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Sample records for job control language

  1. Foreign Language Skills and Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Peter A.

    Students of foreign languages insist on seeing the evidence that foreign language skills have something to do with getting jobs in the "real world." Evidence is being ammassed which does show this to be true. Several studies have revealed that American firms are looking for qualified personnel who possess language skills. A survey was initiated at…

  2. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  3. Motivating English Language Teachers through Job Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    1992-01-01

    Hackman's (1987) job characteristics model of work motivation is described and applied to English language teaching, with concrete recommendations made on the basis of Hackman's action principles for job design. The approach results in teacher opportunities for long-term growth, career advancement, increased self-actualization, and empowerment.…

  4. LABCON - Laboratory Job Control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reams, L. T.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program LABCON controls the budget system in a component test laboratory whose workload is made up from many individual budget allocations. A common denominator is applied to an incoming job, to which all effort is charged and accounted for.

  5. Preparing Foreign Language Students for Today's Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan; Schrank, Holly L.

    College language teachers should become more aware of the needs of the job market and the specific ways that language majors can use their unique characteristics to satisfy those needs. Then students must be made aware of this information. The principles of marketing can be used to examine job requirements. Steps in applying these principles…

  6. The Influence of Neutral Gender Words on Translating Job Titles from English Language into Arabic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubaideen, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…

  7. Job demands × job control interaction effects: do occupation-specific job demands increase their occurrence?

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Biggs, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects and job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the inclusion of generic job demands. This research tested these two propositions via a self-report survey assessing key psychological job characteristics administered twice to a sample of correctional workers (N = 746). The research clearly identified that the assessment of correctional-specific job demands (CJD) was more strongly associated with job satisfaction, work engagement, turnover intentions and psychological strain, as compared with an assessment of generic job demands. However, the CJD did not produce a greater proportion of significant job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the generic job demands measure. The results thereby provide further support for the acknowledged 'elusiveness' of these theoretical interactions. Overall, however, the results did support the inclusion of occupation-specific measures of job demands for the accurate assessment of the health and job performance of high-risk workers. The implications for theoretical discussions that describe how high job demands are moderated by job resources are discussed. PMID:24123665

  8. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  9. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  10. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  11. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  12. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  13. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored. PMID:20582720

  14. Teaching Job-Related English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy E.

    One program model for limited English proficient (LEP) adults incorporating job-related English as an important component is bilingual vocational education, authorized by the federal Vocational Education Act. Its objective is to make LEP adults more employable by teaching them both English and job skills. Such a project uses a team of two…

  15. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  16. Job stress and job satisfaction and their relation to neuroticism, type a behavior, and locus of control among Kuwaiti personnel.

    PubMed

    Al-Mashaan, O S

    2001-06-01

    The present study examined job stress and job satisfaction and their relation to measures of neuroticism, Type A behavior, and I-E locus of control as well as sex differences among Kuwaiti men (n= 189) and women (n = 210) employees. Women had significantly higher means on scales of job stress, neuroticism, and external locus of control, while men scored significantly higher on job satisfaction. Analysis yielded significant and positive correlations of job stress with neuroticism and locus of control of both men and women. Job satisfacrion scores correlated significantly but negatively with external locus of control for both sexes, while job satisfaction had a positive correlation with Type A behavior for women only. The significant correlation between job stress and job satisfaction was negative. PMID:11597069

  17. Bilingual Control: Sequential Memory in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2013-01-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments,…

  18. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  19. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  20. Job Grading Standard for Electric Power Controller WG-5407.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisory jobs involved in controlling the generation or distribution of electric power. The jobs are located at power generating plants, power distribution centers, and substations. The work requires ability to anticipate load changes due to work schedules, weather, and other variables, in order to engage or cut…

  1. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  2. The role of acceptance and job control in mental health, job satisfaction, and work performance.

    PubMed

    Bond, Frank W; Bunce, David

    2003-12-01

    Acceptance, the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and physiological sensations without having to control them or let them determine one's actions, is a major individual determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in a more recent theory of psychopathology. This 2-wave panel study examined the ability of acceptance also to explain mental health, job satisfaction, and performance in the work domain. The authors hypothesized that acceptance would predict these 3 outcomes 1 year later in a sample of customer service center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 412). Results indicated that acceptance predicted mental health and an objective measure of performance over and above job control, negative affectivity, and locus of control. These beneficial effects of having more job control were enhanced when people had higher levels of acceptance. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical relevance of this individual characteristic to occupational health and performance. PMID:14640816

  3. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  4. English on the Job, Language Arts: 5113.31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bonnie

    An exploration of basic language and communication skills is the subject matter of this course. Performance objectives for the student include: (1) recognition of employment-related words, (2) satisfactory completion of various application forms, (3) correct oral response to questions, (4) identification of basic facts about social security, labor…

  5. Teacher Pupil Control Ideology--Behavior Congruence and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.; Heckert, J. Wayne

    The hypothesis that teacher pupil control ideology-behavior congruence would be positively related to teacher job satisfaction was tested. The rationale for the hypothesis was that teachers whose beliefs and behaviors concerning pupil control were consistent would be likely to be contented with their work. Pupil control was seen as a central…

  6. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation. PMID:22269573

  7. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems. PMID:19493298

  8. Expert ratings of job demand and job control as predictors of injury and musculoskeletal disorder risk in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Methods Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Results Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Conclusions Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. PMID:26163544

  9. Natural language interface for command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  10. Bilingual control: sequential memory in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M; Koch, Iring

    2013-11-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments, sequential responses (i.e., weekdays, numbers or new sequences) and an alternating language sequence (e.g., L1-L1-L2-L2) were implemented, both of which were memory based. Our data revealed switch costs, showing that a language switch is associated with worse performance compared with a language repetition, and mixing costs, which constitutes the performance difference between pure and mixed language blocks, even while producing entirely predictable responses (i.e., language and concept). Additionally, we found these switch costs with overlearned and new sequences and found that switch costs were reduced with longer preparation time. The obtained data are consistent with a proactive interference account, such as the inhibitory control model. PMID:23773181

  11. Executive Control in Bilingual Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Fornells, A.; Balaguer, R. De Deigo; Munte, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known in cognitive neuroscience about the brain mechanisms and brain representations involved in bilingual language processing. On the basis of previous studies on switching and bilingualism, it has been proposed that executive functions are engaged in the control and regulation of the languages in use. Here, we review the existing…

  12. Effects of locus of control, occupational stress, and psychological distress on job satisfaction among nurses.

    PubMed

    Jain, V K; Lall, R; McLaughlin, D G; Johnson, W B

    1996-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of locus of control, occupational stress, and psychological symptom distress on reported job satisfaction in a sample of 34 practicing nurses. As predicted, greater work-related stress and higher psychological symptom distress were significantly negatively correlated with job satisfaction. External locus of control was also negatively associated with job satisfaction. PMID:8816047

  13. Relationships of job demand, job control, and social support on intention to leave and depressive symptoms in Japanese nurses

    PubMed Central

    SAIJO, Yasuaki; YOSHIOKA, Eiji; KAWANISHI, Yasuyuki; NAKAGI, Yoshihiko; ITOH, Toshihiro; YOSHIDA, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the relationships among the factors of the demand-control-support model (DCS) on the intention to leave a hospital job and depressive symptoms. Participants included 1,063 nurses. Job demand, job control, and support from supervisors were found to be significantly related to both the intention to leave and depressive symptoms. Based on the odds ratios per 1 SD change in the DCS factors, low support from supervisors was found to be most related to the intention to leave, and low job control was found to be most related to depressive symptoms. In models that did not include “job demand” as an independent variable, 60-h working weeks were found to have a significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. Support from supervisors is more important in preventing intention to leave and depressive symptoms among nurses than is support from co-workers. Improving job control and avoiding long working hours may be important to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:26320733

  14. Language Fluency and the Evaluation of Cultural Faux Pas: Russians Interviewing for Jobs in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinsky, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    How are nonnatives evaluated when committing cultural faux pas, and how does their fluency in the language of the foreign culture affect the evaluation of their culturally inappropriate behavior? I address these questions in the context of Russian professionals learning to interview for jobs in the United States, an arena of strong cultural…

  15. 78 FR 42803 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health... Administration is soliciting comments regarding gathering Job Corps application data collection forms (OMB Control No. 1205-0033, expires 1/31/2014): ETA Form 653, Job Corps Health Questionnaire. DATES:...

  16. Control Mechanisms in Bilingual Language Production: Neural Evidence from Language Switching Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Green, David

    2008-01-01

    A key question in bilingual language production research is how bilingual individuals control the use of their two languages. The psycholinguistic literature concerning language control is unresolved. It is a matter of controversy whether (a) issues to do with control are central to understanding bilingual language processing; and (b) if they are,…

  17. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual. PMID:25077013

  18. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-08-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual. PMID:25077013

  19. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  20. Whole-Language and Item-Specific Control in Bilingual Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64…

  1. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions. PMID:26138706

  2. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  3. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  4. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  5. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  6. The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model: an experimental examination.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model [Karasek, R. A. 1979. "Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign." Administration Science Quarterly 24: 285-307] proposes positive effects of high job demands and high job control on performance. We conducted a 2 (demands: high vs. low) × 2 (control: high vs. low) experimental office workplace simulation to examine this hypothesis. Since performance during a work simulation is confounded by the boundaries of the demands and control manipulations (e.g. time limits), we used a post-test, in which participants continued working at their task, but without any manipulation of demands and control. This post-test allowed for examining active learning (transfer) effects in an unconfounded fashion. Our results revealed that high demands had a positive effect on quantitative performance, without affecting task accuracy. In contrast, high control resulted in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, that is participants in the high control conditions worked slower but with greater accuracy than participants in the low control conditions. PMID:24274148

  7. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (χ2) test and hypothesis test (η) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (χ2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were χ2 = 85.652 and χ2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing

  8. 75 FR 51484 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and Assistance... comments concerning the collection of data about Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record [OMB Control No. 1205- 0035, expires 09/30/2010]: ETA 678 form, Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record. ETA form...

