after ABMT. Although a direct correlation between immune stimulation and the in vivo antitumor response cannot yet be determined, our clinical observations support a beneficial therapeutic effect in a substantial number of patients. These results indicated that the ambulatory CMI protocol of rIL-2 and rIFN alpha could stimulate the host defense immune system and may be helpful in mediating the in vivo antitumor response in patients with minimal residual disease. PMID:1394343

Morecki, S; Revel-Vilk, S; Nabet, C; Pick, M; Ackerstein, A; Nagler, A; Naparstek, E; Ben Shahar, M; Slavin, S



Proenkephalin mRNA in rat heart.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of preproenkephalin mRNA in rat tissues was investigated using a homologous cDNA probe for detection. The heart was found to contain larger amounts of the mRNA than any other tissue including brain, which heretofore had been considered the richest source. The identity of the message in heart was verified by hybridizing RNA blots with a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide that recognizes a different region of the preproenkephalin mRNA sequence than does the cDNA probe. The preproenkephalin mRNA extracted from both heart and brain contained approximately equal to 1500 bases. Dissection of heart revealed that essentially all of the message is contained within the ventricles. In contrast to the large amounts of preproenkephalin mRNA in rat heart, the opioid peptide contents is only 3% of the amount in brain. The rat heart may be a useful model for the investigation of translation control of protein synthesis. Images PMID:3456615

Howells, R D; Kilpatrick, D L; Bailey, L C; Noe, M; Udenfriend, S



mRNA degradation in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Messenger RNAs in prokaryotes exhibit short half-lives when compared with eukaryotic mRNAs. Considerable progress has been made during recent years in our understanding of mRNA degradation in bacteria. Two major aspects determine the life span of a messenger in the bacterial cell. On the side of the substrate, the structural features of mRNA have a profound influence on the stability

Reinhard Rauhut; Gabriele Klug



Vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA).  


Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the encoded protein. Many preclinical and clinical studies were performed using DNA-based experimental vaccines. However, no such products are yet approved for the human population. Meanwhile, the naturally transient and cytosolically active mRNA molecules are seen as a possibly safer and more potent alternative to DNA for gene vaccination. Optimized mRNA (improved for codon usage, stability, antigen-processing characteristics of the encoded protein, etc.) were demonstrated to be potent gene vaccination vehicles when delivered naked, in liposomes, coated on particles or transfected in dendritic cells in vitro. Human clinical trials indicate that the delivery of mRNA naked or transfected in dendritic cells induces the expected antigen-specific immune response. Follow-up efficacy studies are on the way. Meanwhile, mRNA can be produced in large amounts and GMP quality, allowing the further development of mRNA-based therapies. This chapter describes the structure of mRNA, its possible optimizations for immunization purposes, the different methods of delivery used in preclinical studies, and finally the results of clinical trial where mRNA is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of new innovative vaccines. PMID:18071662

Pascolo, Steve



Temporary regression of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is achieved with a low but not with a high dose of recombinant interleukin 2 injected perilymphatically.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of ten daily injections of 500 or 500,000 U of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) day-1 given 1.5 cm from the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the mastoid was evaluated in 31 patients with recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. No toxic effects were noted. One complete response (CR) and three partial responses (PRs) were observed in the 16 patients who received 500 U of IL-2, whereas the higher dose was not effective. The CR was recorded in one of the seven patients with a oropharyngeal recurrence. Partial responses were obtained in 1/5 patients with hypopharyngeal recurrences, in 1/5 patients with oral cavity recurrences and 1/7 patients with laryngeal recurrences. The duration of the responses was 3-5 months and additional courses of ten injections of IL-2 had no further effect. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8123489

Cortesina, G.; De Stefani, A.; Galeazzi, E.; Cavallo, G. P.; Badellino, F.; Margarino, G.; Jemma, C.; Forni, G.



Two unique mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency arising in opposite parental germ lines  

SciTech Connect

The gene encoding the gamma chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2 lies in human X13.1 and is mutated in males with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). 27 X-linked SCID mutations have been found in our laboratory. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genomic DNA using primers flanking each of the 8 exons was followed by direct sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments from SCID patients and family members. A 9 bp in-frame duplication insertion was found in IL2RG exon 5 of a patient from a large X-linked SCID pedigree; the resulting duplication of 3 extracellular amino acids, including the first tryptophan of the {open_quotes}WSXWS{close_quotes} cytokine binding motif, is predicted to disrupt interaction of the cytokine receptor chain with its ligand. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated that the grandmaternal X chromosome associated with SCID was contributed to 3 daughters, 2 obligate carriers and 1 woman of unknown status. However, this grandmother`s genomic DNA did not contain the insertion mutation, nor did she have skewed X-chromosome inactivation in her lymphocytes. That both obligate carrier daughters, but not the third daughter, had the insertion proved the grandmother to be a germline mosaic. A second proband had X-linked SCID with a branch point mutation due to substitution of T for A 15 bp 5{prime} of the start of IL2RG exon 3. This mutation resulted in undetectable IL2RG mRNA by Northern blot. Linkage analysis and sequencing of IL2RG DNA in this family proved the mutation to have originated in the germline of the proband`s grandfather, an immunocompetent individual who contributed an X chromosome with normal IL2RG to one daughter and a mutated X to the another.

Puck, J.M.; Pepper, A.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)



Proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine mRNA time course profiles in hamsters infected with a virulent variant of Leptospira interrogans.  


In order to quantify in vivo the mRNAs of cytokines which play important roles in leptospirosis, we have developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), transforming growth factor beta, and two housekeeping genes (encoding beta-actin and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase). We used a lethal hamster model reflecting severe leptospirosis in humans. The LightCycler system was used to quantify the gene expression levels with the SYBR green I detection format using external standard curves for each target. We compared the expression levels of cytokine mRNA in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both control (uninfected) hamsters and Leptospira interrogans-inoculated hamsters from 1 to 24 h and then 1 to 4 days postinfection. In this kinetic study, there was pronounced expression of Th1 cytokine mRNA (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-12), with transcripts being detected as early as 1 h postinfection. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, was prominent in delayed samples from 1 to 4 days postinfection in response to infection with Leptospira interrogans. Our data are the first to establish that pathogenic leptospires can stimulate in vivo the production of type 1 cytokines involved in cellular immunity by using this informative animal model. Measuring and assessing cytokine profiles may provide a useful method for accurate study of the mechanisms of anti-Leptospira immunity, indications of prognosis factors, and prospective evaluation of leptospirosis vaccine efficacy in humans. PMID:16790792

Vernel-Pauillac, Frédérique; Merien, Fabrice



mRNA stability in the nucleus*  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled by different levels of biological events, such as transcription factors regulating the timing and strength of transcripts production, alteration of transcription rate by RNA processing, and mRNA stability during RNA processing and translation. RNAs, especially mRNAs, are relatively vulnerable molecules in living cells for ribonucleases (RNases). The maintenance of quality and quantity of transcripts is a key issue for many biological processes. Extensive studies draw the conclusion that the stability of RNAs is dedicated-regulated, occurring co- and post-transcriptionally, and translation-coupled as well, either in the nucleus or cytoplasm. Recently, RNA stability in the nucleus has aroused much research interest, especially the stability of newly-made transcripts. In this article, we summarize recent progresses on mRNA stability in the nucleus, especially focusing on quality control of newly-made RNA by RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. PMID:24793762

Liu, Han; Luo, Min; Wen, Ji-kai



Vaccination with Messenger RNA (mRNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both DNA and mRNA can be used as vehicles for gene therapy. Because the immune system is naturally activated by foreign nucleic\\u000a acids thanks to the presence of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) in endosomes (TLR3, 7, and 8 detect exogenous RNA, while TLR9 can\\u000a detect exogenous DNA), the delivery of foreign nucleic acids usually induces an immune response directed against the

Steve Pascolo


Sensitivity of mRNA Translation  

E-print Network

Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, exit, and elongation rates along the mRNA strand on the steady state protein translation rate. We focus on two special cases where exact closed-form expressions for the translation rate sensitivity can be derived. We discuss the ramifications of our results in the context of functional genomics, molecular evolution, and synthetic biology.

Gilad Poker; Michael Margaliot; Tamir Tuller



Staufen-mediated mRNA decay  

PubMed Central

Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.



Understanding regulation of mRNA by RNA binding proteins  

E-print Network

Posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA by RNA-binding proteins plays key roles in regulating the transcriptome over the course of development, between tissues and in disease states. The specific interactions between mRNA ...

Robertson, Alexander De Jong



Regulation of yeast development by mRNA methylation  

E-print Network

The internal methylation of mRNA post-transcriptionally is an essential component of the mRNA editing machinery in virtually every eukaryotic system. Despite this ubiquity, little is known about the relevance, consequences ...

Agarwala, Sudeep D



Posttranscriptional control of gene expression: bacterial mRNA degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biological processes cannot be fully understood without detailed knowledge of RNA metabolism. The continuous breakdown and resynthesis of prokaryotic mRNA permit rapid production of new kinds of proteins. In this way, mRNA levels can regulate protein synthesis and cellular growth. Analysing mRNA degradation in prokaryotes has been particularly difficult because most mRNA undergo rapid exponential decay. Prokaryotic mRNAs differ

C. M. Arraiano



Improved detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms with use of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin 2 stimulation.  


Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings. PMID:23596118

Shi, Min; Cipollini, Matthew J; Crowley-Bish, Patricia A; Higgins, Anne W; Yu, Hongbo; Miron, Patricia M



Early phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway activation limits1 poliovirus-induced JNK-mediated cell death2  

E-print Network

that mitochondria are47 key actors of PV-induced apoptosis. In particular, mitochondrial outer membrane48 permeabilization (MOMP) following PV infection leads to a loss of mitochondrial49 transmembrane potential PV-induced Bax-dependent24 mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by early JNK activation in IMR5

Boyer, Edmond


Adoptive immunotherapy with MUC1-mRNA transfected dendritic cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes plus gemcitabine for unresectable pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported the clinical efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We also reported that gemcitabine (GEM) enhances anti-tumor immunity by suppressing regulatory T cells. Therefore, in the present study, we performed combination therapy with AIT and GEM for patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer. Patients and methods Forty-two patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer were treated. DCs were generated by culture with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 and then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-?. Mature DCs were transfected with MUC1-mRNA by electroporation (MUC1-DCs). MUC1-CTLs were induced by co-culture with YPK-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, and then with interleukin-2. Patients were treated with GEM, while MUC1-DCs were intradermally injected, and MUC1-CTLs were intravenously administered. Results Median survival time (MST) was 13.9 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 51.1%. Of 42 patients, one patient had complete response (2.4%), three patients had partial response (7.1%) and 22 patients had stable disease (52.4%). The disease control ratio was 61.9%. The MST and 1-year survival rate of 35 patients who received more than 1 × 107 MUC1-DCs per injection was 16.1 months and 60.3%, respectively. Liver metastasis occurred in only 5 patients among 35 patients without liver metastasis before treatment. There were no severe toxicities associated with AIT. Conclusion AIT with MUC1-DCs and MUC1-CTLs plus GEM may be a feasible and effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24947606



The Majority of Epidermal T Cells in Psoriasis Vulgaris Lesions can Produce Type 1 Cytokines, Interferon-?, Interleukin2, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-?, Defining TC1 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) and TH1 Effector Populations:1 a Type 1 Differentiation Bias is also Measured in Circulating Blood T Cells in Psoriatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis vulgaris is a skin disease potentially mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by type 1 lesional T cells. The capability of individual T cells to produce these cytokines in lesional skin is not known. In this study we measured the ability of lesional and peripheral blood T cells to produce intracellular interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 proteins

Lisa M Austin; Maki Ozawa; Toyoko Kikuchi; Ian B Walters; James G Krueger



Alterations in p53-specific T cells and other lymphocyte subsets in breast cancer patients during vaccination with p53-peptide loaded dendritic cells and low-dose interleukin-2.  


We have previously established a cancer vaccine using autologous DCs, generated by in vitro stimulation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, and pulsed with six HLA-A*0201 binding wild-type p53 derived peptides. This vaccine was used in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 in a recently published clinical Phase II trial where 26 HLA-A2+ patients with progressive late-stage metastatic breast cancer (BC) were included. Almost 1/3rd of the patients obtained stable disease or minor regression during treatment with a positive correlation to tumour over-expression of p53. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the effector stage of the p53-specific CD8+ T cells by the use of Dextramer Technology and multicolour FACS. Pre- and post-treatment blood samples from eight BC patients were analysed. Independent of clinical outcome p53-specific T cells were phenotypic distinctly antigen experienced (CD44high, CCR-7low and CD62Llow). Furthermore, fresh blood from 18 cancer patients included in the vaccination trial were prospectively examined for more general treatment associated quantitative and qualitative changes in T cell subpopulations. We found that the frequency of CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells was almost doubled after only 4 weeks of weekly vaccination and low-dose IL-2. In addition, a decrease in the percentage of CD27highCCR-7high CD4/CD8 naïve T cells was measured particularly in patients with progressive disease during vaccination. Finally, prior to immunotherapy a higher percentage of both CD28 and CD27 positive CD8naïve/early effector memory T cells were present in chemotherapy-treated patients. PMID:18616968

Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Nikolajsen, Kirsten; Zocca, Mai-Britt



Phase I/II open-label study of the biologic effects of the interleukin-2 immunocytokine EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2) in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the biological activity of EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2), a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody fused to interleukin-2 (IL2), in patients with unresectable, stage IV cutaneous melanoma as measured by induction of immune activation at the tumor site and in peripheral blood. Methods Nine patients were treated with 4 mg/m2 per day of EMD 273063 given as a 4-h intravenous infusion on days 1, 2, and 3 every four weeks (one cycle). Peripheral blood was analyzed for T cell and natural killer cell phenotype and frequency, as well as levels of soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R), IL10, IL6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and neopterin. Biopsies of tumor metastasis were performed prior to therapy and at day 10 of the first 2 cycles to study lymphocyte accumulation by immunohistochemistry. Results Treatment was generally well tolerated and there were no study drug-related grade 4 adverse events. Grade 3 events were mainly those associated with IL2, most commonly rigors (3 patients) and pyrexia (2 patients). Best response on therapy was stable disease in 2 patients. There were no objective tumor regressions by standard response criteria. Systemic immune activation was demonstrated by increases in serum levels of sIL2R, IL10, and neopterin. There was evidence of increased tumor infiltration by T cells, but not NK cells, in most post-dosing biopsies, suggesting recruitment of immune cells to the tumor site. Conclusion EMD 273063 demonstrated biologic activity with increased immune-related cytokines and intratumoral changes in some patients consistent with the suspected mechanism of action of this immunocytokine. PMID:19640287

Ribas, Antoni; Kirkwood, John M; Atkins, Michael B; Whiteside, Theresa L; Gooding, William; Kovar, Andreas; Gillies, Stephen D; Kashala, Oscar; Morse, Michael A



trans activation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the interleukin-2 receptor in transgenic mice carrying the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 tax gene.  


Three lines of transgenic mice carrying the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax gene have previously been reported to develop neurofibromas composed of perineural fibroblasts (S. H. Hinrichs, M. Nerenberg, R. K. Reynolds, G. Khoury, and G. Jay, Science 237:1340-1343, 1987; M. Nerenberg, S. H. Hinrichs, R. K. Reynolds, G. Khoury, and G. Jay, Science 237:1324-1329, 1987). Tumors from these mice and tumor cell lines derived from them expressed high levels of tax RNA and protein. They also expressed high levels of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene as measured by proliferative responses of FD-CP1 target cells using conditioned media from tumor cells and by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of RNA from tumors and tumor cell lines. Although other tissues, such as salivary glands and muscles, in the transgenic mice also expressed high levels of tax, they did not express the gene for GM-CSF. This indicates that tissue-specific cellular factors, in addition to tax, are required for GM-CSF gene expression. Systemic effects of excessive GM-CSF production were demonstrated by infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into tumor tissues which are not necrotic, by peripheral granulocytosis, and by splenomegaly resulting from myeloid hyperplasia. The interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor was also found to be expressed by the tumors and tumor cell lines as measured by IL-2-binding and cross-linking studies. This is the first demonstration that the IL-2 receptor can be activated by tax in a nonlymphoid cell type. These in vivo findings are consistent with other reports which have demonstrated in vitro cis-regulatory elements within the 5'-flanking regions of the genes for GM-CSF and the IL-2 receptor which are responsive to trans activation by the tax gene. PMID:2689863

Green, J E; Begley, C G; Wagner, D K; Waldmann, T A; Jay, G



Phase 1 trial of ALT-801, an interleukin-2/T cell receptor fusion protein targeting p53 (aa264-272)/HLA-A*0201 complex, in patients with advanced malignancies  

PubMed Central

Purpose ALT-801 is a bifunctional fusion protein comprising interleukin-2 (IL-2) linked to a soluble, single-chain T cell receptor domain that recognizes a peptide epitope (aa264-272) of the human p53 antigen displayed on cancer cells in the context of HLA-A*0201 (p53+/HLA-A*0201). We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ALT-801 in p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients with metastatic malignancies. Experimental Design p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients were treated with ALT-801 on a schedule of 4 daily 15-minute intravenous infusions, then 10 days rest and 4 more daily infusions. Cohorts of patients were treated at 0.015, 0.040, and 0.080 mg/kg/dose. Results Four, sixteen, and six patients were treated at the 0.015, 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg cohorts, respectively. Two dose limiting toxicities (a grade 4 transient thrombocytopenia and a myocardial infarction) in the 0.08 mg/kg cohort established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) at 0.04 mg/kg. Patients treated at the MTD experienced toxicities similar to those associated with high-dose IL-2 but of lesser severity. The serum half-life of ALT-801 was 4 hours and ALT-801 serum recovery was as expected based on the dose administered. ALT-801 treatment induced an increase of serum interferon-? but not tumor necrosis factor-?. Response assessment showed 10 subjects with stable disease at at least 11 weeks, and in one who had melanoma metastasis, there is an ongoing complete absence of identifiable disease after resection of radiographically identified lesions. Conclusion This first-in-man study defines an ALT-801 regimen that can be administered safely and is associated with immunological changes of potential antitumor relevance. PMID:21994418

Fishman, Mayer N.; Thompson, John A.; Pennock, Gregory K.; Gonzalez, Rene; Diez, Luz M.; Daud, Adil I.; Weber, Jeffery S.; Huang, Bee Y.; Tang, Shamay; Rhode, Peter R.; Wong, Hing C.



Identification of a gene for an ancient cytokine, interleukin 15-like, in mammals; interleukins 2 and 15 co-evolved with this third family member, all sharing binding motifs for IL-15R?.  


Interleukins 2 and 15 (IL-2 and IL-15) are highly differentiated but related cytokines with overlapping, yet also distinct functions, and established benefits for medical drug use. The present study identified a gene for an ancient third IL-2/15 family member in reptiles and mammals, interleukin 15-like (IL-15L), which hitherto was only reported in fish. IL-15L genes with intact open reading frames (ORFs) and evidence of transcription, and a recent past of purifying selection, were found for cattle, horse, sheep, pig and rabbit. In human and mouse the IL-15L ORF is incapacitated. Although deduced IL-15L proteins share only ~21 % overall amino acid identity with IL-15, they share many of the IL-15 residues important for binding to receptor chain IL-15R?, and recombinant bovine IL-15L was shown to interact with IL-15R? indeed. Comparison of sequence motifs indicates that capacity for binding IL-15R? is an ancestral characteristic of the IL-2/15/15L family, in accordance with a recent study which showed that in fish both IL-2 and IL-15 can bind IL-15R?. Evidence reveals that the species lineage leading to mammals started out with three similar cytokines IL-2, IL-15 and IL-15L, and that later in evolution (1) IL-2 and IL-2R? receptor chain acquired a new and specific binding mode and (2) IL-15L was lost in several but not all groups of mammals. The present study forms an important step forward in understanding this potent family of cytokines, and may help to improve future strategies for their application in veterinarian and human medicine. PMID:24276591

Dijkstra, Johannes M; Takizawa, Fumio; Fischer, Uwe; Friedrich, Maik; Soto-Lampe, Veronica; Lefèvre, Christophe; Lenk, Matthias; Karger, Axel; Matsui, Taei; Hashimoto, Keiichiro



Phase III Trial Comparing Concurrent Biochemotherapy With Cisplatin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine, Interleukin-2, and Interferon Alfa-2b With Cisplatin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine Alone in Patients With Metastatic Malignant Melanoma (E3695): A Trial Coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Purpose Phase II trials with biochemotherapy (BCT) have shown encouraging response rates in metastatic melanoma, and meta-analyses and one phase III trial have suggested a survival benefit. In an effort to determine the relative efficacy of BCT compared with chemotherapy alone, a phase III trial was performed within the United States Intergroup. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to receive cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (CVD) either alone or concurrent with interleukin-2 and interferon alfa-2b (BCT). Treatment cycles were repeated at 21-day intervals for a maximum of four cycles. Tumor response was assessed after cycles 2 and 4, then every 3 months. Results Four hundred fifteen patients were enrolled, and 395 patients (CVD, n = 195; BCT, n = 200) were deemed eligible and assessable. The two study arms were well balanced for stratification factors and other prognostic factors. Response rate was 19.5% for BCT and 13.8% for CVD (P = .140). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer for BCT than for CVD (4.8 v 2.9 months; P = .015), although this did not translate into an advantage in either median overall survival (9.0 v 8.7 months) or the percentage of patients alive at 1 year (41% v 36.9%). More patients experienced grade 3 or worse toxic events with BCT than CVD (95% v 73%; P = .001). Conclusion Although BCT produced slightly higher response rates and longer median progression-free survival than CVD alone, this was not associated with either improved overall survival or durable responses. Considering the extra toxicity and complexity, this concurrent BCT regimen cannot be recommended for patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:19001327

Atkins, Michael B.; Hsu, Jessie; Lee, Sandra; Cohen, Gary I.; Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Kirkwood, John M.



Engineering persistent interleukin-2 for cancer immunotherapy  

E-print Network

Mobilizing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells is a promising strategy for treating cancer. In contrast to standard therapeutic approaches such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, immunotherapy ...

Gai, Shuning



Interleukin-2 Engineering for improved therapeutic effectiveness  

E-print Network

(cont.) (K[d] [approximately] 10pM) for its private alpha receptor subunit, unlike wild-type IL-2 (K[d] [approximately] 10 nM). IL-2 mutants with picomolar affinity for IL-2R? stimulate T cell growth responses quantitatively ...

Rao, Balaji Madhav, 1978-



Chloroplast mRNA 3? end maturation is biochemically distinct from prokaryotic mRNA processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized a chloroplast processing activity that catalyzes the conversion of the plastid cytochrome b6\\/f subunit IV (pet D) mRNA 3' end precursor to the mature RNA possessing a 3' inverted repeat (IR). In a chloroplast soluble protein extract, the activity requires Mg2+ or Mn2+, but not K+. In the absence of Mg2+, the pet D 3' IR-RNA product

David B. Stern; Wilhem Gruissem



Transcriptional Elongation and mRNA Export Are Coregulated Processes  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structure complexity requires the interaction and coordinated work of a multiplicity of factors at different transcriptional regulation stages. Transcription control comprises a set of processes that ensures proper balance in the gene expression under different conditions, such as signals, metabolic states, or development. We could frame those steps from epigenetic marks to mRNA stability to support the holistic view of a fine-tune balance of final mRNA levels through mRNA transcription, export, stability, translation, and degradation. Transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is a key process in regulated gene expression. Transcriptional elongation and mRNA export are coregulated steps that determine the mature mRNA levels in the cytoplasm. In this paper, recent insights into the coordination of these processes in eukaryotes will be summarised. PMID:22567364

Molina-Navarro, Maria Micaela; Martinez-Jimenez, Celia Pilar; Rodriguez-Navarro, Susana



Visualization of mRNA Localization in Xenopus Oocytes  

PubMed Central

Visualization of in vivo mRNA localization provides a tool for understanding steps in the mechanism of transport. Here we detail a method of fluorescently labeling mRNA transcripts and microinjecting them into Xenopus laevis oocytes followed with imaging by confocal microscopy. This technique overcomes a significant hurdle of imaging RNA in the frog oocyte while providing a rapid method of visualizing mRNA localization in high resolution. PMID:21431735

Gagnon, James A.; Mowry, Kimberly L.



Premature translation termination mediates triosephosphate isomerase mRNA degradation.  

PubMed Central

We characterized an anemia-inducing mutation in the human gene for triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) that resulted in the production of prematurely terminated protein and mRNA with a reduced cytoplasmic half-life. The mutation converted a CGA arginine codon to a TGA nonsense codon and generated a protein of 188 amino acids, instead of the usual 248 amino acids. To determine how mRNA primary structure and translation influence mRNA stability, in vitro-mutagenized TPI alleles were introduced into cultured L cells and analyzed for their effect on TPI RNA metabolism. Results indicated that mRNA stability is decreased by all nonsense and frameshift mutations. To determine the relative contribution of the changes in mRNA structure and translation to the altered half-life, the effects of individual mutations were compared with the effects of second-site reversions that restored translation termination to normal. All mutations that resulted in premature translation termination reduced the mRNA half-life solely or mainly by altering the length of the mRNA that was translated. The only mutation that altered translation termination and that reduced the mRNA half-life mainly by affecting the mRNA structure was an insertion that shifted termination to a position downstream of the normal stop codon. Images PMID:2832737

Daar, I O; Maquat, L E



Single mRNA Tracking in Live Cells  

PubMed Central

Asymmetric distribution of mRNA is a prevalent phenomenon observed in diverse cell types. The posttranscriptional movement and localization of mRNA provides an important mechanism to target certain proteins to specific cytoplasmic regions of their function. Recent technical advances have enabled real-time visualization of single mRNA molecules in living cells. Studies analyzing the motion of individual mRNAs have shed light on the complex RNA transport system. This chapter presents an overview of general approaches for single particle tracking and some methodologies that are used for single mRNA detection. PMID:20580973

Park, Hye Yoon; Buxbaum, Adina R.; Singer, Robert H.



mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis  

PubMed Central

Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

Lasko, Paul



Histone mRNA concentrations are regulated at the level of transcription and mRNA degradation.  

PubMed Central

The levels of histone mRNA are rapidly reduced after treatment of cultured cells with hydroxyurea or cytosine arabinonucleoside. The histone mRNA for the replicative histone variants is destroyed rapidly, with a half-life of 10-15 min. The levels of mRNA coding for the replacement histone variant H3.3 were unchanged after treatment with DNA synthesis inhibitors. In addition to the rapid destruction of histone mRNA, there was a reduction to 1/5th in the rate of transcription of the histone genes. Lymphoma cells (S49) arrested in G1 by cyclic AMP produce and contain significant levels of histone mRNA. Hydroxyurea reduces the rate of transcription and the levels of histone mRNA in the G1-arrested cells. Images PMID:6572946

Sittman, D B; Graves, R A; Marzluff, W F



Quality control of bacterial mRNA decoding and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in eukaryotes and prokaryotes have revealed that gene expression is not only controlled through altering the rate of transcription but also through varying rates of translation and mRNA decay. Indeed, the expression level of a protein is strongly affected by the steady state level of its mRNA. RNA decay can, along with transcription, play an important role in regulating

Jamie Richards; Thomas Sundermeier; Anton Svetlanov; A. Wali Karzai



Discordant Protein and mRNA Expression in Lung Adenocarcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gene expression measured at the mRNA level and the corresponding protein level is not well characterized in human cancer. In this study, we compared mRNA and protein expression for a cohort of genes in the same lung adenocarcinomas. The abun- dance of 165 protein spots representing 98 individual genes was analyzed in 76 lung adenocarcinomas and nine

Guoan Chen; Tarek G. Gharib; Chiang-Ching Huang; Jeremy M. G. Taylor; David E. Misek; Sharon L. R. Kardia; Thomas J. Giordano; Mark D. Iannettoni; Mark B. Orringer; Samir M. Hanash; David G. Beer



Influence of thyroxine and thyroxine with growth hormone and prolactin on splenocyte subsets and on the expression of interleukin-2 and prolactin receptors on splenocyte subsets of Snell dwarf mice.  


