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Sample records for joint alignment affect

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease. PMID:25684928

  2. Cardiac motion estimation by joint alignment of tagged MRI sequences.

    PubMed

    Oubel, E; De Craene, M; Hero, A O; Pourmorteza, A; Huguet, M; Avegliano, G; Bijnens, B H; Frangi, A F

    2012-01-01

    Image registration has been proposed as an automatic method for recovering cardiac displacement fields from tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (tMRI) sequences. Initially performed as a set of pairwise registrations, these techniques have evolved to the use of 3D+t deformation models, requiring metrics of joint image alignment (JA). However, only linear combinations of cost functions defined with respect to the first frame have been used. In this paper, we have applied k-Nearest Neighbors Graphs (kNNG) estimators of the α-entropy (H(α)) to measure the joint similarity between frames, and to combine the information provided by different cardiac views in an unified metric. Experiments performed on six subjects showed a significantly higher accuracy (p<0.05) with respect to a standard pairwise alignment (PA) approach in terms of mean positional error and variance with respect to manually placed landmarks. The developed method was used to study strains in patients with myocardial infarction, showing a consistency between strain, infarction location, and coronary occlusion. This paper also presents an interesting clinical application of graph-based metric estimators, showing their value for solving practical problems found in medical imaging. PMID:22000567

  3. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  4. Apparatus for maintaining alignment of a shrinking weld joint in an electron-beam welding operation

    DOEpatents

    Trent, Jett B.; Murphy, Jimmy L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for automatically maintaining a shrinking weld joint in alignment with an electron beam during an electron-beam multipass-welding operation. The apparatus utilizes a biasing device for continually urging a workpiece-supporting face plate away from a carriage mounted base that rotatably supports the face plate. The extent of displacement of the face plate away from the base is indicative of the shrinkage occuring in the weld joint area. This displacement is measured and is used to move the base on the carriage a distance equal to one-half the displacement for aligning the weld joint with the electron beam during each welding pass.

  5. Influences of Alignment and Obesity on Knee Joint Loading in Osteoarthritic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Pater, Mackenzie; Beavers, Daniel P.; Legault, Claudine; Loeser, Richard F.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg·m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg·m−2; 69% female) with radiographic knee osteoarthritis that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. Results A higher BMI was associated with greater (p = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (p = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (p < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. Conclusion BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibio-femoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee osteoarthritis patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment). PMID:24857973

  6. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Knight, James; Milligan, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise. PMID:25964805

  7. Joint optimization of word alignment and epenthesis generation for Chinese to Taiwanese sign synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Wu, Chung-Hsien; Su, Hung-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Jen

    2007-01-01

    This work proposes a novel approach to translate Chinese to Taiwanese sign language and to synthesize sign videos. An aligned bilingual corpus of Chinese and Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) with linguistic and signing information is also presented for sign language translation. A two-pass alignment in syntax level and phrase level is developed to obtain the optimal alignment between Chinese sentences and Taiwanese sign sequences. For sign video synthesis, a scoring function is presented to develop motion transition-balanced sign videos with rich combinations of intersign transitions. Finally, the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm is employed for sign video synthesis based on joint optimization of two-pass word alignment and intersign epenthesis generation. Several experiments are conducted in an educational environment to evaluate the performance on the comprehension of sign expression. The proposed approach outperforms the IBM Model 2 in sign language translation. Moreover, deaf students perceived sign videos generated by the proposed method to be satisfactory. PMID:17108381

  8. RNA global alignment in the joint sequence–structure space using elastic shape analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Jose; Robinson, Daniel; Klassen, Eric; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    The functions of RNAs, like proteins, are determined by their structures, which, in turn, are determined by their sequences. Comparison/alignment of RNA molecules provides an effective means to predict their functions and understand their evolutionary relationships. For RNA sequence alignment, most methods developed for protein and DNA sequence alignment can be directly applied. RNA 3-dimensional structure alignment, on the other hand, tends to be more difficult than protein structure alignment due to the lack of regular secondary structures as observed in proteins. Most of the existing RNA 3D structure alignment methods use only the backbone geometry and ignore the sequence information. Using both the sequence and backbone geometry information in RNA alignment may not only produce more accurate classification, but also deepen our understanding of the sequence–structure–function relationship of RNA molecules. In this study, we developed a new RNA alignment method based on elastic shape analysis (ESA). ESA treats RNA structures as three dimensional curves with sequence information encoded on additional dimensions so that the alignment can be performed in the joint sequence–structure space. The similarity between two RNA molecules is quantified by a formal distance, geodesic distance. Based on ESA, a rigorous mathematical framework can be built for RNA structure comparison. Means and covariances of full structures can be defined and computed, and probability distributions on spaces of such structures can be constructed for a group of RNAs. Our method was further applied to predict functions of RNA molecules and showed superior performance compared with previous methods when tested on benchmark datasets. The programs are available at http://stat.fsu.edu/ ∼jinfeng/ESA.html. PMID:23585278

  9. The association between hallux valgus and proximal joint alignment in young female dancers.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, N; Siev-Ner, I; Zeev, A; Dar, G

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the relationship between proximal joint alignment and hallux valgus among young dancers. This study sought to determine the extent to which spinal and lower extremity alignments are involved in hallux valgus, and to identify predicting variables for its development in young dancers. A group of 1336 young female dancers aged 8-16 years, and 226 control participants of the same age cohort were screened for the presence of hallux valgus, body physique characteristics, joint range of motion, and anatomical anomalies. Hallux valgus was common in the 2 young female populations studied. Among the dancers, 40.0% had bilateral hallux valgus and 7.3% unilateral. Among the controls, 32.3% had bilateral and 1.8% unilateral hallux valgus (χ2=8.27, df=1, p=0.004). Following logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.028, 95% CI=0.968-1.091), genu varum (OR=1.514; CI=1.139-2.013) and scoliosis (OR=2.089; CI=1.113-3.921) were found to be significant predicting factors for hallux valgus in the dancer group, whereas in the control group, the predicting factors were age (OR=0.911, 95% CI=0.801-1.036) and ankle plantar flexion range of motion (OR=0.972; CI=0.951-0.992). In conclusion, it was found that spinal deformity, lower extremity alignment, and joint range of motion are strongly related to hallux valgus. PMID:25144433

  10. Backrest Shape Affects Head-Neck Alignment and Seated Pressure.

    PubMed

    Ukita, Atsuki; Nishimura, Shigeo; Kishigami, Hirotoshi; Hatta, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Unstable back support against gravity results in a forward head posture and contributes to buttocks pressure ulcers. However, the association between these health problems and a wheelchair backrest is unclear. Our newly developed wheelchair (N-WC) supports the back of the pelvis and thorax from obliquely underneath. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different backrest shapes on head-neck alignment and seated pressure. Data from 28 healthy subjects were analyzed. Outcome measures were head-neck alignment angles, support angles of the backrest, and pressure distributions on the supporting surfaces. Compared with a typical wheelchair that has a flat backrest, the seat pressure decreased and the center of pressure was located in the middle of both the seat and backrest in the N-WC. Moreover, the head-neck alignment when seated in the N-WC was upright. These results highlight the importance of the shape of the wheelchair backrest. PMID:26288886

  11. Knee osteoarthritis affects the distribution of joint moments during gait.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Joseph A; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in lower extremity kinetics have been shown to exist in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA), however few investigations have examined how the intersegmental coordination of the lower extremity kinetic chain varies in the presence of knee joint pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate how knee OA and walking speed affect total support moment and individual joint contributions to the total support moment. Fifteen healthy subjects and 30 persons with knee OA participated in 3D walking analysis at constrained (1.0 m/s), self-selected and fastest tolerable walking speeds. Individual joint contributions to total support moment were analyzed using separate ANOVAs with one repeated measure (walking speed). Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution. Persons with knee OA reduced the contribution of the knee joint when walking at constrained (p = 0.04) and self-selected walking speeds (p = 0.009). There was a significant increase in the ankle contribution and a significant decrease in the hip contribution when walking speed was increased (p < 0.004), however individual walking speeds were not significantly related to joint contributions. This suggests that the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution is dependent on the individual's control strategy and we cannot estimate the joint contribution solely based on walking speed. The slower gait speed observed in persons with knee OA is not responsible for the reduction in knee joint moments, rather this change is likely due to alterations in the neuromuscular strategy of the lower extremity kinetic chain in response to joint pain or muscle weakness. PMID:20510618

  12. Muscular forces affect the glycosaminoglycan content of joint cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ganse, Bergita; Zange, Jochen; Weber, Tobias; Pohle-Fröhlich, Regina; Johannes, Bernd W; Hackenbroch, Matthias; Rittweger, Jörn; Eysel, Peer; Koy, Timmo

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Unloading alters the thickness of joint cartilage. It is unknown, however, to what extent unloading leads to a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the cartilage tissue. We hypothesized that muscle forces, in addition to axial loading, are necessary to maintain the joint cartilage GAG content of the knee and the upper and lower ankle. Patients and methods The HEPHAISTOS orthosis was worn unilaterally by 11 men (mean age 31 (23–50) years old) for 56 days. The orthosis reduces activation and force production of the calf muscles while it permits full gravitational loading of the lower leg. MRI measurements of the knee and ankle were taken before the intervention, during the intervention (on day 49), and 14 days after the end of the intervention. Cartilage segmentation was conducted semiautomatically for the knee joint (4 segments) and for the upper (tibio-talar) and lower (subtalar) ankle joints (2 segments each). Linear mixed-effects (LME) models were used for statistical analysis. Results 8 volunteers completed the MRI experiment. In the lower ankle joint, differences in ΔT1 were found between the end of the intervention and 14 days after (p = 0.004), indicating a decrease in GAG content after reloading. There were no statistically significant differences in ΔT1 values in the knee and upper ankle joints. Interpretation Our findings suggest that in addition to gravitational load, muscular forces affect cartilage composition depending on the local distribution of forces in the joints affected by muscle contraction. PMID:25417835

  13. Simultaneous Bayesian Estimation of Alignment and Phylogeny under a Joint Model of Protein Sequence and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Joseph L.; Challis, Christopher J.; Novák, Ádám; Hein, Jotun; Schmidler, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    For sequences that are highly divergent, there is often insufficient information to infer accurate alignments, and phylogenetic uncertainty may be high. One way to address this issue is to make use of protein structural information, since structures generally diverge more slowly than sequences. In this work, we extend a recently developed stochastic model of pairwise structural evolution to multiple structures on a tree, analytically integrating over ancestral structures to permit efficient likelihood computations under the resulting joint sequence–structure model. We observe that the inclusion of structural information significantly reduces alignment and topology uncertainty, and reduces the number of topology and alignment errors in cases where the true trees and alignments are known. In some cases, the inclusion of structure results in changes to the consensus topology, indicating that structure may contain additional information beyond that which can be obtained from sequences. We use the model to investigate the order of divergence of cytoglobins, myoglobins, and hemoglobins and observe a stabilization of phylogenetic inference: although a sequence-based inference assigns significant posterior probability to several different topologies, the structural model strongly favors one of these over the others and is more robust to the choice of data set. PMID:24899668

  14. Weighted joint sparse representation-based classification method for robust alignment-free face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Guoyan; He, Jun; Ge, Fengxiang

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a weighted joint sparse representation (WJSR)-based classification method for robust alignment-free face recognition, in which an image is represented by a set of scale-invariant feature transform descriptors. The proposed method considers the correlation and the reliability of the query descriptors. The reliability is measured by the similarity information between the query descriptors and the atoms in the dictionary, which is incorporated into the l0∖l2-norm minimization to seek the optimal WJSR. Compared with the related state-of-art methods, the performance is advanced, as verified by the experiments on the benchmark face databases.