  9. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work. PMID:25825355

  10. Whole-language and item-specific control in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-11-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) on a verbal fluency task in which speakers produced members of letter (or phoneme for Chinese) categories first in 1 language and then members of either (a) the same categories or (b) different categories in their other language. Chinese-English bilinguals also named pictures in both languages. Both bilingual groups showed reduced dominant language fluency after producing exemplars from the same categories in the nondominant language, whereas nondominant language production was not influenced by prior production of words from the same categories in the other language. Chinese-English, but not Dutch-English, bilinguals exhibited similar testing order effects for different letter/phoneme categories. In addition, Chinese-English bilinguals who exhibited significant testing order effects in the repeated categories condition of the fluency task exhibited no such effects when naming repeated pictures after a language switch. These results imply multiple levels of inhibitory control in bilingual language production. Testing order effects in the verbal fluency task pinpoint a lexical locus of bilingual control, and the finding of interference effects for some bilinguals even when different categories are tested across languages further implies a whole-language control process, although the ability to exert such global inhibition may only develop for some types of bilinguals. PMID:23647380

  11. The Effects of Job Demands and Low Job Control on Work-Family Conflict: The Role of Fairness in Decision Making and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkarinen, Laura; Sinervo, Timo; Kouvonen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether perceptions of organizational fairness (the procedural and interactional components) were able to diminish the negative effects of high job demands and low job control on the balance between work and family. The study participants were 713 women working in long-term care for elderly people in Finland. The results…

  12. Multiple Levels of Bilingual Language Control: Evidence from Language Intrusions in Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Gomez, Joanne; Murillo, Mayra; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals rarely produce words in an unintended language. However, we induced such intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of he) in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals who read aloud language-selective and language-mixed paragraphs with English or Spanish word order. Bilinguals produced language intrusions almost exclusively in language-mixed paragraphs, and most often when attempting to produce dominant-language targets (accent-only errors also exhibited reversed language dominance effects). Most intrusion errors occurred for function word targets, especially when they did not match paragraph language word order. Eye movements showed that fixating a word in the non-target language increased intrusion errors only for function word targets. Together, these results imply multiple mechanisms of language control, including (a) inhibition of the dominant language at both lexical (Green, 1998) and sublexical processing levels, (b) special retrieval mechanisms for function words in mixed-language utterances (Myers-Scotton, 1993), and (c) attention’s role in monitoring target language for match with intended language. PMID:24367061

  13. Job strain and determinants in staff working in institutions for people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan: a test of the Job Demand-Control-Support model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered questionnaire. The outcome variable (high-strain job) was evaluated. The explanatory variables were: worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environment evaluated according to Karasek's Job Demand-Control-Support model. The results show that many staff characteristics were correlated with job strain, such as staff's working hours, age, gender, job title, educational level, religion, in-job training, working years in disability institutions and Effort-Reward Imbalance factors. Organization factors, such as geographical, institutional ownership and accreditation performance and size were also correlated with staff's job strain. In multiple a logistic regression model of the job strain, we found that the factors of financial reward (high compare to low, OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.928-0.975), extrinsic effort (high compare to low, OR=1.072, 95% CI=1.072-1.158), perceived job stress (sometimes stressful compare to no stress, OR=2.305, 95% CI=1.161-4.575; very stressful compare to no stress, OR=3.931, 95% CI=1.738-8.893) of the staff were significantly correlated to the high job strain of the staff. An important focus of future research should be extending the findings to consider the factors to affect the high job strain to improve the well-being for staff working for people with intellectual disability. PMID:18434088

  14. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  15. 75 FR 51485 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health Questionnaire... collection of data about Job Corps Health Questionnaire, Form ETA 6-53 which expires on 10/31/2010. A copy of..., Office of Job Corps, Room N-4507, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210. Telephone...

  16. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  17. "It's Not My Job": K-12 Teacher Attitudes toward Students' Heritage Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Oxelson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' attitudes towards their students' heritage language maintenance and their engagement in classroom practices that may or may not affirm the value of maintaining and developing heritage languages among students. Through surveys and interviews with K-12 teachers in California public schools, the data show that the…

  18. Integrating Technology into Minority Language Preservation and Teaching Efforts: An Inside Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights a pilot study that attempts to implement technology in an appropriate manner and to surmount problems faced by out-group language researchers by training an in-group member, in this case a speaker of Navajo, in the methodology and technology necessary for recording and preserving her heritage language. Discusses the role of computer and…

  19. Foreign Language Skills and Academic Library Job Announcements: A Survey and Trends Analysis, 1966-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2008-01-01

    This study examines academic and research librarian positions that require foreign language skills. Technical and public services are most likely to require language knowledge, while administrator and system librarian positions are the least likely. Overall, the requirements show a continued rise until the mid-1980s and a declining trend after…

  20. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    PubMed

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24916812

  1. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection.

    PubMed

    Branzi, Francesca M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Canini, Matteo; Costa, Albert; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2016-06-01

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control. PMID:25838037

  2. Burnout and Workload Among Health Care Workers: The Moderating Role of Job Control

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Finco, Gabriele; Campagna, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Background As health care workers face a wide range of psychosocial stressors, they are at a high risk of developing burnout syndrome, which in turn may affect hospital outcomes such as the quality and safety of provided care. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating effect of job control on the relationship between workload and burnout. Methods A total of 352 hospital workers from five Italian public hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure exhaustion, cynicism, job control, and workload. Data were collected in 2013. Results In contrast to previous studies, the results of this study supported the moderation effect of job control on the relationship between workload and exhaustion. Furthermore, the results found support for the sequential link from exhaustion to cynicism. Conclusion This study showed the importance for hospital managers to carry out management practices that promote job control and provide employees with job resources, in order to reduce the burnout risk. PMID:25379330

  3. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  4. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  5. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  6. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors ('decision latitude' and 'job demands') for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of 'very often' and 'always' for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach's α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65-0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25-0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  7. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors (‘decision latitude’ and ‘job demands’) for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of ‘very often’ and ‘always’ for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach’s α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65–0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25–0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  8. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  9. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals’ mouse-movements were attracted to native-language competitors, while bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly-learned language. PMID:22462514

  10. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. PMID:22462514

  11. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  12. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  13. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  14. Speech and Language Therapy Under an Automated Stimulus Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Edgar Ray

    Programed instruction for speech and language therapy, based upon stimulus control programing and presented by a completely automated teaching machine, was evaluated with 32 mentally retarded children, 20 children with language disorders (childhood aphasia), six adult aphasics, and 60 normal elementary school children. Posttesting with the…

  15. Computer Science and Technology: Common Command Language for File Manipulation and Network Job Execution: An Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, M. L.

    Recognizing that the use of resource sharing capabilities provided by computer networks is inhibited by the requirement that the user become familiar with the varied command languages and protocols of each accessed system, this report presents a general approach to solving the problem using an intermediary system to support a set of common…

  16. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  17. The Right Tool for the Job: Techniques for Analysis of Natural Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Georgia M.

    A variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing information about the natural use of natural languages is surveyed, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the properties of a research task that make a given technique more or less suitable to it rather than comparing techniques globally and ranking them absolutely. An initial goal is to…

  18. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  19. The Collective Good: Unionization, Perceived Control, and Overall Job Satisfaction among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Joann E.; Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper follow up a recent study by the authors on perceived control by examining what role working in a union or nonunion college has in influencing faculty job satisfaction. Using data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this study explored the relative importance of variables,…

  20. Comprehensive Erosion and Sediment Control Training Program for Job Superintendents and Inspectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Harry L., Jr.

    One of two training program texts built around the Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Law and Program, this guide presents a program designed to meet the needs of job superintendents and inspectors. (The other guide, containing a program for engineers, architects, and planners, was designed to train professional people who need engineering and…

  1. Language control and parallel recovery of language in individuals with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Grogan, Alice; Crinion, Jenny; Ali, Nilufa; Sutton, Catherine; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The causal basis of the different patterns of language recovery following stroke in bilingual speakers is not well understood. Our approach distinguishes the representation of language from the mechanisms involved in its control. Previous studies have suggested that difficulties in language control can explain selective aphasia in one language as well as pathological switching between languages. Here we test the hypothesis that difficulties in managing and resolving competition will also be observed in those who are equally impaired in both their languages even in the absence of pathological switching. Aims: To examine difficulties in language control in bilingual individuals with parallel recovery in aphasia and to compare their performance on different types of conflict task. Methods & Procedures: Two right-handed, non-native English-speaking participants who showed parallel recovery of two languages after stroke and a group of non-native English-speaking, bilingual controls described a scene in English and in their first language and completed three explicit conflict tasks. Two of these were verbal conflict tasks: a lexical decision task in English, in which individuals distinguished English words from non-words, and a Stroop task, in English and in their first language. The third conflict task was a non-verbal flanker task. Outcomes & Results: Both participants with aphasia were impaired in the picture description task in English and in their first language but showed different patterns of impairment on the conflict tasks. For the participant with left subcortical damage, conflict was abnormally high during the verbal tasks (lexical decision and Stroop) but not during the non-verbal flanker task. In contrast, for the participant with extensive left parietal damage, conflict was less abnormal during the Stroop task than the flanker or lexical decision task. Conclusions: Our data reveal two distinct control impairments associated with parallel

  2. Numerical Control Associated Jobs: State-Wide Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, J. B.; Christensen, Harold

    In order to get a better view of the demand for secondary trained numerical control personnel and upgraded adult machinists, a questionnaire was sent to machine shops throughout the State of Oklahoma. The questionnaire was designed to show the present level of employment of numerical control personnel, the anticipated use of retraining facilities,…

  3. Job Stress and Locus of Control in Teachers: Comparisons between Samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived…

  4. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  5. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  6. Multifamily Quality Control Inspector Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Quality Control Inspector JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily quality control inspectors, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  7. Functional description of a command and control language tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.