A number of immune parameters were examined in Snell dwarf mice and compared with normal littermates. The number of splenocytes per gram of body weight were significantly decreased in dwarf animals, and the decrease was distributed throughout the CD4, CD8, B220, and MAC-1 subsets. The percentage of CD4 and CD8 splenocytes was markedly increased, and the percentage of B220 and MAC-1 splenocytes markedly decreased, in dwarf animals. In addition, the percentage of splenocyte T cells constitutively expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptors and prolactin (PRL) receptors was decreased, with the CD4 subset presenting the most dramatic effect. The effects of replacing the hormones deficient in the Snell dwarf mouse (i.e., growth hormone [GH], prolactin [PRL], and thyroxine [T4] on the above immune parameters were also examined. The administration of T4 alone for 10 days corrected the defect in splenocyte cell numbers per grams body weight for both the CD4 and CD8 subsets, but only partially corrected the defect for the B220 and MAC-1 subsets. The addition of rbGH and rbPRL for the last 3 days of T4 injection had little additive effect on the number of CD4 and CD8 cells but increased the number of B220 and MAC-1 subsets to values comparable to those of normal animals on the basis of body weight. The decrease in the percentage of CD4 splenocytes in dwarf animals constitutively expressing IL-2R was partially corrected by T4 injection and completely corrected by the addition of rbGH and rbPRL for the last 3 days. The decrease in CD4 splenocytes constitutively expressing PRLR was partially corrected by T4 injection alone and the addition of rbGH and rPRL resulted in percentages comparable to that of normal animals. The results indicate that Snell dwarf animals are deficient in immune parameters and that the administration of the hormones lacking in this animal can correct the deficiencies. PMID:7568281

Gala, R R



CELFish ways to modulate mRNA decay  

PubMed Central

The CELF family of RNA-binding proteins regulates many steps of mRNA metabolism. Although their best characterized function is in pre-mRNA splice site choice, CELF family members are also powerful modulators of mRNA decay. In this review we focus on the different modes of regulation that CELF proteins employ to mediate mRNA decay by binding to GU-rich elements. After starting with an overview of the importance of CELF proteins during development and disease pathogenesis, we then review the mRNA networks and cellular pathways these proteins regulate and the mechanisms by which they influence mRNA decay. Finally, we discuss how CELF protein activity is modulated during development and in response to cellular signals. We conclude by highlighting the priorities for new experiments in this field. PMID:23328451

St. Louis, Irina Vlasova; Dickson, Alexa M.; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Wilusz, Carol J.



Selective localization of arc mRNA in dendrites involves activity- and translation-dependent mRNA degradation.  


Arc is an immediate early gene that is unique among neuronal mRNAs because its transcripts are transported into dendrites and accumulate near activated synapses, presumably to be translated locally. These qualities pose Arc as playing an important, yet not fully understood, role in the activity-dependent modifications of synapses that are thought to underlie memory storage. Here we show in vivo in rats that newly synthesized Arc mRNA accumulates at activated synapses and that synaptic activity simultaneously triggers mRNA decay that eliminates Arc mRNA from inactive dendritic domains. Arc mRNA degradation occurs throughout the dendrite and requires both NMDA receptor activation and active translation. Synaptic activation did not lead to decreases in another dendritic mRNA (?CaMKII), indicating that there is not a general activation of mRNA degradation in dendrites. These data reveal a novel mechanism for controlling mRNA distribution within dendrites and highlight activity-dependent mRNA degradation as a regulatory process involved in synaptic plasticity. PMID:24671994

Farris, Shannon; Lewandowski, Gail; Cox, Conor D; Steward, Oswald



Selective Localization of Arc mRNA in Dendrites Involves Activity- and Translation-Dependent mRNA Degradation  

PubMed Central

Arc is an immediate early gene that is unique among neuronal mRNAs because its transcripts are transported into dendrites and accumulate near activated synapses, presumably to be translated locally. These qualities pose Arc as playing an important, yet not fully understood, role in the activity-dependent modifications of synapses that are thought to underlie memory storage. Here we show in vivo in rats that newly synthesized Arc mRNA accumulates at activated synapses and that synaptic activity simultaneously triggers mRNA decay that eliminates Arc mRNA from inactive dendritic domains. Arc mRNA degradation occurs throughout the dendrite and requires both NMDA receptor activation and active translation. Synaptic activation did not lead to decreases in another dendritic mRNA (?CaMKII), indicating that there is not a general activation of mRNA degradation in dendrites. These data reveal a novel mechanism for controlling mRNA distribution within dendrites and highlight activity-dependent mRNA degradation as a regulatory process involved in synaptic plasticity. PMID:24671994

Farris, Shannon; Lewandowski, Gail; Cox, Conor D.



Treating refractory advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with interleukin-2: a phase II study ? ? Supported by National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Core Grant CA 16672. Presented in part at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 20, 2000. There is no financial relationship between any of the authors and any person, place, or thing that is included in this report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with refractory advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma derive only minor benefit from chemotherapy. Based on evidence that urothelial carcinoma may be associated with impaired immunological reactivity, we conducted a phase II trial of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a biologic response modifier, to assess its efficacy and toxicity in treating refractory advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Seventeen patients with urothelial carcinoma who

Jeri Kim; Randall E. Millikan; Terry L. Smith; Shi-Ming Tu; Lance C. Pagliaro; Christopher J. Logothetis



mRNA quantification via second harmonic super resolution microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell-specific information on quantity and localization of key mRNA transcripts in single-cell level are critical to the assessment of cancer risk, therapy efficacy, and effective prevention strategies. However, most available technologies for mRNA detection rely on cell extraction that inherently destroys the tissue context and provide only average expression levels from cell populations or whole tissues. In this paper, we proposed a novel super resolution concept, second harmonic generation (SHG) super-resolution microscopy (SHaSM), and apply that to detect single short mRNA transcript, Her2 mRNA, beyond the diffraction limit. Nano-sized SHG crystals, barium titanium oxide BaTiO3 (BTO), were functionalized with two complimentary strands of Her2 mRNA after the chemical surface-modification. Dimer schematic was used to improve the specificity of detection and quantification, where two BTO monomers bind to the Her2 mRNA to form a dimer and being visualized via the SHaSM. SHaSM is able to detect single BTO nanocrystal with ~20 nm spatial resolution, and differentiate BTO dimers (Her2 mRNA) from BTO monomers (non-specific bounded BTO nanocrystal) with high specificity.

Liu, Jing; Cho, Il-Hoon; Kadam, Ulhas; Irudayaraj, Joseph



Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Derived Factor\\/Thioredoxin, Produced by Both Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type I- and Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed Lymphocytes, Acts as an Autocrine Growth Factor and Synergizes with Interleukin 1 and Interleukin 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been obtained from the Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-lymphoblastoid cell line 3B6 and shown to be involved in autocrine growth of 3B6 B cells. Independently, adult T-cell leukemia-derived factor (ADF) was purified from human T-lymphotropic virus I-infected leukemic T-cell line (ATL-2) and reported as an interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor-inducing factor. We have previously reported the same molecular mass,

Naomi Wakasugi; Yutaka Tagaya; Hiro Wakasugi; Akira Mitsui; Michiyuki Maeda; Junji Yodoi; Thomas Tursz



Structure and stability correlation of an mRNA pseudoknot  

E-print Network

heptanucleotide sequence and a downstream pseudoknot are essential for mRNA frameshifting. The BWYV pseudoknot is a classical H-type pseudoknot containing two helical stems and two connecting loop regions. The loop-stem interactions have been proposed...

Suram, Saritha



Characterization of antigen-specific CD4+ effector T cells in vivo: immunization results in a transient population of MEL-14-, CD45RB- helper cells that secretes interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma  

PubMed Central

In previous studies we demonstrated that, following activation by mitogens or alloantigens, helper T cell precursors proliferate and differentiate in vitro to produce a population of effector cells that secrete high titers of lymphokines upon restimulation. In this report, we demonstrate that a similar effector population develops in vivo following primary antigen stimulation. When restimulated with specific antigen in vitro, CD4+ T cells from mice primed 5 to 7 days previously by subcutaneous administration of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in adjuvant, produced high levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-3, and little or no interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) or IL-5. The effector T cells provided excellent helper activity for in vitro antibody responses of 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-nitrophenyl acetic acid-primed B cells with the production principally of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgM isotypes, small quantities of IgG3, and no detectable IgG2a, or IgG2b. Antigen-specific secretion of IL-2, IL-3, and IL-4 by in vivo effectors was detectable by 12 hours following in vitro restimulation. IFN-gamma and IL-5 were not detected until 48 and 72 hours of culture, respectively, and low levels of these lymphokines were produced. Lymphokine production by primed CD4+ T cells could be induced as early as 3 days following immunization, peaked on day 5, and declined thereafter. The kinetics of in vivo appearance of effector CD4+ T cells that produce lymphokines upon restimulation in vitro were similar for each of the lymphokines examined. Mice depleted of precursor CD4+ T cells by adult thymectomy exhibited limited capacity to generate lymphokine secreting CD4+ T cells in response to primary immunization with KLH, suggesting that the majority of lymphokine producing T cells arise from short-lived and/or precursor cells. Separation of CD4+ T cells from KLH-primed mice on the basis of expression of the lymph node- specific homing receptor, MEL-14, revealed that antigen-specific production of IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, and IFN-gamma was exclusively associated with the MEL-14- subset of CD4+ T cells. Separation on the basis of CD45RB expression, demonstrated that antigen-specific lymphokine production was primarily associated with the minor CD45RB- population, which has been previously associated with memory activity. Our results indicate that primary in vivo immunization leads to the development of a transient population of helper-effectors with a unique phenotype that can produce large quantities of lymphokines and mediate excellent helper activity for B cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1678774



Role of mRNA Stability during Bacterial Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial adaptation involves extensive cellular reorganization. In particular, growth rate adjustments are associated with substantial modifications of gene expression and mRNA abundance. In this work we aimed to assess the role of mRNA degradation during such variations. A genome-wide transcriptomic-based method was used to determine mRNA half-lives. The model bacterium Lactococcus lactis was used and different growth rates were studied in continuous cultures under isoleucine-limitation and in batch cultures during the adaptation to the isoleucine starvation. During continuous isoleucine-limited growth, the mRNAs of different genes had different half-lives. The stability of most of the transcripts was not constant, and increased as the growth rate decreased. This half-life diversity was analyzed to investigate determinants of mRNA stability. The concentration, length, codon adaptation index and secondary structures of mRNAs were found to contribute to the determination of mRNA stability in these conditions. However, the growth rate was, by far, the most influential determinant. The respective influences of mRNA degradation and transcription on the regulation of intra-cellular transcript concentration were estimated. The role of degradation on mRNA homeostasis was clearly evidenced: for more than 90% of the mRNAs studied during continuous isoleucine-limited growth of L. lactis, degradation was antagonistic to transcription. Although both transcription and degradation had, opposite effects, the mRNA changes in response to growth rate were driven by transcription. Interestingly, degradation control increased during the dynamic adaptation of bacteria as the growth rate reduced due to progressive isoleucine starvation in batch cultures. This work shows that mRNA decay differs between gene transcripts and according to the growth rate. It demonstrates that mRNA degradation is an important regulatory process involved in bacterial adaptation. However, its impact on the regulation of mRNA levels is smaller than that of transcription in the conditions studied. PMID:23516597

Dressaire, Clementine; Picard, Flora; Redon, Emma; Loubiere, Pascal; Queinnec, Isabelle; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel



The highways and byways of mRNA decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering the control of gene expression, the focus has traditionally been on transcriptional regulation. Recently, however, the large contribution made by mRNA decay has become difficult to ignore. Large-scale analyses indicate that as many as half of all changes in the amounts of mRNA in some responses can be attributed to altered rates of decay. In this article, we

Nicole L. Garneau; Jeffrey Wilusz; Carol J. Wilusz



Erythropoietin mRNA expression in pig embryos.  


To address whether altered erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis might be involved in prenatal pig mortality, studies were conducted to measure porcine embryonic EPO mRNA expression during early gestation (days 24-40). Three pig models differing in embryonic survival from days 24-40 were investigated: intact white crossbred gilts (INT), white crossbred gilts that were unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized before puberty and whose pregnant uterus constituted a crowded environment (UHO), and prolific, intact Meishan gilts (ME). A partial cDNA for porcine EPO, developed via reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction procedures was used to generate a 32P-labeled probe for use in Northern analyses. In an initial study, embryonic liver EPO mRNA was greatest on day 24, decreased by day 30 (P<0.01), and was barely detectable by day 40. EPO mRNA expression was not influenced by pig model. Placental EPO mRNA expression was detectable in only 4 of 53 placentae examined. In a second study at day 35 of gestation, embryonic liver EPO mRNA expression was measured in the same three pig models and in two embryos of divergent weights from each gilt. Meishan embryos had lower (P<0.01) plasma immunoassayable EPO concentrations (P=0.04) and higher survival rates (87+/-2.7%) at day 35 than did white crossbred embryos (75+/-5%). Liver EPO mRNA expression did not differ among animal models, nor did plasma EPO or tissue EPO mRNA expression differ between large and small embryos. There was no apparent relationship between embryonic development, measured as embryonic and placental size, and plasma EPO concentrations or liver EPO mRNA expression. These results indicate that at the gestational ages examined, the embryonic liver is one source of plasma erythropoietin and suggest that at the ages sampled, EPO is not a limiting factor in embryonic development. PMID:11343845

Klemcke, H G; Vallet, J L; Christenson, R K; Pearson, P L



Calmodulin mRNA in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin is encoded by a 650-nucleotide mRNA in higher plants. This messenger was identified in barley and pea by a combination of in vitro translation and blot hybridization experiments using anti-sense RNA produced from an eel calmodulin cDNA probe. In all plant tissues tested, calmodulin mRNA represents between 0.01 and 0.1% of the total translatable mRNA population. Calmodulin mRNA levels are three- to fourfold higher in the meristematic zone of the first leaf of barley. At all other stages of leaf cell differentiation, calmodulin mRNA levels are nearly identical. During light-induced development in barley leaves, the relative proportion of translatable calmodulin mRNA declines about twofold. Cytoplasmic mRNAs that may encode calmodulin-like proteins were also detected. The levels of several of these putative Ca2+-binding protein mRNAs are modulated during the course of light-induced barley leaf cell development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665547

Zielinski, Raymond E.



Model of ribosome translation and mRNA unwinding.  


A ribosome is an enzyme that catalyzes translation of the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Besides translation through the single-stranded mRNA, the ribosome is also able to translate through the duplex region of mRNA via unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed ribosome translation model, we study analytically the dynamics of Escherichia coli ribosome translation through the duplex region of mRNA, and compare with the available single molecule experimental data. It is shown that the ribosome uses only one active mechanism (mechanical unwinding), rather than two active mechanisms (open-state stabilization and mechanical unwinding), as proposed before, to unwind the duplex. The reduced rate of translation through the duplex region is due to the occurrence of futile transitions, which are induced by the energy barrier from the duplex unwinding to the forward translocation along the single-stranded mRNA. Moreover, we also present predicted results of the average translation rate versus the external force acting on the ribosome translating through the duplex region and through the single-stranded region of mRNA, which can be easily tested by future experiments. PMID:23266793

Xie, Ping



A Protein Interaction Framework for Human mRNA Degradation  

PubMed Central

The degradation of mRNA is an important regulatory step in the control of gene expression. However, mammalian RNA decay pathways remain poorly characterized. To provide a framework for studying mammalian RNA decay, a two-hybrid protein interaction map was generated using 54 constructs from 38 human proteins predicted to function in mRNA decay. The results provide evidence for interactions between many different proteins required for mRNA decay. Of particular interest are interactions between the poly(A) ribonuclease and the exosome and between the Lsm complex, decapping factors, and 5??3? exonucleases. Moreover, multiple interactions connect 5??3? and 3??5? decay proteins to each other and to nonsense-mediated decay factors, providing the opportunity for coordination between decay pathways. The interaction network also predicts the internal organization of the exosome and Lsm complexes. Additional interactions connect mRNA decay factors to many novel proteins and to proteins required for other steps in gene expression. These results provide an experimental insight into the organization of proteins required for mRNA decay and their coupling to other cellular processes, and the physiological relevance of many of these interactions are supported by their evolutionary conservation. The interactions also provide a wealth of hypotheses to guide future research on mRNA degradation and demonstrate the power of exhaustive protein interaction mapping in aiding understanding of uncharacterized protein complexes and pathways. PMID:15231747

Lehner, Ben; Sanderson, Christopher M.



HDAC3 regulates stability of estrogen receptor ? mRNA  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ER? mRNA in MCF-7 cells. ? HDAC3 is involved in maintaining ER? mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells. ? ER? mRNA instability by knockdown of HDAC3 reduces the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive MCF-7 cells. ? HDAC3 specific inhibitor will be one of new drugs for ER?-positive breast cancers. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ER? expression in ER?-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ER? mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ER? mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ER?-positive tumors are higher than those in ER?-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ER? mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive tumors.

Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn, E-mail:



Effects of herpes simplex virus on mRNA stability.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus virions contain one or more functions which mediate shutoff of host protein synthesis, disaggregation of host polyribosomes, and degradation of host mRNA. We studied aspects of the host shutoff mechanism by using herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants deficient in virion-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis (G. S. Read and N. Frenkel, J. Virol. 46:498-512, 1983). Shutoff of host protein synthesis by the wild-type virus was associated with degradation of host mRNAs, including beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, and heat shock protein 70. In contrast, the virion host shutoff (vhs) mutants were deficient to various degrees in their ability to induce host mRNA degradation; the extent of mRNA degradation correlated well with the extent of inhibition of host protein synthesis. This finding suggests that inhibition of host protein synthesis and degradation of host mRNA were mediated by the same virion-associated function. Virion-induced degradation of host mRNA was not prevented by inhibitors of ribosome translocation, nor could it be augmented, for mutant vhs-1, by drugs which disaggregate polyribosomes. This suggests that mRNA in polyribosomes, as well as nonpolyribosomal mRNA, is susceptible to virion-induced degradation. Finally, the half-life of viral transcripts was also prolonged in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus, suggesting that the vhs function indiscriminately decreased the half-lives of both host and viral mRNAs. The vhs function may thus play a dual role in virus infection. (i) It inhibits host gene expression, and (ii) it enables rapid transitions in the expression of viral genes which are sequentially transcribed as infection progresses. Images PMID:3035220

Strom, T; Frenkel, N



Increased granzyme B mRNA after alloincompatible myoblast transplantation.  


Normal C57BL/10SnJ myoblasts were transplanted into the tibialis anterior of C57BL/10SnJ, C57BL/ScSn mdx, or BALB/c mice. These transplantations allowed us to investigate the immune response not only against MHC but also against dystrophin introduced in the dystrophic muscles by such transplantations. Recently, our group reported following myoblast transplantations cellular infiltration of the host muscle by class II MHC cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes expressing CD4 or CD8 and IL-2 receptors. In the present study, activation of these infiltrating lymphocytes was investigated by measuring the expression of granzyme B mRNA. We used reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect granzyme B mRNA at various intervals after myoblast transplantations. To standardize the results, the mRNA were reverse transcribed using an oligo (dt) so that beta-actin mRNA could also be amplified from the same cDNA preparation. Granzyme B mRNA was increased for at least 3 weeks after MHC alloincompatible grafts. The absence of increased granzyme B expression after allocompatible transplantation in mdx mice suggests that dystrophin is not sufficiently immunogenic to induce short term acute rejection. These results indicate that lymphocytes infiltrated in muscles injected with histoincompatible myoblasts are activated and sustain the requirement for an adequate immunosuppression after such transplantations. PMID:7491674

Guérette, B; Roy, R; Tremblay, M; Asselin, I; Kinoshita, I; Puymirat, J; Tremblay, J P



Multiple mRNA Decapping Enzymes in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Regulation of RNA degradation plays an important role in the control of gene expression. One mechanism of eukaryotic mRNA decay proceeds through an initial deadenylation followed by 5?-end decapping and exonucleolytic decay. Dcp2 is currently believed to be the only cytoplasmic decapping enzyme responsible for decapping of all mRNAs. Here we report that Dcp2 protein modestly contributes to bulk mRNA decay and surprisingly is not detectable in a subset of mouse and human tissues. Consistent with these findings, a hypomorphic knockout of Dcp2 had no adverse consequences in mice. In contrast, the previously reported Xenopus nucleolar decapping enzyme, Nudt16, is an ubiquitous cytoplasmic decapping enzyme in mammalian cells. Like Dcp2, Nudt16 also regulates the stability of a subset of mRNAs including a member of the motin family of proteins involved in angiogenesis, Angiomotin-like 2. These data demonstrate mammalian cells possess multiple mRNA decapping enzymes, including Nudt16 to regulate mRNA turnover. PMID:21070968

Song, Man-Gen; Li, You; Kiledjian, Megerditch



Regulation of mRNA Trafficking by Nuclear Pore Complexes  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, multiple studies have explored the mechanisms governing mRNA export out of the nucleus, a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression. During transcription and processing, mRNAs are assembled into messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs). mRNPs are then exported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are large multiprotein assemblies made of several copies of a limited number of nucleoporins. A considerable effort has been put into the dissection of mRNA export through NPCs at both cellular and molecular levels, revealing the conserved contributions of a subset of nucleoporins in this process, from yeast to vertebrates. Several reports have also demonstrated the ability of NPCs to sort out properly-processed mRNPs for entry into the nuclear export pathway. Importantly, changes in mRNA export have been associated with post-translational modifications of nucleoporins or changes in NPC composition, depending on cell cycle progression, development or exposure to stress. How NPC modifications also impact on cellular mRNA export in disease situations, notably upon viral infection, is discussed. PMID:25184662

Bonnet, Amandine; Palancade, Benoit



SMN mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood  

E-print Network

- sive motor neuron disease, is the leading inherited cause of infant and childhood mortality- length SMN protein in motor neurons, perhaps dur- ing a critical stage of motor neuron development.6: To develop and validate measures of SMN mRNA and protein in peripheral blood and to establish baseline SMN

Dreyfuss, Gideon



EPA Science Inventory

Denslow, Nancy D., Christopher J. Bowman, Gillian Robinson, H. Stephen Lee, Ronald J. Ferguson, Michael J. Hemmer and Leroy C. Folmar. 1999. Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption at the mRNA Level. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Standardization of Biomarkers for ...


Fgfr mRNA isoforms in craniofacial bone development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in genes encoding for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have been identified as causes of both chondrodysplasias and craniosynostoses, both of which cause abnormalities in the growth and development of the craniofacial region. FGFRs form mRNA splicing isoforms, each with distinct ligand binding specificity and tissue distribution. These confer specific biological functions on these isoforms. Although it is known

D. P. C Rice; R Rice; I Thesleff



Control of mRNA processing and decay in prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-transcriptional mechanisms operate in regulation of gene expression in bacteria, the amount of a given gene product being also dependent on the inactivation rate of its own message. Moreover, segmental differences in mRNA stability of polycistronic transcripts may be responsible for differential expression of genes clustered in operons. Given the absence of 5' to 3' exoribonucleolytic activities in prokaryotes, both

Pietro Alifano; Carmelo Bruno Bruni; Maria Stella Carlomagno



mRNA analysis of single living cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of specific gene expression in single living cells may become an important technique for cell biology. So far, no method has been available to detect mRNA in living cells without killing or destroying them. We have developed here a novel method to examine gene expression of living cells using an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM tip was inserted into

Toshiya Osada; Hironori Uehara; Hyonchol Kim; Atsushi Ikai



ORIGINAL PAPER Quantifying mRNA levels across tissue sections  

E-print Network

the need for better measurement capability, in situ PCR was invented in the early 1990s, combiningORIGINAL PAPER Quantifying mRNA levels across tissue sections with 2D-RT-qPCR Michael Armani chain reaction (RT-qPCR). This is complex because these steps are typically performed in three separate

Shapiro, Benjamin


Glucocorticoids enhance stability of human growth hormone mRNA.  

PubMed Central

We have studied the control of expression of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene introduced into the chromosomes of mouse fibroblasts. Cell lines transformed with the hGH gene expressed low levels of intact hGH mRNA and secreted hGH protein into the medium. Although the level of expression of hGH mRNA was low, the gene remained responsive to induction by glucocorticoid hormones. To localize the sequences responsible for induction and to determine the mechanism by which these cis-acting sequences enhance gene expression, we have constructed a series of fusion genes between the hGH gene and the herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (tk) gene. We have demonstrated that a fusion gene in which hGH cDNA is flanked at its 5' terminus by an HSV tk promoter and is flanked at its 3' terminus by 3' HSV tk DNA remains inducible by glucocorticoids. Our studies indicate that the hGH exons contain sequences which are responsible for glucocorticoid hormone induction. Pulse-chase experiments, in vitro nuclear transcription, and approach to steady-state measurements indicate that the mechanisms responsible for induction of the hGH cDNA fusion gene operate posttranscriptionally to enhance the stability of hGH mRNA. Moreover, this increased stability was associated with an increase in the length of the 3' poly(A) tail on hGH mRNA. Images PMID:3037323

Paek, I; Axel, R



Apollo 324TM PrepX mRNA Library  

E-print Network

Apollo 324TM System PrepX mRNA Library Protocol DRAFT ­ P037497, Rev. A ­ 9.14.2012 #12;© Copyright ONLY The Apollo 324 System is for research use only. WARRANTY For warranty and liability information, please see IntegenX terms and conditions of sale. TRADEMARKS Apollo 324, BeadX and PrepX are trademarks


Differential protein occupancy profiling of the mRNA transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Background RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate mRNA biogenesis, translation and decay. We recently developed an approach to profile transcriptome-wide RBP contacts on polyadenylated transcripts by next-generation sequencing. A comparison of such profiles from different biological conditions has the power to unravel dynamic changes in protein-contacted cis-regulatory mRNA regions without a priori knowledge of the regulatory protein component. Results We compared protein occupancy profiles of polyadenylated transcripts in MCF7 and HEK293 cells. Briefly, we developed a bioinformatics workflow to identify differential crosslinking sites in cDNA reads of 4-thiouridine crosslinked polyadenylated RNA samples. We identified 30,000 differential crosslinking sites between MCF7 and HEK293 cells at an estimated false discovery rate of 10%. 73% of all reported differential protein-RNA contact sites cannot be explained by local changes in exon usage as indicated by complementary RNA-seq data. The majority of differentially crosslinked positions are located in 3? UTRs, show distinct secondary-structure characteristics and overlap with binding sites of known RBPs, such as ELAVL1. Importantly, mRNA transcripts with the most significant occupancy changes show elongated mRNA half-lives in MCF7 cells. Conclusions We present a global comparison of protein occupancy profiles from different cell types, and provide evidence for altered mRNA metabolism as a result of differential protein-RNA contacts. Additionally, we introduce POPPI, a bioinformatics workflow for the analysis of protein occupancy profiling experiments. Our work demonstrates the value of protein occupancy profiling for assessing cis-regulatory RNA sequence space and its dynamics in growth, development and disease. PMID:24417896



Transcription Expression and Clinical Significance of Dishevelled-3 mRNA and ?-Catenin mRNA in Pleural Effusions from Patients with Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate diagnostic utility of Dishevelled-3 (DVL-3) mRNA and ?-catenin mRNA expression in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer. Methods. DVL-3 mRNA and ?-catenin mRNA levels were assessed by performing RT-PCR on pleural effusion specimens from patients with lung cancer (n = 75) and with lung benign disease (n = 51). Results. The expressions of DVL-3 mRNA and ?-catenin mRNA were significantly higher in malignant than in benign lung disease (P < 0.01) and were obviously higher than cytology in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01). In single use, DVL-3 mRNA had the highest specificity (94.1%) and PPV (95.7%), whereas ?-catenin mRNA had the highest sensitivity (92.0%) and NPV (88.5%). When combinations of markers were evaluated together, DVL-3 mRNA and ?-catenin mRNA gave a high-diagnostic performance: sensitivity of 100.0%, NPV of 100.0%, and accuracy of 96.0%, respectively. Conclusion. As molecular markers of detecting pleural micrometastasis, DVL-3 mRNA and ?-catenin mRNA are helpful to diagnose the cancer cells in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer. PMID:22461838

Li, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shu-Li; Cha, Na; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Shao-Cheng; Li, Wei-Nan; Wang, En-Hua; Wu, Guang-Ping



Identification of differentially expressed mRNA during pancreas regeneration of rat by mRNA differential display  

E-print Network

Identification of differentially expressed mRNA during pancreas regeneration of rat by m was used to isolate genes that show transcriptional changes in pancreas of rat after 90% partial pancreatectomy. Forty-nine candidate pancreas regeneration-associated transcripts were isolated. cDNA sequencing

Park, Jong-Sang


Forensic pregnancy diagnostics with placental mRNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context\\u000a suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)\\u000a technology to 11 genes previously reported with placental mRNA circulating in maternal blood. We found two genes, hPL and ?hCG, with pregnancy-specific expression in whole blood samples. RT-PCR

Jeanot Gauvin; Dmitry Zubakov; Joke van Rhee-Binkhorst; Ate Kloosterman; Eric Steegers; Manfred Kayser



Nuclear mRNA export: insights from virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize the production of progeny virions, several viruses have evolved mechanisms that promote the selective nuclear export of viral mRNA transcripts while, in some cases, inhibiting the export of cellular mRNAs. To achieve this goal, viruses have evolved regulatory proteins and cis-acting RNA elements that selectively interact with key cellular nuclear export factors. Efforts to identify the cellular targets

Bryan R Cullen



Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3E1) cells were subjected to a vibrational force modeled by NASA to simulate a space shuttle launch (7.83 G rms). The mRNA levels for eight genes were investigated to determine the effect of vibrational force on mRNA expression. The mRNA levels of two growth-related protooncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, were up-regulated significantly within 30 min after vibration, whereas those of osteocalcin as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 were decreased significantly within 3 h after vibration. No changes were detected in the levels of beta-actin, histone H4, or cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 after vibration. No basal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 expression were detected. In addition, the extracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent autocrine/paracrine growth factor in bone, were not significantly altered after vibration most likely due to the serum deprivation state of the osteoblasts. In comparison with the gravitational launch profile, vibrational-induced changes in gene expression were greater both in magnitude and number of genes activated. Taken together, these data suggest that the changes in mRNA expression are due to a direct mechanical effect of the vibrational force on the osteoblast cells and not to changes in the local PGE2 concentrations. The finding that launch forces induce gene expression is of utmost importance since many of the biological experiments do not dampen vibrational loads on experimental samples. This lack of dampening of vibrational forces may partially explain why 1-G onboard controls sometimes do not reflect 1-G ground controls. These data may also suggest that scientists use extra ground controls that are exposed to launch forces, have these forces dampened on launched samples, or use facilities such as Biorack that provide an onboard 1-G centrufuge in order to control for space shuttle launch forces.

Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Vincent, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.



CELL BIOLOGY: TAPping into mRNA Export  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. There seem to be numerous pathways for exporting mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. But working out which set of export adaptors and receptors transport individual mRNAs has been very difficult. In a Perspective, Moore and Rosbash discuss a new strategy using cell-penetrating peptide inhibitors for unraveling the routes of mRNA export in living cells (Gallouzi and Steitz).

Melissa J. Moore (Brandeis University;Department of Biochemistry); Michael Rosbash (Brandeis University;Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute)



Relationship of ORF length and mRNA degradation in Escherichia coli genome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay rate of mRNA varied in a wide range within a species and the special sequence features were considered as important factor determining this variation. In order to investigate the effect of ORF length on mRNA degradation in Escherichia coli genome, the correlation between ORF length and mRNA half-life was calculated in different cultures for mRNA growing. Although the effect of ORF length on mRNA degradation is strongly dependent of the growth medium, a significant negative correlation between ORF length and mRNA half-life is observed in the mRNAs less affected by the growth medium. In particular, some important genes, such as essential genes, show significant inverse correlation between ORF length and mRNA degradation. Our results indicate that ORF length is an important factor influencing mRNA degradation and the increasing length tends to decrease the mRNA longevity.

Jia, Mengwen; Zhan, Yong



Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice  

SciTech Connect

Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))



Isolation of Escherichia coli mRNA and Comparison of Expression Using mRNA and Total RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of genome-wide expression using microar- rays often entail synthesis of complementary (c)DNAs corresponding to the messenger(m) RNA populations of cells (1- 4). Only about 4% of the total RNA in an E. coli cell is mRNA, whereas about 15% is transfer RNA (tRNA) and about 80% is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (5). In

Volker F. Wendisch; Daniel P. Zimmer; Arkady Khodursky; Brian Peter; Nicholas Cozzarelli


Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factors act in concert to regulate common mRNA targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that degrades mRNAs containing nonsense codons, and regulates the expression of naturally occurring transcripts. While NMD is not essential in yeast or nematodes, UPF1, a key NMD effector, is essential in mice. Here we show that NMD components are required for cell proliferation in Drosophila. This raises the question of whether NMD




Relationship between the levels of calbindin synthesis and calbindin mRNA in chick intestine. Quantitation of calbindin mRNA.  


An RNA-excess filter hybridization assay was established to measure the absolute amount of calbindin mRNA in chick tissues. The tissue with the highest level of mRNA is intestine, followed by kidney and cerebellum; the mRNA was not detected in liver and skin. Calbindin mRNA in intestine and kidney is vitamin D-dependent. The maximum concentration of calbindin and its mRNA found after dosing vitamin D-deficient chicks with dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) is less than 5% of that found with vitamin D dosing. Secondary 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulation produced greatly increased amounts of both calbindin mRNA and the protein, at least reaching levels similar to those found after vitamin D dosing. In this last case, each mucosal cell contains about 2000 calbindin mRNA molecules which are translated at a rate sufficient to account for the levels of calbindin found. Calbindin mRNA is translated most rapidly in the very short time periods after its release into the cytoplasm. 1,25-(OH)2D3 has two effects on calbindin mRNA formation: first, to permit the expression of the calbindin gene and a second effect, of slower onset but more persistent, which increases either the rate of calbindin gene transcription or the stability of calbindin mRNA. PMID:3346251

Mayel-Afshar, S; Lane, S M; Lawson, D E



Multiple Nudix family proteins possess mRNA decapping activity.  


RNA decapping is an important contributor to gene expression and is a critical determinant of mRNA decay. The recent demonstration that mammalian cells harbor at least two distinct decapping enzymes that preferentially modulate a subset of mRNAs raises the intriguing possibility of whether additional decapping enzymes exist. Because both known decapping proteins, Dcp2 and Nudt16, are members of the Nudix hydrolase family, we set out to determine whether other members of this family of proteins also contain intrinsic RNA decapping activity. Here we demonstrate that six additional mouse Nudix proteins--Nudt2, Nudt3, Nudt12, Nudt15, Nudt17, and Nudt19--have varying degrees of decapping activity in vitro on both monomethylated and unmethylated capped RNAs. The decapping products from Nudt17 and Nudt19 were analogous to Dcp2 and predominantly generated m?GDP, while cleavage by Nudt2, Nudt3, Nudt12, and Nudt15 was more pleiotropic and generated both m?GMP and m?GDP. Interestingly, all six Nudix proteins as well as both Dcp2 and Nudt16 could hydrolyze the cap of an unmethylated capped RNA, indicating that decapping enzymes may be less constrained for the presence of the methyl moiety. Investigation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nudix proteins revealed that the yeast homolog of Nudt3, Ddp1p, also possesses decapping activity in vitro. Moreover, the bacterial Nudix pyrophosphohydrolase RppH displayed RNA decapping activity and released m?GDP product comparable to Dcp2, indicating that decapping is an evolutionarily conserved activity that preceded mammalian cap formation. These findings demonstrate that multiple Nudix family hydrolases may function in mRNA decapping and mRNA stability. PMID:23353937

Song, Man-Gen; Bail, Sophie; Kiledjian, Megerditch



Multiple Nudix family proteins possess mRNA decapping activity  

PubMed Central

RNA decapping is an important contributor to gene expression and is a critical determinant of mRNA decay. The recent demonstration that mammalian cells harbor at least two distinct decapping enzymes that preferentially modulate a subset of mRNAs raises the intriguing possibility of whether additional decapping enzymes exist. Because both known decapping proteins, Dcp2 and Nudt16, are members of the Nudix hydrolase family, we set out to determine whether other members of this family of proteins also contain intrinsic RNA decapping activity. Here we demonstrate that six additional mouse Nudix proteins—Nudt2, Nudt3, Nudt12, Nudt15, Nudt17, and Nudt19—have varying degrees of decapping activity in vitro on both monomethylated and unmethylated capped RNAs. The decapping products from Nudt17 and Nudt19 were analogous to Dcp2 and predominantly generated m7GDP, while cleavage by Nudt2, Nudt3, Nudt12, and Nudt15 was more pleiotropic and generated both m7GMP and m7GDP. Interestingly, all six Nudix proteins as well as both Dcp2 and Nudt16 could hydrolyze the cap of an unmethylated capped RNA, indicating that decapping enzymes may be less constrained for the presence of the methyl moiety. Investigation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nudix proteins revealed that the yeast homolog of Nudt3, Ddp1p, also possesses decapping activity in vitro. Moreover, the bacterial Nudix pyrophosphohydrolase RppH displayed RNA decapping activity and released m7GDP product comparable to Dcp2, indicating that decapping is an evolutionarily conserved activity that preceded mammalian cap formation. These findings demonstrate that multiple Nudix family hydrolases may function in mRNA decapping and mRNA stability. PMID:23353937

Song, Man-Gen; Bail, Sophie; Kiledjian, Megerditch



Conceptual Modeling of mRNA Decay Provokes New Hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Biologists are required to integrate large amounts of data to construct a working model of the system under investigation. This model is often informal and stored mentally or textually, making it prone to contain undetected inconsistencies, inaccuracies, or even contradictions, not much less than a representation in free natural language. Using Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a formal yet visual and humanly accessible conceptual modeling language, we have created an executable working model of the mRNA decay process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the import of its components to the nucleus following mRNA decay. We show how our model, which incorporates knowledge from 43 articles, can reproduce outcomes that match the experimental findings, evaluate hypotheses, and predict new possible outcomes. Moreover, we were able to analyze the effects of the mRNA decay model perturbations related to gene and interaction deletions, and predict the nuclear import of certain decay factors, which we then verified experimentally. In particular, we verified experimentally the hypothesis that Rpb4p, Lsm1p, and Pan2p remain bound to the RNA 3?-untralslated region during the entire process of the 5? to 3? degradation of the RNA open reading frame. The model has also highlighted erroneous hypotheses that indeed were not in line with the experimental outcomes. Beyond the scientific value of these specific findings, this work demonstrates the value of the conceptual model as an in silico vehicle for hypotheses generation and testing, which can reinforce, and often even replace, risky, costlier wet lab experiments. PMID:25255440

Somekh, Judith; Haimovich, Gal; Guterman, Adi; Dori, Dov; Choder, Mordechai



Differential regulation of plastid mRNA stability. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to identify cis-acting sequences and transacting factors that function in plastid mRNA maturation, stabilization, and/or decay through an in vitro and in vivo analysis of mRNA:protein interactions. Our previous results emphasized the study of 3{prime}end inverted repeat sequences (IRs) that serve both as mRNA processing elements and stability determinants, and associate with plastid proteins that potentially play enzymatic, structural and/or regulatory roles. We seek to define, by single base and internal deletion mutagenesis, the sequence and structural requirements for protein binding to the 3{prime} IRs of petD and psbA mRNAs; to purify RNA-binding proteins that demonstrate gene- or sequence-specific binding, or that are implicated in RNA stabilization or decay; and to investigate the native form of mRNA in the plastid, by attempting to purify ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles from organelles. Our view of mRNA decay is that it is regulated by three interactive components: RNA structure, ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. We have used mutagenesis to study the role of RNA structure in regulating RNA decay rates, and to identify protein binding and endonuclease recognition sites. We have identified at least three endonuclease activities; one that cleaves psbA RNA; and two whose cleavage patterns with petD 3{prime} IR-RNA has been studied (endoC1 and endoC2). Additionally, we have continued to analyze the properties of the major RNA processing exoribonuclease. We have concentrated our efforts on three RNA-binding proteins. A 100 kd protein with properties suggestive of a mammalian RNP component has been purified. A protein of 55 kd that may also be an endonuclease has been partially purified. We have studied the interaction of a 29 kd protein with the petD stem/loop, and its role in RNA processing. Recently, we have used a novel gel shift/SDS-PAGE technique to identify new RNA-binding proteins.

Stern, D.B.



Expression of Aberrant Estrogen Receptor mRNA in Endometrial Cancers in Comparison with Normal Endometria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In endometrial cancers, some overexpression of estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA occurred in comparison with the ER mRNA level in normal endometria. DNA binding domains (DBDs) of ER mRNA were detected in 100% (13\\/13) of the endometrial cancers, and a mutated ER-DBD mRNA was found in 3 of the 13 by SI nuclease protection analysis. It is suggested that estrogen might

Jiro Fujimoto; Masashi Hori; Satoshi Ichigo; Miki Nishigaki; Toshiya Itoh; Teruhiko Tamaya



850 Research Paper Translational attenuation mediated by an mRNA intron  

E-print Network

regulatory step in UPR activation is the regulated splicing of HAC1 mRNA, which encodes Hac1p, a transcription factor dedicated to this pathway. Hac1p can be detected only when the spliced form of HAC1 mRNA (termed HAC1i mRNA, for induced) is produced; this was surprising because the unspliced HAC1u mRNA (HAC1u

Walter, Peter


Relationship Between mRNA Stability and Length: An Old Question with a New Twist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The half-life of individual mRNA plays a central role in controlling the level of gene expression. However, the determinants\\u000a of mRNA stability have not yet been well defined. Most previous studies suggest that mRNA length does not affect its stability.\\u000a Here, we show significant negative correlations between mRNA length and stability in human and Escherichia coli, but not in Saccharomyces

Liang Feng; Deng-Ke Niu



Nucleolin Mediates MicroRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA Deadenylation but Increases Translation of CSF-1 mRNA*  

PubMed Central

CSF-1 mRNA 3?UTR contains multiple unique motifs, including a common microRNA (miRNA) target in close proximity to a noncanonical G-quadruplex and AU-rich elements (AREs). Using a luciferase reporter system fused to CSF-1 mRNA 3?UTR, disruption of the miRNA target region, G-quadruplex, and AREs together dramatically increased reporter RNA levels, suggesting important roles for these cis-acting regulatory elements in the down-regulation of CSF-1 mRNA. We find that nucleolin, which binds both G-quadruplex and AREs, enhances deadenylation of CSF-1 mRNA, promoting CSF-1 mRNA decay, while having the capacity to increase translation of CSF-1 mRNA. Through interaction with the CSF-1 3?UTR miRNA common target, we find that miR-130a and miR-301a inhibit CSF-1 expression by enhancing mRNA decay. Silencing of nucleolin prevents the miRNA-directed mRNA decay, indicating a requirement for nucleolin in miRNA activity on CSF-1 mRNA. Downstream effects followed by miR-130a and miR-301a inhibition of directed cellular motility of ovarian cancer cells were found to be dependent on nucleolin. The paradoxical effects of nucleolin on miRNA-directed CSF-1 mRNA deadenylation and on translational activation were explored further. The nucleolin protein contains four acidic stretches, four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and nine RGG repeats. All three domains in nucleolin regulate CSF-1 mRNA and protein levels. RRMs increase CSF-1 mRNA, whereas the acidic and RGG domains decrease CSF-1 protein levels. This suggests that nucleolin has the capacity to differentially regulate both CSF-1 RNA and protein levels. Our finding that nucleolin interacts with Ago2 indirectly via RNA and with poly(A)-binding protein C (PABPC) directly suggests a nucleolin-Ago2-PABPC complex formation on mRNA. This complex is in keeping with our suggestion that nucleolin may work with PABPC as a double-edged sword on both mRNA deadenylation and translational activation. Our findings underscore the complexity of nucleolin's actions on CSF-1 mRNA and describe the dependence of miR-130a- and miR-301a-directed CSF-1 mRNA decay and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell motility on nucleolin. PMID:23471483

Woo, Ho-Hyung; Baker, Terri; Laszlo, Csaba; Chambers, Setsuko K.



CRK adaptor protein expression is required for efficient replication of avian influenza A viruses and controls JNK-mediated apoptotic responses.  


The non-structural protein 1 (A/NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) harbours several src-homology domain (SH) binding motifs that are required for interaction with cellular proteins. The SH3 binding motif at aa212-217 [PPLPPK] of A/NS1 was shown to be essential for binding to the cellular adaptor proteins CRK and CRKL. Both regulate diverse cellular effector pathways, including activation of the MAP-kinase JNK that in turn mediates antiviral responses to IAV infection. By studying functional consequences of A/NS1-CRK interaction we show here that A/NS1 binding to CRK contributes to suppression of the antiviral-acting JNK-ATF2 pathway. However, only IAV that encode an A/NS1-protein harbouring the CRK/CRKL SH3 binding motif PPLPPK were attenuated upon downregulation of CRKI/II and CRKL, but not of CRKII alone. The PPLPPK site-harbouring candidate strains could be discriminated from other strains by a pronounced viral activation of the JNK-ATF2 signalling module that was even further boosted upon knock-down of CRKI/II. Interestingly, this enhanced JNK activation did not alter type-I IFN-expression, but rather resulted in increased levels of virus-induced cell death. Our results imply that binding capacity of A/NS1 to CRK/CRKL has evolved in virus strains that over-induce the antiviral acting JNK-ATF2 signalling module and helps to suppress the detrimental apoptosis promoting action of this pathway. PMID:20088952

Hrincius, Eike R; Wixler, Viktor; Wolff, Thorsten; Wagner, Ralf; Ludwig, Stephan; Ehrhardt, Christina



T-Lymphocyte Activation Increases Hypothalamic and Amygdaloid Expression of CRH mRNA and Emotional Reactivity to Novelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of T-cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) significantly elevates interleukin-2 (IL-2) and contemporaneous activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and c-fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of BALB\\/cByJ mice. Such neural signaling may promote cognitive and emotional adaptation before or during infectious illness. Because corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an anxiogenic neu- ropeptide that may mediate the stressor-like effects of

Alexander W. Kusnecov; Rumei Liang; Galina Shurin



Edinburgh Research Explorer Distribution of mRNA encoding the inwardly rectifying K+  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Distribution of mRNA encoding the inwardly rectifying K+ channel, BIR1 & Freeman, TC 1995, 'Distribution of mRNA encoding the inwardly rectifying K+ channel, BIR1 in rat tissues) 135-140 Distribution of mRNA encoding the inwardly rectifying K + channel, BIR1 in rat tissues A

MacDonald, Andrew


Subcellular mRNA localisation at a glance  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT mRNA localisation coupled to translational regulation provides an important means of dictating when and where proteins function in a variety of model systems. This mechanism is particularly relevant in polarised or migrating cells. Although many of the models for how this is achieved were first proposed over 20 years ago, some of the molecular details are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, advanced imaging, biochemical and computational approaches have started to shed light on the cis-acting localisation signals and trans-acting factors that dictate the final destination of localised transcripts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we provide an overview of mRNA localisation, from transcription to degradation, focusing on the microtubule-dependent active transport and anchoring mechanism, which we will use to explain the general paradigm. However, it is clear that there are diverse ways in which mRNAs become localised and target protein expression, and we highlight some of the similarities and differences between these mechanisms. PMID:24833669

Parton, Richard M.; Davidson, Alexander; Davis, Ilan; Weil, Timothy T.



Matrin 3 binds and stabilizes mRNA.  


Matrin 3 (MATR3) is a highly conserved, inner nuclear matrix protein with two zinc finger domains and two RNA recognition motifs (RRM), whose function is largely unknown. Recently we found MATR3 to be phosphorylated by the protein kinase ATM, which activates the cellular response to double strand breaks in the DNA. Here, we show that MATR3 interacts in an RNA-dependent manner with several proteins with established roles in RNA processing, and maintains its interaction with RNA via its RRM2 domain. Deep sequencing of the bound RNA (RIP-seq) identified several small noncoding RNA species. Using microarray analysis to explore MATR3's role in transcription, we identified 77 transcripts whose amounts depended on the presence of MATR3. We validated this finding with nine transcripts which were also bound to the MATR3 complex. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of MATR3 for maintaining the stability of several of these mRNA species and conclude that it has a role in mRNA stabilization. The data suggest that the cellular level of MATR3, known to be highly regulated, modulates the stability of a group of gene transcripts. PMID:21858232

Salton, Maayan; Elkon, Ran; Borodina, Tatiana; Davydov, Aleksey; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Halperin, Eran; Shiloh, Yosef



Motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ribosomes move along messenger RNA to translate a sequence of ribonucleotides into a corresponding sequence of amino acids that make up a protein. Efficient motion of ribosomes along the mRNA requires hydrolysis of GTP, converting chemical energy into mechanical work, like better known molecular motors such as kinesin. However, motion is just one of the many tasks of the ribosome, whereas for kinesin, motion itself is the main goal. In keeping with these functional differences, the ribosome is also much larger consisting of more than 50 proteins and with half of its mass made up of ribosomal RNA. Such structural complexity enables indirect ways of coupling GTP hydrolysis to directed motion. In order to elucidate the mechanochemical coupling in ribosomes we have developed a single-molecule assay based on using optical tweezers to record the motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA. Translation rates of 2-4 codons/s have been observed. However, when increasing the force opposing motion, we observe backward slippage of ribosomes along homopolymeric poly(U) messages. Currently, it is not clear if the motor operates in reverse or if backward motion has become completely uncoupled from GTP hydrolysis. Interestingly, force-induced backward motion is of biological relevance because of its possible role in -1 frameshifting, a mechanism used by viruses to regulate gene expression at the level of translation.

Visscher, Koen



Picornavirus Modification of a Host mRNA Decay Protein  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Due to the limited coding capacity of picornavirus genomic RNAs, host RNA binding proteins play essential roles during viral translation and RNA replication. Here we describe experiments suggesting that AUF1, a host RNA binding protein involved in mRNA decay, plays a role in the infectious cycle of picornaviruses such as poliovirus and human rhinovirus. We observed cleavage of AUF1 during poliovirus or human rhinovirus infection, as well as interaction of this protein with the 5? noncoding regions of these viral genomes. Additionally, the picornavirus proteinase 3CD, encoded by poliovirus or human rhinovirus genomic RNAs, was shown to cleave all four isoforms of recombinant AUF1 at a specific N-terminal site in vitro. Finally, endogenous AUF1 was found to relocalize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells to sites adjacent to (but distinct from) putative viral RNA replication complexes. PMID:23131833

Rozovics, Janet M.; Chase, Amanda J.; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Chou, Wayne; Gershon, Paul D.; Palusa, Saiprasad; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Semler, Bert L.



An agent-based model for mRNA export through the nuclear pore complex.  


mRNA export from the nucleus is an essential step in the expression of every protein- coding gene in eukaryotes, but many aspects of this process remain poorly understood. The density of export receptors that must bind an mRNA to ensure export, as well as how receptor distribution affects transport dynamics, is not known. It is also unclear whether the rate-limiting step for transport occurs at the nuclear basket, in the central channel, or on the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex. Using previously published biophysical and biochemical parameters of mRNA export, we implemented a three-dimensional, coarse-grained, agent-based model of mRNA export in the nanosecond regime to gain insight into these issues. On running the model, we observed that mRNA export is sensitive to the number and distribution of transport receptors coating the mRNA and that there is a rate-limiting step in the nuclear basket that is potentially associated with the mRNA reconfiguring itself to thread into the central channel. Of note, our results also suggest that using a single location-monitoring mRNA label may be insufficient to correctly capture the time regime of mRNA threading through the pore and subsequent transport. This has implications for future experimental design to study mRNA transport dynamics. PMID:25253717

Azimi, Mohammad; Bulat, Evgeny; Weis, Karsten; Mofrad, Mohammad R K



Regulation of prothymosin alpha mRNA levels in rat pituitary tumor cells.  


Prothymosin alpha (PTA) mRNA and histone H4 (H4) mRNA levels were studied in various experimental conditions that affected GH1 pituitary tumor cell proliferation. Cell proliferation and progression through the cell cycle was assessed by counting cells, 3H-thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. PTA mRNA levels were decreased in a time-dependent fashion following serum deprivation; when the cells were induced to grow by serum refeeding, PTA mRNA expression was greatly stimulated. Interestingly, after caprylic acid treatment (2.5 mM for 24 h) that arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, PTA mRNA and H4 mRNA levels were almost undetectable; conversely, following caprylic acid withdrawal, PTA mRNA and H4 mRNA expression were greatly stimulated. Furthermore, cells cultured in T3-deprived serum, which was found to decrease GH1 cell proliferation, had low levels of PTA and H4 mRNAs. This effect was reversed by the addition of nanomolar concentrations of T3 to the culture. On the other hand, IGF-1 addition to the culture did not substantially modify PTA mRNA levels. The present data clearly indicate that PTA mRNA expression is tied to the proliferating activity of GH1 cells and, thus, could be used as a marker of the action that various agents have on GH1 cell proliferation. PMID:8232763

Alvarez, C V; Zalvide, J B; Cancio, E; Dieguez, C; Regueiro, B J; Vega, F V; Dominguez, F



Changes in mRNA stability associated with cold stress in Arabidopsis cells.  


Control of mRNA half-life is a powerful strategy to adjust individual mRNA levels to various stress conditions, because the mRNA degradation rate controls not only the steady-state mRNA level but also the transition speed of mRNA levels. Here, we analyzed mRNA half-life changes in response to cold stress in Arabidopsis cells using genome-wide analysis, in which mRNA half-life measurements and transcriptome analysis were combined. Half-lives of average transcripts were determined to be elongated under cold conditions. Taking this general shift into account, we identified more than a thousand transcripts that were classified as relatively stabilized or relatively destabilized. The relatively stabilized class was predominantly observed in functional categories that included various regulators involved in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. On the other hand, the relatively destabilized class was enriched in categories related to stress and hormonal response proteins, supporting the idea that rapid decay of mRNA is advantageous for swift responses to stress. In addition, pentatricopeptide repeat, cyclin-like F-box and Myb transcription factor protein families were significantly over-represented in the relatively destabilized class. The global analysis presented here demonstrates not only the importance of mRNA turnover control in the cold stress response but also several structural characteristics that might be important in the control of mRNA stability. PMID:23220693

Chiba, Yukako; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Hirai, Masami Y; Suzuki, Yuya; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Takahashi, Hiro; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Junji; Naito, Satoshi



Chemokine receptor CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA in chickens following inflammation or vaccination.  


The CCR7 and CXCR5 chemokine receptor mRNA contents of different immune organs were studied in normal, healthy birds and in birds treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a systemic inflammatory challenge or coccidial vaccine (Coccivac B; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Millsboro, DE) as an enteric vaccination challenge. The CCR7 mRNA content of the spleen of normal, healthy birds was approximately 150-fold higher than CCR7 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The CXCR5 mRNA content of the bursa of normal, healthy birds was approximately 80-fold higher than the CXCR5 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The LPS injection decreased the splenic CCR7 mRNA content by approximately 100 times and the bursal CXCR5 mRNA content by approximately 5-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.01). The LPS injection increased the CXCR5 content of cecal tonsils by approximately 3-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.05). At 10 d postvaccination, CCR7 mRNA content was approximately 15-fold higher and CXCR5 mRNA content was approximately 12-fold higher in cecal tonsils of the vaccinated group than in the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA levels were dependent on the immune organs and the inflammatory status of the organs in chickens. PMID:21753206

Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K



Small RNA-induced mRNA degradation achieved through both translation block and activated cleavage  

PubMed Central

Small RNA (sRNA)-induced mRNA degradation occurs through binding of an sRNA to a target mRNA with the concomitant action of the RNA degradosome, which induces an endoribonuclease E (RNase E)-dependent cleavage and degradation of the targeted mRNA. Because many sRNAs bind at the ribosome-binding site (RBS), it is possible that the resulting translation block is sufficient to promote the rapid degradation of the targeted mRNA. Contrary to this mechanism, we report here that the pairing of the sRNA RyhB to the target mRNA sodB initiates mRNA degradation even in the absence of translation on the mRNA target. Remarkably, even though it pairs at the RBS, the sRNA RyhB induces mRNA cleavage in vivo at a distal site located >350 nucleotides (nt) downstream from the RBS, ruling out local cleavage near the pairing site. Both the RNA chaperone Hfq and the RNA degradosome are required for efficient cleavage at the distal site. Thus, beyond translation initiation block, sRNA-induced mRNA cleavage requires several unexpected steps, many of which are determined by structural features of the target mRNA. PMID:21289064

Prévost, Karine; Desnoyers, Guillaume; Jacques, Jean-François; Lavoie, François; Massé, Eric



Red Light-Independent Instability of Oat Phytochrome mRNA in Vivo.  

PubMed Central

Phytochrome A (phyA) mRNA abundance decreased rapidly in total RNA samples isolated from 4-day-old etiolated oat seedlings following a red light pulse. Putative in vivo phyA mRNA degradation products were detectable both before and after red light treatment. Cordycepin-treated coleoptiles were unable to accumulate the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein mRNA in response to red light, indicating that cordycepin effectively inhibited mRNA synthesis. In cordycepin-treated coleoptiles, phyA mRNA rapidly decreased in abundance, consistent with the hypothesis that phyA mRNA is inherently unstable, rather than being destabilized after red light treatment of etiolated oat seedlings. PMID:12297628

Seeley, KA; Byrne, DH; Colbert, JT



Translational Gymnastics on the Sendai Virus P\\/C mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sendai virus (SeV) P\\/C mRNA expresses eight different polypeptide chains using a combination of ribosomal choice and cotranscriptional editing (an internal open reading frame (ORF) is accessed by the addition of a single G residue after a short run of Gs at position 1053 on the mRNA). The longest ORF within the mRNA starts at ATG104 (the second initiation

Joseph Curran; Patrizia Latorre; Daniel Kolakofsky



Physical change in cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoproteins in cells treated with inhibitors of mRNA transcription  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D, camptothecin, and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole) or after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Cordycepin, which inhibits polyadenylation but not mRNA synthesis, has no such effect. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and of rRNA synthesis are also without effect on 38K cross-linking to mRNA. The onset of the effect of inhibitors of mRNA synthesis on the UV cross-linkable interaction between mRNA and 38K is rapid and reaches a maximal level in less than 60 min, and it is completely and rapidly reversible. In cells treated with actinomycin D, the amount of 38K which becomes cross-linked to mRNA is proportional to the extent of inhibition of mRNA synthesis. The association of 38K with mRNA during transcriptional arrest does not require protein synthesis because simultaneous treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor emetine does not interfere with it. The effectors which promote the interaction of 38K with mRNA do not affect the proteins which are in contact with polyadenylated heterogeneous nuclear RNA and do not markedly affect protein synthesis in the cell. The 38K protein can be isolated with the polyribosomal polyadenylated fraction from which it was purified, and monoclonal antibodies against it were prepared.