  15. How tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations affect predictions of medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary F; DeMers, Matthew S; Delp, Scott L; Browning, Raymond C

    2015-02-26

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined through radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r(2)=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r(2)=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. PMID:25595425

  16. How Tibiofemoral Alignment and Contact Locations Affect Predictions of Medial and Lateral Tibiofemoral Contact Forces

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Zachary F.; DeMers, Matthew S.; Delp, Scott L.; Browning, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined via radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r2=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r2=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. PMID:25595425

  17. A new approach to implant alignment and ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty focussing on joint loads.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Frauke; Schwenninger, Christoph; Nolten, Ulrich; Firmbach, Franz Peter; Elfring, Robert; Radermacher, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    Preservation and recovery of the mechanical leg axis as well as good rotational alignment of the prosthesis components and well-balanced ligaments are essential for the longevity of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In the framework of the OrthoMIT project, the genALIGN system, a new navigated implantation approach based on intra-operative force-torque measurements, has been developed. With this system, optical or magnetic position tracking as well as any fixation of invasive rigid bodies are no longer necessary. For the alignment of the femoral component along the mechanical axis, a sensor-integrated instrument measures the torques resulting from the deviation between the instrument's axis and the mechanical axis under manually applied axial compression load. When both axes are coaxial, the resulting torques equal zero, and the tool axis can be fixed with respect to the bone. For ligament balancing and rotational alignment of the femoral component, the genALIGN system comprises a sensor-integrated tibial trial inlay measuring the amplitude and application points of the forces transferred between femur and tibia. Hereby, the impact of ligament tensions on knee joint loads can be determined over the whole range of motion. First studies with the genALIGN system, including a comparison with an imageless navigation system, show the feasibility of the concept. PMID:22868781

  18. A robotic apparatus that dictates torque fields around joints without affecting inherent joint dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oytam, Yalchin; Lloyd, David; Reid, Campbell S; de Rugy, Aymar; Carson, Richard G

    2010-10-01

    This manuscript describes how motor behaviour researchers who are not at the same time expert roboticists may implement an experimental apparatus, which has the ability to dictate torque fields around a single joint on one limb or single joints on multiple limbs without otherwise interfering with the inherent dynamics of those joints. Such an apparatus expands the exploratory potential of the researcher wherever experimental distinction of factors may necessitate independent control of torque fields around multiple limbs, or the shaping of torque fields of a given joint independently of its plane of motion, or its directional phase within that plane. The apparatus utilizes torque motors. The challenge with torque motors is that they impose added inertia on limbs and thus attenuate joint dynamics. We eliminated this attenuation by establishing an accurate mathematical model of the robotic device using the Box-Jenkins method, and cancelling out its dynamics by employing the inverse of the model as a compensating controller. A direct measure of the remnant inertial torque as experienced by the hand during a 50 s period of wrist oscillations that increased gradually in frequency from 1.0 to 3.8 Hz confirmed that the removal of the inertial effect of the motor was effectively complete. PMID:20728232

  19. Effect of Stomatognathic Alignment Exercise on Temporomandibular Joint Function and Swallowing Function of Stroke Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Duck-Won; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients presenting limited mouth opening. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis presenting limited mouth opening were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 7 subjects in each group. [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in a stomatognathic alignment exercise program that consisted of mobility exercises of the TMJ and neck and postural correction. Main outcome measures were neck mobility, the active maximum range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index (CMI), and the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA) score. [Results] The changes in the values of the range of mouth opening, CMI, MASA, and all the parameters of neck mobility were significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, post-test values appeared to be significantly different for the range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index, and the MASA scores between the groups (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Stomatognathic alignment exercise may improve TMJ function and swallowing function of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. PMID:24259786

  20. Perturbation amplitude affects linearly estimated neuromechanical wrist joint properties.

    PubMed

    Klomp, Asbjorn; de Groot, Jurriaan H; de Vlugt, Erwin; Meskers, Carel G M; Arendzen, J Hans; van der Helm, Frans C T

    2014-04-01

    System identification techniques have been used to separate intrinsic muscular and reflexive contributions to joint impedance, which is an essential step in the proper choice of patient specific treatment. These techniques are, however, only well developed for linear systems. Assuming linearity prescribes the neuromuscular system to be perturbed only around predefined operating points. In this study, we test the validity of a commonly used linear model by analyzing the effects of flexion-extension displacement amplitude (2(°), 4(°), and 8(°)) on damping, stiffness, and reflex gain of the wrist joint, at different background torque levels (0, 1, and 2 N · m). With displacement amplitude, intrinsic damping increased, while intrinsic stiffness and reflex gains decreased. These changes were dependent on the level of wrist torque. The dependency of the neuromuscular system properties on even small variations in angular displacement is evident and has to be accounted for when comparing different studies and clinical interpretations using linear identification techniques. Knowledge of the behavior of the neuromuscular system around operating points is an essential step toward the development of nonlinear models that allow for discrimination between patients and controls in a larger range of loading conditions. PMID:24216632

  1. Locking Plate in Proximal Tibial Fracture: A Correlation between the Coronal Alignment of Tibia and Joint Screw Angle

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jong-Keon; Varte, Lalrinliana; Ko, Jae-Han; Oh, Chang-Wug; Jung, Duk-Young; An, Hyonggin; Cho, Jae-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the angle formed between the proximal most screw through the locking compression plate-proximal lateral tibia (LCP PLT) and the joint line, and to evaluate if this angle can be used intraoperatively as an assessment tool to determine normal alignment of the tibia in the coronal plane. Materials and Methods There are two parts to this study: in the first part, LCP PLT was applied to 30 cadaveric adult tibia. The angle between the joint line and the proximal most screw was measured and termed as the 'joint screw angle' (JSA). In the second part, 56 proximal tibial fractures treated with LCP PLT were retrospectively studied. Two angles were measured on the radiographs, the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) and the JSA. Their relationship was analyzed statistically. Results The average JSA was 1.16 degrees in the anatomical study. Statistical analysis of the clinical study showed that the normal MPTA had a direct correlation with an acceptable JSA. Conclusion We therefore conclude that the JSA can be used intraoperatively to assess the achievement of a normal coronal axis. PMID:23549821

  2. Evaluation of an Image-Based Tool to Examine the Effect of Fracture Alignment and Joint Congruency on Outcomes after Wrist Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lalone, Emily A; Grewal, Ruby; King, Graham W; MacDermid, Joy C

    2015-01-01

    Some mal-alignment of the wrist occurs in up to 71% of patients following a distal radius fracture. A multiple case study was used to provide proof of principle of an image-based technique to investigate the evolution and impact of post-traumatic joint changes at the distal radioulnar joint. Participants who had a unilateral distal radius fracture who previously participated in a prospective study were recruited from a single tertiary hand center. Long term follow-up measures of pain, disability, range of motion and radiographic alignment were obtained and compared to joint congruency measures. The inter-bone distance, a measure of joint congruency was quantified from reconstructed CT bone models of the distal radius and ulna and the clinical outcome was quantified using the patient rated wrist evaluation. In all four cases, acceptable post-reduction alignment and minimal pain/disability at 1-year suggested good clinical outcomes. However, 10 years following injury, 3 out of 4 patients had radiographic signs of degenerative changes occurring in their injured wrist (distal radioulnar joint/radio-carpal joint). Proximity maps displaying inter-bone distances showed asymmetrical congruency between wrists in these three patients. The 10-year PRWE (patient rated wrist evaluation) varied from 4 to 60, with 3 reporting minimal pain/disability and one experiencing high pain/disability. These illustrative cases demonstrate long-term joint damage post-fracture is common and occurs despite positive short-term clinical outcomes. Imaging and functional outcomes are not necessarily correlated. A novel congruency measure provides an indicator of the overall impact of joint mal-alignment that can be used to determine predictors of post-traumatic arthritis and is viable for clinical or large cohort studies. PMID:26157534

  3. Joint Alignment of Underwater and Above-The Photogrammetric 3d Models by Independent Models Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Troisi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2015-04-01

    The surveying and 3D modelling of objects that extend both below and above the water level, such as ships, harbour structures, offshore platforms, are still an open issue. Commonly, a combined and simultaneous survey is the adopted solution, with acoustic/optical sensors respectively in underwater and in air (most common) or optical/optical sensors both below and above the water level. In both cases, the system must be calibrated and a ship is to be used and properly equipped with also a navigation system for the alignment of sequential 3D point clouds. Such a system is usually highly expensive and has been proved to work with still structures. On the other hand for free floating objects it does not provide a very practical solution. In this contribution, a flexible, low-cost alternative for surveying floating objects is presented. The method is essentially based on photogrammetry, employed for surveying and modelling both the emerged and submerged parts of the object. Special targets, named Orientation Devices, are specifically designed and adopted for the successive alignment of the two photogrammetric models (underwater and in air). A typical scenario where the proposed procedure can be particularly suitable and effective is the case of a ship after an accident whose damaged part is underwater and necessitate to be measured (Figure 1). The details of the mathematical procedure are provided in the paper, together with a critical explanation of the results obtained from the adoption of the method for the survey of a small pleasure boat in floating condition.

  4. Door Opening Affects Operating Room Pressure During Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mears, Simon C; Blanding, Renee; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Many resources are expended to ensure a sterile operating room environment. Efforts are made to prevent exposure of patients to personnel and to achieve positive room pressure to keep out airborne contaminants. Foot traffic into and out of the operating room during surgery can undermine these efforts. The authors investigated the number and duration of operating room door openings during hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and the effect of the door openings on room pressure. They tested the hypothesis that door openings defeat positive pressure, permitting air flow into the room. Room pressure and door status were monitored electronically during 191 hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. Operating room staff were unaware that data were being collected. The authors evaluated the data with regression analysis to determine whether the number and duration of door openings had an effect on room pressure. Significance was set at P<.05. Doors were open, on average, 9.5 minutes per case. In 77 of 191 cases, positive pressure was defeated, allowing air flow to reverse into the operating room. Total time with the door open significantly affected the minimum pressure recorded in the room (P<.02), but did not significantly affect average room pressure (P=.7). This finding suggested that the loss of positive pressure was a transient event from which the room recovered. The number and duration of door openings showed a significant association with length of surgery. Door openings threaten positive pressure, potentially jeopardizing operating room sterility. The causes of excessive operating room traffic must be evaluated to identify ways to reduce this traffic and the associated risks. PMID:26558679

  5. Robust Multi-Network Clustering via Joint Cross-Domain Cluster Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Cheng, Wei; Tong, Hanghang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Network clustering is an important problem that has recently drawn a lot of attentions. Most existing work focuses on clustering nodes within a single network. In many applications, however, there exist multiple related networks, in which each network may be constructed from a different domain and instances in one domain may be related to instances in other domains. In this paper, we propose a robust algorithm, MCA, for multi-network clustering that takes into account cross-domain relationships between instances. MCA has several advantages over the existing single network clustering methods. First, it is able to detect associations between clusters from different domains, which, however, is not addressed by any existing methods. Second, it achieves more consistent clustering results on multiple networks by leveraging the duality between clustering individual networks and inferring cross-network cluster alignment. Finally, it provides a multi-network clustering solution that is more robust to noise and errors. We perform extensive experiments on a variety of real and synthetic networks to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of MCA.