  8. OCCULT-ORSER complete conversational user-language translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Young, K.

    1981-01-01

    Translator program (OCCULT) assists non-computer-oriented users in setting up and submitting jobs for complex ORSER system. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data. OCCULT is designed for those who would like to use ORSER but cannot justify acquiring and maintaining necessary proficiency in Remote Job Entry Language, Job Control Language, and control-card formats. OCCULT is written in FORTRAN IV and OS Assembler for interactive execution.

  9. The right posterior paravermis and the control of language interference

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Roberto; Richardson, Fiona M.; Dick, Frederic; Leech, Robert; Green, David W.; Thomas, Michael S.C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Auditory and written language in humans' comprehension necessitates attention to the message of interest and suppression of interference from distracting sources. Investigating the brain areas associated with the control of interference is challenging because it is inevitable that activation of the brain regions that control interference co-occurs with activation related to interference per se. To isolate the mechanisms that control verbal interference, we used a combination of structural and functional imaging techniques in Italian and German participants who spoke English as a second language. First, we searched structural MRI images of Italian participants for brain regions where brain structure correlated with the ability to suppress interference from the unattended dominant language (Italian) while processing heard sentences in their weaker language (English). This revealed an area in the posterior paravermis of the right cerebellum where grey matter density was higher in individuals who were better at controlling verbal interference. Second, we found functional activation in the same region when our German participants made semantic decisions on written English words in the presence of interference from unrelated words in their dominant language (German). This combination of structural and functional imaging therefore highlights the contribution of the right posterior paravermis to the control of verbal interference. We suggest that the importance of this region for language processing has previously been missed because most fMRI studies limit the field of view to increase sensitivity; with the lower part of the cerebellum being the most likely region to be excluded. PMID:21775616

  10. Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Giezen, Marcel R; Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Emmorey, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Findings from recent studies suggest that spoken-language bilinguals engage nonlinguistic inhibitory control mechanisms to resolve cross-linguistic competition during auditory word recognition. Bilingual advantages in inhibitory control might stem from the need to resolve perceptual competition between similar-sounding words both within and between their two languages. If so, these advantages should be lessened or eliminated when there is no perceptual competition between two languages. The present study investigated the extent of inhibitory control recruitment during bilingual language comprehension by examining associations between language co-activation and nonlinguistic inhibitory control abilities in bimodal bilinguals, whose two languages do not perceptually compete. Cross-linguistic distractor activation was identified in the visual world paradigm, and correlated significantly with performance on a nonlinguistic spatial Stroop task within a group of 27 hearing ASL-English bilinguals. Smaller Stroop effects (indexing more efficient inhibition) were associated with reduced co-activation of ASL signs during the early stages of auditory word recognition. These results suggest that inhibitory control in auditory word recognition is not limited to resolving perceptual linguistic competition in phonological input, but is also used to moderate competition that originates at the lexico-semantic level. PMID:25912892

  11. Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Emmorey, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Findings from recent studies suggest that spoken-language bilinguals engage nonlinguistic inhibitory control mechanisms to resolve cross-linguistic competition during auditory word recognition. Bilingual advantages in inhibitory control might stem from the need to resolve perceptual competition between similar-sounding words both within and between their two languages. If so, these advantages should be lessened or eliminated when there is no perceptual competition between two languages. The present study investigated the extent of inhibitory control recruitment during bilingual language comprehension by examining associations between language co-activation and nonlinguistic inhibitory control abilities in bimodal bilinguals, whose two languages do not perceptually compete. Cross-linguistic distractor activation was identified in the visual world paradigm, and correlated significantly with performance on a nonlinguistic spatial Stroop task within a group of 27 hearing ASL-English bilinguals. Smaller Stroop effects (indexing more efficient inhibition) were associated with reduced co-activation of ASL signs during the early stages of auditory word recognition. These results suggest that the role of inhibitory control in auditory word recognition is not limited to resolving perceptual linguistic competition in phonological input, but is also used to moderate competition that originates at the lexico-semantic level. PMID:25912892

  12. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  13. Low job control and myocardial infarction risk in the occupational categories of Kaunas men, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskiene, V; Theorell, T; Grazuleviciene, R; Malinauskas, R; Azaraviciene, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of first myocardial infarction in the occupational categories of Kaunas men, Lithuania. Design: The analysis was based upon a case-control study among full time working men in the general population of Kaunas. Outcome measure: First non-fatal myocardial infarction diagnosed in 2001–2002. The Swedish version of the demand-control questionnaire was used to examine the effect of job control and demands. Setting: Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania, a former socialist country in a transition market economy. Participants: Cases were 203 men 25–64 years of age with a first non-fatal myocardial infarction and controls were 287 men group randomly selected from the study base. Main results: Low job control had a significant effect on myocardial infarction risk in the general 25–64 year old Kaunas male population (OR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.68 to 4.28) after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status. Low job control was a risk factor in the occupational categories of the increased myocardial infarction risk (1st occupational category—legislators, senior officials and managers and the 8th—plant and machine operators and assemblers; OR = 2.78; 95% CI 1.31 to 5.93 and 2.72; 95% CI 1.56 to 4.89, respectively, after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status). Though the adjusted odds ratio estimates were significantly high for the rest of the occupational categories (2nd—professionals, 3rd—technicians and associate professionals, and 7th—craft and related trades workers). Conclusions: The association between low job control and first myocardial infarction risk was significant for all occupational categories of Kaunas men. PMID:14729894

  14. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  15. NODAL — The second life of the accelerator control language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisinier, G.; Perriollat, F.; Ribeiro, P.; Kagarmanov, A.; Kovaltsov, V.

    1994-12-01

    NODAL has been a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 1970s. NODAL has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of NODAL, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this is discussed, in particular in a view of the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources.

  16. Job control mediates change in a work reorganization intervention for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bond, F W; Bunce, D

    2001-10-01

    This longitudinal, quasi-experiment tested whether a work reorganization intervention can improve stress-related outcomes by increasing people's job control. To this end, the authors used a participative action research (PAR) intervention that had the goal of reorganizing work to increase the extent to which people had discretion and choice in their work. Results indicated that the PAR intervention significantly improved people's mental health, sickness absence rates, and self-rated performance at a 1-year follow-up. Consistent with occupational health psychology theories, increase in job control served as the mechanism, or mediator, by which these improvements occurred. Discussion focuses on the need to understand the mechanisms by which work reorganization interventions affect change. PMID:11605824

  17. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  18. HyperTechnic--A Graphic Object-Orientated Control Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Peter

    The fundamental problem for control languages is that they must be able to deal with the simultaneous actions of multiple objects. Accordingly, it is the basic premise of the HyperTechnic system that it is easier for children to view control problems in terms of relationships between multiple agents, rather than as one agent responding to a…

  19. Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English (L1)…

  20. The Language of Numerical Control: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton Paul

    Numerical control, a technique for automatically controlling equipment, is a system in which machine actions are determined by symbolic data recorded on a suitable media. This glossary of standardized nomenclature for numerical control defines and describes some 286 technical words and terms. Numerous entries are defined and described as they…

  1. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  2. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea. PMID:27366000

  3. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea. PMID:27366000

  4. Language as a Means of Social Control: The United States Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arnold H.

    Language is defined here as a means of social control, a viewpoint by which language restrictions can be seen as a method of discriminating against speakers of minority languages. A government designates an official language to restrict access to economic and political power. This view of language is substantiated by an analysis of the United…

  5. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  6. The EFL/ESL Job Search Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Adelaide, Ed.

    This handbook offers step-by-step advice to teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) for job searchers entering the job market and finding and accepting a job in the field. The goal is to find a job that matches the searcher's interests, skills, goals, and preparation with those of the employer. Topics…

  7. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  8. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  9. Low job control is associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men with mildly elevated blood pressure: the Rosai Karoshi study.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tomomi; Munakata, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Job strain is a risk factor for hypertension, but it is not fully understood if components of job strain, or job demand or job control per se could be related to blood pressure (BP), and if so, whether the relationship differs between normotension and mildly elevated BP. We examined resting BP, and job stress components in 113 Japanese male hospital clerks (38.1 ± 4.4 yr). Subjects were classified into normotensive (NT) (<130/85 mmHg, n=83) and mildly elevated BP (ME) (≥130/85 mmHg) groups. Diastolic BP (DBP) showed a significant interaction between group and job control level (p=0.013). Subjects with low job control demonstrated higher DBP than those with high job control (89.1 ± 2.1 vs. 82.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, p=0.042) in ME group even after adjustments for covariates while DBP did not differ between low and high job control subjects in NT group. Systolic BP (SBP) did not differ between high and low job control subjects in both groups. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between high and low demand groups in either group. Among job strain components, job control may be independently related to BP in Japanese male workers with mildly elevated BP. PMID:25914072

  10. Low job control is associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men with mildly elevated blood pressure: the Rosai Karoshi study

    PubMed Central

    HATTORI, Tomomi; MUNAKATA, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Job strain is a risk factor for hypertension, but it is not fully understood if components of job strain, or job demand or job control per se could be related to blood pressure (BP), and if so, whether the relationship differs between normotension and mildly elevated BP. We examined resting BP, and job stress components in 113 Japanese male hospital clerks (38.1 ± 4.4 yr). Subjects were classified into normotensive (NT) (<130/85 mmHg, n=83) and mildly elevated BP (ME) (≥130/85 mmHg) groups. Diastolic BP (DBP) showed a significant interaction between group and job control level (p=0.013). Subjects with low job control demonstrated higher DBP than those with high job control (89.1 ± 2.1 vs. 82.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, p=0.042) in ME group even after adjustments for covariates while DBP did not differ between low and high job control subjects in NT group. Systolic BP (SBP) did not differ between high and low job control subjects in both groups. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between high and low demand groups in either group. Among job strain components, job control may be independently related to BP in Japanese male workers with mildly elevated BP. PMID:25914072