Dreyfuss, G.; Adam, S.A.; Choi, Y.D.



Abundance of leptin mRNA in fetal adipose tissue is related to fetal body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin mRNA was measured in adipose tissue of fetal sheep by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Abundance of leptin mRNA relative to ?-actin mRNA in fetal perirenal adipose tissue increased ( P<0.02) with gestation, being higher at 144 d (0.73 ± 0.10, n=5) than at 90-91 d (0.40 ± 0.08, n=6) or 125 d (0.40 ± 0.04, n=5) gestation

S J Bernard; I Yuen; C McMillen; M E Symonds; P C Owens



Antisense Transcript and RNA Processing Alterations Suppress Instability of Polyadenylated mRNA in Chlamydomonas Chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chloroplasts, the control of mRNA stability is of critical importance for proper regulation of gene expression. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain D26pAtE is engineered such that the atpB mRNA terminates with an mRNA destabilizing polyadenylate tract, resulting in this strain being unable to conduct photosynthesis. A collection of photosynthetic revertants was obtained from D26pAtE, and gel blot hybridizations revealed RNA

Yoshiki Nishimura; Elise A. Kikis; Sara L. Zimmer; Yutaka Komine; David B. Stern



Ethanol stimulates diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) mRNA expression in primary cultured neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in expression of diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) mRNA in cerebral cortical neurons following long-term ethanol (EtOH) exposure were examined. A significant increase in DBI mRNA expression was observed by the exposure of neurons to 50 mM EtOH for up to 5 days and to EtOH (1–100 mM) for 3 days. These EtOH-induced increases in DBI mRNA expression were further

Masashi Katsura; Seitaro Ohkuma; Xu Jun; Atsushi Tsujimura; Kinya Kuriyama



Vaccinia virus induces cellular mRNA degradation.  

PubMed Central

The infection of mouse L cells with vaccinia virus induced a rapid inhibition of cellular polypeptide synthesis and a diversion of protein synthesis to the exclusive production of viral polypeptides. This shutoff of cell-specific protein synthesis was achieved by a novel mechanism by which the virus induced the rapid degradation of cellular mRNAs. Concurrent with the degradation of cellular mRNA, the virus proceeds in the orderly temporal expression of its own genetic information. The effect of vaccinia virus infection upon two abundant L-cell mRNAs was assessed by using the highly conserved cDNA sequences that encode chicken beta-actin and rat alpha-tubulin. Hybridization analyses demonstrated that throughout infection there is a rapid and progressive degradation of both of these mRNAs. In fact, after 3 h of infection they are reduced to less than 50% of their concentration in uninfected L cells, and between 8 to 10 h they are almost entirely degraded. This observation explains in part the mechanism by which vaccinia virus inhibits host cell protein synthesis. Images PMID:6620463

Rice, A P; Roberts, B E



Intracellular calcium regulates nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.  


The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway selectively eliminates aberrant transcripts containing premature translation termination codons and regulates the levels of a number of physiological mRNAs. NMD modulates the clinical outcome of a variety of human diseases, including cancer and many genetic disorders, and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we have developed a new multicolored bioluminescence-based reporter system that can specifically and effectively assay NMD in live human cells. Using this reporter system, we conducted a robust high-throughput small-molecule screen in human cells and, unpredictably, identified a group of cardiac glycosides, including ouabain and digoxin, as potent inhibitors of NMD. Cardiac glycoside-mediated effects on NMD are dependent on binding and inhibiting the sodium-potassium ATPase on the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of intracellular calcium levels. Induction of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum also leads to inhibition of NMD. Thus, this study reveals intracellular calcium as a key regulator of NMD and has implications for exploiting NMD in the treatment of disease. PMID:25064126

Nickless, Andrew; Jackson, Erin; Marasa, Jayne; Nugent, Patrick; Mercer, Robert W; Piwnica-Worms, David; You, Zhongsheng



Expression of survivin mRNA in dog tumors.  


Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, overexpresses in various human tumors. Recently this protein has attracted strong interest as a potential prognostic marker because it promotes malignancy through anti-apoptotic activity and is associated with a more aggressive phenotype. To explore the utility of survivin as a veterinary marker of tumor malignancy, we performed molecular cloning of dog survivin cDNA and studied survivin mRNA expression in a variety of naturally occurring dog tumors. The dog cDNA contains a 426-bp open reading frame encoding 142 amino acids of polypeptide, in which a structure termed the baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain, commonly observed in IAPs, is found, as it is in other mammalian survivin protein. The transcript was detected in many adult normal organs including heart, lung, liver, stomach, duodenum, colon, spleen, kidney and testis. As a result of quantitative expression analysis by real-time PCR undertaken for benign and malignant tumors, overexpression of the survivin gene was found in 3 of 18 malignant tumors and in none of the benign tumors, suggesting that survivin overexpression is associated with tumor malignancy in dog. PMID:16243724

Uchide, Tsuyoshi; Takatsu, Norihiro; Fujimori, Yuki; Fukushima, Ushio; Itoh, Hiroshi



Forensic pregnancy diagnostics with placental mRNA markers.  


Current methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to 11 genes previously reported with placental mRNA circulating in maternal blood. We found two genes, hPL and betahCG, with pregnancy-specific expression in whole blood samples. RT-PCR detection of hPL was positive in all samples tested throughout the pregnancy, whereas betahCG was detectable until half of the second trimester but not at later gestation ages. For hPL, in vitro stability of the transcript was demonstrated until 2 months of age, and the hPL-specific RT-PCR assay applied was highly sensitive with reliable detection from down to 0.25 cm(2) dried bloodstain. We therefore suggest hPL-specific RT-PCR as a new molecular tool for forensic pregnancy diagnostics from dried blood stains. Moreover, our results indicate that the time-wise reverse expression of hPL and betahCG during pregnancy may allow an RT-PCR-based estimation of the gestational age from blood stains, adding to the value of forensic pregnancy diagnosis for crime scene investigations. PMID:19148664

Gauvin, Jeanot; Zubakov, Dmitry; van Rhee-Binkhorst, Joke; Kloosterman, Ate; Steegers, Eric; Kayser, Manfred



Serum stable natural peptides designed by mRNA display.  


Peptides constructed with the 20 natural amino acids are generally considered to have little therapeutic potential because they are unstable in the presence of proteases and peptidases. However, proteolysis cleavage can be idiosyncratic, and it is possible that natural analogues of functional sequences exist that are highly resistant to cleavage. Here, we explored this idea in the context of peptides that bind to the signaling protein G?i1. To do this, we used a two-step in vitro selection process to simultaneously select for protease resistance while retaining function-first by degrading the starting library with protease (chymotrypsin), followed by positive selection for binding via mRNA display. Starting from a pool of functional sequences, these experiments revealed peptides with 100-400 fold increases in protease resistance compared to the parental library. Surprisingly, selection for chymotrypsin resistance also resulted in similarly improved stability in human serum (~100 fold). Mechanistically, the decreases in cleavage results from both a lower rate of cleavage (kcat) and a weaker interaction with the protease (Km). Overall, our results demonstrate that the hydrolytic stability of functional, natural peptide sequences can be improved by two orders of magnitude simply by optimizing the primary sequence. PMID:25234472

Howell, Shannon M; Fiacco, Stephen V; Takahashi, Terry T; Jalali-Yazdi, Farzad; Millward, Steven W; Hu, Biliang; Wang, Pin; Roberts, Richard W



Serum Stable Natural Peptides Designed by mRNA Display  

PubMed Central

Peptides constructed with the 20 natural amino acids are generally considered to have little therapeutic potential because they are unstable in the presence of proteases and peptidases. However, proteolysis cleavage can be idiosyncratic, and it is possible that natural analogues of functional sequences exist that are highly resistant to cleavage. Here, we explored this idea in the context of peptides that bind to the signaling protein G?i1. To do this, we used a two-step in vitro selection process to simultaneously select for protease resistance while retaining function–first by degrading the starting library with protease (chymotrypsin), followed by positive selection for binding via mRNA display. Starting from a pool of functional sequences, these experiments revealed peptides with 100–400 fold increases in protease resistance compared to the parental library. Surprisingly, selection for chymotrypsin resistance also resulted in similarly improved stability in human serum (~100 fold). Mechanistically, the decreases in cleavage results from both a lower rate of cleavage (kcat) and a weaker interaction with the protease (Km). Overall, our results demonstrate that the hydrolytic stability of functional, natural peptide sequences can be improved by two orders of magnitude simply by optimizing the primary sequence. PMID:25234472

Howell, Shannon M.; Fiacco, Stephen V.; Takahashi, Terry T.; Jalali-Yazdi, Farzad; Millward, Steven W.; Hu, Biliang; Wang, Pin; Roberts, Richard W.



Stabilization of tubulin mRNA by inhibition of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos.  

PubMed Central

An increased level of unpolymerized tubulin caused by depolymerization of microtubules in sea urchin larvae resulted in a rapid loss of tubulin mRNA, which was prevented by nearly complete inhibition of protein synthesis. Results of an RNA run-on assay indicated that inhibition of protein synthesis does not alter tubulin gene transcription. Analysis of the decay of tubulin mRNA in embryos in which RNA synthesis was inhibited by actinomycin D indicated that inhibition of protein synthesis prevents the destabilization of tubulin mRNA. The effect was similar whether mRNA was maintained on polysomes in the presence of emetine or anisomycin or displaced from the polysomes in the presence of puromycin or pactamycin; thus, the stabilization of tubulin mRNA is not dependent on the state of the polysomes after inhibition of protein synthesis. Even after tubulin mRNA declined to a low level after depolymerization of microtubules, it could be rescued by treatment of embryos with inhibitors of protein synthesis. Tubulin mRNA could be induced to accumulate prematurely in gastrulae but not in plutei if protein synthesis was inhibited, an observation that is indicative of the importance of the autogenous regulation of tubulin mRNA stability during embryogenesis. Possible explanations for the role of protein synthesis in the control of mRNA stability are discussed. Images PMID:3211150

Gong, Z Y; Brandhorst, B P



Oat phytochrome A mRNA degradation appears to occur via two distinct pathways.  

PubMed Central

We have identified possible mechanisms for the degradation of oat phytochrome A (PHYA) mRNA. The majority of PHYA mRNA molecules appeared to be degraded prior to removal of the poly(A) tail, a pathway that differs from that reported for the degradation of other eukaryotic mRNAs. Polyadenylated PHYA mRNA contained a pattern of putative degradation products that is consistent with a 5'-->3' exoribonuclease, although the participation of a stochastic endoribonuclease cannot be excluded. The poly(A) tail of PHYA mRNA was heterogeneous in size and ranged from approximately 14 to 220 nucleotides. Early PHYA mRNA degradation events did not appear to involve site-specific endoribonucleases. Approximately 25% of the apparently full-length PHYA mRNA was poly(A) deficient. Oat H4 histone, beta-tubulin, and actin mRNA populations had lower amounts of apparently full-length mRNAs that were poly(A) deficient. Degradation of the poly(A)-deficient PHYA mRNA, a second pathway, appeared to be initiated by a 3'-->5' exoribonucleolytic removal of the poly(A) tail followed by both 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' exoribonuclease activities. Polysome-associated RNA contained putative PHYA mRNA degradation products and was a mixture of polyadenylated and deadenylated PHYA messages, suggesting that the two distinct degradation pathways are polysome associated. PMID:7915160

Higgs, D C; Colbert, J T



Genetic and environmental changes in SUMO homeostasis lead to nuclear mRNA retention in plants.  


Protein sumoylation plays an important role in plant development, flowering-time regulation, and abiotic stress response. However, the molecular role of sumoylation in these pathways is largely unknown. It was shown previously that in mutants of the inner nuclear basket nucleoporin NUA a large increase in the abundance of high-molecular weight SUMO conjugated proteins correlated with nuclear retention of bulk mRNA. Here, the connection between sumoylation and mRNA export in plants was further investigated. Both SUMO-conjugate accumulation and mRNA retention were also found in a second nucleoporin mutant that does not affect NUA, and SUMO conjugates accumulated predominantly in the nucleus. Similarly, after heat and ethanol treatment, two abiotic stress treatments known to lead to the accumulation of sumoylated proteins, nuclear mRNA was retained. To establish a causal relationship between sumoylation and mRNA export, mutations in two enzymes in the SUMO pathway were tested. Mutating either SUMO E3 ligase or SUMO isopeptidase lead to nuclear mRNA retention, indicating that both an increase and a decrease in the pool of sumoylated nuclear proteins blocks mRNA export. Together, these data show that sumoylation acts upstream of mRNA export in plants, likely through the transient sumoylation status of one or more factors involved in mRNA trafficking. PMID:20872268

Muthuswamy, Sivaramakrishnan; Meier, Iris



Quantification of normal dystrophin mRNA following myoblast transplantation in mdx mice.  


A mutagenesis RT-PCR method was used to detect normal dystrophin mRNA following the injection of normal myoblasts in mdx mice using two immunosuppressors. A specific sequence of the dystrophin mRNA (257 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR from the muscle total RNA. MaeIII digestion of the amplified products allowed us to distinguish the normal messenger of dystrophin from the dystrophic one and to establish the percentage of normal and of dystrophic (mdx) dystrophin mRNA. Normal dystrophin mRNA was detected using this technique in mdx muscles transplanted with histocompatible normal myoblasts. For this type of transplantation, no significant difference in the percentage of normal dystrophin mRNA was observed between immunosuppressed mice and those not immunosuppressed. No normal dystrophin mRNA was, however, observed in mdx mice following histoincompatible normal myoblast transplantation without immunosuppression. When such transplantations were done in mice immunosuppressed with cyclosporine or FK-506, normal dystrophin mRNA accounted for 31% and 36% of the total dystrophin mRNA, respectively. In fact, one animal immunosuppressed with FK-506 expressed as much as 57% of normal dystrophin mRNA. These results thus show that FK-506 makes it possible to restore dystrophin expression to a level comparable to that observed in DMD carriers that are usually asymptomatic. PMID:7643878

Asselin, I; Tremblay, M; Vilquin, J T; Guérette, B; Roy, R; Tremblay, J P



Posttranscriptional Regulation of Urokinase Receptor mRNA: Identification of a Novel Urokinase Receptor mRNA Binding Protein in Human Mesothelioma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of human pleural mesothelioma (MS-1) cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and cyclo- heximide results in 17- and 10-fold, respectively, increases in steady-state expression of urokinase-type plas- minogen activator receptor (uPAR) mRNA. Studies of transcriptional inhibition by actinomycin D showed four- and sixfold extensions of uPAR mRNA half-life in MS-1 cells treated with PMA and cycloheximide, respectively, suggesting that



Localization of Cytoplasmic Collagen mRNA in Human Aortic Coarctation: mRNA Enhancement in High Blood Pressure-induced Intimal and Medial Thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix components, including collagen, coitnibute significantly to arteriosderotic changes in the arterial vessel wall. We local- ized cells actively synthesizing collagen by hybridizing 35S- labeled RNA probes complementary to type I and III colla- gen mRNA with cytoplasmic mRNA in frozen sections of surgically removed aortic coarctations. These were chosen as a model for



Polyamines cause elevation of steroid 5?-reductase mRNA levels by suppressing mRNA degradation in C6 glioma cells.  


Polyamines are widely distributed in living organisms, and considered to play a potential role in various cellular processes. The effects of polyamines on gene expression as well as cell proliferation have been suggested to be closely associated with the physiological and pathological functions. However, it seems necessary to investigate their potential roles in the regulation of cellular metabolism and functions. Previously, glial cells have been suggested to be involved in the protection and preservation of neuronal functions, probably through the production of neurotrophic factors in the brain. On the other hand, neuroactive 5?-reduced steroids promote glial cell differentiation, resulting in enhancement of their ability to produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Based on these findings, polyamines are assumed to stimulate the expression of the gene encoding steroid 5?-reductase (5?-R), which can induce the production of neuroactive 5?-reduced steroids in glial cells. The effects of polyamines on 5?-R mRNA levels in C6 glioma cells were examined as a model experiment. In consequence, spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), but not putrescine (PUT), have been shown to elevate 5?-R mRNA levels without activating the 5?-R promoter. Furthermore, SPM increased 5?-R mRNA levels under the conditions in which the mRNA biosynthesis was inhibited. Therefore, it can be speculated that polyamines increase 5?-R mRNA levels as a consequence of suppressing the degradation of mRNA. PMID:24800957

Morita, Kyoji; Lee, Mi-Sook; Her, Song; Nishibori, Naoyoshi



Herpes simplex virus virion stimulatory protein mRNA leader contains sequence elements which increase both virus-induced transcription and mRNA stability.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the role of 5' noncoding leader sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mRNA in infected cells, the promoter for the 65,000-dalton virion stimulatory protein (VSP), a beta-gamma polypeptide, was introduced into plasmids bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene together with various lengths of adjacent viral leader sequences. Plasmids containing longer lengths of leader sequence gave rise to significantly higher levels of CAT enzyme in transfected cells superinfected with HSV-1. RNase T2 protection assays of CAT mRNA showed that transcription was initiated from an authentic viral cap site in all VSP-CAT constructs and that CAT mRNA levels corresponded to CAT enzyme levels. Use of cis-linked simian virus 40 enhancer sequences demonstrated that the effect was virus specific. Constructs containing 12 and 48 base pairs of the VSP mRNA leader gave HSV infection-induced CAT activities intermediate between those of the leaderless construct and the VSP-(+77)-CAT construct. Actinomycin D chase experiments demonstrated that the longest leader sequences increased hybrid CAT mRNA stability at least twofold in infected cells. Cotransfection experiments with a cosmid bearing four virus-specified transcription factors (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and VSP-65K) showed that sequences from -3 to +77, with respect to the viral mRNA cap site, also contained signals responsive to transcriptional activation. Images PMID:3037112

Blair, E D; Blair, C C; Wagner, E K



Interleukin2 and Septohippocampal Neurons:Neurodevelopment and Autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is the case for IL-2’s biology in the peripheral immune system, the effects of IL-2 on brain development, function and\\u000a disease also appear to be bidirectional and highly complex. Determining whether, and under what circumstances (e.g., development,\\u000a acute injury) these different actions of IL-2 are operative in the brain is essential to make significant advances in understanding\\u000a the multifaceted

John M. Petitto; Zhi Huang; Grace K. Ha; Daniel Dauer


Rituximab Plus Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer

B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma



cDNA cloning of porcine interleukin-2 receptor-? gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine interIeukin-2 receptor-a subunit (IL-2R?) cDNA was cloned from the cDNA library of Con A-stimulated PBMC. The coding sequence of porcine IL-2R?, including the signal peptide sequence, is 813 b.p. in length. The identities of the sequence when it was compared with ovine, murine, feline and human Sequences were 72.2, 62.4, 69.8 and 68.9% at nucleotide level and 58.9, 44.6,

Takehiro Kokuho; Akihiko Uchimura; Shigeki Inumaru



Increased polyamines may downregulate interleukin 2 production in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

Polyamines downregulate immune reactivity. RA is associated with decreased IL 2 production. In this study, we present evidence to suggest that excessive polyamines can contribute to the IL 2 deficiency in RA. Blocking polyamine production with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase results in increased IL 2 production by RA PBMC. Moreover, polyamine oxidase (PAO) inhibitors and catalase also increase IL 2 production by RA PBMC. This effect of PAO inhibition is monocyte mediated. After 3 d in culture, RA PBMC produce three times more IL 2 than do normal PBMC. This rise is prevented by exogenous spermidine but only in the presence of monocytes. The concentration of polyamines in RA PBMC and synovial fluid MNC is 2-20-fold higher than in normal cells. Thus, polyamines and their oxidation products downregulate IL 2 production by RA PBMC and may account for the decreased T cell effector function seen in this disease. PMID:2784801

Flescher, E; Bowlin, T L; Ballester, A; Houk, R; Talal, N



ISSN 1360--1725 Mathematical Modelling Of The Interleukin2  

E-print Network

­lag in the cell division phase are more consistent with certain reported data. They also allow various cell pro of commitment of cells to cell division. Specifically, we study the Interleukin­2­dependent cell division models the cell division using only ordinary differential equations (ODEs), whereas the second approach

Higham, Nicholas J.


Regulation of chicken apolipoprotein B: cloning, tissue distribution, and estrogen induction of mRNA.  


Apolipoprotein (apo) B is a major protein component of plasma very low-density and low-density lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL, respectively) and serves as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL by the apoB/E receptor. In contrast to the situation in mammals, avian apoB is also a component of specialized VLDL particles that are produced by the liver in response to estrogen. These particles transport cholesterol and triglyceride from the liver to the ovary for deposition in egg yolk. We report here the identification and characterization of cDNA clones for chicken apoB and their use in examining the tissue distribution and hormonal regulation of chicken apoB mRNA. The cDNA clones were identified by immunological screening of a phage lambda gt11 library constructed with hen liver mRNA and their identity was supported by sequence comparisons with mammalian apoB. The chicken apoB mRNA is approximately the same size as mammalian apoB mRNA (14 kb), and, as occurs in mammals, is present at high levels in liver and small intestine. Unlike mammals, the chicken apoB mRNA is also found at high levels in the kidney, consistent with previous protein biosynthetic studies. A DNA-excess solution-hybridization assay was used to quantitate apoB mRNA in these tissues and to examine its hormonal regulation. In control roosters the liver and kidney contained 65% and 10%, respectively, as much apoB mRNA as the small intestine. Within 24 h after estradiol administration, apoB mRNA was increased five- to seven-fold in liver but was unchanged in intestine and kidney. The increase in apoB mRNA content and the kinetics of induction parallel hepatic apoB synthesis, indicating that estrogen regulates apoB production through changes in the cellular abundance of apoB mRNA. The apoB mRNA increased rapidly following hormone treatment while the mRNA for another VLDL protein (apoII) showed a lag or slow phase of several hours before significant mRNA accumulation occurred. These data indicate that the liver can respond immediately to estrogen to increase apoB mRNA accumulation, while apoII mRNA accumulation appears to involve additional events or signals which occur slowly and are specific to this gene. PMID:3436530

Kirchgessner, T G; Heinzmann, C; Svenson, K L; Gordon, D A; Nicosia, M; Lebherz, H G; Lusis, A J; Williams, D L



Regulation of skeletal muscle PPAR? mRNA expression in twins  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism in a complex and to some extent unknown manner. Our aim was to study the impact of different factors on PPAR? mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle on one side, and the impact of PPAR? mRNA expression on these factors, including glucose and lipid metabolism, aerobic capacity, fibre type composition and lipid profile, on the other side. PPAR? mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR in muscle biopsies from 176 young and elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Young twins had significantly increased PPAR? mRNA levels compared with elderly twins. A 2 h hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp had no significant effect on PPAR? mRNA levels. Biometric models were calculated for basal PPAR? mRNA expression to estimate the degree of genetic versus environmental influence. In both young and elderly twins there was a substantial genetic component influencing basal PPAR? mRNA levels. In a regression model, the muscle PPAR? mRNA expression was correlated to birth weight, central adiposity and age. The level of PPAR? mRNA was also positively correlated with markers for oxidative muscle fibres. However, in this apparently healthy study population, we found no correlations between PPAR? mRNA expression and aerobic capacity, lipid profile or glucose and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, we provide evidence that mRNA expression of PPAR? in human skeletal muscle is under genetic control but also influenced by factors such as age, birth weight and central adiposity. PMID:17855759

Nilsson, Emma; Poulsen, Pernille; Sjogren, Marketa; Ling, Charlotte; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Vaag, Allan



Distinguishing direct from indirect roles for bicoid mRNA localization factors  

PubMed Central

Localization of bicoid mRNA to the anterior of the Drosophila oocyte is essential for patterning the anteroposterior body axis in the early embryo. bicoid mRNA localizes in a complex multistep process involving transacting factors, molecular motors and cytoskeletal components that remodel extensively during the lifetime of the mRNA. Genetic requirements for several localization factors, including Swallow and Staufen, are well established, but the precise roles of these factors and their relationship to bicoid mRNA transport particles remains unresolved. Here we use live cell imaging, super-resolution microscopy in fixed cells and immunoelectron microscopy on ultrathin frozen sections to study the distribution of Swallow, Staufen, actin and dynein relative to bicoid mRNA during late oogenesis. We show that Swallow and bicoid mRNA are transported independently and are not colocalized at their final destination. Furthermore, Swallow is not required for bicoid transport. Instead, Swallow localizes to the oocyte plasma membrane, in close proximity to actin filaments, and we present evidence that Swallow functions during the late phase of bicoid localization by regulating the actin cytoskeleton. In contrast, Staufen, dynein and bicoid mRNA form nonmembranous, electron dense particles at the oocyte anterior. Our results exclude a role for Swallow in linking bicoid mRNA to the dynein motor. Instead we propose a model for bicoid mRNA localization in which Swallow is transported independently by dynein and contributes indirectly to bicoid mRNA localization by organizing the cytoskeleton, whereas Staufen plays a direct role in dynein-dependent bicoid mRNA transport. PMID:20023172

Weil, Timothy T.; Xanthakis, Despina; Parton, Richard; Dobbie, Ian; Rabouille, Catherine; Gavis, Elizabeth R.; Davis, Ilan



Balancing Arc Synthesis, mRNA Decay, and Proteasomal Degradation  

PubMed Central

Cholinergic signaling induces Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate early gene crucial for synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that dictate Arc mRNA and protein dynamics during and after cholinergic epochs are little understood. Using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) stimulation triggers Arc synthesis, whereas translation-dependent RNA decay and proteasomal degradation strictly limit the amount and duration of Arc expression. Chronic application of the mAchR agonist, carbachol (Cch), induces Arc transcription via ERK signaling and release of calcium from IP3-sensitive stores. Arc translation requires ERK activation, but not changes in intracellular calcium. Proteasomal degradation of Arc (half-life ?37 min) was enhanced by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic calcium-ATPase pump. Similar mechanisms of Arc protein regulation were observed in cultured rat hippocampal slices. Functionally, we studied the impact of cholinergic epoch duration and temporal pattern on Arc protein expression. Acute Cch treatment (as short as 2 min) induces transient, moderate Arc expression, whereas continuous treatment of more than 30 min induces maximal expression, followed by rapid decline. Cholinergic activity associated with rapid eye movement sleep may function to facilitate long term synaptic plasticity and memory. Employing a paradigm designed to mimic intermittent rapid eye movement sleep epochs, we show that application of Cch in a series of short bursts generates persistent and maximal Arc protein expression. The results demonstrate dynamic, multifaceted control of Arc synthesis during mAchR signaling, and implicate cholinergic epoch duration and repetition as critical determinants of Arc expression and function in synaptic plasticity and behavior. PMID:22584581

Soule, Jonathan; Alme, Maria; Myrum, Craig; Schubert, Manja; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Bramham, Clive R.



R88 Dispatch mRNA quality control: Marking the message for life or death  

E-print Network

R88 Dispatch mRNA quality control: Marking the message for life or death Jens Lykke transcription, mRNAs are matured by addition of a 5 cap and a 3 poly-A tail, and by removal of introns through] and references therein). After mRNA capping and polyadeny- lation, the 5 and 3 ends of the transcript are bound

Lykke-Andersen, Jens


Nova Mediates Experience Dependent Processing of Orb2A mRNA  

E-print Network

in a non-protein coding form in the brain via intron retention. Upon exposure to external stimuli sufficient to induce long-term memory, the amount of protein coding Orb2A mRNA increases. Furthermore, the protein coding form of Orb2A mRNA requires...

Gill, Jason Singh



Precision and functional specificity in mRNA decay , Chih Long Liu  

E-print Network

, the decay rates of mRNAs encoding groups of proteins that act together in stoichiometric complexes were, precision and regulatory role of mRNA decay. The abundance of each mRNA in the cell is determined not only of stimuli and cellular signals, including specific hormones (2, 4), iron (5, 6), cell cycle progression (7

Herschlag, Dan


Primary induction of vitellogenin mRNA in the rooster by 17beta-estradiol.  


We have studied the kinetics of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in rooster liver after a primary injection of 17beta-estradiol. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA have been determined both by hybridization of total cellular RNA to vitellogenin cDNA and by translation of vitellogenin mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system. The results obtained by both methods of analysis are in good agreement and indicate that vitellogenin mRNA is present in the liver of normal roosters at a level of 0-5 molecules per liver cell and increases in amount during the 3 days following injection of estrogen, reaching a level of almost 6000 molecules per cell at the peak of the response. The level of vitellogenin mRNA declined exponentially during the next 14 days with a half-life of 29 hr, reaching a level of less than 10 molecules per cell at 17 days after injection of the hormone. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA after stimulation with estrogen have been correlated with the in vivo rate of synthesis of the vitellogenin polypeptide. The results indicate that the rate of vitellogenin synthesis is closely correlated with the level of vitellogenin mRNA. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that vitellogenin mRNA does not exist in the liver in an untranslated form after withdrawal from estrogen. PMID:273910

Burns, A T; Deeley, R G; Gordon, J I; Udell, D S; Mullinix, K P; Goldberger, R F



RT-isoPCR: nested, high multiplex mRNA amplification.  