  6. Nanofiber alignment and direction of mechanical strain affect the ECM production of human ACL fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hun; Shin, Ho Joon; Cho, In Hee; Kang, Young-Mi; Kim, In Ae; Park, Ki-Dong; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2005-04-01

    The effects of fiber alignment and direction of mechanical stimuli on the ECM generation of human ligament fibroblast (HLF) were assessed. The nanofiber matrix was fabricated using electrospinning technique. To align the nanofibers, a rotating target was used. The HLFs on the aligned nanofibers were spindle-shaped and oriented in the direction of the nanofibers. The degree of ECM production was evaluated by comparing the amount of collagen on aligned and randomly oriented structures. Significantly more collagen was synthesized on aligned nanofiber sheets, although the proliferation did not differ significantly. This suggests that the spindle-shape observable in intact ligaments is preferable in producing ECM. To evaluate the effect of strain direction on the ECM production, HLFs were seeded on parallel aligned, vertically aligned to the strain direction, and randomly oriented nanofiber sheets attached to Flexcell plates. After a 48-h culture, 5% uniaxial strain was applied for 24h at a frequency of 12 cycles/min. The amounts of collagen produced were measured 2 days after halting the strain application. The HLFs were more sensitive to strain in the longitudinal direction. In conclusion, the aligned nanofiber scaffold used in this study constitutes a promising base material for tissue-engineered ligament in that it provides more preferable biomimetic structure, along with proper mechanical environment. PMID:15475056

  7. Quantitative Analysis of the Degree of Frontal Rotation Required to Anatomically Align the First Metatarsal Phalangeal Joint During Modified Tarsal-Metatarsal Arthrodesis Without Capsular Balancing.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Paul; Kauwe, Merrell; DiDomenico, Lawrence; Feilmeier, Mindi; Reimer, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The data from 35 consecutive patients with hallux valgus undergoing triplane arthrodesis at the first tarsal metatarsal joint were studied to determine the amount of first metatarsal frontal plane rotation (supination) needed to anatomically align the first metatarsal phalangeal joint on an anterior posterior radiograph without soft tissue balancing at the first metatarsal phalangeal joint. Radiographs were measured both pre- and postoperatively to assess the 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, and tibial sesamoid position (TSP). The mean amount of varus (supination) rotation performed during correction was 22.1° ± 5.2° and the mean amount of intermetatarsal angle reduction achieved after completion of the procedure was 6.9° ± 3.0°. The TSP changed by a mean of 3.3° ± 1.2°. A series of univariate linear regression analyses was performed to analyze the relationship between the frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal performed during the operation and the preoperative intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, and TSP. Greater preoperative TSP scores were associated with greater intraoperative varus (supination) rotation required for joint alignment. Direct observation of the alignment changes at the first metatarsal phalangeal joint after metatarsal rotation without distal procedures strengthened the notion that the frontal plane rotational position plays an important role in the bunion deformity. PMID:26481263

  8. Joint Attention Initiation with and without Positive Affect: Risk Group Differences and Associations with ASD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Devon N.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of…

  9. A Novel Joint Spatial-Code Clustered Interference Alignment Scheme for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhilu; Jiang, Lihui; Ren, Guanghui; Zhao, Nan; Zhao, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) has been put forward as a promising technique which can mitigate interference and effectively increase the throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the number of users is strictly restricted by the IA feasibility condition, and the interference leakage will become so strong that the quality of service will degrade significantly when there are more users than that IA can support. In this paper, a novel joint spatial-code clustered (JSCC)-IA scheme is proposed to solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the users are clustered into several groups so that feasible IA can be achieved within each group. In addition, each group is assigned a pseudo noise (PN) code in order to suppress the inter-group interference via the code dimension. The analytical bit error rate (BER) expressions of the proposed JSCC-IA scheme are formulated for the systems with identical and different propagation delays, respectively. To further improve the performance of the JSCC-IA scheme in asymmetric networks, a random grouping selection (RGS) algorithm is developed to search for better grouping combinations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed JSCC-IA scheme is capable of accommodating many more users to communicate simultaneously in the same frequency band with better performance. PMID:25602270

  10. Modes of Presentation of Reactive Arthritis Based on the Affected Joints

    PubMed Central

    Lahu, Ali; Backa, Teuta; Ismaili, Jehona; Lahu, Vendenis; Saiti, Valton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive arthritis is an autoimmune condition that occurs as a reaction against an infection site elsewhere in the body. Reactive arthritis affects mostly young ages, mainly group age 20-40 y.o., mostly males with ratio 2:1 against females, sometimes 3:1, and even 14:1. The purpose of the study was to observe the mode of illness presentation based on the number of affected joints. Material and Methods: During the 01.03.2012 – 01.03.2014 in the Clinic for Rheumatology and O.S.I.R. “Vendenisi – AL” in Besiana have been examined, elaborated and hospitalized 100 patients with reactive arthritis, out of them 66 males and 34 females. Patients underwent necessary laboratory, hematological, biochemical, and immunological examinations. Subsequently each affected joint has been examined based on the propedeutics rules (inspection, palpation and assessment of the level of motility), as well as x ray examination. Results: From 100 examined patients 66% were males and 34% females respectively. 11% of them were in the 10-20y.o. group age, 30% belonged to group age 21-30 y.o., 24% of patients to 31-40 y.o. group age, 30% to 41-50 y.o. group age, and 5% of patients to the group age over the 51 year old. Regarding the affected articulations and modes of illness presentation, we‘ve obtained the following results: Knee was affected in 64.7% female and 52,12% male patients respectively, T/C joint in 50% female and 57.57% male patients, MTPH joint in 41.11% female and 48.48% male patients respectively, and R/C joint in 44.11% female and 48.48% male patients respectively. Oligoarticular type is seen in 73% male and 70% female patients. Monoarticular type is seen in 14% male and 13% female patients, and poliarticular type is seen in 10% male and 14% female patients respectively. Results from our study have revealed that: reactive arthritis is more frequent in males than females in ratio 2:1 in the infections of urogenital infection, 3:1 in nasopharyngeal

  11. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an "extended common currency" perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  12. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an “extended common currency” perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  13. IUS prerelease alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter/IUS alignment transfer was evaluated. Although the orbiter alignment accuracy was originally believed to be the major contributor to the overall alignment transfer error, it was shown that orbiter alignment accuracy is not a factor affecting IUS alignment accuracy, if certain procedures are followed. Results are reported of alignment transfer accuracy analysis.

  14. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Ibanez, Lisa V; Henderson, Heather A; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2015-12-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of facial positive affect (N290/P400, Nc) at 9 months and their relation to joint attention at 15 months. Group differences were most pronounced for subtle facial expressions, in that the low-risk group exhibited relatively longer processing (P400 latency) and greater attention resource allocation (Nc amplitude). Exploratory analyses found associations between ERP responses and later joint attention, suggesting that attention to positive affect cues may support the development of other social competencies. PMID:25056131

  15. [THE ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS OF MINERAL METABOLISM IN PATIENTS WITH DEGENERATIVE DYSTROPHIC AFFECTIONS OF JOINTS].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, A G; Matveeva, E L; Spirkina, E S

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of indicators of mineral metabolism in patients with degenerative dystrophic affections of joints demonstrated that under development of osteoarthrosis process the alteration of indicators of concentration of electrolytes in blood serum, urine and synovial fluid occurs. The stage II of process is characterized by maximal alterations of indicators. The indicator of relationship between concentration of phosphate-ion and index of phosphatases of blood serum turned out the significant coefficient of correlation. PMID:27032248

  16. Factors affecting the postoperative limb alignment and clinical outcome after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Hong Chul

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the postoperative mechanical axis deviation and clinical outcome according to bearing size, femoral component position, and tibial resection angle after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). A total of 104 patients with 124 knees underwent Oxford phase 3 UKA. The overall changes in mechanical axis deviation and tibiofemoral angle were significantly different according to bearing size (P = .001 and < .001), but they were not significantly different according to the tibial resection angle and femoral component position. The postoperative mechanical axis fell into the zone C or zone 2 in 108 knees (87%) and into the zone 3 or zone 4 in 16 cases (13%). One hundred eight cases, which had the mechanical axis passing the zone C or zone 2, did not show any progression of arthritis. Limb alignment is a function of the thickness of the bearing rather than alignments of femoral and tibial implant. PMID:22285234

  17. Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atoofi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

  18. Patient characteristics affecting the prognosis of total hip and knee joint arthroplasty: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Santaguida, Pasqualina L.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Hudak, Pamela L.; Glazier, Richard; Mahomed, Nizar N.; Kreder†, Hans J.; Coyte, Peter C.; Wright, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Total joint arthroplasty is a highly efficacious and cost-effective procedure for moderate to severe arthritis in the hip and knee. Although patient characteristics are considered to be important determinants of who receives total joint arthroplasty, no systematic review has addressed how they affect the outcomes of total joint arthroplasty. This study addresses how patient characteristics influence the outcomes of hip and knee arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis. Methods We searched 4 bibliographic databases (MEDLINE 1980–2001, CINAHL 1982–2001, EMBASE 1980–2001, HealthStar 1998–1999) for studies involving more than 500 patients with osteoarthritis and 1 or more of the following outcomes after total joint arthroplasty: pain, physical function, postoperative complications (short-and long-term) and time to revision. Prognostic patient characteristics of interest included age, sex, race, body weight, socioeconomic status and work status. Results Sixty-four of 14 276 studies were eligible for inclusion and had extractable data. Younger age (variably defined) and male sex increased the risk of revision 3-fold to 5-fold for hip and knee arthroplasty. The influence of weight on the risk of revision was contradictory. Mortality was greatest in the oldest age group and among men. Function for older patients was worse after hip arthroplasty (particularly in women). Function after knee arthroplasty was worse for obese patients. Conclusion Although further research is required, our findings suggest that, after total joint arthroplasty, younger age and male sex are associated with increased risk of revision, older age and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality, older age is related to worse function (particularly among women), and age and sex do not influence the outcome of pain. Despite these findings, all subgroups derived benefit from total joint arthroplasty, suggesting that surgeons should not restrict access to these

  19. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, E; Ceccarelli, F; Massaro, L; Spinelli, F R; Alessandri, C; Perricone, C; Valesini, G; Conti, F

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint) were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28) and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0). We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD) age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7) and 1 (IQR 2.5), respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6). According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001). The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index. PMID:26492964