  11. Control of Task Sequences: What Is the Role of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner-Canucci, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized,…

  12. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H

    2016-05-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, even though studies have consistently found that switching slows responses? In previous work, researchers have not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches-including those typically studied in laboratory experiments-might be costly. Using a repeated picture-naming task, we found that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed. PMID:27016240

  13. Modular fuzzy-neuro controller driven by spoken language commands.

    PubMed

    Pulasinghe, Koliya; Watanabe, Keigo; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    2004-02-01

    We present a methodology of controlling machines using spoken language commands. The two major problems relating to the speech interfaces for machines, namely, the interpretation of words with fuzzy implications and the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in natural conversation, are investigated. The system proposed in this paper is designed to overcome the above two problems in controlling machines using spoken language commands. The present system consists of a hidden Markov model (HMM) based automatic speech recognizer (ASR), with a keyword spotting system to capture the machine sensitive words from the running utterances and a fuzzy-neural network (FNN) based controller to represent the words with fuzzy implications in spoken language commands. Significance of the words, i.e., the contextual meaning of the words according to the machine's current state, is introduced to the system to obtain more realistic output equivalent to users' desire. Modularity of the system is also considered to provide a generalization of the methodology for systems having heterogeneous functions without diminishing the performance of the system. The proposed system is experimentally tested by navigating a mobile robot in real time using spoken language commands. PMID:15369072

  14. CLOnE: Controlled Language for Ontology Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Adam; Tablan, Valentin; Bontcheva, Kalina; Cunningham, Hamish; Davis, Brian; Handschuh, Siegfried

    This paper presents a controlled language for ontology editing and a software implementation, based partly on standard NLP tools, for processing that language and manipulating an ontology. The input sentences are analysed deterministically and compositionally with respect to a given ontology, which the software consults in order to interpret the input's semantics; this allows the user to learn fewer syntactic structures since some of them can be used to refer to either classes or instances, for example. A repeated-measures, task-based evaluation has been carried out in comparison with a well-known ontology editor; our software received favourable results for basic tasks. The paper also discusses work in progress and future plans for developing this language and tool.

  15. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  16. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  17. Programs and resources for control of job stress in the Federal workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joice, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago, the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health held a conference in Washingtion, D.C. entitled 'Stress in the 90's'. At this conference the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) conducted a session on 'Programs and Resources for the Control of Job Stress in the Federal Workplace'. I am going to present an overview of that three-hour session and some related information from the conference. My discussion covers stress terminology and models, selected programs and resources, evaluation research, some concerns about our progress, and plans to expand our efforts at OPM.

  18. The Minimum Requirements of Language Control: Evidence from Sequential Predictability Effects in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and…

  19. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  20. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  1. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers. PMID:24868121

  2. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers. PMID:24868121

  3. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  4. Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina: Examination of the Job Control-Demand-Support Model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Nguyen, Ha T; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Summers, Phillip; Walker, Francis O; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Sleep problems are associated with physical and mental health disorders and place individuals at an increased risk of workplace injuries. The demand-control-support model posits that job demands and the capacity to control work processes influence workers' level of distress, thereby affecting their physical and mental health; supervisor support can buffer the negative effect of high demands and low control. Data on the sleep quality and the organization of work of Latino men were collected in agricultural areas in North Carolina in 2012. 147 Mexican-born farmworkers ages 30 and older, most of whom had H-2A visas, provided information about sleep quality and organization of work. Most (83 %) farmworkers reported good sleep quality. The association between working more than 40 h per week and reporting poor sleep quality approached statistical significance. Additional research is needed to understand whether job demands, job control, and social support affect farmworkers' sleep quality. PMID:26143366

  5. The minimum requirements of language control: evidence from sequential predictability effects in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-03-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and stimuli. The other paradigm implements a fixed sequence of languages and/or concepts to measure predictable language switching. Four experiments that used these 2 paradigms showed that switch costs were smaller when both the language and concept were predictably known, whereas no overall switch cost reduction was found when just the language or concept was predictable. These results indicate that knowing both language and concept (i.e., response) can resolve language interference. However, interference resolution does not start solely based on the knowledge of which concept or language one has to produce. We discuss how existent models should be revised to accommodate these results. PMID:24999708

  6. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  7. Job Satisfaction of the Public School Teacher, A Function of Subculture Consensus with Respect to Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuskiewicz, Vincent D.; Donaldson, William S.

    This empirical study evaluated several factors believed to be related to job satisfaction: teachers' own attitudes toward pupil control, teachers' perceptions of their colleagues and, principals' attitudes toward pupil control. Coefficients of correlation,, t-tests of selected variables, and multivariate regression techniques were used in testing…

  8. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  9. Applying Standard Interfaces to a Process-Control Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    A method of applying open-operating-system standard interfaces to the NASA User Interface Language (UIL) has been devised. UIL is a computing language that can be used in monitoring and controlling automated processes: for example, the Timeliner computer program, written in UIL, is a general-purpose software system for monitoring and controlling sequences of automated tasks in a target system. In providing the major elements of connectivity between UIL and the target system, the present method offers advantages over the prior method. Most notably, unlike in the prior method, the software description of the target system can be made independent of the applicable compiler software and need not be linked to the applicable executable compiler image. Also unlike in the prior method, it is not necessary to recompile the source code and relink the source code to a new executable compiler image. Abstraction of the description of the target system to a data file can be defined easily, with intuitive syntax, and knowledge of the source-code language is not needed for the definition.

  10. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Method Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9–12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. Results The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Conclusions Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types. PMID:26262428

  11. Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, HeeJoo; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Yeon Jin; Bae, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    We used the job-demand-control model to answer our two research questions concerning the effects of working conditions on self-rated health and gender differences and the association between these working conditions and health among Korean manual workers. Since a disproportionate representation of women in nonstandard work positions is found in many countries, including Korea, it is important to examine how working conditions explain gender inequality in health. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and analyzed a total sample of 1,482 men and 1,350 women using logistic regression. We found that job control was positively related to self-rated health, while both physical and mental job demands were negatively related to self-rated health. We also found significant interaction effects of job demands, control, and gender on health. Particularly, female workers' health was more vulnerable to mentally demanding job conditions. We discussed theoretical and practice implications based on these findings. PMID:25424487

  12. QPA-CLIPS: A language and representation for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    QPA-CLIPS is an extension of CLIPS oriented towards process control applications. Its constructs define a dependency network of process actions driven by sensor information. The language consists of three basic constructs: TASK, SENSOR, and FILTER. TASK's define the dependency network describing alternative state transitions for a process. SENSOR's and FILTER's define sensor information sources used to activate state transitions within the network. Deftemplate's define these constructs and their run-time environment is an interpreter knowledge base, performing pattern matching on sensor information and so activating TASK's in the dependency network. The pattern matching technique is based on the repeatable occurrence of a sensor data pattern. QPA-CIPS has been successfully tested on a SPARCStation providing supervisory control to an Allen-Bradley PLC 5 controller driving molding equipment.

  13. Job characteristics and safety climate: the role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; Malley, Christine; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-07-01

    While safety climate is widely recognized as a key influence on organizational safety, there remain questions about the nature of its antecedents. One potential influence on safety climate is job characteristics (that is, psychosocial features of the work environment). This study investigated the relationship between two job characteristics models--demand-control-support (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist, 1996)--and safety climate. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 860 British retail pharmacists, using the job contents questionnaire (JCQ), effort-reward imbalance indicator (ERI) and a measure of safety climate in pharmacies. Multivariate data analyses found that: (a) both models contributed to the prediction of safety climate ratings, with the demand-control-support model making the largest contribution; (b) there were some interactions between demand, control and support from the JCQ in the prediction of safety climate scores. The latter finding suggests the presence of "active learning" with respect to safety improvement in high demand, high control settings. The findings provide further insight into the ways in which job characteristics relate to safety, both individually and at an aggregated level. PMID:22746367

  14. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim

    2013-10-01

    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain. PMID:24099165

  15. Comparison of stress, job satisfaction, perception of control, and health among district nurses in Stockholm and prewar Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Tholdy Doncevic, S; Romelsjö, A; Theorell, T

    1998-06-01

    The increasing number of studies of stress among nurses in the last two decades have mainly dealt with nurses in hospitals. A few studies have included community-based nurses. However, no comparative studies of district nurses in different countries have been published. We have conducted a study to identify sources of stress, job satisfaction, perceived demands, control and health among district nurses (DNs) in Zagreb (Croatia) and Stockholm (Sweden), working in a polyvalent health care organization. Data were obtained regarding altogether 305 district nurses by means of self-administered questionnaires using identical methods and items, with response rates between 88% and 95%. In general, district nurses reported high levels of job-related stress, satisfaction and control. Organizational sources of stress, such as ongoing changes in the primary care organization, and reorganization of tasks, were of importance for the district nurses in Stockholm. They reported also more job satisfaction and commitment than the district nurses in Zagreb. The district nurses in Zagreb had significantly higher level of "lack of resources". They displayed significantly higher scores of psychological demands but also a greater feeling of control than the district nurses in Stockholm. Significant differences were also found between the groups in ranking of self-reported stressors. Thus results show that differences in work organization and in essential resources have a substantial impact of perceived stress, job satisfaction, and on the generality both of single association and on the applications of models. PMID:9658509