RT-isoPCR provides multiplex amplification of mRNA targets using a first-stage multiplex RT-PCR reaction with subsequent isothermal amplification for individual target loci detection. We demonstrate detection of 24 mRNA targets with high specificity and sensitivity without compromising sample variation or introducing biases between targets. PMID:23964356

Søe, Martin Jensen; Warthoe, Peter



Expression of IMPDH mRNA after Mycophenolate Administration in Male Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the first-line antimetabolic immunosuppressants used in solid organ transplantation. Here, in vivo expressions of the pharmacodynamic marker IMPDH mRNA were analyzed to investigate its usefulness in assessing drug effects. Materials and Methods. Six healthy male volunteers who had the same genotype for genes known to be associated with drug metabolism and effects were selected to remove the confounding effect of these genotypes. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, 1?g) was administered once to each subject, and blood samples were collected with certain interval before and after MMF administration to measure lymphocyte expression levels of IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 mRNA. One week later, the experiment was repeated. Results. Whereas IMPDH1 mRNA expression was stable, IMPDH2 mRNA expression showed 2 peaks in the first week. Both IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 mRNA expression in the second week remarkably decreased from the first week. Conclusion. The temporary increase in IMPDH2 mRNA expression in the first week might be due to a reactive reaction against the plasma MPA concentration. In the second week, the intracellular guanosine monophosphate might be depleted, rendering IMPDH2 mRNA synthesis inactive. When MPA is regularly administered to reach a steady state, the IMPDH2 mRNA expression may be kept low and may effectively reflect biological responses regardless of drug intake. PMID:25105143

Min, Won-Ki



Major role for mRNA stability in shaping the kinetics of gene induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: mRNA levels in cells are determined by the relative rates of RNA production and degradation. Yet, to date, most analyses of gene expression profiles were focused on mechanisms which regulate transcription, while the role of mRNA stability in modulating transcriptional networks was to a large extent overlooked. In particular, kinetic waves in transcriptional responses are usually interpreted as resulting

Ran Elkon; Eitan Zlotorynski; Karen I Zeller; Reuven Agami



CPSF30 and Wdr33 directly bind to AAUAAA in mammalian mRNA 3' processing.  


AAUAAA is the most highly conserved motif in eukaryotic mRNA polyadenylation sites and, in mammals, is specifically recognized by the multisubunit CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor) complex. Despite its critical functions in mRNA 3' end formation, the molecular basis for CPSF-AAUAAA interaction remains poorly defined. The CPSF subunit CPSF160 has been implicated in AAUAAA recognition, but direct evidence has been lacking. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we unexpectedly found that CPSF subunits CPSF30 and Wdr33 directly contact AAUAAA. Importantly, the CPSF30-RNA interaction is essential for mRNA 3' processing and is primarily mediated by its zinc fingers 2 and 3, which are specifically targeted by the influenza protein NS1A to suppress host mRNA 3' processing. Our data suggest that AAUAAA recognition in mammalian mRNA 3' processing is more complex than previously thought and involves multiple protein-RNA interactions. PMID:25301780

Chan, Serena L; Huppertz, Ina; Yao, Chengguo; Weng, Lingjie; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Ule, Jernej; Manley, James L; Shi, Yongsheng



Aiding and abetting cancer: mRNA export and the nuclear pore.  


mRNA export is a critical step in gene expression. Export of transcripts can be modulated in response to cellular signaling or stress. Consistently, mRNA export is dysregulated in primary human specimens derived from many different forms of cancer. Aberrant expression of export factors can alter the export of specific transcripts encoding proteins involved in proliferation, survival, and oncogenesis. These specific factors, which are not used for bulk mRNA export, are obvious therapeutic targets. Indeed, given the emerging role of mRNA export in cancer, it is not surprising that efforts to target different aspects of this pathway have reached the clinical trial stage. Thus, like transcription and translation, mRNA export may also play a critical role in cancer genesis and maintenance. PMID:23582887

Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Borden, Katherine L B



Aiding and Abetting Cancer: mRNA export and the nuclear pore  

PubMed Central

mRNA export is a critical step in gene expression. Export of transcripts can be modulated in response to cellular signaling or stress. Consistently, mRNA export is dysregulated in primary human specimens derived from many different forms of cancer. Aberrant expression of export factors can alter export of specific transcripts encoding proteins involved in proliferation, survival and oncogenesis. These specific factors, which are not used for bulk mRNA export, are obvious therapeutic targets. Indeed, given the emerging role of mRNA export in cancer, it is not surprising that efforts to target different aspects of this pathway have reached the clinical trial stage. Thus, like transcription and translation, mRNA export may also play a critical role in cancer genesis and maintenance. PMID:23582887

Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Borden, Katherine L.B



Relationship between blood glucose levels and hepatic Fto mRNA expression in mice.  


Common variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fto-deficient mice develop hepatic insulin resistance, leading to the hypothesis that hepatic Fto plays a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and that hepatic Fto expression is regulated by metabolic states. We found that hepatic Fto mRNA levels were increased by fasting in mice. Intraperitoneal glucose injection reduced hepatic Fto mRNA levels without significant changes in body weight in fasted mice. The inverse correlation between Fto mRNA and glucose remained significant after adjusting for body weight. There were positive correlations between hepatic Fto mRNA expression and gluconeogenic gene expression. These data support the hypothesis that hepatic Fto expression changes in response to metabolic states and glucose reduces hepatic Fto mRNA expression independently of body weight. Hepatic Fto may participate in the feedback regulation of glucose metabolism via gluconeogenesis. PMID:20816934

Poritsanos, Nicole J; Lew, Pei San; Mizuno, Tooru M



La autoantigen enhances translation of BiP mRNA  

PubMed Central

Translational initiation of the human BiP mRNA is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5?-untranslated region (5?-UTR). In order to understand the mechanism of the IRES-dependent translation of BiP mRNA, cellular proteins interacting with the BiP IRES were investigated. La autoantigen, which augments the translation of polioviral mRNA and hepatitis C viral mRNA, bound specifically to the second half of the 5?-UTR of the BiP IRES and enhanced translation of BiP mRNA in both in vitro and in vivo assays. This finding suggests that cellular and viral IRESs containing very different RNA sequences may share a common mechanism of translation. PMID:11812831

Kim, Yoon Ki; Back, Sung Hoon; Rho, Jungmin; Lee, Song Hee; Jang, Sung Key



Regulation of growth factor mRNA levels in the eyes of diabetic rats.  


The underlying etiology of diabetic microvascular disease remains unknown. To examine the potential contribution of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is an angiogenic factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to the development of diabetic microvascular disease, bFGF and IGF-I mRNA levels were measured in tissues of control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 65 mg/kg, and the rats were maintained for 21 days. bFGF mRNA levels increased threefold in the eyes of diabetic versus control rats, whereas a consistent change in bFGF mRNA levels was not observed in other tissues. In contrast, IGF-I mRNA levels decreased in the eyes and other tissues, including kidney, lung, and skeletal muscle, of diabetic as compared with control rats. Insulin treatment prevented the diabetes-induced increase in bFGF and decrease in IGF-I mRNA levels. Acidic FGF (aFGF) mRNA levels were unchanged in eyes from diabetic versus control rats. In partially purified retinas, diabetes increased bFGF mRNA levels twofold as compared with levels in control retinas, whereas IGF-I mRNA levels decreased to 58% of control levels in retinas from diabetic rats. Insulin treatment again prevented the diabetes-induced increase in IGF-I mRNA levels in the retina but had no effect on the diabetes-induced increase in bFGF mRNA levels. bFGF peptide levels were minimally increased in diabetic versus control retinas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7637645

Lowe, W L; Florkiewicz, R Z; Yorek, M A; Spanheimer, R G; Albrecht, B N



Experiment K-6-11. Actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA concentrations in the tricepts brachia muscle of rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that some skeletal muscles atrophy as a result of weightlessness (Steffen and Musacchia 1986) and as a result of hindlimb suspension (Tischler et al., 1985, Thomason et al., 1987). Because the content of protein is determined by the rates of protein synthesis and degradation, a decrease in protein synthesis rate, or an increase in the protein degradation, or changes in both could produce the atrophy. Indeed, an increased protein degradation (Tischler et al., 1985) and a decreased protein synthesis (Thomason et al., 1988) have been observed in skeletal muscles of suspended hindlimbs of rats. Any decrease in protein synthesis rate could be caused by decreases in mRNA concentrations. Such decreases in the concentration and content of alpha-actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA have been noted in skeletal muscles of hindlimb suspended rats (Babij and Booth, 1988). From these findings researchers hypothesized that alpha-actin mRNA and cytochrome c mRNA would decrease in the triceps brachia muscle of Cosmos 1887 rats.

Booth, F. W.; Morrison, P. R.; Thomason, D. B.; Oganov, V. S.



Photoregulation of ?-Tubulin mRNA Abundance in Etiolated Oat and Barley Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of light on the abundance of ?-tubulin mRNA was measured in etiolated Avena sativa L. and Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings. Slot blot analysis employing an oat ?-tubulin cDNA clone was used to measure ?-tubulin mRNA levels. White light induced a 45% decrease in oat ?-tubulin mRNA abundance by 2 hours after transfer. A saturating red light pulse induced 40 and 55% decreases in ?-tubulin mRNA levels in oats and barley, respectively. Recovery of ?-tubulin mRNA levels was observed after a red light pulse but not after transfer to continuous white light. The red light induced decrease in oat ?-tubulin mRNA abundance was not reversible by a subsequent far-red light treatment. The mesocotyl portion of etiolated oat seedlings exhibited a more dramatic decrease in ?-tubulin mRNA abundance in response to red light than did the coleoptile portion. The results indicate that the well-documented effects of red light on the growth of etiolated seedlings are accompanied by changes in the expression of the ?-tubulin genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16667578

Colbert, James T.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Zhao, Zhifan



In Vivo Imaging of oskar mRNA Transport Reveals the Mechanism of Posterior Localization  

PubMed Central

Summary oskar mRNA localization to the posterior of the Drosophila oocyte defines where the abdomen and germ cells form in the embryo. Although this localization requires microtubules and the plus end-directed motor, kinesin, its mechanism is controversial and has been proposed to involve active transport to the posterior, diffusion and trapping, or exclusion from the anterior and lateral cortex. By following oskar mRNA particles in living oocytes, we show that the mRNA is actively transported along microtubules in all directions, with a slight bias toward the posterior. This bias is sufficient to localize the mRNA and is reversed in mago, barentsz, and Tropomyosin II mutants, which mislocalize the mRNA anteriorly. Since almost all transport is mediated by kinesin, oskar mRNA localizes by a biased random walk along a weakly polarized cytoskeleton. We also show that each component of the oskar mRNA complex plays a distinct role in particle formation and transport. PMID:18775316

Zimyanin, Vitaly L.; Belaya, Katsiaryna; Pecreaux, Jacques; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Clark, Alejandra; Davis, Ilan; St Johnston, Daniel



Definition of global and transcript-specific mRNA export pathways in metazoans.  


Eukaryotic gene expression requires export of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) from their site of transcription in the nucleus to the cytoplasm where they are translated. While mRNA export has been studied in yeast, the complexity of gene structure and cellular function in metazoan cells has likely led to increased diversification of these organisms' export pathways. Here we report the results of a genome-wide RNAi screen in which we identify 72 factors required for polyadenylated [poly-(A(+))] mRNA export from the nucleus in Drosophila cells. Using structural and functional conservation analysis of yeast and Drosophila mRNA export factors, we expose the evolutionary divergence of eukaryotic mRNA export pathways. Additionally, we demonstrate the differential export requirements of two endogenous heat-inducible transcripts--intronless heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and intron-containing HSP83--and identify novel export factors that participate in HSP83 mRNA splicing. We characterize several novel factors and demonstrate their participation in interactions with known components of the Drosophila export machinery. One of these factors, Drosophila melanogaster PCI domain-containing protein 2 (dmPCID2), associates with polysomes and may bridge the transition between exported messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) and polysomes. Our results define the global network of factors involved in Drosophila mRNA export, reveal specificity in the export requirements of different transcripts, and expose new avenues for future work in mRNA export. PMID:18086857

Farny, Natalie G; Hurt, Jessica A; Silver, Pamela A



The pentatricopeptide repeat MTSF1 protein stabilizes the nad4 mRNA in Arabidopsis mitochondria.  


Gene expression in plant mitochondria involves a complex collaboration of transcription initiation and termination, as well as subsequent mRNA processing to produce mature mRNAs. In this study, we describe the function of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial stability factor 1 (MTSF1) gene and show that it encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein essential for the 3'-processing of mitochondrial nad4 mRNA and its stability. The nad4 mRNA is highly destabilized in Arabidopsis mtsf1 mutant plants, which consequently accumulates low amounts of a truncated form of respiratory complex I. Biochemical and genetic analyses demonstrated that MTSF1 binds with high affinity to the last 20 nucleotides of nad4 mRNA. Our data support a model for MTSF1 functioning in which its association with the last nucleotides of the nad4 3' untranslated region stabilizes nad4 mRNA. Additionally, strict conservation of the MTSF1-binding sites strongly suggests that the protective function of MTSF1 on nad4 mRNA is conserved in dicots. These results demonstrate that the mRNA stabilization process initially identified in plastids, whereby proteins bound to RNA extremities constitute barriers to exoribonuclease progression occur in plant mitochondria to protect and concomitantly define the 3' end of mature mitochondrial mRNAs. Our study also reveals that short RNA molecules corresponding to pentatricopeptide repeat-binding sites accumulate also in plant mitochondria. PMID:23658225

Haïli, Nawel; Arnal, Nadège; Quadrado, Martine; Amiar, Souad; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Dahan, Jennifer; Briozzo, Pierre; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Mireau, Hakim



AUF1 contributes to Cryptochrome1 mRNA degradation and rhythmic translation  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse core clock gene cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) at the post-transcriptional level, particularly its translational regulation. Interestingly, the 3?UTR of Cry1 mRNA decreased its mRNA levels but increased protein amounts. The 3?UTR is widely known to function as a cis-acting element of mRNA degradation. The 3?UTR also provides a binding site for microRNA and mainly suppresses translation of target mRNAs. We found that AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1 (AUF1) directly binds to the Cry1 3?UTR and regulates translation of Cry1 mRNA. AUF1 interacted with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit B and also directly associated with ribosomal protein S3 or ribosomal protein S14, resulting in translation of Cry1 mRNA in a 3?UTR-dependent manner. Expression of cytoplasmic AUF1 and binding of AUF1 to the Cry1 3?UTR were parallel to the circadian CRY1 protein profile. Our results suggest that the 3?UTR of Cry1 is important for its rhythmic translation, and AUF1 bound to the 3?UTR facilitates interaction with the 5? end of mRNA by interacting with translation initiation factors and recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit to initiate translation of Cry1 mRNA. PMID:24423872

Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Wanil; Lee, Hwa-Rim; Jung, Youngseob; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Ka Young; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Kyong-Tai



Single-molecule modeling of mRNA degradation by miRNA: Lessons from data  

E-print Network

Recent experimental results on the effect of miRNA on the decay of its target mRNA have been analyzed against a previously hypothesized single molecule degradation pathway. According to that hypothesis, the silencing complex (miRISC) first interacts with its target mRNA and then recruits the protein complexes associated with NOT1 and PAN3 to trigger deadenylation (and subsequent degradation) of the target mRNA. Our analysis of the experimental decay patterns allowed us to refine the structure of the degradation pathways at the single molecule level. Surprisingly, we found that if the previously hypothesized network was correct, only about 7% of the target mRNA would be regulated by the miRNA mechanism, which is inconsistent with the available knowledge. Based on systematic data analysis, we propose the alternative hypothesis that NOT1 interacts with miRISC before binding to the target mRNA. Moreover, we show that when miRISC binds alone to the target mRNA, the mRNA is degraded more slowly, probably through a deadenylation-independent pathway. The new biochemical pathway we propose both fits the data and paves the way for new experimental work to identify new interactions.

Celine Sin; Davide Chiarugi; Angelo Valleriani



Intranasal mRNA nanoparticle vaccination induces prophylactic and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Direct in vivo administration of messenger RNA (mRNA) delivered in both naked and nanoparticle formats are actively investigated because the use of dendritic cells transfected ex vivo with mRNA for cancer therapy is expensive and needs significant infrastructure. Notably, intravenous and subcutaneous injections are the only routes of administration tested for mRNA nanoparticle tumor vaccination. In this report, we demonstrate that tumor immunity can be achieved via nasal administration of mRNA. Mice nasally immunized with mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format demonstrate delayed tumor progression in both prophylactic and therapeutic immunization models. The observed tumor immunity correlates with splenic antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and is achieved only when mRNA is delivered in nanoparticle but not in naked format. In conclusion, we demonstrate, as a proof-of-concept, a non-invasive approach to mRNA tumor vaccination, increasing its potential as a broadly applicable and off-the-shelf therapy for cancer treatment. PMID:24894817

Phua, Kyle K. L.; Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.; Nair, Smita K.



Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.



Induction of human spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1) is regulated at the levels of new mRNA synthesis, mRNA stabilization and newly synthesized protein  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of polyamines induced by antitumour polyamine analogues has been associated with tumour response to specific agents. The human spermine oxidase, SMO(PAOh1), is one enzyme that may play a direct role in the cellular response to the antitumour polyamine analogues. In the present study, the induction of SMO(PAOh1) enzyme activity by CPENSpm [N1-ethyl-N11-(cyclopropyl)methyl-4,8,diazaundecane] is demonstrated to be a result of newly synthesized mRNA and protein. Inhibition of new RNA synthesis by actinomycin D inhibits both the appearance of SMO(PAOh1) mRNA and enzyme activity. Similarly, inhibition of newly synthesized protein with cycloheximide prevents analogue-induced enzyme activity. Half-life determinations indicate that stabilization of SMO(PAOh1) protein does not play a significant role in analogue-induced activity. However, half-life experiments using actinomycin D indicate that CPENSpm treatment not only increases mRNA expression, but also leads to a significant increase in mRNA half-life (17.1 and 8.8 h for CPENSpm-treated cells and control respectively). Using reporter constructs encompassing the SMO(PAOh1) promoter region, a 30–90% increase in transcription is observed after exposure to CPENSpm. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that analogue-induced expression of SMO(PAOh1) is a result of increased transcription and stabilization of SMO(PAOh1) mRNA, leading to increased protein production and enzyme activity. These data indicate that the major level of control of SMO(PAOh1) expression in response to polyamine analogues exposure is at the level of mRNA. PMID:15496143



Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity.  


Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

Simon, Nicholas W; Beas, Blanca S; Montgomery, Karienn S; Haberman, Rebecca P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry



Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity  

PubMed Central

Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry



Isolation and amplification of mRNA within a simple microfluidic lab on a chip.  


The major modules for realizing molecular biological assays in a micro-total analysis system (?TAS) were developed for the detection of pathogenic organisms. The specific focus was the isolation and amplification of eukaryotic mRNA within a simple, single-channel device for very low RNA concentrations that could then be integrated with detection modules. The hsp70 mRNA from Cryptosporidium parvum was used as a model analyte. Important points of study were surface chemistries within poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic channels that enabled specific and sensitive mRNA isolation and amplification reactions for very low mRNA concentrations. Optimal conditions were achieved when the channel surface was carboxylated via UV/ozone treatment followed by the immobilization of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the surface, thus increasing the immobilization efficiency of the thymidine oligonucleotide, oligo(dT)25, and providing a reliable surface for the amplification reaction, importantly, without the need for blocking agents. Additional chemical modifications of the remaining active surface groups were studied to avoid nonspecific capturing of nucleic acids and hindering of the mRNA amplification at low RNA concentrations. Amplification of the mRNA was accomplished using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal, primer-dependent technique. Positive controls consisting of previously generated NASBA amplicons could be diluted 10(15) fold and still result in successful on-chip reamplification. Finally, the successful isolation and amplification of mRNA from as few as 30 C. parvum oocysts was demonstrated directly on-chip and compared to benchtop devices. This is the first proof of successful mRNA isolation and NASBA-based amplification of mRNA within a simple microfluidic device in relevant analytical volumes. PMID:24328414

Reinholt, Sarah J; Behrent, Arne; Greene, Cassandra; Kalfe, Ayten; Baeumner, Antje J



Expression and stability of c-sis mRNA in human glioblastoma cells  

SciTech Connect

The production of platelet-derived growth factor like (PDGF-like) material by glioblastomas may be involved in the conversion of normal cells to tumor cells. In an investigation of this problem, the authors have examined some of the properties of the platelet-derived growth factor B-chain mRNA (c-sis mRNA) by a sensitive and quantitative RNA-RNA solution hybridization method. In 5 out of 8 human glioblastoma cell lines, c-sis mRNA was present, and in the line with the highest level, there were approximately 4-10 molecules per cell. The half-lives of the c-sis mRNA in two glioblastoma cell lines were 2.6 and 3.4 h, while in human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) and bladder carcinoma (T24) cells they were 1.6 and 2.5 h, respectively. Inhibiting protein synthesis produced no significant alteration of the c-sis mRNA half-lives in the glioblastoma or HUVE cells. The A-U-rich sequence at the 3' end of the c-sis mRNA therefore does not appear to affect the mRNA stability in the presence of cycloheximide as it does in other transcripts. The similarity of the c-sis mRNA half-lives in normal and tumor cells suggests that regulation of stability of c-sis mRNA is not a major factor in tumorigenesis in the glioblastoma cell lines examined.

Press, R.D.; Samols, D.; Goldthwait, D.A.



Quantifying the Effect of Ribosomal Density on mRNA Stability  

PubMed Central

Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process by which proteins are eventually synthesized based on the information coded in the genes. This process includes four major steps: transcription of the DNA segment corresponding to a gene to mRNA molecules, the degradation of the mRNA molecules, the translation of mRNA molecules to proteins by the ribosome and the degradation of the proteins. We present an innovative quantitative study of the interaction between the gene translation stage and the mRNA degradation stage using large scale genomic data of S. cerevisiae, which include measurements of mRNA levels, mRNA half-lives, ribosomal densities and protein abundances, for thousands of genes. The reported results support the conjecture that transcripts with higher ribosomal density, which is related to the translation stage, tend to have elevated half-lives, and we suggest a novel quantitative estimation of the strength of this relation. Specifically, we show that on average, an increase of 78% in ribosomal density yields an increase of 25% in mRNA half-life, and that this relation between ribosomal density and mRNA half-life is not function specific. In addition, our analyses demonstrate that ribosomal density along the entire ORF, and not in specific locations, has a significant effect on the transcript half-life. Finally, we show that the reported relation cannot be explained by different expression levels among genes. A plausible explanation for the reported results is that ribosomes tend to protect the mRNA molecules from the exosome complexes degrading them; however, additional non-mutually exclusive possible explanations for the reported relation and experiments for their verifications are discussed in the paper. PMID:25020060

Edri, Shlomit; Tuller, Tamir



Quantitative analysis of deadenylation-independent mRNA decay by a modified MBRACE assay.  


Endonuclease cleavage is the rate-limiting step in the decay of nonsense-containing human ?-globin mRNA in erythroid cells. The 5'-truncated intermediates thus generated are polyadenylated and more stable than the parent mRNA. Northern blotting is commonly used to measure the decay rate of full-length mRNA, and S1 nuclease protection is used to assay the fate of decay intermediates. We have adapted the more sensitive and facile MBRACE assay (Lasham et al., Nucleic Acids Res 38: e19, 2010) to quantitatively monitor the decay process by detecting full-length ?-globin and its decay intermediates. PMID:24590802

Dougherty, Julie A; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Schoenberg, Daniel R



Signal sequence- and translation-independent mRNA localization to the endoplasmic reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of mRNA localization typically utilizes cis-targeting elements and trans-recognition factors to direct the compartmental organization of translationally suppressed mRNAs. mRNA localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in contrast, occurs via a co-translational, signal sequence\\/signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent mechanism. We have utilized cell fractionation\\/cDNA microarray analysis, shRNA-mediated suppression of SRP expression, and mRNA reporter construct studies to define the




Regional distribution of cyclooxygenase-3 mRNA in the rat central nervous system.  


We determined COX-3 mRNA expression in regions of the rat central nervous system (CNS). On a regional basis, levels were the highest in choroid plexus and spinal chord followed by pituitary gland, hypothalamus, hippocampus, medulla, cerebellum, and cortex. COX-3 mRNA levels were higher in major brain arteries, and dramatically higher in brain microvessels. Our results suggest that the expression pattern of COX-3 mRNA in the rat CNS primarily relates to the vascular density of a given region. PMID:15207919

Kis, Bela; Snipes, Andy; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W



mRNA on the Move: The Road to Its Biological Destiny*  

PubMed Central

Cells have evolved to regulate the asymmetric distribution of specific mRNA targets to institute spatial and temporal control over gene expression. Over the last few decades, evidence has mounted as to the importance of localization elements in the mRNA sequence and their respective RNA-binding proteins. Live imaging methodologies have shown mechanistic details of this phenomenon. In this minireview, we focus on the advanced biochemical and cell imaging techniques used to tweeze out the finer aspects of mechanisms of mRNA movement. PMID:23720759

Eliscovich, Carolina; Buxbaum, Adina R.; Katz, Zachary B.; Singer, Robert H.



Correlative studies on uPA mRNA and uPAR mRNA expression with vascular endothelial growth factor, microvessel density, progression and survival time of patients with gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 = 21.62, P = 0.004). The mean MVD in the specimens positive for the uPA mRNA, uPAR mRNA and VEGF protein was markedly higher than those with negative expression groups. Moreover, a positive relation between MVD and uPA mRNA (rs = 0.199, P = 0.042), uPAR mRNA (rs = 0.278, P = 0.035), and VEGF (rs = 0.398, P

Li Zhang; Zhong-Sheng Zhao; Guo-Qing Ru; Jie Ma



The Control of mRNA Decapping and P-Body Formation  

PubMed Central

mRNA decapping is a critical step in eukaryotic cytoplasmic mRNA turnover. Cytoplasmic mRNA decapping is catalyzed by Dcp2 in conjunction with its co-activator Dcp1, and is stimulated by decapping enhancer proteins. mRNAs associated with the decapping machinery can assemble into cytoplasmic mRNP granules called processing bodies (PBs). Evidence suggests that PB-associated mRNPs are translationally repressed and can be degraded or stored for subsequent translation. However, whether mRNP assembly into a PB is important for translational repression, decapping or decay has remained controversial. Here we discuss the regulation of decapping machinery recruitment to specific mRNPs and how their assembly into PBs is governed by the relative rates of translational repression, mRNP multimerization and mRNA decay. PMID:19061636

Franks, Tobias M.; Lykke-Andersen, Jens



Invertebrate Neuroscience, 1, 341-349 (1996) Expression profiling of mRNA obtained from single  

E-print Network

this study, part of a novel crayfishneuronal actin cDNA was cloned and sequenced. KEY WORDS: mRNA; crustacean to one or more of the following classes: (a) sequences with extremely rich GC content (Varshney et al

Cooper, Robin L.


Domain II of Thermus thermophilus ribosomal protein L1 hinders recognition of its mRNA.  


The two-domain ribosomal protein L1 has a dual function as a primary rRNA-binding ribosomal protein and as a translational repressor that binds its own mRNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the isolated domain I of L1 from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus and a specific mRNA fragment from Methanoccocus vannielii. In parallel, we report kinetic characteristics measured for complexes formed by intact TthL1 and its domain I with the specific mRNA fragment. Although, there is a close similarity between the RNA-protein contact regions in both complexes, the association rate constant is higher in the case of the complex formed by the isolated domain I. This finding demonstrates that domain II hinders mRNA recognition by the intact TthL1. PMID:18778715

Tishchenko, Svetlana; Kljashtorny, Vladislav; Kostareva, Olga; Nevskaya, Natalia; Nikulin, Alexei; Gulak, Pavel; Piendl, Wolfgang; Garber, Maria; Nikonov, Stanislav



Nerve growth factor mRNA in brain: localization by in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

Nerve Growth Factor is a 118 amino acid polypeptide that plays an important role in the differentiation and survival of neurons. The recent discovery that a mRNA that encodes beta Nerve Growth Factor is present in brain suggests that the Nerve Growth Factor gene may not only regulate gene expression of peripheral but also of central neurons. To identify the site(s) of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA production in the brain and to determine which cells express the Nerve Growth Factor gene, the technique of in situ hybridization was employed. A 32P-labeled RNA probe complementary to Nerve Growth Factor mRNA hybridized to cells in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. These observations identify for the first time cellular sites of Nerve Growth Factor gene expression in the central nervous system, and suggest that Nerve Growth Factor mRNA is produced by neurons.