  20. Joint attention initiation with and without positive affect: risk group differences and associations with ASD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Devon N; Ibañez, Lisa V; Messinger, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of anticipatory smiling at 8, 10, and 12 months in infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) and without ASD (low-risk siblings). High-risk siblings produced less anticipatory smiling than low-risk siblings, suggesting early differences in communicating preexisting positive affect. While early anticipatory smiling distinguished the risk groups, IJA not accompanied by smiling best predicted later severity of ASD-related behavioral characteristics among high-risk siblings. High-risk infants appear to show lower levels of motivation to share positive affect with others. However, facility with initiating joint attention in the absence of a clear index of positive affective motivation appears to be central to the prediction of ASD symptoms. PMID:24281421

  1. Compressive and shear hip joint contact forces are affected by pediatric obesity during walking.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary F; Browning, Raymond C

    2016-06-14

    Obese children exhibit altered gait mechanics compared to healthy-weight children and have an increased prevalence of hip pain and pathology. This study sought to determine the relationships between body mass and compressive and shear hip joint contact forces during walking. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during treadmill walking at 1ms(-1) in 10 obese and 10 healthy-weight 8-12 year-olds. We estimated body composition, segment masses, lower-extremity alignment, and femoral neck angle via radiographic images, created personalized musculoskeletal models in OpenSim, and computed muscle forces and hip joint contact forces. Hip extension at mid-stance was 9° less, on average, in the obese children (p<0.001). Hip abduction, knee flexion, and body-weight normalized peak hip moments were similar between groups. Normalized to body-weight, peak contact forces were similar at the first peak and slightly lower at the second peak between the obese and healthy-weight participants. Total body mass explained a greater proportion of contact force variance compared to lean body mass in the compressive (r(2)=0.89) and vertical shear (perpendicular to the physis acting superior-to-inferior) (r(2)=0.84) directions; lean body mass explained a greater proportion in the posterior shear direction (r(2)=0.54). Stance-average contact forces in the compressive and vertical shear directions increased by 41N and 48N, respectively, for every kilogram of body mass. Age explained less than 27% of the hip loading variance. No effect of sex was found. The proportionality between hip loads and body-weight may be implicated in an obese child׳s increased risk of hip pain and pathology. PMID:27040390

  2. Exploring Alignment between Affective Assessments and College Success Courses: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begotka, James

    2012-01-01

    Many two-year colleges throughout the nation are intentionally redesigning developmental education programming and practices directed at improving student preparedness and success. Theoretical works from Bloom and Knowles have established that the affective domain is significant to learner preparedness and eventual success, specifically for adult…

  3. Factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive range of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27313371

  4. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  5. Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (Beighton type); mutation analysis in eight affected South African families.

    PubMed

    Vorster, A A; Beighton, P; Ramesar, R S

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (SEMD-JL), type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder which has been identified in more than 30 affected children in the Afrikaans-speaking community of South Africa. Sequencing of B3GALT6 revealed a specific mutation, c.235A > G, in homozygous form in four families, while three others were compound heterozygotes for this mutation in combination with the c.200C > T mutation. In addition, a proband from one family carried the c.16C > T mutation combined with c.200C > T. In a series of five Iranian persons, mutations in B3GALT6 have been implicated in a syndrome characterised by skeletal abnormalities with intellectual disability, bone and connective tissue fragility. Other mutations in B3GALT6 resulted in the classical SEMD-JL phenotype in seven Japanese families and in a syndrome which has been likened to a progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). It is evident that there is considerable intragenic heterogeneity in B3GALT6. One of the mutations, c.200C > T, in the affected South Africans was also present in one of the Japanese persons and the respective phenotypes were identical. The multiplicity of allelic mutations and the phenotypic differences in the affected persons supports the concept that a spectrum of connective tissue disorders is programmed by mutations in B3GALT6. PMID:24766538

  6. Structure and ductility of the heat-affected zone of welded joints of a high-strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.; Nosov, A. D.; Goncharov, S. N.; Gudnev, N. Z.; Delgado Reina, S. Yu.; Yakovleva, I. L.

    2014-12-01

    Methods of optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy have been used to study the structure of welded joints of a high-strength structural steel with different types of the weld metal. The impact toughness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has been determined at temperatures of +20 and -40°C. Based on the fractograph investigations of the character of the fracture of the welded joints after tests for impact bending, the regions that are the most dangerous for crack initiation have been determined. Structural factors that affect the brittleness of the near-weld zone of welded joints with the austenite metal of the weld are indicated, including the existence of an austenite-bainite structure and coarse carbides, as well as the specific distribution of hydrogen.

  7. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

  8. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  9. Prosthesis alignment affects axial rotation motion after total knee replacement: a prospective in vivo study combining computed tomography and fluoroscopic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical consequences of alignment errors in total knee replacement (TKR) have led to the rigorous evaluation of surgical alignment techniques. Rotational alignment in the transverse plane has proven particularly problematic, with errors due to component malalignment relative to bone anatomic landmarks and an overall mismatch between the femoral and tibial components’ relative positions. Ranges of nominal rotational alignment are not well defined, especially for the tibial component and for relative rotational mismatch, and some studies advocate the use of mobile-bearing TKR to accommodate the resulting small rotation errors. However, the relationships between prosthesis rotational alignment and mobile-bearing polyethylene insert motion are poorly understood. This prospective, in vivo study evaluates whether component malalignment and mismatch affect axial rotation motions during passive knee flexion after TKR. Methods Eighty patients were implanted with mobile-bearing TKR. Rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components was measured from postoperative CT scans. All TKR were categorized into nominal or outlier groups based on defined norms for surgical rotational alignment relative to bone anatomic landmarks and relative rotational mismatch between the femoral and tibial components. Axial rotation motion of the femoral, tibial and polyethylene bearing components was measured from fluoroscopic images acquired during passive knee flexion. Results Axial rotation motion was generally accomplished in two phases, dominated by polyethylene bearing rotation on the tibial component in early to mid-flexion and then femoral component rotation on the polyethylene articular surface in later flexion. Opposite rotations of the femur-bearing and bearing-baseplate articulations were evident at flexion greater than 80°. Knees with outlier alignment had lower magnitudes of axial rotation and distinct transitions from external to internal rotation during mid

  10. Does joint line elevation after revision knee arthroplasty affect tibio-femoral kinematics, contact pressure or collateral ligament lengths? An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczewski, Jacek B.; Chevalier, Yan; Okon, Tomasz; Innocenti, Bernardo; Bellemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Correct restoration of the joint line is generally considered as crucial when performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). During revision knee arthroplasty however, elevation of the joint line occurs frequently. The general belief is that this negatively affects the clinical outcome, but the reasons are still not well understood. Material and methods In this cadaveric in vitro study the biomechanical consequences of joint line elevation were investigated using a previously validated cadaver model simulating active deep knee squats and passive flexion-extension cycles. Knee specimens were sequentially tested after total knee arthroplasty with joint line restoration and after 4 mm joint line elevation. Results The tibia rotated internally with increasing knee flexion during both passive and squatting motion (range: 17° and 7° respectively). Joint line elevation of 4 mm did not make a statistically significant difference. During passive motion, the tibia tended to become slightly more adducted with increasing knee flexion (range: 2°), while it went into slighlty less adduction during squatting (range: –2°). Neither of both trends was influenced by joint line elevation. Also anteroposterior translation of the femoral condyle centres was not affected by joint line elevation, although there was a tendency for a small posterior shift (of about 3 mm) during squatting after joint line elevation. In terms of kinetics, ligaments lengths and length changes, tibiofemoral contact pressures and quadriceps forces all showed the same patterns before and joint line elevation. No statistically significant changes could be detected. Conclusions Our study suggests that joint line elevation by 4 mm in revision total knee arthroplasty does not cause significant kinematic and kinetic differences during passive flexion/extension movement and squatting in the tibio-femoral joint, nor does it affect the elongation patterns of collateral ligaments. Therefore, clinical

  11. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  12. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  13. Detecting fiducials affected by trombone delay in ARC and the main laser alignment at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Bliss, Erlan S.; Miller Kamm, Victoria; Leach, Richard R.; Roberts, Randy; Rushford, Michael C.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are currently being diverted into the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) system to generate a sequence of short (1-50 picoseconds) 1053 nm laser pulses. When focused onto high Z wires in vacuum, these pulses create high energy x-ray pulses capable of penetrating the dense, imploding fusion fuel plasma during ignition scale experiments. The transmitted x-rays imaged with x-ray diagnostics can create movie radiographs that are expected to provide unprecedented insight into the implosion dynamics. The resulting images will serve as a diagnostic for tuning the experimental parameters towards successful fusion reactions. Beam delays introduced into the ARC pulses via independent, free-space optical trombones create the desired x-ray image sequence, or movie. However, these beam delays cause optical distortion of various alignment fiducials viewed by alignment sensors in the NIF and ARC beamlines. This work describes how the position of circular alignment fiducials is estimated in the presence of distortion.

  14. Inconsistencies between navigation data and radiographs in total knee arthroplasty are system-dependent and affect coronal alignment

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Alberto; Aoude, Ahmed; Reuven, Avishai; Matache, Bogdan; Antoniou, John; Zukor, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have compared the effect of different computer navigation systems on postoperative alignment in patients who have had total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We examined 2 computed tomography (CT)–free computer navigation systems by comparing the accuracy of intraoperative measurements to postoperative alignment. Methods Patients underwent unilateral TKA performed by a single surgeon using 1 of 2 CT-free navigation systems. We compared final intraoperative tibial and femoral coronal angles and mechanical axis with the same angles measured on standing postoperative radiographs. Results Groups of 31 and 50 patients underwent TKA with the 2 systems, respectively. We noted a significant difference in the coronal tibial implant angle (1.29º ± 1.35º) and in the mechanical axis (1.59º ± 2.36º) for one navigation system (both p < 0.001), while only the coronal tibial implant angle showed a significant difference (1.17º ± 1.65º, p < 0.001) for the second system. The number of radiographic outliers also significantly differed. A significantly higher proportion (32%; p < 0.01) of patients in the second cohort exhibited unacceptable malalignment compared with the first cohort (24%). Conclusion Navigation systems for TKA continue to increase in sophistication and popularity. Owing to the significant difference in the proportion of alignment outliers in the 2 navigation systems tested in this study, orthopedic surgeons should not consider all TKA navigation systems equivalent. Additional investigations are needed to compare the accuracy of a variety of CT-free and CT-based navigation systems and to confirm our finding that accuracy is system-dependent. PMID:25265103

  15. Does surgical approach or prosthesis type affect hip joint loading one year after surgery?

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-02-01

    Several approaches may be used for hip replacement surgery either in combination with conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) or resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA). This study investigates the differences in hip loading during gait one year or more after surgery in three cohorts presenting different surgical procedures, more specific RHA placed using the direct lateral (RHA-DLA, n=8) and posterolateral (RHA-PLA, n=14) approach as well as THA placed using the direct anterior (THA-DAA, n=12) approach. For the DAA and control subjects, hip loading was also evaluated during stair ascent and descent to evaluate whether these motions can better discriminate between patients and controls compared to gait. Musculoskeletal modelling in OpenSim was used to calculate in vivo joint loading. Results showed that for all operated patients, regardless the surgical procedure, hip loading was decreased compared to control subjects, while no differences were found between patient groups. This indicates that THA via DAA results in similar hip loading as a RHA via DLA or PLA. Stair climbing did not result in more distinct differences in hip contact force magnitude between patients and controls, although differences in orientation were more distinct. However, patients after hip surgery did adjust their motion pattern to decrease the magnitude of loading on the hip joint compared to control subjects. PMID:27004636