  16. On the overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general executive control.

    PubMed

    Branzi, Francesca M; Calabria, Marco; Boscarino, Maria Lucrezia; Costa, Albert

    2016-05-01

    We explored the overlap between bilingual language control (bLC) and domain-general executive control (EC) by focusing on inhibitory control processes. We tested 62 bilinguals in linguistic and non-linguistic switching tasks for two types of costs, such as the n-1 shift cost and the n-2 repetition cost. In order to explore the involvement of inhibitory control in bLC and EC, we assessed the pattern of switch costs in the two tasks and then we correlated them between tasks. Results showed reduced n-2 repetition costs as compared to n-1 shift costs in the linguistic task only, suggesting that small amount of inhibition were deployed when switching between languages. Importantly, neither the n-1 shift costs nor the n-2 repetition costs were correlated between tasks. These results, supported by additional evidence from the ex-Gaussian analysis, suggest that inhibitory control is differently involved in bLC and in EC. PMID:27043252

  17. Improving outcomes of preschool language delay in the community: protocol for the Language for Learning randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early language delay is a high-prevalence condition of concern to parents and professionals. It may result in lifelong deficits not only in language function, but also in social, emotional/behavioural, academic and economic well-being. Such delays can lead to considerable costs to the individual, the family and to society more widely. The Language for Learning trial tests a population-based intervention in 4 year olds with measured language delay, to determine (1) if it improves language and associated outcomes at ages 5 and 6 years and (2) its cost-effectiveness for families and the health care system. Methods/Design A large-scale randomised trial of a year-long intervention targeting preschoolers with language delay, nested within a well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort of 1464 children in Melbourne, Australia. All children received a 1.25-1.5 hour formal language assessment at their 4th birthday. The 200 children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean were randomised into intervention or ‘usual care’ control arms. The 20-session intervention program comprises 18 one-hour home-based therapeutic sessions in three 6-week blocks, an outcome assessment, and a final feed-back/forward planning session. The therapy utilises a ‘step up-step down’ therapeutic approach depending on the child’s language profile, severity and progress, with standardised, manualised activities covering the four language development domains of: vocabulary and grammar; narrative skills; comprehension monitoring; and phonological awareness/pre-literacy skills. Blinded follow-up assessments at ages 5 and 6 years measure the primary outcome of receptive and expressive language, and secondary outcomes of vocabulary, narrative, and phonological skills. Discussion A key strength of this robust study is the implementation of a therapeutic framework that provides a standardised yet tailored approach for

  18. Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

  19. Job stress and locus of control in teachers: comparisons between samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived degree of organisational support received. However, this relationship between the locus of control and stress indices could not be identified for the Zimbabwean sample. Significant differences between the two samples were noted in terms of educators' perceptions of the frequency of poor organisational support, with the Zimbabwean teachers reporting greater dissatisfaction. To explain these differences, a qualitative approach was utilised to illuminate the contextual stressors that educators face in Zimbabwe. The implications for teacher preparation measures are discussed.

  20. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  1. Rate-Controlled Speech in Foreign Language Education. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, Number 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Etienne

    Controlling the rate of oral delivery in the second language classroom has been demonstrated as beneficial to the learner, whose information-processing capacity is an important factor in listening comprehension. Rate of information delivery can be controlled by limiting the actual rate of words per unit of time, or by maintaining content…

  2. Co-Worker Implemented Job Training: The Use of Coincidental Training and Quality-Control Checking on the Food Preparation Skills of Trainees with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likins, Marilyn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Co-workers of three job trainees with mental retardation used coincidental training procedures while completing their own jobs. Coincidental training resulted in improved accuracy of salad-making skills, but skill acquisition was very slow; subsequently, a model and a quality-control check were added, resulting in higher performance levels. (JDD)

  3. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  4. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    PubMed

    Blom, Victoria; Bodin, Lennart; Bergström, Gunnar; Hallsten, Lennart; Svedberg, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout. PMID:24086520

  5. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  6. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called “symmetrical switch cost” effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system. PMID:22275905

  7. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  8. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  9. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  10. Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washio, Yukiko; Houmanfar, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals' language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and…

  11. ERP Correlates of Executive Control during Repeated Language Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Georgina M.; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    Used event-related dense-sensor EEG recording techniques to examine the time course of language switching during a visually-cued naming task in which bilingual participants named digits in either their first or second language. Switch-related modulation of ERP components was evident over parietal and frontal cortices, and in the latter case showed…

  12. Early Intervention for Toddlers With Language Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ann P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early interventions for toddlers with expressive and receptive language delays have not resulted in positive expressive language outcomes. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects on language outcomes of a caregiver-implemented communication intervention targeting toddlers at risk for persistent language delays. METHODS: Participants included 97 toddlers, who were between 24 and 42 months with language scores at least 1.33 SDs below the normative mean and no other developmental delays, and their caregivers. Toddlers were randomly assigned to the caregiver-implemented intervention or a usual-care control group. Caregivers and children participated in 28 sessions in which caregivers were taught to implement the intervention. The primary outcome was the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition, a broad-based measure of language. Outcome measurement was not blinded. RESULTS: Caregivers in the intervention improved their use of all language facilitation strategies, such as matched turns (adjusted mean difference, intervention-control, 40; 95% confidence interval 34 to 46; P < .01). Children in the intervention group had significantly better receptive language skills (5.3; 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 10.4), but not broad-based expressive language skills (0.37, 95% confidence interval −4.5 to 5.3; P = .88). CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides preliminary evidence of the short-term effects of systematic caregiver instruction on caregiver use of language facilitation strategies and subsequent changes in children’s language skills. Future research should investigate the ideal dosage levels for optimizing child outcomes and determine which language facilitation strategies are associated with specific child outcomes. Research on adaptations for families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is needed. PMID:25733749

  13. Executive Control of Language in the Bilingual Brain: Integrating the Evidence from Neuroimaging to Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis Georges; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2011-01-01

    In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain-imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and production. This question has been addressed in a number of ways and using various tasks, including language switching during production or perception, translation, and interpretation. We will attempt to synthesize existing evidence in order to bring to light the neural substrates that are crucial to executive control of language. PMID:21954391

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  15. Job Strain in Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Marc A.; Weiser, Sherri; Koenig, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been associated with poor outcomes. In focus groups and small-sample surveys, physical therapists have reported high levels of job stress. Studies of job stress in physical therapy with larger samples are needed. Objective: The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the levels of psychological job demands and job control reported by physical therapists in a national sample, (2) to compare those levels with national norms, and (3) to determine whether high demands, low control, or a combination of both (job strain) increases the risk for turnover or work-related pain. Design: This was a prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up period. Methods: Participants were randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association (n=882). Exposure assessments included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), a commonly used instrument for evaluation of the psychosocial work environment. Outcomes included job turnover and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Results: Compared with national averages, the physical therapists reported moderate job demands and high levels of job control. About 16% of the therapists reported changing jobs during follow-up. Risk factors for turnover included high job demands, low job control, job strain, female sex, and younger age. More than one half of the therapists reported work-related pain. Risk factors for work-related pain included low job control and job strain. Limitations: The JCQ measures only limited dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. All data were self-reported and subject to associated bias. Conclusions: Physical therapists’ views of their work environments were positive, including moderate levels of demands and high levels of control. Those therapists with high levels of demands and low levels of control, however, were at increased risk for both turnover and work-related pain. Physical therapists should consider the psychosocial work environment, along with other

  16. Job Search Workshop Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Carole

    This bilingual curriculum was developed by job search counselors at a Seattle nonprofit social service agency in conjunction with Washington state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. The workshops were 30-hours long and were given over a 2-week period. The classes were conducted in the students' native language, as well as in English by an…

  17. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  18. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  19. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, for the second year in a row, hiring in English and other modern languages contracted sharply, as measured by the number of ads and jobs in the MLA "Job Information List" ( "JIL"). This year the "JIL's" English edition announced 1,100 jobs and the foreign language edition 1,022 jobs. At 1,022, the number of jobs in the foreign language…

  20. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  1. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  2. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  3. Efficacy of a Reading and Language Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J.; Clarke, Paula J.; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods: Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the…

  4. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  5. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  6. Job Turnover and Job Satisfaction among Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Howard M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed 234 aides in seven nursing homes concerning job turnover rate, job satisfaction, and perception of milieu. A positive association found between turnover rate and aides' perceptions of the homes' order, organization, and control suggested that job turnover would lessen with more involvement in the decision-making process. (JAC)

  7. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

    PubMed

    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control. PMID:25901448

  8. Job Stress, Stress Related to Performance-Based Accreditation, Locus of Control, Age, and Gender As Related to Job Satisfaction and Burnout in Teachers and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Elizabeth Smith; Halpin, Glennelle

    The purpose of the study described here was to: (1) determine the amount of variance in burnout and job satisfaction in public school teachers and principals which could be accounted for by stress related to the state's performance-based accreditation standards; (2) examine the relationship between stress related to state standards and the age and…

  9. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  10. Second language lexical development and cognitive control: A longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing. PMID:25899988

  11. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  12. Job center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To better meet the needs of AGU members, a program has been started to increase the effectiveness of the Job Center activity at the Spring and Fall Meetings. As a result, participation in the Job Center at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore increased substantially compared to previous Spring Meetings. The number of employers, applicants, and interviews scheduled more than doubled compared to the 1987 Spring Job Center.In order to make the meeting Job Centers even better, a survey is being conducted of employers and applicants who participated in the 1988 Spring Job Center. Evaluation of this survey will be useful in continuing increased participation in and the effectiveness of the Job Center at the 1988 Fall Meeting. Past participants and those interested in the future of the Job Center are encouraged to forward comments and suggestions to AGU, Member Programs Division, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009.

  13. Digital-flight-control-system software written in automated-engineering-design language: A user's guide of verification and validation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The user guide of verification and validation (V&V) tools for the Automated Engineering Design (AED) language is specifically written to update the information found in several documents pertaining to the automated verification of flight software tools. The intent is to provide, in one document, all the information necessary to adequately prepare a run to use the AED V&V tools. No attempt is made to discuss the FORTRAN V&V tools since they were not updated and are not currently active. Additionally, the current descriptions of the AED V&V tools are contained and provides information to augment the NASA TM 84276. The AED V&V tools are accessed from the digital flight control systems verification laboratory (DFCSVL) via a PDP-11/60 digital computer. The AED V&V tool interface handlers on the PDP-11/60 generate a Univac run stream which is transmitted to the Univac via a Remote Job Entry (RJE) link. Job execution takes place on the Univac 1100 and the job output is transmitted back to the DFCSVL and stored as a PDP-11/60 printfile.