Rennert, P.D.; Heinrich, G.



Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R



Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA  

SciTech Connect

The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures.

Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))



CCR3 mRNA Expression in Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Various Cells in Allergic Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: RANTES and eotaxin are important chemokines involved in the activation and migration of eosinophils and are considered to play a major role in allergic inflammation. Methods: In this study, we used RT-PCR to investigate the kinds of cells that express mRNA for CCR3, a common receptor of these chemokines, and eotaxin, a ligand for CCR3. Results: CCR3 mRNA was

Hajime Oyamada; Yumiko Kamada; Tomoe Kuwasaki; Yoshiyuki Yamada; Yoshimi Kobayashi; Chang-Hao Cui; Kohei Honda; Hiroyuki Kayaba; Norihiro Saito; Junichi Chihara



Expression of sex hormone-binding globulin mRNA in human endometrial cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To more fully understand the role of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on the intracellular steroidal action in endometrial cancers, we investigated the expression of SHBG mRNA as the substitute of SHBG expression in human endometrial cancers. In the present study, the levels of SHBG mRNA were analyzed using competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-Southern-bolt analysis. The higher level of SHBG

Ryou Misao; Yoshihito Nakanishi; Satoshi Ichigo; Masashi Hori; Jiro Fujimoto; Teruhiko Tamaya



In vitro selected peptides bind with thymidylate synthase mRNA and inhibit its translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymidylate synthase (TS), an essential enzyme for catalyzing the biosynthesis of thymidylate, is a critical therapeutic target\\u000a in cancer therapy. Recent studies have shown that TS functions as an RNA-binding protein by interacting with two different\\u000a sequences on its own mRNA, thus, repressing translational efficiency. In this study, peptides binding TS RNA with high affinity\\u000a were isolated using mRNA display

Song Yan; RongLi Niu; Zheng Wang; XiuKun Lin



Androgen control of secretory component mRNA levels in the rat lacrimal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the known gender-related differences in, and the endocrine control of, the production of secretory component (SC) by the rat lacrimal gland are associated with alterations in SC mRNA content. Levels of SC mRNA were measured in lacrimal tissues of intact, sham-operated, castrated, hypophysectomized, and testosterone-treated male and female adult rats by

Jianping Gao; Ross W. Lambert; L. Alexandra Wickham; George Banting; David A. Sullivan



Localization and regulation of endothelial NO synthase mRNA expression in rat kidney.  


Nitric oxide (NO) has effects on renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renin secretion, and renal sodium excretion. Four isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have been cloned to date. However, the molecular identity of NOS present in the renal vasculature is unknown. Endothelial NOS (NOS-III) is regulated both acutely by cell calcium and chronically by shear stress. To determine if renal blood vessels and the glomerulus express NOS-III mRNA, we used degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone a portion of rat NOS-III. We then assayed NOS-III mRNA in microdissected renal structures by reverse transcriptase-PCR. NOS-III mRNA was expressed at high levels in glomeruli, arcuate vessels, and interlobular artery/afferent arterioles. NOS-III mRNA was detected inconsistently in proximal tubules, thick ascending limbs, and cortical and inner medullary collecting ducts. Previous studies have shown that chronic oral treatment with the NOS inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) decreases NO synthesis and causes hypertension. To determine if the systemic blockade occurs only by competitive inhibition, we determined the effect of L-NAME on glomerular NOS-III mRNA. L-NAME administration (5 days) decreased NOS-III mRNA in the glomerulus to 25 +/- 12% of control levels. We conclude that endothelial NOS-III mRNA is preferentially expressed in the glomerulus and renal vasculature, where it can modulate renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, glomerular NOS-III may be modulated at the level of mRNA abundance in vivo by systemic L-NAME.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7520668

Ujiie, K; Yuen, J; Hogarth, L; Danziger, R; Star, R A



GAP43 mRNA expression in early development of human nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal and spatial distribution of GAP-43 mRNA in early human development, from 6 to 23 gestational weeks (g.w.), was examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. GAP-43 mRNA was expressed as early as 6 g.w. in all regions of developing nervous system, the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalic and telencephalic regions. Although the pronounced level of expression persisted during the

Selma Kanazir; Sabera Ruzdijic; Slobodanka Vukosavic; Sanja Ivkovic; Ana Milosevic; Nada Zecevic; Ljubisav Rakic



mRNA stability control: a clandestine force in normal and malignant hematopoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the scope of influence of mRNA decay on cellular functions and its potential role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Evidence is emerging that leukemic oncogenes and hematopoietic cytokines interact with mRNA decay pathways. These pathways can co-regulate functionally related genes through specific motifs in the 3?-untranslated region of targeted transcripts. The steps that link external stimuli to

R A Steinman



mRNA Decay in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Different Approaches to a Similar Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Over the past 15 years considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of mRNA decay in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Interestingly, unlike other important biological reactions such as DNA replication and repair, many features of mRNA decay differ between prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Even when a particular enzyme like poly(A) polymerase has been conserved, polyadenylation of mRNAs

Sidney R. Kushner



Biological Sciences: Stability of HeLa Cell mRNA in Actinomycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNTHESIS of proteins from the mRNA in eukaryotic cells differs from prokaryotes in two important ways. In the mammalian cell, the translation of mRNA in the cytoplasm is remote from the transcription in the nucleus, whereas in bacteria these two processes occur almost simultaneously1,2. Bacterial protein synthesis ceases within several minutes of inhibition of RNA transcription with actinomycin3; hence, the

R. H. Singer; S. Penman



Adenovirus Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Stimulates Viral Late mRNA Nuclear Export  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins are required together to stimulate viral late nuclear mRNA export to the cytoplasm and to restrict host cell nuclear mRNA export during the late phase of infection. Previous studies have shown that these two viral proteins interact with the cellular proteins elongins B and C, cullin 5, RBX1, and additional cellular

Jennifer L. Woo; Arnold J. Berk



Developmental regulation of metallothionein mRNA, zinc and copper levels in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri.  


The metallothionein (MT) gene expression profile was followed in rainbow trout during early embryo development and in liver and gonads during the period of sexual maturation. The hepatic MT mRNA levels increase at the end of sexual maturation in both male and female rainbow trout. Although both isoforms of MT mRNA accumulate in the liver, there is a preferential increase in MT-A in the female liver. Concomitantly with this increase in MT there is a redistribution of zinc and copper to MT. In the juvenile female there is an abundance of MT mRNA in the ovaries. This is correlated to high levels of zinc in the MT fraction upon Sephadex G-75 chromatography. During ovary development the MT mRNA levels and the MT-bound zinc levels drop, with an increase in zinc being bound to high-molecular-mass proteins. At ovulation most of the zinc is found in the membrane portion upon centrifugation. In contrast to the ovaries, there are no apparent changes in either trace metal distribution or MT mRNA levels during testis development. In the developing embryo there is an increase in MT-bound copper at gastrulation. This is accompanied by an increase in both isoforms of MT mRNA. At hatch both the copper and zinc levels increase in the MT fraction, with a concomitant increase in mainly MT-A mRNA. These findings indicate that the variations in MT mRNA levels during development are closely associated with metal regulation. PMID:2226442

Olsson, P E; Zafarullah, M; Foster, R; Hamor, T; Gedamu, L



D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in rat brain.  

PubMed Central

Physiological and pharmacological criteria have divided dopamine receptors into D1 and D2 subtypes, and genes encoding these subtypes have recently been cloned. Based on the sequences of the cloned receptors, we prepared oligodeoxynucleotide probes to map the cellular expression of the corresponding mRNAs in rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry. These mRNAs showed largely overlapping yet distinct patterns of expression. The highest levels of expression for both mRNAs were observed in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Within the caudate-putamen, 47 +/- 6% and 46 +/- 5% of the medium-sized neurons (10-15 microns) expressed the D1 and D2 mRNAs, respectively, and only the D2 mRNA was observed in the larger neurons (greater than 20 microns). The D1 and D2 mRNAs were expressed in most cortical regions, with the highest levels in the prefrontal and entorhinal cortices. Within neocortex, D1 mRNA was observed primarily in layer 6 and D2 mRNA in layers 4-5. Within the amygdala, D1 mRNA was observed in the intercalated nuclei, and D2 mRNA in the central nucleus. Within the hypothalamus, D1 mRNA was observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and D2 mRNA in many of the dopaminergic cell groups. Within the septum, globus pallidus, superior and inferior colliculi, mammillary bodies, and substantia nigra only D2 mRNA was detected. These data provide insight into the neuroanatomical basis of the differential effects of drugs that act on D1 or D2 receptors. Images PMID:1825729

Weiner, D M; Levey, A I; Sunahara, R K; Niznik, H B; O'Dowd, B F; Seeman, P; Brann, M R



An unconventional pathway of mRNA cap formation by vesiculoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

mRNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g., rabies, measles, mumps, Ebola, and Borna disease viruses), possess the 5?-terminal cap structure identical to that of eukaryotic mRNAs, but the mechanism of mRNA cap formation is distinctly different from the latter. The elucidation of the unconventional capping of VSV mRNA remained elusive for

Tomoaki Ogino; Amiya K. Banerjee


iBioSeminar: The Life of Eukaryotic mRNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The control of mRNA production and function is a key aspect of the regulation of gene expression. Eukaryotic cells, the control of mRNA localization, translation and degradation in the cytoplasm allow for the proper regulation of the amount, duration, and location of protein production. The basic mechanisms of these processes are understood and reveal that the mechanisms of localization, translation, and degradation are interconnected.

Roy Parker (University of Arizona and Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)



Regulation of cyclin A mRNA in leech embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leech embryos undergo invariant patterns of cleavage to yield identifiable cells that have characteristic timings of cell\\u000a division. To elucidate how these cell-specific differences in cell-cycle timing are regulated, we have isolated a leech cyclin A cDNA clone and determined the patterns of cyclin A mRNA localization in identified cells of Helobdella leech embryos. The intensity of cyclin A mRNA

Yongmei Chen; S. T. Bissen



Postmortem quantitative mRNA analyses of death investigation in forensic pathology: An overview and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze pathophysiological dynamics of the death process using mRNA quantification, previous studies investigated pulmonary surfactant-associated protein (SP-A), as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and its downstream factors. Quantitative assays of these mRNA transcripts were established using TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. Experimental studies showed that most of these factors in forensic autopsy materials gradually degraded in patterns similar to those

Dong Zhao; Takaki Ishikawa; Li Quan; Tomomi Michiue; Bao-Li Zhu; Hitoshi Maeda



Isoeugenol destabilizes IL-8 mRNA expression in THP-1 cells through induction of the negative regulator of mRNA stability tristetraprolin.  


We previously demonstrated in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 that all allergens tested, with the exception of the prohapten isoeugenol, induced a dose-related release of interleukin-8 (IL-8). In the present study, we investigated whether this abnormal behavior was regulated by the AU-rich element-binding proteins HuR and tristetraprolin (TTP) or by the downstream molecule suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3. The contact allergens isoeugenol, diethylmaleate (DEM), and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and the irritant salicylic acid were used as reference compounds. Chemicals were used at concentrations that induced a 20% decrease in cell viability as assessed by propidium iodide staining, namely 100 ?g/ml (0.61 mM) for isoeugenol, 100 ?g/ml (0.58 mM) for DEM, 3 ?g/ml (14.8 ?M) for DNCB, and 250 ?g/ml (1.81 mM) for salicylic acid. Time course experiments of IL-8 mRNA expression and assessment of IL-8 mRNA half-life, indicated a decreased IL-8 mRNA stability in isoeugenol-treated cells. We could demonstrate that a combination and regulation of HuR and TTP following exposure to contact allergens resulted in a different modulation of IL-8 mRNA half-life and release. The increased expression of TTP in THP-1 cells treated with isoeugenol results in destabilization of the IL-8 mRNA, which can account for the lack of IL-8 release. In contrast, the strong allergen DNCB failing to up-regulate TTP, while inducing HuR, resulted in longer IL-8 mRNA half-life and protein release. SOCS-3 was induced only in isoeugenol-treated cells; however, its modulation did not rescue the lack of IL-8 release, indicating that it is unlikely to be involved in the lack of IL-8 production. Finally, the destabilization effect of isoeugenol on IL-8 mRNA expression together with SOCS-3 expression resulted in an anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by the ability of isoeugenol to modulate LPS or ionomycin-induced cytokine release. PMID:21969073

Galbiati, Valentina; Carne, Alice; Mitjans, Montserrat; Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela



Differential Control of Interleukin-6 mRNA Levels by Cellular Distribution of YB-1  

PubMed Central

Cytokine production is essential for innate and adaptive immunity against microbial invaders and must be tightly controlled. Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) is in constant flux between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and in transcription, splicing, or decay; such processes must be tightly controlled. Here, we report a novel function of Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in modulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in a cell type-specific manner. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, YB-1 interacts with IL-6 mRNA and actively transports it to the extracellular space by YB-1-enriched vesicles, resulting in the proper maintenance of intracellular IL-6 mRNA levels. YB-1 secretion occurs in a cell type-specific manner. Whereas macrophages actively secret YB-1, dendritic cells maintain it predominantly in the cytoplasm even in response to LPS. Intracellular YB-1 has the distinct function of regulating IL-6 mRNA stability in dendritic cells. Moreover, because LPS differentially regulates the expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in macrophages and dendritic cells, this stimulus might control YB-1 acetylation differentially in both cell types. Taken together, these results suggest a unique feature of YB-1 in controlling intracellular IL-6 mRNA levels in a cell type-specific manner, thereby leading to functions that are dependent on the extracellular and intracellular distribution of YB-1. PMID:25398005

Kang, Sujin; Lee, Taeyun A.; Ra, Eun A.; Lee, Eunhye; Choi, Hyun jin; Lee, Sungwook; Park, Boyoun



RNase III Controls the Degradation of corA mRNA in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

In Escherichia coli, the corA gene encodes a transporter that mediates the influx of Co2+, Mg2+, and Ni2+ into the cell. During the course of experiments aimed at identifying RNase III-dependent genes in E. coli, we observed that steady-state levels of corA mRNA as well as the degree of cobalt influx into the cell were dependent on cellular concentrations of RNase III. In addition, changes in corA expression levels by different cellular concentrations of RNase III were closely correlated with degrees of resistance of E. coli cells to Co2+ and Ni2+. In vitro and in vivo cleavage analyses of corA mRNA identified RNase III cleavage sites in the 5?-untranslated region of the corA mRNA. The introduction of nucleotide substitutions at the identified RNase III cleavage sites abolished RNase III cleavage activity on corA mRNA and resulted in prolonged half-lives of the mRNA, which demonstrates that RNase III cleavage constitutes a rate-determining step for corA mRNA degradation. These findings reveal an RNase III-mediated regulatory pathway that functions to modulate corA expression and, in turn, the influx of metal ions transported by CorA in E. coli. PMID:22343302

Lim, Boram; Sim, Se-Hoon; Sim, Minji; Kim, Kyungsub; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Younghoon; Ha, Nam-Chul



Erythroid cell-specific determinants of alpha-globin mRNA stability.  

PubMed Central

Although globin mRNAs are considered prototypes of highly stable messages, the mechanisms responsible for their longevity remain largely undefined. As an initial step in identifying potential cis-acting elements or structures which contribute to their stability, we analyzed the defect in expression of a naturally occurring alpha 2-globin mutant, alpha Constant Spring (CS). The CS mutation is a single-base change in the translation termination codon (UAA-->CAA) that allows the ribosome to read through into the 3' nontranslated region (NTR). The presence of CS mRNA in transcriptionally active erythroid precursors and its absence (relative to normal alpha-globin mRNA) in the more differentiated transcriptionally silent erythrocytes suggest that this mutation disrupts some feature of the alpha-globin mRNA required for its stability. Using a transient transfection system, we demonstrate that in murine erythroleukemia cells the CS mRNA is unstable compared with the normal alpha 2-globin mRNA. The analyses of several other naturally occurring and site-directed mutant alpha-globin genes in murine erythroleukemia cells indicate that entry of a translating ribosome into the 3' NTR targets the message for accelerated degradation in erythroid cells. In contrast, both the CS and alpha 2-globin mRNAs are stable in several nonerythroid cell lines. These results suggest that translational readthrough disrupts a determinant associated with the alpha 2-globin 3' NTR which is required for mRNA stability in erythroid cells. Images PMID:7969150

Weiss, I M; Liebhaber, S A



Analysis of mRNA Nuclear Export Kinetics in Mammalian Cells by Microinjection  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, messenger RNA (mRNA) is transcribed in the nucleus and must be exported into the cytoplasm to access the translation machinery. Although the nuclear export of mRNA has been studied extensively in Xenopus oocytes1 and genetically tractable organisms such as yeast2 and the Drosophila derived S2 cell line3, few studies had been conducted in mammalian cells. Furthermore the kinetics of mRNA export in mammalian somatic cells could only be inferred indirectly4,5. In order to measure the nuclear export kinetics of mRNA in mammalian tissue culture cells, we have developed an assay that employs the power of microinjection coupled with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). These assays have been used to demonstrate that in mammalian cells, the majority of mRNAs are exported in a splicing dependent manner6,7, or in manner that requires specific RNA sequences such as the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) 6. In this assay, cells are microinjected with either in vitro synthesized mRNA or plasmid DNA containing the gene of interest. The microinjected cells are incubated for various time points then fixed and the sub-cellular localization of RNA is assessed using FISH. In contrast to transfection, where transcription occurs several hours after the addition of nucleic acids, microinjection of DNA or mRNA allows for rapid expression and allows for the generation of precise kinetic data. PMID:21178962

Gueroussov, Serge; Tarnawsky, Stefan P.; Cui, Xianying A.; Mahadevan, Kohila; Palazzo, Alexander F.



Copper deficiency lowers rat liver glutathione peroxidase activity and mRNA but not selenium  

SciTech Connect

Copper (Cu) deficiency in rodents leads to lower activity of the liver selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by an unknown mechanism. Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency is known to be accompanied by proportional loss of GSH-Px activity, protein, and mRNA levels. Lower GSH-Px activity in Cu-deficient ({minus}Cu) rodents might be due to changes in liver Se which could then influence the level of GSH-Px mRNA. Cu deficiency was induced by feeding a diet low in Cu but adequate in Se to Sprague Dawley dams beginning the day of parturition. All {minus}Cu rats had significantly lower liver Cu and cuproenzyme activities than +Cu rats. Portions of liver previously frozen in liquid nitrogen from 60-d-old rats were used to determine Se by neutron activation and for measurement of GSH-Px mRNA. Total RNA was isolated and fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis and subjected to Northern blot hybridization. Autoradiograms were quantified by densitometry. Compared to +Cu rats the {minus}Cu male and female rats had lower GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels; however, total Se levels were not different. The correlation between GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels was excellent; over a 3-fold range r{sup 2}=0.94. Lower GSH-Px activity and mRNA levels in Cu deficient rats appears not to be due to a direct effect of lower Se levels.

Prohaska, J.R.; Zinn, K.; Sunde, R.A. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth (United States))



Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex.  


The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE). Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D) movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT) techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms. PMID:25393401

Schnell, Steven J; Ma, Jiong; Yang, Weidong



Reduced FMR1 mRNA translation efficiency in fragile X patients with premutations.  

PubMed Central

The Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) contains a polymorphic trinucleotide CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the FMR1 messenger. We have characterized three lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from unrelated male carriers of a premutation that overexpress FMR1 mRNA and show reduced FMRP level compared to normal cells. The analysis of polysomes/mRNPs distribution of mRNA in the cell lines with a premutation shows that the polysomal association of FMR1 mRNA, which is high in normal cells, becomes progressively lower with increasing CGG repeat expansion. In addition, we could detect a very low level of FMR1 mRNA in a lymphoblastoid cell line from a patient with a full mutation. In this case, FMR1 mRNA is not at all associated with polysomes, in agreement with the complete absence of FMRP. The impairment of FMR1 mRNA translation in patients with the Fragile X syndrome with FMR1 premutation is the cause of the lower FMRP levels that leads to the clinical involvement. PMID:12515381

Primerano, Beatrice; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Hagerman, Paul; Amaldi, Francesco; Bagni, Claudia



?-Tubulin mRNA as a Marker of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Viability  

PubMed Central

Determining the viability of waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts remains a technical challenge. rRNA and mRNA were evaluated in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay as potential markers of oocyst viability. The rationale for this approach is the rapid turnover and postmortem decay of cellular RNA. The ?-tubulin mRNA and an anonymous mRNA transcript were chosen as potential markers because they are the only mRNA species in C. parvum known to possess introns. This feature facilitated the distinction between genuine RT-PCR products and PCR products originating from copurifying DNA. Prolonged incubation at room temperature of initially viable oocysts resulted in a gradual decrease in mRNA levels, which correlated with the loss of oocyst infectivity to neonatal mice. In contrast, oocysts stored at 4°C for over 39 weeks maintained their infectivity and displayed no decrease in the level of ?-tubulin RT-PCR product. The postmortem decay of two mRNA species demonstrates that RT-PCR analysis can provide information on the viability of C. parvum oocysts. The methodological similarity between PCR detection and RT-PCR viability analysis could facilitate the development of a combined detection and viability assay. PMID:10103254

Widmer, Giovanni; Orbacz, Elizabeth A.; Tzipori, Saul



Deadenylation-independent stage-specific mRNA degradation in Leishmania  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of Leishmania alternates between developmental forms residing within the insect vector (e.g. promastigotes) and the mammalian host (amastigotes). In Leishmania nearly all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional and involves sequences in the 3?-untranslated regions (3?UTRs) of mRNAs. Very little is known as to how these cis-elements regulate RNA turnover and translation rates in trypanosomatids and nothing is known about mRNA degradation mechanisms in Leishmania in particular. Here, we use the amastin mRNA—an amastigote-specific transcript—as a model and show that a ?100 nt U-rich element (URE) within its 3?UTR significantly accounts for developmental regulation. RNase-H-RNA blot analysis revealed that a major part of the rapid promastigote-specific degradation of the amastin mRNA is not initiated by deadenylation. This is in contrast to the amastin mRNA in amastigotes and to reporter RNAs lacking the URE, which, in common with most eukaryotic mRNAs studied to-date, are deadenylated before being degraded. Moreover, our analysis did not reveal a role for decapping in the stage-specific degradation of the amastin mRNA. Overall, these results suggest that degradation of the amastin mRNA of Leishmania is likely to be bi-phasic, the first phase being stage-specific and dependent on an unusual URE-mediated pathway of mRNA degradation. PMID:18250085

Haile, Simon; Dupe, Aurelien; Papadopoulou, Barbara



Gravitational loading of a simulated launch alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serum-deprived mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1a) were centrifuged under a regime designed to simulate a space shuttle launch (maximum of 3g). Messenger RNA levels for eight genes involved in bone growth and maintenance were determined using RT-PCR. Following 30 min of centrifugation, mRNA level for early response gene c-fos was significantly increased 89% (P < 0.05). The c-fos induction was transient and returned to control levels after 3 h. The mRNA level for the mineralization marker gene osteocalcin was significantly decreased to 44% of control level (P < 0.005) 3 h after centrifugation. No changes in mRNA levels were detected for c-myc, TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, cyclophilin A, or actin. No basal mRNA level for TGFbeta3 was detected. In addition, no change in the steady-state synthesis of prostaglandin E2 was detected, possibly due to lack of lipid substrates in serum-deprived cells, suggesting that the increase in c-fos mRNA in response to gravitational loading is a result of mechanical stimulation. These results indicate that a small magnitude mechanical loading, such as that experienced during a shuttle launch, can alter mRNA levels in quiescent osteoblastic cells.

Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.



Corticosterone effects on rat calretinin mRNA in discrete brain nuclei and the testes.  


Calretinin is an EF-hand calcium binding protein found predominantly in discrete sets of neurons in the central system, and in the sex hormone producing cells of the gonads. Calretinin mRNA levels were measured in discrete brain areas from vehicle and corticosterone treated rats (subcutaneous injections of 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg, 7 days) using a micropunch ribonuclease protection assay. Treatment with high dose corticosterone (10 mg) caused a 93% decrease in calretinin mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus compared to controls. Two other brain regions, the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the nucleus reuniens, demonstrated an approximately 40% decrease in calretinin mRNA following high dose corticosterone. In separate experiments, adrenalectomy and diurnal corticosterone variations had no effect on calretinin mRNA in the brain areas examined. In the testes, corticosterone treatment decreased calretinin protein in a dose dependent fashion (to 81%, 68%, and 39% of controls at doses of 10, 1, and 0.1 mg/day, respectively). Low dose corticosterone treatments decreased testicular but not neuronal calretinin mRNA, whereas high dose corticosterone reduced calretinin mRNA in testes and several discrete brain areas. This suggests that corticosterone's effects on brain calretinin may be due to its pathological effects, e.g. energy depletion of brain cells or interference with the normal support functions of glia. PMID:7707881

Strauss, K I; Schulkin, J; Jacobowitz, D M



CRISPR-mediated targeted mRNA degradation in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated virus defense represents an adaptive immune system in many bacteria and archaea. Small CRISPR RNAs cause cleavage of complementary invading nucleic acids in conjunction with an associated protein or a protein complex. Here, we show CRISPR-mediated cleavage of mRNA from an invading virus in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. More than 40% of the targeted mRNA could be cleaved, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cleavage of the mRNA was visualized by northern analyses and cleavage sites were mapped. In vitro, the same substrates were cleaved by the purified CRISPR-associated CMR complex from Sulfolobus solfataricus. The in vivo system was also re-programmed to knock down mRNA of a selected chromosomal gene (?-galactosidase) using an artificial miniCRISPR locus. With a single complementary spacer, ?50% reduction of the targeted mRNA and of corresponding intracellular protein activity was achieved. Our results demonstrate in vivo cleavage of mRNA in a prokaryote mediated by small RNAs (i.e. analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotes) and the re-programming of the system to silence specific genes of interest. PMID:24603867

Zebec, Ziga; Manica, Andrea; Zhang, Jing; White, Malcolm F.; Schleper, Christa



Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near ? duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near ? duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression. PMID:23675377

Spangler, Jacob B.; Feltus, Frank Alex



Creatine kinase and alpha-actin mRNA levels decrease in diabetic rat hearts  

SciTech Connect

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac atrophy and isoenzyme redistribution. To determine if tissue specific changes occur in mRNAs coding for ..cap alpha..-actin and creatine kinase (CK), they performed RNA blot analysis. Total ventricular RNA from control (C) and 4 wk old diabetic (D) rats were hybridized with /sup 32/P cDNA probes for ..cap alpha..-actin and CK. A tissue independent cDNA probe, CHOA was also used. Signal intensity was quantified by photodensitometry. D CK mRNA was 47 +/- 16% lower in D vs C. Insulin increases CK mRNA by 20% at 1.5 hs, and completely reverses the deficit after 4 wks. D ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA is 66 +/- 18% lower in D vs C. Insulin normalized ..cap alpha..-actin mRNA by 5 hs. CHOA mRNA is unchanged in D vs C, but D + insulin CHOA mRNA is 30 +/- 2% lower than C. In rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy, muscle specific CK and ..cap alpha..-actin mRNAs are decreased. Insulin treatment reverses these changes.

Popovich, B.; Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.



Induction of cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells.  


Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression of CRIM1 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CRIM1 mRNA levels were not altered in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated monolayer HUVECs or in cells in collagen gels without VEGF. In contrast, the expression of CRIM1 mRNA was elevated in VEGF-stimulated cells in collagen gels. The increase in CRIM1 mRNA expression was observed even at 2h when HUVECs did not form tubular structures in collagen gels. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2, Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were activated by VEGF in HUVECs. The VEGF-induced expression of CRIM1 mRNA was significantly abrogated by PD98059 or PF562271, but was not affected by LY294002. These results demonstrate that CRIM1 is an early response gene in the presence of both angiogenic stimulation (VEGF) and environmental (extracellular matrix) factors, and Erk and FAK might be involved in the upregulation of CRIM1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:25086356

Nakashima, Yukiko; Takahashi, Satoru



Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER?ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER? and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor ? (ER?) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER? cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER? cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER? breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER? compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER? versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ER?. Our data demonstrates that in ER? cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER? cells as well as ER? tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER? tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER? and ER+ breast cancer.

Lazarus, Kyren A. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia) [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Environmental and Biotechnology Centre, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)] [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); To, Sarah Q. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia) [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Chand, Ashwini L. [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)] [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Clyne, Colin D., E-mail: [Cancer Drug Discovery Laboratory, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)



Mapping of N6-methyladenosine residues in bovine prolactin mRNA.  