  16. Simplified Radiographic Damage Index for Affected Joints in Chronic Gouty Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Tae Eun; Park, Kyungmin; Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new radiographic damage scoring method (DAmagE index of GoUt; DAEGU) in chronic gout using plain radiography. Two independent observers scored foot x-rays from 15 patients with chronic gout according to the DAEGU method and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvdH) method. The 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and 2 interphalangeal (IP) joints of the first toes of both feet were scored to assess the degrees of erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN). The intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). The correlation between the DAEGU and SvdH methods was analyzed by calculating the Spearman's rho correlation coefficients and Kappa coefficients. The DAEGU method was found to be highly reproducible (0.945-0.987 for the intraobserver and 0.993-0.996 for the interobserver ICC values). The erosion, JSN, and total scores exhibited strong positive correlations between the DAEGU and SvdH methods and also within each method (r = 0.860-0.969, P < 0.001 for all parameters). The DAEGU and SvdH methods were in very good agreement as determined by Kappa coefficient analysis [0.732 (0.387-1.000) for erosion and 1.000 (1.000-1.000) for JSN]. In conclusion, this study revealed that DAEGU method was a reliable and feasible tool in the assessment of radiographic damage in chronic gout. The DAEGU method may provide a more easy assessment of structural damage in chronic gout in the real clinical practice. PMID:26955246

  17. Simplified Radiographic Damage Index for Affected Joints in Chronic Gouty Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new radiographic damage scoring method (DAmagE index of GoUt; DAEGU) in chronic gout using plain radiography. Two independent observers scored foot x-rays from 15 patients with chronic gout according to the DAEGU method and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvdH) method. The 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and 2 interphalangeal (IP) joints of the first toes of both feet were scored to assess the degrees of erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN). The intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). The correlation between the DAEGU and SvdH methods was analyzed by calculating the Spearman's rho correlation coefficients and Kappa coefficients. The DAEGU method was found to be highly reproducible (0.945–0.987 for the intraobserver and 0.993–0.996 for the interobserver ICC values). The erosion, JSN, and total scores exhibited strong positive correlations between the DAEGU and SvdH methods and also within each method (r = 0.860–0.969, P < 0.001 for all parameters). The DAEGU and SvdH methods were in very good agreement as determined by Kappa coefficient analysis [0.732 (0.387–1.000) for erosion and 1.000 (1.000–1.000) for JSN]. In conclusion, this study revealed that DAEGU method was a reliable and feasible tool in the assessment of radiographic damage in chronic gout. The DAEGU method may provide a more easy assessment of structural damage in chronic gout in the real clinical practice. PMID:26955246

  18. Dynamic behavior and failure of the base and heat affected materials of a HSS fillet welded joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Julien; Markiewicz, Eric; Haugou, Grégory; Lebaillif, David; Leconte, Nicolas; Naceur, Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Welded joints, due to their manufacturing process, are commonly weakened areas. This study analyses the dynamic behavior of the Base Metal (BM) and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) materials of a HSS (High Strength Steel) fillet welded joint. First, a specific approach is developed to generate the HAZ material using a thermal treatment. Hardness and grain size are used to validate the replicated HAZ. This approach appears efficient and repeatable. Secondly, the true stress-strain quasi-static and dynamic behaviors up to failure of the BM and the HAZ are determined. This characterization is performed thanks to video tracking procedure and Bridgman-LeRoy correction. The comparison between these two materials shows that the thermal field of the welding process increases the HAZ yield stress and hardening while decreasing the strain at failure. It appears that the base metal is not rate sensitive from quasi-static up to 1350 s-1. On the contrary, the heat affected material appears to be rate sensitive but by softening. This unexpected dynamic material softening requires further analyses.

  19. Emotional communication in the context of joint attention for food stimuli: effects on attentional and affective processing.

    PubMed

    Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Boulanger, Véronique; Garcia, Samuel; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Guided by distinct theoretical frameworks (the embodiment theories, shared-signal hypothesis, and appraisal theories), we examined the effects of gaze direction and emotional expressions (joy, disgust, and neutral) of virtual characters on attention orienting and affective reactivity of participants while they were engaged in joint attention for food stimuli contrasted by preference (disliked, moderately liked, and liked). The participants were exposed to videos of avatars looking at food and displaying facial expressions with their gaze directed either toward the food only or toward the food and participants consecutively. We recorded eye-tracking responses, heart rate, facial electromyography (zygomatic, corrugator, and levator labii regions), and food wanting/liking. The avatars' joy faces increased the participants' zygomatic reactions and food liking, with mutual eye contact boosting attentional responses. Eye contact also fostered disgust reactions to disliked food, regardless of the avatars' expressions. The findings show that joint attention for food accompanied by face-to-face emotional communication elicits differential attentional and affective responses. The findings appear consistent with the appraisal theories of emotion. PMID:25541512

  20. Pelvic limb alignment in small breed dogs: a comparison between affected and free subjects from medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Olimpo, Matteo; Piras, Lisa Adele; Peirone, Bruno

    2016-03-31

    Small breed dogs are 12 times more likely to develop medial patellar luxation (MPL) than large breed dogs and breed predisposition has been reported. Many surgical techniques are available for correction of patellar luxation in dogs. However, recent studies reported an 8% incidence of reluxation when traditional techniques are used. The relatively high frequency of major complications and patellar reluxation may be partially caused by inadequate appreciation of the underlying skeletal deformity and subsequent incorrect selection and application of traditional techniques. The aims of this study were to report the normal values of the anatomic and mechanical joint angles of the femur and tibia in small breed dogs and to compare these data to a population of small breed dogs a ected by di erent degrees of MPL. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the femur are similar to the ones reported in literature in Pomeranian dogs. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the tibia have been described for the rst time. Signi cant di erences were found between normal population and dogs a ected by grade 4 MPL in relation to anatomical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle (aLDFA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA). PMID:26681507

  1. The Influence Of Component Alignment On The Life Of Total Knee Prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugariu, Delia; Bereteu, Liviu

    2012-12-01

    An arthritic knee affects the patient's life by causing pain and limiting movement. If the cartilage and the bone surfaces are severely affected, the natural joint is replaced with an artificial joint. The procedure is called total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Lately, the numbers of implanted total knee prostheses grow steadily. An important factor in TKA is the perfect alignment of the total knee prosthesis (TKP) components. Component misalignment can lead to the prosthesis loss by producing wear particles. The paper proposes a study on mechanical behaviors of a TKP based on numerical analysis, using ANSYS software. The numerical analysis is based on both the normal and the changed angle of the components alignment.

  2. Microstructural transformations of heat affected zones in duplex steel welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, Jerzy . E-mail: jnowacki@ps.pl; Lukojc, Aleksander

    2006-06-15

    The influence of the welding thermal conditions exemplified by heat input and heat treatment after welding on the structure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) UNS S31803 has been analysed. The post weld treatment was used to create the precisely defined thermal conditions for the decomposition of primary phases in the HAZ, by a multi-layer welding thermal cycle stimulation. Detailed analyses of the microstructure and chemical composition of the phases in the different post welded conditions were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of secondary precipitates have been observed: secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}), carbides: M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. The dependence of the secondary austenite volume fraction and morphology in the HAZ on thermal cycle have been interpreted. The eutectoid decomposition of the primary phases in the analysed thermal conditions was confirmed.

  3. Characterization of Microstructures across the Heat-Affected Zone of the Modified 9Cr-1Mo Weld Joint to Understand Its Role in Promoting Type IV Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Parameswaran, P.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Mannan, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    In the postweld heat-treated (PWHT) fusion welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel joint, a soft zone was identified at the outer edge of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the base metal adjacent to the deposited weld metal. Hardness and tensile tests were performed on the base metal subjected to soaking for 5 minutes at temperatures below Ac1 to above Ac3 and tempering at the PWHT condition. These tests indicated that the soft zone in the weld joint corresponds to the intercritical region of HAZ. Creep tests were conducted on the base metal and cross weld joint. At relatively lower stresses and higher test temperatures, the weld joint possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal, and the difference in creep rupture life increased with the decrease in stress and increase in temperature. Preferential accumulation of creep deformation coupled with extensive creep cavitation in the intercritical region of HAZ led to the premature failure of the weld joint in the intercritical region of the HAZ, commonly known as type IV cracking. The microstructures across the HAZ of the weld joint have been characterized to understand the role of microstructure in promoting type IV cracking. Strength reduction in the intercritical HAZ of the joint resulted from the combined effects of coarsening of dislocation substructures and precipitates. Constrained deformation of the soft intercritical HAZ sandwich between relatively stronger constitutes of the joint induced creep cavitation in the soft zone resulting in premature failure.

  4. Morbid anatomy of ‘erosive osteoarthritis’ of the interphalangeal finger joints: an optimised scoring system to monitor disease progression in affected joints

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Gust; Wittoek, Ruth; Cruyssen, Bert Vander; Elewaut, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a quantitative radiographic scoring system, the Ghent University Scoring System (GUSS), with better ability to detect progression over a shorter period of time in erosive osteoarthritis (OA) of the interphalangeal (IP) finger joints compared with the existing anatomic phase scoring system. Methods Thirty IP finger joints showing erosive features at baseline or follow-up were selected from 18 patients with erosive hand OA. Posteroanterior radiographs of these joints obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months—totalling 90 images—were used for the study. All joints were first scored according to the original anatomic phase scoring system. Erosive progression and signs of repair or remodelling were then scored by indicating the proportion of normal subchondral bone, subchondral plate and joint space on an 11-point rating scale (range 0–100 with 10 unit increases). Inter- and intrareader reproducibility was studied using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Based on the within-variance of two readers, the smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated and allowed identification of joints with changes above the SDC as ‘progressors’. Results Longitudinal inter-reader ICC scores rated well for all variables and the total score (ICC 0.86–0.93). To identify ‘real’ change over background noise, a change of at least 40 units on the total score (range 0–300) over 12 months (SDC 0–12:36.0), and 50 units over 6 months (SDC 0–6:47.6) had to be present. 60% of the 30 joints were identified as ‘progressors’ over 6 months compared with 33.3% with the classical anatomical scoring system, and 70% versus 56.6%, respectively, over 12 months. Conclusion GUSS, is a reliable method to score radiographic change over time in erosive IP OA and detects more progression over a shorter period of time than the classical scoring system. PMID:19948521

  5. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Akif; Ozkul, Baris; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Atici, Yunus; Gultekin, Muhammet Zeki; Albayrak, Merih Dilan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men). For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years) and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years). Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005) compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective. PMID:27041884

  6. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  7. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  8. Four Weeks of Balance Training does not Affect Ankle Joint Stiffness in Subjects with Unilateral Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarang Kumar; Wauneka, Clayton N.; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Balance training has been shown to be effective in preventing ankle sprain recurrences in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) but the biomechanical pathways underlying the clinical outcomes are still unknown. This study was conducted to determine if a 4-week balance training intervention can alter the mechanical characteristics in ankles with CAI. Methods Twenty-two recreationally active subjects with unilateral CAI were randomized to either a control (n = 11, 35.1 ± 9.3 years) or intervention (n = 11, 33.5 ± 6.6 years) group. Subjects in the intervention group were trained on the affected limb with static and dynamic components using a Biodex balance stability system for 4-weeks. The ankle joint stiffness and neutral zone in inversion and eversion directions on the involved and uninvolved limbs was measured at baseline and post-intervention using a dynamometer. Results At baseline, the mean values of the inversion stiffness (0.69 ± 0.37 Nm/degree) in the involved ankle was significantly lower (p < 0.011, 95% CI [0.563, 0.544]) than that of uninvolved contralateral ankle (0.99 ± 0.41 Nm/degree). With the available sample size, the eversion stiffness, inversion neutral zone, and eversion neutral zone were not found to be significantly different between the involved and uninvolved contralateral ankles. The 4-week balance training intervention failed to show any significant effect on the passive ankle stiffness and neutral zones in inversion and eversion. Conclusion Decreased inversion stiffness in the involved chronic unstable ankle was found that of uninvolved contralateral ankle. The 4-week balance training program intervention was ineffective in altering the mechanical characteristics of ankles with CAI. Level of evidence Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1.