  14. Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: Programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Wheeler, David C.; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to the questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Methods 2,631 participants reported 14,983 jobs; 2,749 jobs were administered questionnaires (‘modules’) with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based solely on the occupational history responses (OH estimates) and based on the module responses (module estimates); we combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed one at a time to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module, and one-by-one review estimates. Results The proportion of exposed jobs was 20–25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54–60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review had moderately high agreement for all jobs (κw=0.68–0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (κw=0.62–0.78) for the probability, intensity, and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. Conclusions The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies. PMID:22843440

  15. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning

    PubMed Central

    King, Kelly E.; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only two hours of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. PMID:23194816

  16. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. PMID:25413803

  17. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  18. Job demands and dementia risk among male twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Guy G.; Helms, Michael J.; Burke, James R.; Steffens, David C.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Job characteristics may influence dementia risk, but some types of job complexity remain to be examined. Twin studies provide a useful methodology to examine job differences between pairs who share many environmental and genetic influences. Methods Members of the NAS-NRC Twins Registry of World War II Veterans received a clinical evaluation for dementia and had job ratings from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Results Cotwin-control models (n = 220 pairs) indicated lower dementia risk with greater job demands of reasoning, mathematics, language, and vocational training, with comparable results in case-control models (n=425 cases). These effects were significant among twin pairs discordant for 6 or more years, but not among those discordant between 3–5 years. Results were similar for Alzheimer’s disease, and main effects were not further explained by zygosity or apolipoprotein E genotype. Conclusions Jobs that utilize data, academic skills, and extensive vocational training may protect against dementia; however, in twin pairs these effects only emerged among individuals who remained free of dementia several years after onset in their sibling. PMID:18591984

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  20. Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Language Therapy for Children with Primary Language Impairment: Principal Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, James M.; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with language impairments are enrolled in mainstream schools and receive indirect language therapy, but there have been, to the authors' knowledge, no previous controlled studies comparing the outcomes and costs of direct and indirect intervention delivered by qualified therapists and therapy assistants, and…

  1. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  2. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank JH

    2008-01-01

    Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1) Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2) Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3) Communication in daily work situations, 4) Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5) How to stand up for oneself, 6) A plan to solve problems, 7) Follow-up. Methods Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8, 12 and 24 months

  3. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. PMID:22892367

  4. Overlapping Networks Engaged during Spoken Language Production and Its Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Richard J.S.; Mehta, Amrish; Leech, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Spoken language production is a complex brain function that relies on large-scale networks. These include domain-specific networks that mediate language-specific processes, as well as domain-general networks mediating top-down and bottom-up attentional control. Language control is thought to involve a left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal (FTP) system. However, these regions do not always activate for language tasks and similar regions have been implicated in nonlinguistic cognitive processes. These inconsistent findings suggest that either the left FTP is involved in multidomain cognitive control or that there are multiple spatially overlapping FTP systems. We present evidence from an fMRI study using multivariate analysis to identify spatiotemporal networks involved in spoken language production in humans. We compared spoken language production (Speech) with multiple baselines, counting (Count), nonverbal decision (Decision), and “rest,” to pull apart the multiple partially overlapping networks that are involved in speech production. A left-lateralized FTP network was activated during Speech and deactivated during Count and nonverbal Decision trials, implicating it in cognitive control specific to sentential spoken language production. A mirror right-lateralized FTP network was activated in the Count and Decision trials, but not Speech. Importantly, a second overlapping left FTP network showed relative deactivation in Speech. These three networks, with distinct time courses, overlapped in the left parietal lobe. Contrary to the standard model of the left FTP as being dominant for speech, we revealed a more complex pattern within the left FTP, including at least two left FTP networks with competing functional roles, only one of which was activated in speech production. PMID:24966373

  5. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  6. The role of domain-general cognitive control in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    What role does domain-general cognitive control play in understanding linguistic input? Although much evidence has suggested that domain-general cognitive control and working memory resources are sometimes recruited during language comprehension, many aspects of this relationship remain elusive. For example, how frequently do cognitive control mechanisms get engaged when we understand language? And is this engagement necessary for successful comprehension? I here (a) review recent brain imaging evidence for the neural separability of the brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing vs. those that support domain-general cognitive control abilities; (b) define the space of possibilities for the relationship between these sets of brain regions; and (c) review the available evidence that constrains these possibilities to some extent. I argue that we should stop asking whether domain-general cognitive control mechanisms play a role in language comprehension, and instead focus on characterizing the division of labor between the cognitive control brain regions and the more functionally specialized language regions. PMID:24803909

  7. How Do Principals and Teachers in Special Schools in Turkey Rate Themselves on Levels of Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    This study explores issues of burnout, job satisfaction, and locus of control among special school principals and teachers in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are differences between principals and teachers in terms of work status, sex, and work experiences. A quantitative approach was used: 295 participants (33…

  8. Electrophysiological evidence for domain-general inhibitory control during bilingual language switching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Rossi, Sonja; Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that explored the role of domain-general inhibitory control on language switching. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded when low-proficient bilinguals with high and low inhibitory control (IC) switched between overt picture naming in both their L1 and L2. Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high-IC were symmetrical, while that of bilinguals with low-IC were not. The N2 component failed to show a significant interaction between group, language and task, indicating that inhibition may not comes into play during the language task schema competition phase. The late positive component (LPC), however, showed larger amplitudes for L2 repeat and switch trials than for L1 trials in the high-IC group, indicating that inhibition may play a key role during the lexical response selection phase. These findings suggest that domain-general inhibitory control plays an important role in modulating language switch costs and its influence can be specified in lexical selection phase. PMID:25343253

  9. Electrophysiological Evidence for Domain-General Inhibitory Control during Bilingual Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huanhuan; Rossi, Sonja; Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that explored the role of domain–general inhibitory control on language switching. Reaction times (RTs) and event–related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded when low–proficient bilinguals with high and low inhibitory control (IC) switched between overt picture naming in both their L1 and L2. Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high–IC were symmetrical, while that of bilinguals with low–IC were not. The N2 component failed to show a significant interaction between group, language and task, indicating that inhibition may not comes into play during the language task schema competition phase. The late positive component (LPC), however, showed larger amplitudes for L2 repeat and switch trials than for L1 trials in the high–IC group, indicating that inhibition may play a key role during the lexical response selection phase. These findings suggest that domain–general inhibitory control plays an important role in modulating language switch costs and its influence can be specified in lexical selection phase. PMID:25343253

  10. Bilingual Cognitive Control in Language Switching: An fMRI Study of English-Chinese Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hengfen; Hu, Jiehui; Xi, Jie; Shen, Wen; Ge, Jianqiao; Geng, Feng; Wu, Yuntao; Guo, Jinjin; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the bilingual cognitive control mechanism by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals’ language switching in a blocked picture naming paradigm against three baseline conditions, namely the control condition (a fixation cross, low-level baseline), single L1 production (Chinese naming, high-level baseline), and single L2 production (English naming, high-level baseline). Different activation patterns were observed for language switching against different baseline conditions. These results indicate that different script bilingual language control involves a fronto-parietal-subcortical network that extends to the precentral gyrus, the Supplementary Motor Area, the Supra Marginal Gyrus, and the fusiform. The different neural correlates identified across different comparisons supported that bilingual language switching involves high-level cognitive processes that are not specific to language processing. Future studies adopting a network approach are crucial in identifying the functional connectivity among regions subserving language control. PMID:25180974

  11. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. PMID:25463819

  12. Impact of Welfare Reform on Mortality: An Evaluation of the Connecticut Jobs First Program, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elizabeth T.; Rosen, Zohn; Couch, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether Jobs First, a multicenter randomized trial of a welfare reform program conducted in Connecticut, demonstrated increases in employment, income, and health insurance relative to traditional welfare (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). We also investigated if higher earnings and employment improved mortality of the participants. Methods. We revisited the Jobs First randomized trial, successfully linking 4612 participant identifiers to 15 years of prospective mortality follow-up data through 2010, producing 240 deaths. The analysis was powered to detect a 20% change in mortality hazards. Results. Significant employment and income benefits were realized among Jobs First recipients relative to traditional welfare recipients, particularly for the most disadvantaged groups. However, although none of these reached statistical significance, all participants in Jobs First (overall, across centers, and all subgroups) experienced higher mortality hazards than traditional welfare recipients. Conclusions. Increases in income and employment produced by Jobs First relative to traditional welfare improved socioeconomic status but did not improve survival. PMID:23678929

  13. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

  14. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  15. At Work in the U.S.: Readings and Language for Job Success. Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Audio Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacco, Ellen; Jablon, Paula

    This document consists of a teacher's resource guide, student book, and an accompanying audio component intended to help beginning-level adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners gain the general language skills and cultural understanding they need to function successfully in the U.S. workplace. The lessons address the following commonly…

  16. Evaluating Reverse Speech as a Control Task with Language-Related Gamma Activity on Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erik C; Muzik, Otto; Rothermel, Robert; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Juhász, Csaba; Shah, Aashit K; Atkinson, Marie D; Fuerst, Darren; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-01