PubMed Central

N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) residues, which are found internally in viral and cellular mRNA populations at the sequences Apm6ApC and Gpm6ApC, have been proposed to play a role in mRNA processing and transport. We have developed a sensitive approach to analyze the level and location of m6A in specific purified cellular mRNAs in an attempt to correlate m6A location with function. Polyadenylylated mRNA is hybridized to cDNA clones representing the full size mRNA under study or fragments of it, and the protected RNA is digested and labeled with polynucleotide kinase in vitro. After enrichment for m6A with anti-m6A antibody, the [32P]-pm6A is separated on TLC plates, and compared with the total amount of radiolabeled nucleotides. Using this combination of in vitro RNA labeling and antibody selection, we were able to detect m6A in purified stable mRNAs that cannot be readily labeled in cells with greater sensitivity than was possible by previous techniques. We applied this technique to bovine prolactin mRNA and showed that this mRNA contains m6A. Moreover, all of the m6A residues in this message are found within the 3' two-thirds of the molecule and are highly concentrated (61%) within a sequence of 108 nucleotides at the 3' noncoding region of the message. The nonrandom distribution of m6A in a specific cellular mRNA, as demonstrated for bovine prolactin, will have to be taken into account when designing a model for m6A function. Images PMID:6592581

Horowitz, S; Horowitz, A; Nilsen, T W; Munns, T W; Rottman, F M



Regulation of cholecystokinin mRNA content in rat striatum: a glutamatergic hypothesis.  


Changes in the cholecystokinin (CCK) mRNA content in rat striatum after the administration of specific glutamate and dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists were investigated. MK-801 (1 mg/kg i.p.), a selective noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-sensitive glutamatergic receptor antagonist, but not 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (1.1-9.2 micrograms i.c.v.), a competitive non-NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonist, produced a time- and dose-dependent decrease in striatal CCK mRNA. The maximum inhibition (50%) was observed after a daily treatment for 1 week with MK-801 (1 mg/kg). The activation of NMDA receptors by a single injection of NMDA (1.4 micrograms i.c.v.) elicited an 80% increase in CCK mRNA in rat striatum 8 hr after the injection. These data suggest that glutamate exerts a tonic regulation on striatal CCK mRNA, mainly through NMDA-sensitive glutamatergic receptors. B-HT 920, a DA D2 receptor agonist and benztropine, a DA uptake blocker, increased striatal CCK mRNA. This increase was partially blocked by the concomitant administration of MK-801. Moreover, the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol, at a dose that per se failed to change CCK mRNA (0.3 mg/kg i.p.), partially blocked the increase in CCK mRNA elicited by NMDA. Similarly, the NMDA effect was attenuated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Our findings suggest that in rat striatum a complex DA-glutamate interaction tonically regulates CCK expression via D2 and/or NMDA receptor activation. PMID:1403798

Ding, X Z; Mocchetti, I



The Ccr4-Not Complex Interacts with the mRNA Export Machinery  

PubMed Central

Background The Ccr4-Not complex is a key eukaryotic regulator of gene transcription and cytoplasmic mRNA degradation. Whether this complex also affects aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as mRNA export, remains largely unexplored. Human Caf1 (hCaf1), a Ccr4-Not complex member, interacts with and regulates the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1, whose targets include RNA binding proteins involved in mRNA export. However, the functional significance of this regulation is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate using co-immunoprecipitation approaches that Ccr4-Not subunits interact with Hmt1, the budding yeast ortholog of PRMT1. Furthermore, using genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that Ccr4-Not physically and functionally interacts with the heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) Nab2 and Hrp1, and that the physical association depends on Hmt1 methyltransferase activity. Using mass spectrometry, co-immunoprecipitation and genetic approaches, we also uncover physical and functional interactions between Ccr4-Not subunits and components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and we provide evidence that these interactions impact mRNA export. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that Ccr4-Not has previously unrealized functional connections to the mRNA processing/export pathway that are likely important for its role in gene expression. These results shed further insight into the biological functions of Ccr4-Not and suggest that this complex is involved in all aspects of mRNA biogenesis, from the regulation of transcription to mRNA export and turnover. PMID:21464899

Kerr, Shana C.; Azzouz, Nowel; Fuchs, Stephen M.; Collart, Martine A.; Strahl, Brian D.; Corbett, Anita H.; Laribee, R. Nicholas



UCP2 mRNA expression is dependent on glucose metabolism in pancreatic islets  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA levels are decreased in islets of Langerhans from glucokinase deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UCP2 mRNA up-regulation by glucose is dependent on glucokinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of UCP2 increases GSIS of glucokinase heterozygous pancreatic islets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This may protect glucokinase deficient mice from hyperglycemic damages. -- Abstract: Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is expressed in the pancreatic {beta}-cell, where it partially uncouples the mitochondrial proton gradient, decreasing both ATP-production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Increased glucose levels up-regulate UCP2 mRNA and protein levels, but the mechanism for UCP2 up-regulation in response to increased glucose is unknown. The aim was to examine the effects of glucokinase (GK) deficiency on UCP2 mRNA levels and to characterize the interaction between UCP2 and GK with regard to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. UCP2 mRNA expression was reduced in GK+/- islets and GK heterozygosity prevented glucose-induced up-regulation of islet UCP2 mRNA. In contrast to UCP2 protein function UCP2 mRNA regulation was not dependent on superoxide generation, but rather on products of glucose metabolism, because MnTBAP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, did not prevent the glucose-induced up-regulation of UCP2. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in UCP2-/- and GK+/- islets compared with GK+/- islets and UCP2 deficiency improved glucose tolerance of GK+/- mice. Accordingly, UCP2 deficiency increased ATP-levels of GK+/- mice. Thus, the compensatory down-regulation of UCP2 is involved in preserving the insulin secretory capacity of GK mutant mice and might also be implicated in limiting disease progression in MODY2 patients.

Dalgaard, Louise T., E-mail: [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University (Denmark)



An explanation of biphasic characters of mRNA translocation in the ribosome.  


Translocation is an essential step in the elongation cycle of protein synthesis in which mRNA that is coupled with tRNAs by codon-anticodon interaction is moved through the ribosome. It has been well documented that the kinetics of mRNA translocation generally shows biphasic character. However, the physical basis of the phenomenon is unclear. Here, to explain the phenomenon we consider two models. In one model (Model I), besides the classical non-rotated and rotated conformations of the ribosome there also exists an intermediate conformation between the two classical conformations. The mRNA translocation occurs via proceeding from the rotated (hybrid) pretranslocation to intermediate to non-rotated posttranslocation state. In another model (Model II), only the classical non-rotated and rotated conformations are considered. Before EF-G binding, the ribosomal complex is in either the classical non-rotated or rotated (hybrid) pretranslocation state, with the equilibrium with each other. EF-G can bind to both states and then the mRNA translocation occurs via proceeding either directly from the hybrid to non-rotated posttranslocation state or from the non-rotated pretranslocation to hybrid to non-rotated posttranslocation state. Analytical studies showed that Model I is unable to explain the biphasic character of mRNA translocation. By contrast, Model II can not only provide a good explanation of the biphasic character of mRNA translocation but also explain the kinetics of the reverse ribosomal rotation from the rotated to non-rotated conformation, which can be fit to a single exponential. Thus, Model II could be the appropriate one for the kinetic pathway of mRNA translocation. PMID:24518619

Xie, Ping



Stability of mRNA influences osteoporotic bone mass via CNOT3  

PubMed Central

Osteoclastogenesis is under the control of posttranscriptional and transcriptional events. However, posttranscriptional regulation of osteoclastogenesis is incompletely understood. CNOT3 is a component of the CCR4 family that regulates mRNA stability, but its function in bone is not known. Here, we show that Cnot3 deficiency by deletion of a single allele induces osteoporosis. Cnot3 deficiency causes an enhancement in bone resorption in association with an elevation in bone formation, resulting in high-turnover type bone loss. At the cellular level, Cnot3 deficiency enhances receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) effects on osteoclastogenesis in a cell-autonomous manner. Conversely, Cnot3 deficiency does not affect osteoblasts directly. Cnot3 deficiency does not alter RANKL expression but enhances receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK) mRNA expression in bone in vivo. Cnot3 deficiency promotes RANK mRNA stability about twofold in bone marrow cells of mice. Cnot3 knockdown also increases RANK mRNA expression in the precursor cell line for osteoclasts. Anti-CNOT3 antibody immunoprecipitates RANK mRNA. Cnot3 deficiency stabilizes luciferase reporter expression linked to the 3?-UTR fragment of RANK mRNA. In contrast, Cnot3 overexpression destabilizes the luciferase reporter linked to RANK 3?-UTR. In aged mice that exhibit severe osteoporosis, Cnot3 expression levels in bone are reduced about threefold in vivo. Surprisingly, Cnot3 deficiency in these aged mice further exacerbates osteoporosis, which also occurs via enhancement of osteoclastic activity. Our results reveal that CNOT3 is a critical regulator of bone mass acting on bone resorption through posttranscriptional down-regulation of RANK mRNA stability, at least in part, even in aging-induced osteoporosis. PMID:24550297

Watanabe, Chiho; Morita, Masahiro; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Li, Xue; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Notomi, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki



Maternal mRNA expression levels of H19 are inversely associated with risk of macrosomia  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate the associations between the mRNA levels of H19 in term placenta and risk of macrosomia. Material and methods Term placentas were collected from 37 macrosomia and 37 matched neonates with normal birth weight (controls) born in Changzhou Women and Children Health Hospital, Jiangsu province, P. R. China from March 1 to June 30, 2008. The mRNA levels of H19 in those placentas were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the risk factors in the development of macrosomia. All analyses were performed using Stata 10.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA). Results The average H19 mRNA level of the macrosomia group was 1.450 ±0.456 while in the control group it was 2.080 ±1.296. Based on the result of Student's t test, there was a significant difference in H19 mRNA level between the macrosomia group and the control group (p = 0.008). After controlling for potential confounders, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of macrosomia for those in the highest tertile of H19 mRNA level was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02–0.59) when compared to those in the lowest tertile (p for linear trend = 0.009). Conclusions The term placental H19 mRNA levels were inversely related to the occurrence of macrosomia. Our findings suggest that the low expression of H19 mRNA may contribute to the development of macrosomia. PMID:25097584

Jiang, Hua; Yu, Yang; Xun, Pengcheng; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Guanghua



Vero cells injected with adenovirus type 2 mRNA produce authentic viral polypeptide patterns: early mRNA promotes growth of adenovirus-associated virus.  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus type 2 mRNAs were injected via glass capillaries into Vero cells, a line of African green monkey kidney cells permissive for adenovirus growth. Polypeptides synthesized after injection were labeled with 35S-labeled amino acids, precipitated with antiviral sera, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both early and late viral mRNAs give rise to authentic polypeptides. The in vivo translation of mRNAs can be measured as late as 24 hr after injection. The ability to analyze the protein products of microinjected mRNAs directly should greatly extend the applications of the procedure. Vero cells injected with early mRNA from adenovirus type 2 support the growth of adenovirus-associated virus, a defective virus that is dependent on adenovirus helper functions. This result demonstrates that a measurable biological activity, the ability to overcome the defectiveness of adenovirus-associated virus, resides in early adenovirus mRNA. Images PMID:6928688

Richardson, W D; Carter, B J; Westphal, H



Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD) by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous) were obtained from CAD (n = 37) and NCAD (n = 16) patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P < 0.05), moreover, this correlation remained statistically significant (r = 0.357, P < 0.05) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and waist circumference. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was also positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.305, P < 0.05), waist circumference (r = 0.384, P < 0.01), fasting blood glucose (r = 0.334, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with adiponectin mRNA expression in EAT (r = -0.322, P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the serum levels of chemerin or adiponectin between the two groups. Likewise, neither serum chemerin nor serum adiponectin was associated with Gensini score (P > 0.05). Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level. PMID:21981776



Characterization and partial purification of mRNA N6-adenosine methyltransferase from HeLa cell nuclei. Internal mRNA methylation requires a multisubunit complex.  


N6-Methyladenosine is found at internal positions of mRNA in higher eukaryotes. This post-transcriptional modification occurs at a frequency of one to three methylation/average mRNA molecule in mammalian cell lines and is sequence-specific. A highly conserved consensus recognition site for the methyltransferase has been determined from both viral and cellular messages, consisting of the sequence Pu(G/A)AC(U/A) (with A being methylated). Despite the ubiquity and the specificity of this modification, little is known about the mechanism of formation of N6-methyladenosine. Utilizing an in vitro methylation system from HeLa cell nuclear extracts, and a substrate RNA derived from the mRNA coding for bovine prolactin, the mRNA N6-adenosine methyltransferase has been characterized and partially purified. Unique among other characterized nucleic acid methyltransferases, the enzyme is composed of three components which are separable under non-denaturing conditions. The molecular masses of the components are 30, 200, and 875 kDa as determined by gel filtration and glycerol gradient sedimentation. The 200-kDa component appears to contain the S-adenosylmethionine-binding site on a 70-kDa subunit. The 875-kDa component has affinity for single-stranded DNA-agarose, suggesting that it may contain the mRNA-binding site. N6-Adenosine methyltransferase is not sensitive to treatment with micrococcal nuclease, nor to immunodepletion using an anti-trimethylguanosine antibody, suggesting that it does not contain an essential RNA component. PMID:8021282

Bokar, J A; Rath-Shambaugh, M E; Ludwiczak, R; Narayan, P; Rottman, F



Molecular cloning, polymorphism and association analyses of a novel differentially expressed porcine mRNA.  


The mRNA differential display technique was performed to investigate the differences of gene expression in the longissimus muscle tissues from Meishan and Large White pigs. One novel mRNA that was differentially expressed was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR and the full-length cDNA sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is not homologous to any of the known porcine genes. Sequence prediction analysis revealed that this mRNA is no-coding mRNA. Polymorphism analyses revealed that there was a C-T mutation on the position of 505 bp and PCR-HhaI-RFLP analyses revealed that Chinese indigenous pig breeds and exotic pig breeds displayed obvious genotype and allele frequency differences at this locus. Association analyses revealed that this polymorphic locus was significantly associated with the drip loss rate, water holding capacity, dressing percentage, rib numbers, lean meat percentage, estimated lean meat percentage, loin eye width and loin eye area (P < 0.05). PMID:19130294

Liu, G Y; Xiong, Y Z



Mis-localization of Arp2 mRNA impairs persistence of directional cell migration  

PubMed Central

Arp2/3 complex is an actin polymerization nucleator and localized in the leading protrusions of migrating cells. It has been unclear how this complex is targeted to the protrusions and whether its localization is functionally important. We previously demonstrated that mRNAs encoding for the subunits of the complex were localized in the protrusions of fibroblasts, suggesting a mechanism to target the complex to the protrusions. We here present data demonstrating the importance of Arp2/3 complex mRNA localization in directional cell migration. Using a novel mechanism by which Dia1 mRNA is targeted to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum, we re-directed the mRNA encoding Arp2, a subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, to the perinuclear region in fibroblasts. Knockdown of Arp2 alone caused dramatic reduction of the complex and resulted in narrow protrusions, increased random cell migration speed and loss of directionality. Rescue with a protrusion-localizing Arp2 mRNA restored normal cell migration behavior, whereas rescue with a mis-localizing Arp2 mRNA failed to restore speed and directionality. These results demonstrate that localization of Arp2/3 complex mRNAs in the leading protrusions is functionally important for directional cell migration. PMID:21146522

Liao, Guoning; Simone, Brittany; Liu, Gang



Amnion membrane epithelial cells express class I HLA and contain class I HLA mRNA.  


Amnion epithelial cells in membranes from term deliveries, which have been reported not to express histocompatibility Ag, were evaluated for HLA by using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining system and for class I HLA mRNA by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. There were three major findings from these studies. 1) Amnion cells frequently expressed class I HLA. Three mAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA were used: 61D2, PA2.6, and W6/32. 61D2 identified 1 of 8 fresh amnion membranes as class I positive whereas PA2.6 identified 4/8 and W6/32 identified 5/8. 2) Amnion cells contained class I HLA mRNA. RNA extracted from amnion membranes hybridized to a class I HLA probe (pHLA1.1) in Northern blotting. In situ hybridization procedures with pHLA1.1 showed that essentially all amnion cells contained class I HLA mRNA. 3) Levels of class I HLA mRNA in amnion cells could be modulated. Exposure of amnion explants to medium containing IFN-gamma enhanced levels of class I HLA mRNA in amnion cells, whereas epidermal growth factor diminished those levels. The results suggest that amnion cells transcribe class I HLA genes and are capable of synthesizing class I H chains but that expression may be modulated by extrinsic regulatory molecules. PMID:3128611

Hunt, J S; Andrews, G K; Fishback, J L; Feess, M; Wood, G W



Tumor Suppressor Protein Pdcd4 Inhibits Translation of p53 mRNA*  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein Pdcd4 is thought to suppress translation of mRNAs containing structured 5?-UTRs by interacting with translation initiation factor eIF4A and inhibiting its helicase activity. However, natural target mRNAs regulated by Pdcd4 so far are mostly unknown. Here, we identified p53 mRNA as a translational target of Pdcd4. We found that Pdcd4 is associated with p53 mRNA and suppresses its translation. The inhibitory effect of Pdcd4 on the translation of p53 mRNA depends on the ability of Pdcd4 to interact with eIF4A and is mediated by the 5?-UTR of p53 mRNA, which is able to form a stable stem-loop structure. We show that treatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents decreases the expression of Pdcd4. This suggests that translational suppression by Pdcd4 plays a role in maintaining a low level of p53 in unstressed cells and that this suppression is abrogated due to low levels of Pdcd4 after DNA damage. Overall, our work demonstrates for the first time that Pdcd4 is directly involved in translational suppression of a natural mRNA with a 5?-structured UTR and provides novel insight into the translational control of p53 expression. PMID:22033922

Wedeken, Lena; Singh, Priyanka; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz



Kinetics of toxA and regA mRNA accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

DNA probes specific for an internal portion of the toxA and regA genes were used to examine the synthesis of mRNA during the growth cycle of P. aeruginosa PA103. RNA dot blot analysis revealed that in a low-iron growth medium, the synthesis of regA and toxA mRNA followed a biphasic expression pattern. Analysis of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity also indicated that an early and late phase of exotoxin A synthesis occurred. Utilizing an internal SalI probe, examination of the size distribution of the regA mRNA during the cell cycle indicated that a large transcript (T1) was present at early time points, followed by the appearance of a smaller transcript (T2) during late exponential to early stationary phase. An upstream AvaI regA probe was found to hybridize to the T1 transcript but not to the T2 transcript. The data indicate that at least two separate functional regA mRNA species were produced. Analysis of mRNA accumulation for the regA gene when cells were grown in high-iron medium provided additional evidence for two separately controlled transcripts being produced from the regA chromosomal locus. Both regA transcripts were correlated with exotoxin A transcription and production. Images PMID:3139628

Frank, D W; Iglewski, B H



mRNA degradation controls differentiation state-dependent differences in transcript and splice variant abundance  

PubMed Central

Expression profiling experiments usually provide a static snapshot of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Improved understanding of the dynamics of mRNA synthesis and degradation will aid the development of sound bioinformatic models for control of gene expression. We studied mRNA stability in proliferating and differentiated myogenic cells using whole-genome exon arrays and reported the decay rates (half life) for ?7000 mRNAs. We showed that the stability of many mRNAs strongly depends on the differentiation status and contributes to differences in abundance of these mRNAs. In addition, alternative splicing turns out to be coupled to mRNA degradation. Although different splice forms may be produced at comparable levels, their relative abundance is partly determined by their different stabilities in proliferating and differentiated cells. Where the 3?-untranslated region (3?-UTR) was previously thought to contain most RNA stabilizing and destabilizing elements, we showed that this also holds for transcript isoforms sharing the same 3?-UTR. There are two splice variants in Itga7, of which the isoform with an extra internal exon is highly stable in differentiated cells but preferentially degraded in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells. In conclusion, control of stability and degradation emerge as important determinants for differential expression of mRNA transcripts and splice variants. PMID:20852259

't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Hirsch, Michael; de Meijer, Emile J.; de Menezes, Renee X.; van Ommen, Gert Jan; den Dunnen, Johan T.



Thyroid hormones regulate levels of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus  

SciTech Connect

Cellular levels of messenger RNA encoding thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were measured in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the reticular nucleus of the thalamus in male rats after chemical thyroidectomy and thyroid hormone, replacement. TRH mRNA levels were measured by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry using a /sup 35/S-labeled synthetic 48-base oligodeoxynucleotide probe and quantitative autoradiography. Chemical thyroidectomy, produced by the administration of 6-(n-propyl)-2-thiouracil (PrSur), reduced plasma thyroxine below detection limits and significantly increased TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. Treatments with exogenous L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) reduced TRH mRNA to the same level in both hypothyroid and euthyroid animals. Neither PrSur treatment nor T/sub 3/ replacement influenced TRH mRNA levels in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated total RNA from pituitaries of these animals indicated that thyrotropin-..beta.. mRNA levels were elevated after thyroidectomy and reduced by T/sub 3/ treatment, showing that the pituitary-thyroid axis was indeed stimulated by PrSur treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones are involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating the biosynthesis of TRH in the thyrotropic center of the hypothalamus.

Koller, K.J.; Wolff, R.S.; Warden, M.K.; Zoeller, R.T.



Markers of mRNA stabilization and degradation, and RNAi within astrocytoma GW bodies.  


GW bodies (GWBs) are unique cytoplasmic structures that contain the mRNA binding protein GW182 and other proteins involved in mRNA processing pathways. The rationale for this study arose from clinical studies indicating that 33% of patients with GWB autoantibodies have a motor/sensory neuropathy and/or ataxia. The novelty of this study is the identification of GWBs in astrocytes and astrocytoma cells within cell bodies and cytoplasmic projections. Astrocytoma GWBs exhibit complex heterogeneity with combinations of LSm4 and XRN1 as well as Ago2 and Dicer, key proteins involved in mRNA degradation and RNA interference, respectively. GWB subsets contained the mRNA transport and stabilization proteins SYNCRIP, hnRNPA1, and FMRP, not previously described as part of the GWB complex. Immunoprecipitation of astrocytoma GWBs suggested that Dicer, hDcp, LSm4, XRN1, SYNCRIP, and FMRP form a multiprotein complex. GWBs are likely involved in a number of regulatory mRNA pathways in astrocytes and astrocytoma cells. PMID:17663465

Moser, Joanna J; Eystathioy, Theophany; Chan, Edward K L; Fritzler, Marvin J



MOS11: A New Component in the mRNA Export Pathway  

PubMed Central

Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is emerging as an important aspect of plant immunity. The three related pathways affecting plant immunity include Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS)–mediated nuclear protein import, Nuclear Export Signal (NES)–dependent nuclear protein export, and mRNA export relying on MOS3, a nucleoporin belonging to the Nup107–160 complex. Here we report the characterization, identification, and detailed analysis of Arabidopsis modifier of snc1, 11 (mos11). Mutations in MOS11 can partially suppress the dwarfism and enhanced disease resistance phenotypes of snc1, which carries a gain-of-function mutation in a TIR-NB-LRR type Resistance gene. MOS11 encodes a conserved eukaryotic protein with homology to the human RNA binding protein CIP29. Further functional analysis shows that MOS11 localizes to the nucleus and that the mos11 mutants accumulate more poly(A) mRNAs in the nucleus, likely resulting from reduced mRNA export activity. Epistasis analysis between mos3-1 and mos11-1 revealed that MOS11 probably functions in the same mRNA export pathway as MOS3, in a partially overlapping fashion, before the mRNA molecules pass through the nuclear pores. Taken together, MOS11 is identified as a new protein contributing to the transfer of mature mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol. PMID:21203492

Cheng, Yu Ti; Lee, EunKyoung; Huang, Yan; Dong, Oliver Xiaoou; Gannon, Patrick; Huang, Shuai; Ding, Pingtao; Li, Yingzhong; Sack, Fred; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin



HuR regulates p21 mRNA stabilization by UV light  

E-print Network

Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is highly induced by many stresses, including exposure to short-wavelength UV light (UVC), which increases p21 mRNA stability. Investigation into the mechanisms underlying this stabilization process revealed that proteins present in cytoplasmic lysates of human RKO colorectal carcinoma cells formed complexes with p21 mRNA that were inducible by treatment with UVC and other stress agents. The ubiquitous Elav-type RNA-binding protein HuR was identified within the p21 mRNA-protein complexes, as antibodies recognizing HuR supershifted these complexes and revealed HuR-immunoreactive proteins complexing with p21 mRNA on Western blots. Lowering of endogenous HuR levels through expression of antisense HuR decreased p21 RNA-protein complexes, greatly reduced the UVC inducibility and half-life of p21 mRNA, and prevented UVC-mediated induction of luciferase activity in p21 3? untranslated region-containing reporter constructs. Our findings indicate that HuR plays a major role in regulating stress-induced p21 expression by enhancing p21 mRNA stability and that these effects are coupled to HuR’s elevated presence in the cytoplasm. Expression of p21, a universal inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, has been found to increase following exposure to a wide variety of stress agents, including genotoxins, oxidants,

Wengong Wang; Henry Furneaux; Huiming Cheng; M. Craig Caldwell; Dorothy Hutter; Yusen Liu; Nikki Holbrook; Myriam Gorospe



GLUT3 protein and mRNA in autopsy muscle specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GLUT3 is expressed in rat muscle, but this glucose transporter protein has not been identified previously in adult human skeletal muscle. We quantified the rapidity of disappearance of mRNA and protein from human skeletal muscle at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Fifty percent of the immunologically detectable GLUT3 protein disappeared by 1 hour at 20 degrees C and by 2 hours at 4 degrees C. mRNA for GLUT3 was decreased 50% by 2.2 hours at 20 degrees C and by 24 hours at 4 degrees C. Half of the measurable mRNAs for GLUT4, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha-actin, and beta-myosin disappeared by 0.8 to 2.1 hours at 20 degrees C and by 5.0 to 16.6 hours at 4 degrees C. Previous conclusions that GLUT3 is not expressed in human muscle were likely drawn because of artifacts related to degradation of GLUT3 protein in the specimens prior to study. Because of the rapid degradation of protein and mRNA, autopsy specimens of muscle must be obtained within 6 hours of death, and even then, protein and mRNA data will likely dramatically underestimate their expression in fresh muscle. Some previously published conclusions and recommendations regarding autopsy specimens are not stringent enough to consistently yield useful protein and mRNA.

Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Jiang, J.



Mechanism of non-spliceosomal mRNA splicing in the unfolded protein response pathway.  

PubMed Central

The unfolded protein response is an intracellular signaling pathway that, in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), upregulates transcription of ER resident chaperones. A key step in this pathway is the non-conventional, regulated splicing of the mRNA encoding the positive transcriptional regulator Hac1p. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the bifunctional transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1p cleaves HAC1 mRNA at both splice junctions and tRNA ligase joins the two exons together. We have reconstituted HAC1 mRNA splicing in an efficient in vitro reaction and show that, in many ways, the mechanism of HAC1 mRNA splicing resembles that of pre-tRNA splicing. In particular, Ire1p endonucleolytic cleavage leaves 2', 3'-cyclic phosphates, the excised exons remain associated by base pairing, and exon ligation by tRNA ligase follows the same chemical steps as for pre-tRNA splicing. To date, this mechanism of RNA processing is unprecedented for a messenger RNA. In contrast to the striking similarities to tRNA splicing, the structural features of the splice junctions recognized by Ire1p differ from those recognized by tRNA endonuclease. We show that small stem-loop structures predicted to form at both splice junctions of HAC1 mRNA are required and sufficient for Ire1p cleavage. PMID:10357823

Gonzalez, T N; Sidrauski, C; Dorfler, S; Walter, P



Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod.  


We sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, we found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of beta-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers. PMID:1855491

Kreamer, G L; Squibb, K; Gioeli, D; Garte, S J; Wirgin, I



Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod  

SciTech Connect

The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.

Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.; Garte, S.J.; Wirgin, I. (New York University Medical Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo (USA))



Decoying the cap- mRNA degradation system by a double-stranded RNA virus and poly(A)- mRNA surveillance by a yeast antiviral system.  

PubMed Central

The major coat protein of the L-A double-stranded RNA virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae covalently binds m7 GMP from 5' capped mRNAs in vitro. We show that this cap binding also occurs in vivo and that, while this activity is required for expression of viral information (killer toxin mRNA level and toxin production) in a wild-type strain, this requirement is suppressed by deletion of SKI1/XRN1/SEP1. We propose that the virus creates decapped cellular mRNAs to decoy the 5'-->3' exoribonuclease specific for cap- RNA encoded by XRN1. The SKI2 antiviral gene represses the copy numbers of the L-A and L-BC viruses and the 20S RNA replicon, apparently by specifically blocking translation of viral RNA. We show that SKI2, SKI3, and SKI8 inhibit translation of electroporated luciferase and beta-glucuronidase mRNAs in vivo, but only if they lack the 3' poly(A) structure. Thus, L-A decoys the SKI1/XRN1/SEP1 exonuclease directed at 5' uncapped ends, but translation of the L-A poly(A)- mRNA is repressed by Ski2,3,8p. The SKI2-SKI3-SKI8 system is more effective against cap+ poly(A)- mRNA, suggesting a (nonessential) role in blocking translation of fragmented cellular mRNAs. PMID:7739557

Masison, D C; Blanc, A; Ribas, J C; Carroll, K; Sonenberg, N; Wickner, R B



Effect of losartan and benzbromarone on the level of human urate transporter 1 mRNA.  