  9. Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming Is Affected by the Prime's Prediction Error Given both Prior and Recent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Snider, Neal E.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient…

  10. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  11. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  12. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprintmore » that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.« less

  13. Alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Grover C.; Gibson, O. Theodore

    1980-01-01

    A part alignment fixture is provided which may be used for precise variable lateral and tilt alignment relative to the fixture base of various shaped parts. The fixture may be used as a part holder for machining or inspection of parts or alignment of parts during assembly and the like. The fixture includes a precisely machined diameter disc-shaped hub adapted to receive the part to be aligned. The hub is nested in a guide plate which is adapted to carry two oppositely disposed pairs of positioning wedges so that the wedges may be reciprocatively positioned by means of respective micrometer screws. The sloping faces of the wedges contact the hub at respective quadrants of the hub periphery. The lateral position of the hub relative to the guide plate is adjusted by positioning the wedges with the associated micrometer screws. The tilt of the part is adjusted relative to a base plate, to which the guide plate is pivotally connected by means of a holding plate. Two pairs of oppositely disposed wedges are mounted for reciprocative lateral positioning by means of separate micrometer screws between flanges of the guide plate and the base plate. Once the wedges are positioned to achieve the proper tilt of the part or hub on which the part is mounted relative to the base plate, the fixture may be bolted to a machining, inspection, or assembly device.

  14. Conditions affecting the re-alignment of the antimicrobial peptide PGLa in membranes as monitored by solid state 2H-NMR.

    PubMed

    Tremouilhac, Pierre; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2006-09-01

    The cationic antimicrobial peptide PGLa is electrostatically attracted to bacterial membranes, binds as an amphiphilic alpha-helix, and is thus able to permeabilize the lipid bilayer. Using solid state (2)H-NMR of non-perturbing Ala-d(3) labels on the peptide, we have characterized the helix alignment under a range of different conditions. Even at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratio (1:20) and in the presence of negatively charged lipids, there was no indication of a toroidal wormhole structure. Instead, PGLa re-aligns from a surface-bound S-state to an obliquely tilted T-state, which is presumably dimeric. An intermediate structure half-way between the S- and T-state was observed in fully hydrated multilamellar DMPC vesicles at 1:50, suggesting a fast exchange between the two states on the time scale of >50 kHz. We demonstrate that this equilibrium is shifted from the S- towards the T-state either upon (i) increasing the peptide concentration, (ii) adding negatively charged DMPG, or (iii) decreasing the level of hydration. The threshold concentration for re-alignment in DMPC is found to be between 1:200 and 1:100 in oriented samples at 96% humidity. In fully hydrated multilamellar DMPC vesicles, it shifts to an effective peptide-to-lipid ratio of 1:50 as some peptides are able to escape into the bulk water phase. PMID:16716250

  15. Do Age and Weight Bearing Films Affect Lateral Joint Space and Fibular Height Measurements in Patients with Discoid Lateral Meniscus?

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Matthew David; Krochak, Ryan; Duarte, Andrew J.; Marchese, Joseph; Pace, James Lee; Broom, Alexander M.; Solomito, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several radiographic parameters have been associated with discoid lateral meniscus. We sought to determine the effect of age and weight bearing (WB) on radiographic parameters associated with lateral discoid menisci in pediatric patients. Methods: Radiographs of patients with arthroscopically confirmed lateral discoid meniscus were compared to age, side, sex matched individuals with confirmed normal menisci. The radiographs were measured by a pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine attending and two orthopaedic residents for the following parameters: lateral joint space width (LJSW), fibular head height (FHH), width of the distal femur (WDF), tibial spine height (TSH), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (CLTP), and obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (OLTP). The results of this review focus on FHH and LJSW only. Results: 68 knees with discoid lateral menisci with a mean age of 11.6 ± 3.3 (15 WB films) were compared to 67 control knees with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.2 (15 WB films). Results indicated that there were significant differences between the discoid and control groups when comparing LJSW (8.7 ± 2.2 mm discoid compared to 7.6 ± 2.1 mm control p=0.002) and FHH (13.5 ± 4.5 mm discoid compared to 18.6 ± 3.9 mm control p<0.001). Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory for LJSW and FHH (ICC 0.635 and 0.759 respectively). WB films were noted to have better inter-rater reliability compared to NWB films for LJSW (ICC 0.729 vs 0.514 respectively) but reduced inter-rater reliability for FHH (ICC 0.625 vs 0.868 respectively). Subgroup analysis based on age was also done comparing patients under 10 years old, patients between 10-14 years old, and patients over 14 years old. The FHH measurement was significantly decreased (indicative of a high fibular head) in the discoid group in all age groups. However, LJSW was only noted to be significantly different in patients over the age of 14. Conclusion: Increased lateral joint space width and a high

  16. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  17. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  18. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  19. Joint for deployable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  20. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  1. Microstructure and Toughness of Simulated Heat-Affected Zone of Laser Welded Joint for 960 MPa Grade High Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Li, Zhuguo; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong; Katayama, Seiji

    2014-10-01

    The microstructure and toughness of coarse grain zone (CGZ) and mixed grain zone (MGZ) for laser welded 960 MPa grade high strength steel joints were investigated by thermal simulation with a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulator. The results show that microstructure of the stimulated CGZ mainly consists of uniform interweaved lath martensite, and grain growth is not severe upon increasing the cooling time ( t 8/5). Microstructure of the stimulated MGZ presents strip-like in low peak temperature, and small block martensite is formed on the grain boundary. However, in high peak temperature, the strip-like microstructure disappears and small block martensite presents net-like structure. The lath character for MGZ and CGZ is very obvious under TEM observation, and the average lath thickness of BM, MGZ, and CGZ is 100, 150 and 200 nm, respectively. The impact energy and microhardness of CGZ are higher than MGZ and reduce with increasing the cooling time. The fracture toughness deteriorating drastically for MGZ may be related with the formation of the mixture microstructure, in which the small block martensite is distributed in the shape of a network.

  2. Provocative mechanical tests of the peripheral nervous system affect the joint torque-angle during passive knee motion.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Pezarat-Correia, P

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of the head, upper trunk, and foot position on the passive knee extension (PKE) torque-angle response. PKE tests were performed in 10 healthy subjects using an isokinetic dynamometer at 2°/s. Subjects lay in the supine position with their hips flexed to 90°. The knee angle, passive torque, surface electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus and quadriceps vastus medialis, and stretch discomfort were recorded in six body positions during PKE. The different maximal active positions of the cervical spine (neutral; flexion; extension), thoracic spine (neutral; flexion), and ankle (neutral; dorsiflexion) were passively combined for the tests. Visual analog scale scores and EMG were unaffected by body segment positioning. An effect of the ankle joint was verified on the peak torque and knee maximum angle when the ankle was in the dorsiflexion position (P < 0.05). Upper trunk positioning had an effect on the knee submaximal torque (P < 0.05), observed as an increase in the knee passive submaximal torque when the cervical and thoracic spines were flexed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, other apparently mechanical unrelated body segments influence torque-angle response since different positions of head, upper trunk, and foot induce dissimilar knee mechanical responses during passive extension. PMID:24941915

  3. Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and local behavior in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming-Liang Wang, De-Qiang; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    Evolution of microstructure, micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength behavior was investigated in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint after the artificial aging at 350 °C for 3000 h. After detailed characterization of microstructures in optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the change of martensite–bainite constituent promotes more homogeneous microstructure distribution. The aging treatment facilitates redistribution of carbon and chromium elements along the welded joint, and the micro-hardness is increased slightly through the welds due to enrichment of carbon. The types of precipitates in the weldment mainly include M{sub 3}C, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The carbides in base metal, weld metal and coarse-grained heat-affected zone are prone to change from ellipsoidal to platelet form whereas more uniform spherical carbides are observed in the fine-grained zone. Precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} near the fusion line, and formation of MC and M{sub 2}C, are responsible for the tensile strength decrease and its smooth distribution in the aged heat-affected zone. This implies that the thermal aging can relieve strength mismatch in the weldments. - Highlights: • Microstructure homogeneity improved in HAZ after long-term aging. • Tensile strength decreased in HAZ due to precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Strength mismatch in NiCrMoV steel welds was relieved after aging at 350 °C × 3000 h.

  4. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  5. Individuals with Primary Osteoarthritis Have Different Phenotypes Depending on the Affected Joint - A Case Control Study from Southern Sweden Including 514 Participants

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Karlsson, Caroline; Magnusson, Håkan; Cöster, Maria; von Schewelov, Tord; Nilsson, Jan Åke; Brudin, Lars; Rosengren, Björn E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether primary osteoarthritis (OA), independent of affected joint, is associated with a phenotype that is different from the phenotype in a normative cohort. Material and Methods: We included 274 patients with primary OA, 30 women and 32 men (mean age 66 years, range 42-84) with primary hip OA, 38 women and 74 men (mean age 61 years; range 34-85) with primary knee OA, 42 women and 19 men (men age 64 years, range 42-87) with primary ankle or foot OA and 20 women and 19 men (mean age 66 years, range 47-88) with primary hand or finger OA. Of all patients included with OA, 23% had hip OA, 41% knee OA, 22% ankle or foot OA and 14% hand or finger OA. Serving as references were 122 women and 118 men of the same ages who were population-based, included as a control cohort. We measured total body BMD (g/cm2) and proportion of fat and lean mass (%) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight and BMI (kg/m2) were also assessed. We then calculated Z-scores (number of standard deviations difference from the mean value of the control cohort) in the OA patients and compared these between the groups. Results: Individuals with hand OA and controls had similar phenotype. Individuals with lower extremity OA, irrespective of the affected joint, had similar weight, BMI and BMD, but higher than in individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.05). Individuals with lower extremity OA had higher fat and lower lean mass than individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.001). Conclusion: Individuals with primary OA in the lower extremity have a phenotype with higher BMD, higher BMI, proportionally higher fat content and lower lean body mass content. The different skeletal phenotypes in our patients with OA in the lower extremity and patients with hand OA indicate that separate pathophysiologic pathways may be responsible for primary OA in different joints PMID:25614774

  6. Quick-connect threaded attachment joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.; Messick, W. R.; Vasquez, P.