    Reverse speech has often been used as a control task in brain-mapping studies of language utilizing various non-invasive modalities. The rationale is that reverse speech is comparable to forward speech in terms of auditory characteristics, while omitting the linguistic components. Thus, it may control for non-language auditory functions. This finds some support in fMRI studies indicating that reverse speech resulted in less blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in perisylvian regions than forward speech. We attempted to externally validate a reverse speech control task using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) in eight patients with intractable focal epilepsy. We studied adolescent and adult patients who underwent extraoperative ECoG prior to resective epilepsy surgery. All patients received an auditory language task during ECoG recording. Patients were presented 115 audible question stimuli, including 30 reverse speech trials. Reverse speech trials more strongly engaged bilateral superior temporal sites than did the corresponding forward speech trials. Forward speech trials elicited larger gamma-augmentation at frontal lobe sites not attributable to sensorimotor function. Other temporal and frontal sites of significant augmentation showed no significant difference between reverse and forward speech. Thus, we failed to validate reported evidence of weaker activation of temporal neocortices during reverse compared to forward speech. Superior temporal lobe engagement may indicate increased attention to reverse speech. Reverse speech does not appear to be a suitable task for the control of non-language auditory functions on ECoG. PMID:22387167

  17. Reading and Language Intervention for Children at Risk of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…

  18. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  19. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  20. A Bilingual Advantage in Controlling Language Interference during Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippi, Roberto; Leech, Robert; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Green, David W.; Dick, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the comprehension of syntactically simple with more complex sentences in Italian-English adult bilinguals and monolingual controls in the presence or absence of sentence-level interference. The task was to identify the agent of the sentence and we primarily examined the accuracy of response. The target sentence was signalled by…

  1. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  2. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  3. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  4. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  5. Jobs in Business and Office. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes business and office occupations related to management (including personnel), records planning and control, clerical and secretarial jobs, owning your own business, and the teaching of business subjects. For each occupation, duties are outlined and working conditions discussed. Techniques used to complete the job descriptions…

  6. Job Market Looks Brighter for Some Ph.D.'s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on the academic job market that is showing signs of turning around after a multiyear slump. Job-outlook data released by professional associations in recent months show an uptick in the number of jobs available in several fields, including history, the humanities and foreign languages, sociology, geography, and political…

  7. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  8. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  9. Job absenteeism and arterial hypertension: results of a hypertension control program.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de la Fuente Tirado, S; Cortina Greus, P; Alfonso Sanchez, J L; Saiz Sanchez, C; Sabater Pons, A; Gonzalez Arraez, J I; Cortes Vizcaino, C

    1992-09-01

    This study reports the findings of one of the stages of a programme for the detection and control of arterial hypertension, started in 1980 in an automobile company with a workforce of 9,782. In the initial screening, 522 hypertensive males were found using epidemiological criteria and 206 of these fulfilled the criteria of definite hypertension. The objective of this study consisted of evaluating, 9 years after the start of the program, the indirect cost in terms of the reduction in the morbidity indicator-temporary work incapacity (TWI). Analysis is based on a comparison of the prevalence of hypertension in the population when the program was begun (6%) and in 1989 (9.8%). It can be observed that the TWI rate of the hypertensive population was significantly higher than that of the rest of the workforce, and that this remained true for the reference group (RG) hypertensives a year after the study was initiated. In contrast, the intervention group (IG) showed significantly lower TWI levels, not only in comparison with the RG but also with the rest of the workers. The estimated reduction in TWI for 1989 was 4.500 days/year, which corresponds to an estimated saving of 76.500.000 pesetas/year. PMID:1426165

  10. Job attitudes.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

    2012-01-01

    Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

  11. Job-Seeking and Job-Acquisition in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Doherty, Fiona; O'Callaghan, Frances

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 225 Year 9 and 10 students at T1 regarding their attitude, social norms, control, experience, plans and intentions to find a part-time job while at school. Of these, 149 did not have a job and were surveyed again four months later about their job-seeking and job outcomes (104 responded at T2). Job-seeking intentions at T1 were…

  12. The Grid[Way] Job Template Manager, a tool for parameter sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.

    2011-04-01

    Parameter sweeping is a widely used algorithmic technique in computational science. It is specially suited for high-throughput computing since the jobs evaluating the parameter space are loosely coupled or independent. A tool that integrates the modeling of a parameter study with the control of jobs in a distributed architecture is presented. The main task is to facilitate the creation and deletion of job templates, which are the elements describing the jobs to be run. Extra functionality relies upon the GridWay Metascheduler, acting as the middleware layer for job submission and control. It supports interesting features like multi-dimensional sweeping space, wildcarding of parameters, functional evaluation of ranges, value-skipping and job template automatic indexation. The use of this tool increases the reliability of the parameter sweep study thanks to the systematic bookkeeping of job templates and respective job statuses. Furthermore, it simplifies the porting of the target application to the grid reducing the required amount of time and effort. Program summaryProgram title: Grid[Way] Job Template Manager (version 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AEIE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Apache license 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3545 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126 879 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl 5.8.5 and above Computer: Any (tested on PC x86 and x86_64) Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux (tested on Ubuntu 9.04, Scientific Linux 4.7, centOS 5.4), Mac OS X (tested on Snow Leopard 10.6) RAM: 10 MB Classification: 6.5 External routines: The GridWay Metascheduler [1]. Nature of problem: To parameterize and manage an application running on a grid or cluster. Solution method: Generation of job templates as a cross product of

  13. Job Involvement of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    This study investigated the relationship between job involvement and three sets of variables: nine personal (age, sex, marital status, education, overall experience, nonteaching experience, present school experience, income, and locus of control), three structural (size of school, location of school, and hierarchical position), and eight job…

  14. Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Clarke, Paula J; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the intervention immediately, whereas the remaining children received the treatment after a 20-week delay. Fifty-seven children with Down syndrome in mainstream primary schools in two UK locations (Yorkshire and Hampshire) were randomly allocated to intervention (40 weeks of intervention) and waiting control (20 weeks of intervention) groups. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, after 20 weeks of intervention, and after 40 weeks of intervention. Results After 20 weeks of intervention, the intervention group showed significantly greater progress than the waiting control group on measures of single word reading, letter-sound knowledge, phoneme blending and taught expressive vocabulary. Effects did not transfer to other skills (nonword reading, spelling, standardised expressive and receptive vocabulary, expressive information and grammar). After 40 weeks of intervention, the intervention group remained numerically ahead of the control group on most key outcome measures; but these differences were not significant. Children who were younger, attended more intervention sessions, and had better initial receptive language skills made greater progress during the course of the intervention. Conclusions A TA-delivered intervention produced improvements in the reading and language skills of children with Down syndrome. Gains were largest in skills directly taught with little evidence of generalization to skills not directly taught in the intervention. PMID:22533801

  15. Disentangling the Relationship between Working Memory and Language: The Roles of Short-Term Storage and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Martin, Romain

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between working memory and language in young children growing up in a multilingual environment. The aim is to explore whether mechanisms of short-term storage and cognitive control hold similar relations to emerging language skills and to investigate if potential links are mediated by related cognitive…

  16. A Parent-Directed Language Intervention for Children of Low Socioeconomic Status: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana L.; Leffel, Kristin R.; Graf, Eileen; Hernandez, Marc W.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Leininger, Lindsey; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed a parent-directed home-visiting intervention targeting socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in children's early language environments. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether the intervention improved parents' knowledge of child language development and increased the amount and diversity of parent talk.…

  17. Job Ready.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults of Washington, Seattle.

    Intended for use by employers for assessing how "job-ready" their particular business environment may be, the booklet provides information illustrating what physical changes could be made to allow persons with mobility limitations to enter and conduct business independently in a particular building. Illustrations along with brief explanations are…

  18. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  19. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  20. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  1. Multi-processing control system for the SEL 840MP (MPCS/1) users guide. Volume 2: Operations guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The generation and operational use of the SEL 840MP multiprocessing control system (MPCS) are considered. System initialization, job task table generation, the MPCS command language, display library generation, and system error summary are reviewed.

  2. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  3. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  4. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  5. Using Natural Language And Voice To Control High Level Tasks In A Robotics Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackenberg, Robert G.

    1987-03-01

    RCA's Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has implemented an integrated system which permits control of high level tasks in a robotics environment through voice input in the form of natural language syntax. The paper to be presented will outline the architecture used to integrate voice recognition and synthesis hardware and natural language and intelligent reasoning software with a supervisory processor that controls robotic and vision operations in the robotic testbed. The application is intended to give the human operator of a Puma 782 industrial robot the ability to combine joystick teleoperation with voice input in order to provide a flexible man-machine interface in a hands-busy environment. The system is designed to give the operator a speech interface which is unobtrusive and undemanding in terms of predetermined syntax requirements. The voice recognizer accepts continuous speech and the natural language processor accepts full and partial sentence fragments and can perform a fair amount of disambiguation and context analysis. Output to the operator comes via the parallel channel of speech synthesis so that the operator does not have to consult the computer's CRT for messages. The messages are generated from the software and offer warnings about unacceptable situations, confirmations of actions completed, and feedback of system data.