Both an angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan (CAS 124750-99-8) and a serum urate lowering agent, benzbromarone (CAS 3562-84-3) exert a uricosuric action by inhibiting urate transporter 1 (URAT1). A recent clinical trial indicated that losartan could reduce the level of serum urate in hypertensive patients treated with urate lowering agents, suggesting the different mode of action of losartan from benzbromarone. In the present study, the effect of losartan and benzbromarone on the level of URAT1 mRNA was determined in transfected HEK293 cells. Losartan caused a significant reduction of its mRNA level, whereas it was not affected by benzbromarone. These results indicate that losartan decreases the level of human URAT1 mRNA, which may underlie the uricosuric action of losartan in hypertensive patients treated with serum urate lowering agents. PMID:20486468

Nindita, Yora; Hamada, Toshihiro; Bahrudin, Udin; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Iwai, Chisato; Urashima, Sunao; Kuwabara, Masanari; Kuwabara, Narimasa; Utami, Sulistiyati Bayu; Mizuta, Einosuke; Yamada, Kensaku; Igawa, Osamu; Shigemasa, Chiaki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Hisatome, Ichiro



Analysis and in vitro localization of internal methylated adenine residues in dihydrofolate reductase mRNA.  

PubMed Central

A T7 RNA transcript coding for mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was utilized as a substrate for the N6-methyladenosine mRNA methyltransferase isolated from HeLa cell nuclei. This transcript acted as a 3 fold better substrate than either prolactin mRNA or a synthetic RNA substrate which contained multiple methylation consensus sequences. Formation of internal N6-methyladenine (m6A) residues in the DHFR transcript was shown to increase slightly by the absence of a 7-methylguanine-2'-O-methyl cap structure. Using T7 transcripts from different regions of the DHFR gene, the majority of the m6A residues were localized to the coding region and a segment of the transcript just 3' to the coding region. This data suggests that DHFR mRNA contains multiple methylation sites with most of these sites concentrated in the coding region of the transcript. PMID:2395644

Rana, A P; Tuck, M T



Axonal mRNA localization and local protein synthesis in nervous system assembly, maintenance and repair  

PubMed Central

mRNAs can be targeted to specific neuronal subcellular domains, which enables rapid changes in the local proteome through local translation. This mRNA-based mechanism links extrinsic signals to spatially restricted cellular responses and can mediate stimulus-driven adaptive responses such as dendritic plasticity. Local mRNA translation also occurs in growing axons where it can mediate directional responses to guidance signals. Recent profiling studies have revealed that both growing and mature axons possess surprisingly complex and dynamic transcriptomes, thereby suggesting that axonal mRNA localization is highly regulated and has a role in a broad range of processes, a view that is increasingly being supported by new experimental evidence. Here, we review current knowledge on the roles and regulatory mechanisms of axonal mRNA translation and discuss emerging links to axon guidance, survival, regeneration and neurological disorders. PMID:22498899

Jung, Hosung; Yoon, Byung C.; Holt, Christine E.



Promoter-bound trinucleotide repeat mRNA drives epigenetic silencing in fragile X syndrome.  


Epigenetic gene silencing is seen in several repeat-expansion diseases. In fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic form of mental retardation, a CGG trinucleotide-repeat expansion adjacent to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene promoter results in its epigenetic silencing. Here, we show that FMR1 silencing is mediated by the FMR1 mRNA. The FMR1 mRNA contains the transcribed CGG-repeat tract as part of the 5' untranslated region, which hybridizes to the complementary CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene to form an RNA·DNA duplex. Disrupting the interaction of the mRNA with the CGG-repeat portion of the FMR1 gene prevents promoter silencing. Thus, our data link trinucleotide-repeat expansion to a form of RNA-directed gene silencing mediated by direct interactions of the trinucleotide-repeat RNA and DNA. PMID:24578575

Colak, Dilek; Zaninovic, Nikica; Cohen, Michael S; Rosenwaks, Zev; Yang, Wang-Yong; Gerhardt, Jeannine; Disney, Matthew D; Jaffrey, Samie R



An unconventional pathway of mRNA cap formation by vesiculoviruses  

PubMed Central

mRNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g., rabies, measles, mumps, Ebola, and Borna disease viruses), possess the 5?-terminal cap structure identical to that of eukaryotic mRNAs, but the mechanism of mRNA cap formation is distinctly different from the latter. The elucidation of the unconventional capping of VSV mRNA remained elusive for three decades since the discovery of the cap structure in some viral and eukaryotic mRNAs in 1975. Only recently our biochemical studies revealed an unexpected strategy employed by vesiculoviruses (VSV and Chandipura virus, an emerging arbovirus) to generate the cap structure. This article summarizes the historical and current research that led to the discovery of the novel vesiculoviral mRNA capping reaction. PMID:21945214

Ogino, Tomoaki; Banerjee, Amiya K.



Distribution of prosaposin mRNA in the central nervous system of the pigeon (Columba livia).  


Bioassay and immunohistochemical studies have detected the presence of prosaposin in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Here, first time, we have determined the partial cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin and mapped the distribution of its mRNA in the pigeon CNS. The predicted amino acid sequence of pigeon prosaposin showed 93 and 60% identity to chicken and human prosaposin, respectively. In situ hybridization, autoradiograms showed that the prosaposin mRNA expression was found in the olfactory bulb, prepiriform cortex, Wulst, mesopallium, nidopallium, hippocampal formation, thalamus, tuberis nucleus, pre-tectal nucleus, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis and magnocellularis, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, optic tectum, cerebellar cortex and nuclei, vestibular nuclei and gray matter of the spinal cord. These results suggest that the cDNA sequence of pigeon prosaposin is comparable to other vertebrates, and the general distribution pattern of prosaposin mRNA resembles those are found in mammals. PMID:22994540

Islam, M R; Abdullah, J M; Atoji, Y



Determination of an effective housekeeping gene for the quantification of mRNA for forensic applications.  


The potential application of mRNA for the identification of biological fluids using molecular techniques has been a recent development in forensic serology. Constitutively expressed housekeeping genes can assess the amount of mRNA recovered from a sample, establish its suitability for downstream applications, and provide a reference point to corroborate the identity of the fluid. qPCR was utilized to compare the expression levels of housekeeping genes from forensic-like body fluid stains to establish the most appropriate assessment of human mRNA quantity prior to profiling. Although variability was observed between fluids and individuals, results indicated that beta-2 microglobulin exhibited the highest expression for all body fluids examined and across donors. A one-way analysis of variance was performed for housekeeping gene variability between donors (at the ?, 0.05, significance level), and the results indicated significant differences for semen, vaginal secretions, and menstrual blood. PMID:22309221

Moreno, Lilliana I; Tate, Courtney M; Knott, Erika L; McDaniel, Jade E; Rogers, Stephanie S; Koons, Barbara W; Kavlick, Mark F; Craig, Rhonda L; Robertson, James M



The Dharma of Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Mammalian-cell messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are generated in the nucleus from precursor RNAs (pre-mRNAs, which often contain one or more introns) that are complexed with an array of incompletely inventoried proteins. During their biogenesis, pre-mRNAs and their derivative mRNAs are subject to extensive cis-modifications. These modifications promote the binding of distinct polypeptides that mediate a diverse array of functions needed for mRNA metabolism, including nuclear export, inspection by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) quality-control machinery, and synthesis of the encoded protein product. Ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) remodeling through the loss and gain of protein constituents before and after pre-mRNA splicing, during mRNA export, and within the cytoplasm facilitates NMD, ensuring integrity of the transcriptome. Here we review the mRNP rearrangements that culminate in detection and elimination of faulty transcripts by mammalian-cell NMD. PMID:24552703

Popp, Maximilian Wei-Lin; Maquat, Lynne E.



An unconventional pathway of mRNA cap formation by vesiculoviruses.  


mRNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype of nonsegmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g., rabies, measles, mumps, Ebola, and Borna disease viruses), possess the 5'-terminal cap structure identical to that of eukaryotic mRNAs, but the mechanism of mRNA cap formation is distinctly different from the latter. The elucidation of the unconventional capping of VSV mRNA remained elusive for three decades since the discovery of the cap structure in some viral and eukaryotic mRNAs in 1975. Only recently our biochemical studies revealed an unexpected strategy employed by vesiculoviruses (VSV and Chandipura virus, an emerging arbovirus) to generate the cap structure. This article summarizes the historical and current research that led to the discovery of the novel vesiculoviral mRNA capping reaction. PMID:21945214

Ogino, Tomoaki; Banerjee, Amiya K



Synthetic mRNA Splicing Modulator Compounds with In Vivo Anti-tumor Activity  

PubMed Central

We report our progress on the development of new synthetic anti-cancer lead compounds that modulate the splicing of mRNA. We also report the synthesis evaluation of new biologically active ester and carbamate analogs. Further, we describe initial animal studies demonstrating the antitumor efficacy of compound 5 in vivo. Additionally, we report the enantioselective and diastereospecific synthesis of a new 1,3-dioxane series of active analogs. We confirm that compound 5 inhibits the splicing of mRNA in both cell-free nuclear extracts and in a cell-based dual-reporter mRNA splicing assay. In summary, we have developed totally synthetic novel spliceosome modulators as therapeutic lead compounds for a number of highly aggressive cancers. Future efforts will be directed toward the more complete optimization of these compounds as potential human therapeutics. PMID:19877647

Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Pourpak, Alan; Goronga, Tinopiwa; Jiang, Qin; Cui, Xiaoli; Hyle, Judith; Lahti, Jill; Morris, Stephan W.; Webb, Thomas R.



Mdm2 increases cellular invasiveness by binding to and stabilizing the Slug mRNA.  


Mdm2 is an oncoprotein that induces the degradation of the tumor suppressor, p53. Here, we show that Mdm2 increases the mRNA levels of Slug by binding to and stabilizing the Slug mRNA. While this effect of Mdm2 was observed in both p53-null and p53-expressing cancer cells, it increased the protein levels of Slug only in the former cells. Mdm2 consistently induced Slug-dependent events, such as decreases in E-cadherin levels and increases in cellular invasiveness, only in p53-null cells. Therefore, the binding of Mdm2 to the Slug mRNA appears to provide a novel mechanism through which Mdm2 promotes tumor progression in a manner independent of the presence of p53. PMID:23438693

Jung, Chan-Hun; Kim, Jongdoo; Park, Jong Kuk; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Um, Hong-Duck



G protein mRNA mapped in rat brain by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) mediate many receptor-coupled signal transduction events. We have localized in rat brain by in situ hybridization the mRNA for the G protein subunits--G alpha s, G alpha o, and G beta. Oligonucleotide probes were radiolabeled by a technique that resulted in a probe of defined specific activity and uniform length. mRNA species encoding G alpha s and G beta occur in high densities heterogeneously throughout the brain, especially in large neuronal cell bodies--e.g., hippocampal pyramidal cells, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, hypothalamic nuclei, and neurons of brainstem nuclei and the reticular formation. G alpha o mRNA has a more limited distribution and abundance, being detectable in the claustrum, endopiriform nucleus, habenula, hippocampal pyramidal cells, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Images PMID:3128797

Largent, B L; Jones, D T; Reed, R R; Pearson, R C; Snyder, S H



Translational control of maskin mRNA by its 3' untranslated region  

PubMed Central

Background information. Maskin is a member of the acidic transforming coiled-coil (TACC) domain proteins found in Xenopus leavis oocytes and embryos. It is implicated in the coordination of the spindle and has been reported to mediate translational repression of cyclin B1 mRNA. Results We report here that maskin mRNA is translationally repressed at the level of initiation in stage 4 oocytes and becomes activated in stage 6 oocytes. The translational repression of maskin mRNA correlates with the presence of a short poly(A) tail on this mRNA in stage 4 oocytes. The 3' UTR of maskin can confer the translational regulation to a reporter mRNA, and so can the 3' UTR of human TACC3. A conserved GUCU repeat element was found to repress translation in both stage 4 and stage 6 oocytes, but deletion of this element did not abrogate repression in stage 4 oocytes. UV crosslinking experiments indicated that overlapping sets of proteins bind efficiently to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. As previously reported, CPEB binds to the cyclin B1 3' UTR, but its binding to the maskin 3' UTR is minimal. By RNA affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified the embryonic deadenylation element binding protein (EDEN-BP) as one of the proteins binding to both the maskin and the cyclin B1 3' UTRs. Conclusion Maskin mRNA is translationally regulated by at least two repressor elements and an activation element. One of the repessor elements is the evolutionarily conserved GUCU repeat. EDEN-BP binds to both the maskin and cyclin B1 3' UTRs, indicating it may be involved in the deadenylation of these mRNAs. PMID:17241108

Meijer, Hedda A.; Radford, Helois E.; Wilson, Lolita S.; Lissenden, Sarah; de Moor, Cornelia H.



Don't kill the messenger: Long-distance trafficking of mRNA molecules.  


The phloem sap contains numerous macromolecules such as proteins and RNAs, in addition to photoassimilates, amino acids and other small molecules. The transcription profile of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules in the sieve tubes is unique and does not reflect the transcript profile in the neighboring companion cells. This discovery suggests tight regulation on cell-to-cell movement of mRNA molecules from the companion cells into the sieve tube. Heterografting experiments and RNA-detection methods have provided unequivocal evidence for the trafficking of several specific mRNA molecules between distant organs. Detection of various plant transcripts in their respective plant parasites further confirms this long-distance movement. The finding that several of these trafficked transcripts are involved in the control of developmental processes as well as responses to growth substances or environmental cues has led to a new paradigm that mRNA molecules act as non-cell-autonomous signaling agents operating in the vascular system. Trafficking of these molecules creates a communication network between distant organs that is required for coordinated development of the whole plant under adverse conditions. The generality of this concept, however, is still under debate, because the raison d'être for long-distance movement of mRNA is not clear. In this review we discuss the identity and potential function of phloem-sap mRNA molecules, the factors facilitating RNA transport, and the rationale for their action as long-distance signaling agents in the control of developmental processes. PMID:24157202

Spiegelman, Ziv; Golan, Guy; Wolf, Shmuel



Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two different blood collection tubes were stored for varying times at different temperatures, and microarray analysis was performed on resultant extracted RNA. A large set of potential mRNA quality biomarkers for monitoring post-phlebotomy gene expression changes and mRNA degradation in blood was identified. qPCR assays for the potential biomarkers and a set of relevant reference genes were generated and used to pre-validate a sub-set of the selected biomarkers. The assay precision of the potential qPCR based biomarkers was determined, and a final validation of the selected quality biomarkers using the developed qPCR assays and blood samples from 60 healthy additional subjects was performed. In total, four mRNA quality biomarkers (USP32, LMNA, FOSB, TNRFSF10C) were successfully validated. We suggest here the use of these blood mRNA quality biomarkers for validating an experimental pre-analytical workflow. These biomarkers were further evaluated in the 2nd ring trial of the SPIDIA-RNA Program which demonstrated that these biomarkers can be used as quality control tools for mRNA analyses from blood samples. PMID:25369468

Zhang, Hui; Korenkova, Vlasta; Sjoback, Robert; Svec, David; Bjorkman, Jens; Kruh?ffer, Mogens; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Oelmueller, Uwe; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, Torbj?rn; Lonneborg, Anders; Rian, Edith



Proliferative status regulates HDAC11 mRNA abundance in nontransformed fibroblasts.  


Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important determinants of gene transcription and other biological processes. HDAC11 is one of the least characterized HDACs and is the only member of the class IV HDAC family. Our studies examined the events that control the expression of the HDAC11 transcript. We show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) rapidly reduces the abundance of HDAC11 mRNA when added to density-arrested Balb/c-3T3 cells, which are nontransformed fibroblasts. Reduction required mRNA and protein synthesis, but not AKT or ERK activity, and resulted from accelerated turnover of the HDAC11 transcript. Reduction was transient in cells receiving PDGF alone but sustained in cells receiving both PDGF and platelet-poor plasma, which together promote G?/G? traverse and S phase entry. Plasma alone did not appreciably reduce HDAC11 mRNA abundance, nor did epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, or insulin. HDAC11 mRNA accumulated in Balb/c-3T3 cells exiting the cell cycle due to density-dependent growth inhibition or serum deprivation. Of note, HDAC11 mRNA did not accumulate in a spontaneously transformed Balb/c-3T3 clonal variant (clone 2) that does not density arrest. The HDAC11 promoter was active in Balb/c-3T3 but not clone 2 cells; inactivity in clone 2 cells did not result from methylation of CpG islands. Overexpression of HDAC11 inhibited the cell cycle progression of both transformed and nontransformed fibroblasts. Our studies identify the HDAC11 transcript as a PDGF target and show that HDAC11 mRNA abundance correlates inversely with proliferative status. PMID:24047695

Bagui, Tapan K; Sharma, Savitha S; Ma, Le; Pledger, W Jack



Quantitative In Situ Measurement of Estrogen Receptor mRNA Predicts Response to Tamoxifen  

PubMed Central

Purpose Quantification of mRNA has historically been done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Recently, a robust method of detection of mRNA utilizing in situ hybridization has been described that is linear and shows high specificity with low background. Here we describe the use of the AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) for measuring mRNA in situ using ESR1 (the estrogen receptor alpha gene) in breast cancer to determine its predictive value compared to Estrogen Receptor ? (ER) protein. Methods Messenger RNA for ER (ESR1) and Ubiquitin C (UbC) were visualized using RNAscope probes and levels were quantified by quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) on two Yale breast cancer cohorts on tissue microarrays. ESR1 levels were compared to ER protein levels measured by QIF using the SP1 antibody. Results ESR1 mRNA is reproducibly and specifically measurable by qISH on tissue collected from 1993 or later. ESR1 levels were correlated to ER protein levels in a non-linear manner on two Yale cohorts. High levels of ESR1 were found to be predictive of response to tamoxifin. Conclusion Quantification of mRNA using qISH may allow assessment of large cohorts with minimal formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. Exploratory data using this method suggests that measurement of ESR1 mRNA levels may be predictive of response to endocrine therapy in a manner that is different from the predictive value of ER. PMID:22606272

Bordeaux, Jennifer M.; Cheng, Huan; Welsh, Allison W.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Lannin, Donald R.; Wu, Xingyong; Su, Nan; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Luo, Yuling; Rimm, David L.



DDX6 recruits translational silenced human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase mRNA to RNP granules  

PubMed Central

Erythroid precursor cells lose the capacity for mRNA synthesis due to exclusion of the nucleus during maturation. Therefore, the stability and translation of mRNAs that code for specific proteins, which function in late stages of maturation when reticulocytes become erythrocytes, are controlled tightly. Reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase (r15-LOX) initiates the breakdown of mitochondria in mature reticulocytes. Through the temporal restriction of mRNA translation, the synthesis of r15-LOX is prevented in premature cells. The enzyme is synthesized only in mature reticulocytes, although r15-LOX mRNA is already present in erythroid precursor cells. Translation of r15-LOX mRNA is inhibited by hnRNP K and hnRNP E1, which bind to the differentiation control element (DICE) in its 3? untranslated region (3?UTR). The hnRNP K/E1-DICE complex interferes with the joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S subunit at the AUG. We took advantage of the inducible human erythroid K562 cell system that fully recapitulates this process to identify so far unknown factors, which are critical for DICE-dependent translational regulation. Applying RNA chromatography with the DICE as bait combined with hnRNP K immunoprecipitation, we specifically purified the DEAD-box RNA helicase 6 (DDX6) that interacts with hnRNP K and hnRNP E1 in a DICE-dependent manner. Employing RNA interference and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that DDX6 colocalizes with endogenous human (h)r15-LOX mRNA to P-body–like RNP granules, from which 60S ribosomal subunits are excluded. Our data suggest that in premature erythroid cells translational silencing of hr15-LOX mRNA is maintained by DDX6 mediated storage in these RNP granules. PMID:20884783

Naarmann, Isabel S.; Harnisch, Christiane; Muller-Newen, Gerhard; Urlaub, Henning; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H.



A Splice Mutation and mRNA Decay of EXT2 Provoke Hereditary Multiple Exostoses  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant disease. The classical paradigm of mutation screening seeks to relate alterations in the exostosin glycosyltransferase genes, EXT1 and EXT2, which are responsible for over 70% of HME cases. However, the pathological significance of the majority of these mutations is often unclear. Methods In a Chinese family with HME, EXT1 and EXT2 genes were screened by direct sequencing. The consequence of a detected mutant was predicted by in silico analysis and confirmed by mRNA analysis. The EXT1 and EXT2 mRNA and protein levels and the HS patterns in the HME patients were compared with those in healthy controls. Results A heterozygous transition (c.743+1G>A) in the EXT2 gene, which co-segregated with the HME phenotype in this family, was identified. The G residue at position +1 in intron 4 of EXT2 was predicted to be a 5? donor splice site. The mRNA analysis revealed an alternative transcript with a cryptic splice site 5 bp downstream of the wild-type site, which harbored a premature stop codon. However, the predicted truncated protein was not detected by western blot analysis. Decay of the mutant mRNA was shown by clone sequencing and quantification analysis. The corresponding downregulation of the EXT2 mRNA will contribute to the abnormal EXT1/EXT2 ratio and HS pattern that were detected in the patients with HME. Conclusion The heterozygous mutation c.743+1G>A in the EXT2 gene causes HME as a result of abnormal splicing, mRNA decay, and the resulting haploinsufficiency of EXT2. PMID:24728384

Tian, Chen; Yan, Rengna; Wen, Shuzhen; Li, Xueling; Li, Tianfeng; Cai, Zhenming; Li, Xinxiu; Du, Hong; Chen, Huimei



Proliferative status regulates HDAC11 mRNA abundance in nontransformed fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important determinants of gene transcription and other biological processes. HDAC11 is one of the least characterized HDACs and is the only member of the class IV HDAC family. Our studies examined the events that control the expression of the HDAC11 transcript. We show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) rapidly reduces the abundance of HDAC11 mRNA when added to density-arrested Balb/c-3T3 cells, which are nontransformed fibroblasts. Reduction required mRNA and protein synthesis, but not AKT or ERK activity, and resulted from accelerated turnover of the HDAC11 transcript. Reduction was transient in cells receiving PDGF alone but sustained in cells receiving both PDGF and platelet-poor plasma, which together promote G0/G1 traverse and S phase entry. Plasma alone did not appreciably reduce HDAC11 mRNA abundance, nor did epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, or insulin. HDAC11 mRNA accumulated in Balb/c-3T3 cells exiting the cell cycle due to density-dependent growth inhibition or serum deprivation. Of note, HDAC11 mRNA did not accumulate in a spontaneously transformed Balb/c-3T3 clonal variant (clone 2) that does not density arrest. The HDAC11 promoter was active in Balb/c-3T3 but not clone 2 cells; inactivity in clone 2 cells did not result from methylation of CpG islands. Overexpression of HDAC11 inhibited the cell cycle progression of both transformed and nontransformed fibroblasts. Our studies identify the HDAC11 transcript as a PDGF target and show that HDAC11 mRNA abundance correlates inversely with proliferative status. PMID:24047695

Bagui, Tapan K; Sharma, Savitha S; Ma, Le; Pledger, W Jack



An investigation of nutrient-dependent mRNA translation in Drosophila larvae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The larval period of the Drosophila life cycle is characterized by immense growth. In nutrient rich conditions, larvae increase in mass approximately two hundred-fold in five days. However, upon nutrient deprivation, growth is arrested. The prevailing view is that dietary amino acids drive this larval growth by activating the conserved insulin/PI3 kinase and Target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways and promoting anabolic metabolism. One key anabolic process is protein synthesis. However, few studies have attempted to measure mRNA translation during larval development or examine the signaling requirements for nutrient-dependent regulation. Our work addresses this issue. Using polysome analyses, we observed that starvation rapidly (within thirty minutes) decreased larval mRNA translation, with a maximal decrease at 6–18?hours. By analyzing individual genes, we observed that nutrient-deprivation led to a general reduction in mRNA translation, regardless of any starvation-mediated changes (increase or decrease) in total transcript levels. Although sugars and amino acids are key regulators of translation in animal cells and are the major macronutrients in the larval diet, we found that they alone were not sufficient to maintain mRNA translation in larvae. The insulin/PI3 kinase and TOR pathways are widely proposed as the main link between nutrients and mRNA translation in animal cells. However, we found that genetic activation of PI3K and TOR signaling, or regulation of two effectors – 4EBP and S6K – could not prevent the starvation-mediated translation inhibition. Similarly, we showed that the nutrient stress-activated eIF2? kinases, GCN2 and PERK, were not required for starvation-induced inhibition of translation in larvae. These findings indicate that nutrient control of mRNA translation in larvae is more complex than simply amino acid activation of insulin and TOR signaling. PMID:25305039

Nagarajan, Sabarish; Grewal, Savraj S.



The polyadenylation code: a unified model for the regulation of mRNA alternative polyadenylation*  

PubMed Central

The majority of eukaryotic genes produce multiple mRNA isoforms with distinct 3? ends through a process called mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA). Recent studies have demonstrated that APA is dynamically regulated during development and in response to environmental stimuli. A number of mechanisms have been described for APA regulation. In this review, we attempt to integrate all the known mechanisms into a unified model. This model not only explains most of previous results, but also provides testable predictions that will improve our understanding of the mechanistic details of APA regulation. Finally, we briefly discuss the known and putative functions of APA regulation. PMID:24793760

Davis, Ryan; Shi, Yongsheng



Signatures of Host mRNA 5? Terminus for Efficient Hantavirus Cap Snatching  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses, similarly to other negative-strand segmented RNA viruses, initiate the synthesis of translation-competent capped mRNAs by a unique cap-snatching mechanism. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) binds to host mRNA caps and requires four nucleotides adjacent to the 5? cap for high-affinity binding. N protects the 5? caps of cellular transcripts from degradation by the cellular decapping machinery. The rescued 5? capped mRNA fragments are stored in cellular P bodies by N, which are later efficiently used as primers by the hantaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for transcription initiation. We showed that N also protects the host mRNA caps in P-body-deficient cells. However, the rescued caps were not effectively used by the hantavirus RdRp during transcription initiation, suggesting that caps stored in cellular P bodies by N are preferred for cap snatching. We examined the characteristics of the 5? terminus of a capped test mRNA to delineate the minimum requirements for a capped transcript to serve as an efficient cap donor during hantavirus cap snatching. We showed that hantavirus RdRp preferentially snatches caps from the nonsense mRNAs compared to mRNAs engaged in translation. Hantavirus RdRp preferentially cleaves the cap donor mRNA at a G residue located 14 nucleotides downstream of the 5? cap. The sequence complementarity between the 3? terminus of viral genomic RNA and the nucleotides located in the vicinity of the cleavage site of the cap donor mRNA favors cap snatching. Our results show that hantavirus RdRp snatches caps from viral mRNAs. However, the negligible cap-donating efficiency of wild-type mRNAs in comparison to nonsense mRNAs suggests that viral mRNAs will not be efficiently used for cap snatching during viral infection due to their continuous engagement in protein synthesis. Our results suggest that efficiency of an mRNA to donate caps for viral mRNA synthesis is primarily regulated at the translational level. PMID:22787213

Cheng, Erdong



Engineering protein-responsive mRNA switch in mammalian cells.  


Engineering of translation provides an alternative regulatory layer for controlling transgene expression in addition to transcriptional regulation. Synthetic mRNA switches that modulate translation of a target gene of interest in response to an intracellular protein could be a key regulator to construct a genetic circuit. Insertion of a protein binding RNA sequence in the 5' UTR of mRNA would allow for the generation of a protein-responsive RNA switch. Here we describe the design principle of the switch and methods for tuning and analyzing its translational activity in mammalian cells. PMID:24549620

Endo, Kei; Saito, Hirohide



Increased mRNA accumulation in a psaB frame-shift mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggests a role for translation in psaB mRNA stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of mRNA stability is an important control in the differential accumulation of chloroplast mRNAs that occurs in response to developmental and environmental signals. The mechanism by which differential mRNA accumulation is achieved is unknown. We have examined mRNA accumulation in a chloroplast mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii previously shown to contain a single AT base-pair deletion in the psaB gene.

Ruohui Xu; Scott E. Bingham; Andrew N. Webber



A new regulatory pathway of mRNA export by an F-box protein, Mdm30.  


Mdm30, an F-box protein in yeast, has been recently shown to promote mRNA export. However, it remains unknown how Mdm30 facilitates mRNA export. Here, we show that Mdm30 targets the Sub2 component of the TREX (Transcription/Export) complex for ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Such a targeted degradation of Sub2 enhances the recruitment of the mRNA export adaptor, Yra1, to the active genes to promote mRNA export. Together, these results elucidate that Mdm30 promotes mRNA export by low