    1979-01-01

    Joint is self-aligning and tightens with only sixty-five degrees of rotation for quick connects and disconnects. Made of injection-molded plastics or cast or machined aluminum, joint can carry wires, tubes, liquids, or gases. When two parts of joint are brought together, their shapes align them. Small projections on male section and slots on female section further aid alignment; slight rotation of male form engages projections in slots. At this point, threads engage and male section is rotated until joint is fully engaged.

  7. Joint-sparing Corrections in Malunited Lisfranc Joint Injuries.

    PubMed

    Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Lisfranc fracture-dislocations are very serious and potentially disabling injuries. Unfortunately, they are often misdiagnosed. Multiplanar midfoot deformities that result from these fracture-dislocations are precursors of joint degeneration and significant functional disabilities. Anatomic reduction with different types of internal fixation is an efficient method to reconstruct midfoot alignment and stability. Joint-preserving reconstruction techniques emerge as a viable alternative to corrective fusion as they achieve stable joint realignment with preserved motion. PMID:26915786

  8. Farm Management, Environment, and Weather Factors Jointly Affect the Probability of Spinach Contamination by Generic Escherichia coli at the Preharvest Stage

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination. PMID:24509926

  9. Farm management, environment, and weather factors jointly affect the probability of spinach contamination by generic Escherichia coli at the preharvest stage.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination. PMID:24509926

  10. DNA Align Editor: DNA Alignment Editor Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SNPAlignEditor is a DNA sequence alignment editor that runs on Windows platforms. The purpose of the program is to provide an intuitive, user-friendly tool for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments by providing functions for input, editing, and output of nucleotide sequence alignments....

  11. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  12. Segregation behavior of phosphorus in the heat-affected zone of an A533B/A182 dissimilar weld joint before and after simulated thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Miyahara, Yuichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    The segregation behavior of phosphorus (P) in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of an A533B/A182 dissimilar weld joint before and after step cooling was investigated with atom probe tomography. At grain/packet boundaries, the final P segregation level consisted of non-equilibrium segregation that occurred during cooling after welding and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) and equilibrium segregation that occurred during step cooling. In both processes, higher P coverage was observed in the coarse-grained and intercritically reheated coarse-grained HAZ than in the fine-grained HAZ and base material. The cooling after welding and PWHT seemed to have a pronounced impact on P segregation in the subsequent aging process. In addition, P segregation also occurred at the precipitate/matrix interfaces of cementite, Mo2C and Al-Si rich precipitates. The evolution of P coverage at these two types of sites suggested increasing risks of embrittlement with an increase in aging time.

  13. Rounding And Aligning Tubes For Butt Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard H.; Burow, Glenn H.

    1990-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool helps to ensure solid, reliable joint. Tool similar to automobile-tailpipe expander corrects out-of-roundness in tubes before butt-welded and holds tubes in position during welding. Two tubes rounded and aligned with each other by expansion shoes. After use, shoes retracted so tool withdrawn, even through tube narrower than its mate.

  14. Nearest Alignment Space Termination

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-07-13

    Near Alignment Space Termination (NAST) is the Greengenes algorithm that matches up submitted sequences with the Greengenes database to look for similarities and align the submitted sequences based on those similarities.

  15. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  16. Torsion strength of continuous drive friction weld joint of round bar aluminum A6061 affected by single cone geometry of friction area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irawan, Yudy Surya; Amirullah, Muhammad; Gumilang, Galih Bramantya Dian; Oerbandono, Tjuk; Suprapto, Wahyono

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the effect of single cone geometry of friction area on torsion strength of continuous drive friction weld (CDFW) joint of round bar aluminum alloys A6061. Single cone geometry on friction area was determined with ratio of upper diameter (D1) and lower diameter (D2), D1/D2 of cone. Ratios of D1/D2 used were 0.02, 0.25, 0.65, 0.8 and 1. Friction time was 120 seconds. Torsion strength test, macro and microstructure, micro-hardness test were conducted. The results show that D1/D2 of 0.25 gives maximum torsion strength of CDFW joint. It is thought that it occurs due to the wider area of Zpl zone, smaller grain size and more Mg2Si precipitate in the Zpl and Zpd zone and nil or minimum porosity in the CDFW joint.

  17. Shiva automatic pinhole alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, G.J.

    1980-09-05

    This paper describes a computer controlled closed loop alignment subsystem for Shiva, which represents the first use of video sensors for large laser alignment at LLNL. The techniques used on this now operational subsystem are serving as the basis for all closed loop alignment on Nova, the 200 terawatt successor to Shiva.

  18. Fast statistical alignment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert K; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

    2009-05-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignment--previously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches--yet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

  19. Formation of tough composite joints

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coated fibers had a 0/90{degree} architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses.

  20. Knee alignment in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2002-01-01

    This study determined lower-limb alignment and knee geometry in professional tennis players and compared the data with those from nonathletic individuals. Twenty-four radiographs from 12 asymptomatic players (mean age: 23.4+/-3.8 years) were prospectively studied. The three angles most useful for describing limb alignment and knee geometry in the coronal plane were measured: hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, and plateau-ankle. The condylar-plateau angle, frontal foot rotation angle, and the relationship between the mechanical axis and tibial plateau also were calculated. Varus limb alignment was predominant and the mechanical axis passed medially through the knee center; there was increased valgus inclination of the distal femur, varus angulation of the tibial plateau, near parallel alignment of the joint, and exaggerated external foot rotation. Hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, plateau-ankle, and frontal foot rotation angles were significantly different (P<.05, two-tailed t test) from previously reported angles of nonathletic individuals. Variations, probably due to repetitive dynamic demands imposed on lower limbs from an early age, seem to involve both femoral condyles and proximal tibial metaphyses, maintaining normal parallel joint alignment. PMID:11829331

  1. Bilaterally asymmetric effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs): QTLs that affect laxity in the right versus left coxofemoral (hip) joints of the dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Chase, Kevin; Lawler, Dennis F; Adler, Fred R; Ostrander, Elaine A; Lark, Karl G

    2004-01-30

    In dogs hip joint laxity that can lead to degenerative joint disease (DJD) is frequent and heritable, providing a genetic model for some aspects of the human disease. We have used Portuguese water dogs (PWDs) to identify Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate laxity in the hip joint. A population of 286 PWDs, each characterized by ca. 500 molecular genetic markers, was analyzed for subluxation of the hip joint as measured by the Norberg angle, a quantitative radiographic measure of laxity. A significant directed asymmetry was observed, such that greater laxity was observed in the left than the right hip. This asymmetry was not heritable. However, the average Norberg angle was highly heritable as were the Norberg angles of either the right or left hips. After correction for pedigree effects, two QTLs were identified using the metrics of the left and right hips as separate data sets. Both are on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1), separated by about 95 Mb. One QTL, associated with the SSR marker FH2524 was significant for the left, but not the right hip. The other, associated with FH2598, was significant for the right but not the left hip. For both QTLs, some extreme phenotypes were best explained by specific interactions between haplotypes. PMID:14708095

  2. Bilaterally Asymmetric Effects of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs): QTLs That Affect Laxity in the Right Versus Left Coxofemoral (Hip) Joints of the Dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Kevin; Lawler, Dennis F.; Adler, Fred R.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lark, Karl G.

    2009-01-01

    In dogs hip joint laxity that can lead to degenerative joint disease (DJD) is frequent and heritable, providing a genetic model for some aspects of the human disease. We have used Portuguese water dogs (PWDs) to identify Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate laxity in the hip joint.A population of 286 PWDs, each characterized by ca. 500 molecular genetic markers, was analyzed for subluxation of the hip joint as measured by the Norberg angle, a quantitative radiographic measure of laxity. A significant directed asymmetry was observed, such that greater laxity was observed in the left than the right hip. This asymmetry was not heritable. However, the average Norberg angle was highly heritable as were the Norberg angles of either the right or left hips. After correction for pedigree effects, two QTLs were identified using the metrics of the left and right hips as separate data sets. Both are on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1), separated by about 95 Mb. One QTL, associated with the SSR marker FH2524 was significant for the left, but not the right hip. The other, associated with FH2598, was significant for the right but not the left hip. For both QTLs, some extreme phenotypes were best explained by specific interactions between haplotypes. PMID:14708095

  3. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to contributions and expenditures intended to affect elections.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2013-06-18

    09/11/2014 Cloture on the joint resolution not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 54 - 42. Record Vote Number: 261. (consideration: CR S5543-5544; text: CR S5543-5544) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  5. Rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, Daniele Antonio; Iapicca, Mario Luigi; Gotti, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    We describe here various surgical options to obtain a correct rotational alignment of femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The correct rotational alignment is the key point to obtain a rectangular balanced flexion gap as well to have a good patellar tracking. For that reason, rotation alignment largely affects postoperative kinematic results particularly during flexion. PMID:26855940

  6. The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. The Influence of Component Alignment and Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin R; Vignos, Michael F; Lenhart, Rachel L; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization technique was used to simultaneously predict muscle forces, secondary knee kinematics, ligament forces, and joint contact pressures from standard gait analysis data collected on the subject. The nominal knee model predictions of medial, lateral, and total contact forces during gait agreed well with TKR measures, with root-mean-square (rms) errors of 0.23, 0.22, and 0.33 body weight (BW), respectively. Coronal plane component alignment did not affect total knee contact loads, but did alter the medial-lateral load distribution, with 4 deg varus and 4 deg valgus rotations in component alignment inducing +17% and -23% changes in the first peak medial tibiofemoral contact forces, respectively. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that uncertainties in ligament stiffness and reference strains induce ±0.2 BW uncertainty in tibiofemoral force estimates over the gait cycle. Ligament properties had substantial influence on the TKR load distributions, with the medial collateral ligament and iliotibial band (ITB) properties having the largest effects on medial and lateral compartment loading, respectively. The computational framework provides a viable approach for virtually designing TKR components, considering parametric uncertainty and predicting the effects of joint alignment and soft tissue balancing procedures on TKR function during movement. PMID:26769446

  8. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  9. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... too far. In children with hypermobility syndrome, those ligaments are loose or weak. This may lead to: Arthritis, which may develop over time Dislocated joints, which is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint Sprains and strains Children with hypermobile joints also often have flat ...

  10. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  11. Simplified procedures for designing composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    Simplified procedures are described to design and analyze single and multi-bolt composite joints. Numerical examples illustrate the use of these methods. Factors affecting composite bolted joints are summarized. References are cited where more detailed discussion is presented on specific aspects of composite bolted joints. Design variables associated with these joints are summarized in the appendix.