  6. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Indigenous Language Education Policy: Supporting Community-Controlled Immersion in Canada and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Korne, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The vitality of most Indigenous languages in North America, like minority languages in many parts of the world, is at risk due to the pressures of majority languages and cultures. The transmission of Indigenous languages through school-based programs is a wide-spread approach to maintaining and revitalizing threatened languages in Canada and the…

  8. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. PMID:25869858

  9. Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

  10. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  11. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input. PMID:25092390

  12. How Language Learners Comprehend and Produce Language in Real Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libben, Gary

    2006-01-01

    This paper does a fine job of advancing discussion concerning a question that is indeed quite underrepresented in the literature, that is, how language learners comprehend and produce language in real time. The paper is firmly rooted in the dual mechanism approach to language processing and takes as its starting point the assumption that normal…

  13. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  14. Communication tips for the job search and on the job.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    2000-01-01

    Listening, speaking, and nonverbal skills are the most important success factors in getting a job or being effective in your current position. If you don't communicate well, your technical knowledge won't ever be put to good use. Recruiters, hiring organizations, and bosses are looking for people who can play well with others and can sell. Playing well with others involves listening and having self-control about what you say. To sell yourself and your ideas or products, you must speak well. You also must be well-groomed, look energetic, and sound reasonably happy to be at work. Good listeners: Stop talking; ask open-ended questions; para-phrase, restate, or summarize some of what the person had said; and talk about feelings. Effective speakers: Have voice mail etiquette; are courteous and tactful; don't react to a verbal attack; don't engage in verbal attacks; use the right amount of words; don't say too much; prepare ahead of time; and decide whether they should speak or write their message. And remember the power of body language or non-verbal skills--how you look and sound. Experts estimate that 65 to 90 percent of what you communicate is nonverbal. PMID:10947468

  15. Invariant principles of speech motor control that are not language-specific.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2012-12-01

    Bilingual speakers must learn to modify their speech motor control mechanism based on the linguistic parameters and rules specified by the target language. This study examines if there are aspects of speech motor control which remain invariant regardless of the first (L1) and second (L2) language targets. Based on the age of academic exposure and proficiency in L2, 21 Bengali-English bilingual participants were classified into high (n = 11) and low (n = 10) L2 (English) proficiency groups. Using the Optotrak 3020 motion sensitive camera system, the lips and jaw movements were recorded while participants produced Bengali (L1) and English (L2) sentences. Based on kinematic analyses of the lip and jaw movements, two different variability measures (i.e., lip aperture and lower lip/jaw complex) were computed for English and Bengali sentences. Analyses demonstrated that the two groups of bilingual speakers produced lip aperture complexes (a higher order synergy) that were more consistent in co-ordination than were the lower lip/jaw complexes (a lower order synergy). Similar findings were reported earlier in monolingual English speakers by Smith and Zelaznik. Thus, this hierarchical organization may be viewed as a fundamental principle of speech motor control, since it is maintained even in bilingual speakers. PMID:22924853

  16. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let’s Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Design Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Setting Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Intervention Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified “You Make the Difference” programme over six weekly sessions) or control (“usual care”) arms. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. Results 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention−control) were −2.4 (95% confidence interval −6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (−2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; −0.5 (−4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; −0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and −0.1 (−1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. Conclusion

  17. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  18. Working memory and inhibitory control in early childhood: Contributions from physiology, temperament, and language.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christy D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills of working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC) in relation to physiological functioning, temperament, and language in early childhood. WMIC skills were assessed in twenty-five 4 1/2-year-old children using the day--night Stroop-like task and the yes--no task; each task required the child to remember two rules and to inhibit a dominant response. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart period (HP) were recorded during baseline and WMIC tasks. An increase in 6- to 9-Hz EEG power from baseline to task was found for the medial frontal region. In addition, a decrease in HP (i.e., an increase in heart rate) was found from baseline to task. Associations were found between performance on the WMIC tasks and scales of the Children's Behavioral Questionnaire (CBQ) related to the effortful control of behavior. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III) distinguished between high and low WMIC performance. Results of a discriminant function analysis indicated that physiology, temperament, and language were able to correctly predict 90% of WMIC performance. PMID:14704991

  19. Study of the language functions controlled by the right hemisphere in patients affected by dementia.

    PubMed

    Motta, M

    1993-01-01

    An insertion test (Shift vs. non-Shift) was performed by eight subjects (mean age 69 years, mean schooling 5.87 years) with clinical diagnosis of suspected Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to reveal right hemisphere cerebral distress in concomitance with damage of the left hemisphere which controls language in AD. Their Shift and non-Shift test scores were significantly lower than those of 28 controls, even if they achieved normal or slightly modified classical language test scores. Shift involves insertion of a syntagma or word in a stimulus-sentence that changes the syntactical relationship of some components of the newly formed sentence, whereas in non-Shift the insertion determines only a change in meaning. Statistical analysis revealed that the difference was not caused by age and schooling. Furthermore, the AD patients achieved significantly lower scores in Shift compared with non-Shift. This indicates greater right hemisphere damage in these patients and confirms its physiological decline in the elderly. The results revealed that the insertion test is more sensitive than classical neurolinguistic tests. They also showed that both superficial (non-Shift) and deep (Shift) types of syntaxes are already compromised in early stages of AD and that they mirror the bilateral thinning which is more pronounced in the right hemisphere. PMID:15374327

  20. Do Immigrants Work In Riskier Jobs?

    PubMed Central

    ORRENIUS, PIA M.; ZAVODNY, MADELINE

    2009-01-01

    Recent media and government reports suggest that immigrants are more likely to hold jobs with poor working conditions than U.S.-born workers, perhaps because immigrants work in jobs that “natives don’t want.” Despite this widespread view, earlier studies have not found immigrants to be in riskier jobs than natives. This study combines individual-level data from the 2003–2005 American Community Survey with Bureau of Labor Statistics data on work-related injuries and fatalities to take a fresh look at whether foreign-born workers are employed in more dangerous jobs. The results indicate that immigrants are in fact more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants’ lower English-language ability and educational attainment. PMID:19771943

  1. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this ... you stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is ...

  2. Job burnout.

    PubMed

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being. PMID:11148311

  3. Communication Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, J. David

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relationships between employee satisfaction with various types of organizational communication, employee job satisfaction, and job performance as evaluated by supervisors, in a field study of 327 hospital nurses. Correlates results with results of other studies. (MS)

  4. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  5. Cerebellar contributions to motor control and language comprehension: searching for common computational principles.

    PubMed

    Moberget, Torgeir; Ivry, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The past 25 years have seen the functional domain of the cerebellum extend beyond the realm of motor control, with considerable discussion of how this subcortical structure contributes to cognitive domains including attention, memory, and language. Drawing on evidence from neuroanatomy, physiology, neuropsychology, and computational work, sophisticated models have been developed to describe cerebellar function in sensorimotor control and learning. In contrast, mechanistic accounts of how the cerebellum contributes to cognition have remained elusive. Inspired by the homogeneous cerebellar microanatomy and a desire for parsimony, many researchers have sought to extend mechanistic ideas from motor control to cognition. One influential hypothesis centers on the idea that the cerebellum implements internal models, representations of the context-specific dynamics of an agent's interactions with the environment, enabling predictive control. We briefly review cerebellar anatomy and physiology, to review the internal model hypothesis as applied in the motor domain, before turning to extensions of these ideas in the linguistic domain, focusing on speech perception and semantic processing. While recent findings are consistent with this computational generalization, they also raise challenging questions regarding the nature of cerebellar learning, and may thus inspire revisions of our views on the role of the cerebellum in sensorimotor control. PMID:27206249

  6. S3QL: A distributed domain specific language for controlled semantic integration of life sciences data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The value and usefulness of data increases when it is explicitly interlinked with related data. This is the core principle of Linked Data. For life sciences researchers, harnessing the power of Linked Data to improve biological discovery is still challenged by a need to keep pace with rapidly evolving domains and requirements for collaboration and control as well as with the reference semantic web ontologies and standards. Knowledge organization systems (KOSs) can provide an abstraction for publishing biological discoveries as Linked Data without complicating transactions with contextual minutia such as provenance and access control. We have previously described the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) as an efficient model for creating knowledge organization systems using Linked Data best practices with explicit distinction between domain and instantiation and support for a permission control mechanism that automatically migrates between the two. In this report we present a domain specific language, the S3DB query language (S3QL), to operate on its underlying core model and facilitate management of Linked Data. Results Reflecting the data driven nature of our approach, S3QL has been implemented as an application programming interface for S3DB systems hosting biomedical data, and its syntax was subsequently generalized beyond the S3DB core model. This achievement is illustrated with the assembly of an S3QL query to manage entities from the Simple Knowledge Organization System. The illustrative use cases include gastrointestinal clinical trials, genomic characterization of cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. Conclusions S3QL was found to provide a convenient mechanism to represent context for interoperation between public and private datasets hosted at biomedical research institutions and linked data formalisms. PMID:21756325

  7. Translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales for Users of American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Samady, Waheeda; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Nakaji, Melanie; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Trybus, Raymond; Athale, Ninad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales into American Sign Language (ASL). Translation is an essential first step toward validating the instrument for use in the Deaf community, a commonly overlooked minority community. This translated MHLC/ASL can be utilized by public health nurses researching the Deaf community to create and evaluate targeted health interventions. It can be used in clinical settings to guide the context of the provider-patient dialogue. The MHLC was translated using focus groups, following recommended procedures. Five bilingual participants translated the MHLC into ASL; five others back-translated the ASL version into English. Both focus groups identified and addressed language and cultural problems before the final ASL version of the MHLC was permanently captured on by motion picture photography for consistent administration. Nine of the 24 items were directly translatable into ASL. The remaining items required further discussion to achieve cultural equivalence with ASL expressions. The MHLC/ASL is now ready for validation within the Deaf community. PMID:18816365

  8. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. PMID:27442997

  9. Cognitive control and language across the life span: does labeling improve reactive control?

    PubMed

    Lucenet, Joanna; Blaye, Agnès; Chevalier, Nicolas; Kray, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this ability across the life span when there is no opportunity to anticipate task goals. We examined the effect of 2 kinds of verbal self-instruction-labeling either the task goal or the relevant feature of the stimulus-on 2 components of cognitive control, goal setting and switching, in children, young adults, and older adults. All participants performed single-task blocks and mixed-task blocks (involving unpredictable switching between 2 tasks) in silent and labeling conditions. Participants categorized bidimensional stimuli either by picture or by color, depending on their spatial position in a 2-cell vertical grid. Response times revealed an inverted U shape in performance with age. These age differences were more pronounced for goal setting than for switching, thus generalizing results obtained in situations taping proactive control to this new context forcing reactive control. Further, differential age-related effects of verbalization were also obtained. Verbalizations were detrimental for young adults, beneficial for older adults, and had mixed effects in children. These differences are interpreted in terms of qualitative developmental changes in reactive goal-setting strategies. PMID:24491213

  10. Cognitive Control and Language across the Life Span: Does Labeling Improve Reactive Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucenet, Joanna; Blaye, Agnès; Chevalier, Nicolas; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this…