  12. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  13. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  14. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  15. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  16. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  17. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  18. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  19. Orthodontics and Aligners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  20. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  1. Alignability of Optical Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Russell Scott

    With the continuing drive towards higher speed, density, and functionality in electronics, electrical interconnects become inadequate. Due to optics' high speed and bandwidth, freedom from capacitive loading effects, and freedom from crosstalk, optical interconnects can meet more stringent interconnect requirements. But, an optical interconnect requires additional components, such as an optical source and detector, lenses, holographic elements, etc. Fabrication and assembly of an optical interconnect requires precise alignment of these components. The successful development and deployment of optical interconnects depend on how easily the interconnect components can be aligned and/or how tolerant the interconnect is to misalignments. In this thesis, a method of quantitatively specifying the relative difficulty of properly aligning an optical interconnect is described. Ways of using this theory of alignment to obtain design and packaging guidelines for optical interconnects are examined. The measure of the ease with which an optical interconnect can be aligned, called the alignability, uses the efficiency of power transfer as a measure of alignment quality. The alignability is related to interconnect package design through the overall cost measure, which depends upon various physical parameters of the interconnect, such as the cost of the components and the time required for fabrication and alignment. Through a mutual dependence on detector size, the relationship between an interconnect's alignability and its bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and bit-error -rate is examined. The results indicate that a range of device sizes exists for which given performance threshold values are satisfied. Next, the alignability of integrated planar-optic backplanes is analyzed in detail. The resulting data show that the alignability can be optimized by varying the substrate thickness or the angle of reflection. By including the effects of crosstalk, in a multi-channel backplane, the

  2. Preliminary estimate of coal resources in the Gillette coalfield affected by the location of the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This publication, primarily in graphic form, presents a preliminary resource assessment related to a major, near-term restriction to mining in that portion of the Gillette coalfield, Wyoming, that is traversed by the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad. This assessment is part of a current Powder River Basin regional coal assessment, including both resources and reserves, being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The slides were used to illustrate a presentation of study results at a meeting of the Bureau of Land Management's Regional Coal Team in Casper, Wyoming on April 19, 2006 by the senior author.

  3. Tarsometatarsal/Lisfranc joint.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Cross, Davi

    2012-04-01

    Accurate early diagnosis with adequate reduction and maintenance of anatomic alignment of the dislocation or fracture within the Lisfranc joint complex have been found to be the key to successful outcomes regarding this injury. Because of the anatomic variations, the thin soft tissue envelop, and the abundance of ligamentous and capsular structures in the region, repair of these injuries can be a challenge. The classification systems used to describe these injuries aid in describing the mechanism of injury or displacement type present, which may aid in determining what treatment modality can provide the best outcome. PMID:22424486

  4. On the mechanical power of joint extensions as affected by the change in muscle force (or cross-sectional area), ceteris paribus.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Alberto E

    2002-02-01

    This paper offers a reference prediction for the changes of mechanical power generated during a maximal (vertical, horizontal or inclined) joint extension, as a consequence of just the changes of muscle force or cross-sectional area (CSA). Ceteris paribus (all other things being equal), for a given joint, the exponents at which the force changes have to be raised to predict the duration, final speed and power of the maximal extension are -0.5, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively, for horizontal movements. For example, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 19.5% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 16.3% and of 41.4% of its final speed and power. The equations for vertical or inclined extension performances are subject to the same exponents. However, the actual prediction is dependent upon the ratio between muscle strength and body weight, reflecting the fraction of the muscle strength (or CSA) acting against gravity during the manoeuvre. For instance, during a vertical extension, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 30.9% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 29.3% and of 50.5% of its final speed and power. Based on the proposed model, a methodology is also described to detect the effects on the extension power of other determinants, in addition to CSA, of the useful force change (e.g. neuromuscular factors, motor control). PMID:11990751

  5. SPEAR3 Construction Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    LeCocq, Catherine; Banuelos, Cristobal; Fuss, Brian; Gaudreault, Francis; Gaydosh, Michael; Griffin, Levirt; Imfeld, Hans; McDougal, John; Perry, Michael; Rogers, Michael; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    An ambitious seven month shutdown of the existing SPEAR2 synchrotron radiation facility was successfully completed in March 2004 when the first synchrotron light was observed in the new SPEAR3 ring, SPEAR3 completely replaced SPEAR2 with new components aligned on a new highly-flat concrete floor. Devices such as magnets and vacuum chambers had to be fiducialized and later aligned on girder rafts that were then placed into the ring over pre-aligned support plates. Key to the success of aligning this new ring was to ensure that the new beam orbit matched the old SPEAR2 orbit so that existing experimental beamlines would not have to be reoriented. In this presentation a pictorial summary of the Alignment Engineering Group's surveying tasks for the construction of the SPEAR3 ring is provided. Details on the networking and analysis of various surveys throughout the project can be found in the accompanying paper.

  6. Metalized nanotube tips improve through thickness thermal conductivity in adhesive joints.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Sihn, Sangwook; Roy, Ajit K; Dai, Liming; Qu, Liangti

    2009-03-01

    The through-thickness thermal conductivity in conventional adhesive joints (of approximately 0.3 W/m-K) fails to meet the thermal load transfer requirement in numerous applications to enable lean manufacturing and improve system reliability to thermal load. Carbon nanotubes are known to possess extremely high thermal conductivity along the longitudinal axis. According to molecular dynamics simulations, the value can be as high as 3500 W/m-K at room temperature for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Meanwhile, the transverse thermal conductivity perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the MWCNTs is known to be relatively low, approximately 10-15 W/m-K. Existing studies of mixing the MWCNTs in polymers for adhesive joints only achieved minimal enhancement in the thermal conductivity and failed to satisfy the thermal property requirement for the adhesive joints. In order to properly utilize the superior axial thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs, vertically aligned MWCNTs have been used in this study and incorporated in the adhesive joint configuration. Analytical parametric study was conducted to identify critical parameters that affect the overall thermal conductivity of the joint and to provide guidelines for the process development. The process development involved growing the vertically aligned MWCNTs on silicon wafers. The aligned nanotube array was partially infused with epoxy adhesive. Selective reactive ion etching of the epoxy revealed the nanotube tips. In order to reduce the impedance mismatch and phonon scattering at the interface between the nanotube tips and the adherends, gold was thermally evaporated on the nanotube tips. The measured thermal conductivity of the adhesive joint device incorporating the MWCNTs was 262 W/m-K, which is significantly larger compared to that of less than 1 W/m-K without the MWCNTs. PMID:19435032

  7. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  8. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  11. Antares alignment gimbal positioner

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Saxman, A.C.; Lujan, R.E.; Woodfin, G.L.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam 40-TW carbon-dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser fusion system currently under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Antares alignment gimbal positioner (AGP) is an optomechanical instrument that will be used for target alignment and alignment of the 24 laser beams, as well as beam quality assessments. The AGP will be capable of providing pointing, focusing, and wavefront optical path difference, as well as aberration information at both helium-neon (He-Ne) and CO/sub 2/ wavelengths. It is designed to allow the laser beams to be aligned to any position within a 1-cm cube to a tolerance of 10 ..mu..m.

  12. EINSTEIN Cluster Alignments Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, S. W.; Melott, A. L.; Miller, C. J.

    2000-12-01

    We have examined whether the major axes of rich galaxy clusters tend to point (in projection) toward their nearest neighboring cluster. We used the data of Ulmer, McMillan and Kowalski, who used x-ray morphology to define position angles. Our cluster samples, with well measured redshifts and updated positions, were taken from the MX Northern Abell Cluster Survey. The usual Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows no significant alignment signal for nonrandom angles for all separations less than 100 Mpc/h. Refining the null hypothesis, however, with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, reveals a high confidence signal for alignment. This confidence is highest when we restrict our sample to small nearest neighbor separations. We conclude that we have identified a more powerful tool for testing cluster-cluster alignments. Moreover, there is a strong signal in the data for alignment, consistent with a picture of hierarchical cluster formation in which matter falls into clusters along large scale filamentary structures.

  13. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  14. PDV Probe Alignment Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, T L; May, C M; Strand, O T

    2007-10-26

    This alignment technique was developed while performing heterodyne velocimetry measurements at LLNL. There are a few minor items needed, such as a white card with aperture in center, visible alignment laser, IR back reflection meter, and a microscope to view the bridge surface. The work was performed on KCP flyers that were 6 and 8 mils wide. The probes used were Oz Optics manufactured with focal distances of 42mm and 26mm. Both probes provide a spot size of approximately 80?m at 1550nm. The 42mm probes were specified to provide an internal back reflection of -35 to -40dB, and the probe back reflections were measured to be -37dB and -33dB. The 26mm probes were specified as -30dB and both measured -30.5dB. The probe is initially aligned normal to the flyer/bridge surface. This provides a very high return signal, up to -2dB, due to the bridge reflectivity. A white card with a hole in the center as an aperture can be used to check the reflected beam position relative to the probe and launch beam, and the alignment laser spot centered on the bridge, see Figure 1 and Figure 2. The IR back reflection meter is used to measure the dB return from the probe and surface, and a white card or similar object is inserted between the probe and surface to block surface reflection. It may take several iterations between the visible alignment laser and the IR back reflection meter to complete this alignment procedure. Once aligned normal to the surface, the probe should be tilted to position the visible alignment beam as shown in Figure 3, and the flyer should be translated in the X and Y axis to reposition the alignment beam onto the flyer as shown in Figure 4. This tilting of the probe minimizes the amount of light from the bridge reflection into the fiber within the probe while maintaining the alignment as near normal to the flyer surface as possible. When the back reflection is measured after the tilt adjustment, the level should be about -3dB to -6dB higher than the probes

  15. Investigation into the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of basic analytes in chaotropic chromatography: Joint effects of the most relevant chromatographic factors and analytes' molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Čolović, Jelena; Kalinić, Marko; Vemić, Ana; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija

    2015-12-18

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of structurally diverse basic drugs in ion-interaction chromatographic systems with chaotropic additives. To this end, the influence of three factors was studied: pH value of the aqueous phase, concentration of sodium hexafluorophosphate, and content of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Mobile phase pH was found to affect the thermodynamic equilibria in the studied system beyond its effects on the analytes' ionization state. Specifically, increasing pH from 2 to 4 led to longer retention times, even with analytes which remain completely protonated. An explanation for this phenomenon was sought by studying the adsorption behavior of acetonitrile and chaotropic additive onto stationary phase. It was shown that the magnitude of the developed surface potential, which significantly affects retention - increases with pH, and that this can be attributed to the larger surface excess of acetonitrile. To study how analytes' structural properties influence their retention, quantitative structure-retention modeling was performed next. A support vector machine regression model was developed, relating mobile phase constituents and structural descriptors with retention data. While the ETA_EtaP_B_RC and XlogP can be considered as molecular descriptors which describe factors affecting retention in any RP-HPLC system, TDB9p and RDF45p are molecular descriptors which account for spatial arrangement of polarizable atoms and they can clearly relate to analytes' behavior on the stationary phase surface, where the electrostatic potential develops. Complementarity of analytes' structure with that of the electric double layer can be seen as a key factor influencing their retention behavior. Structural diversity of analytes and good predictive capabilities over a range of experimental conditions make the established model a useful tool in predicting retention behavior in the studied

  16. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  17. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  18. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  19. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: gout (especially ...

  20. Barrel alignment fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, J. D.

    1981-04-01

    Fabrication of slapper type detonator cables requires bonding of a thin barrel over a bridge. Location of the barrel hole with respect to the bridge is critical: the barrel hole must be centered over the bridge uniform spacing on each side. An alignment fixture which permits rapid adjustment of the barrel position with respect to the bridge is described. The barrel is manipulated by pincer-type fingers which are mounted on a small x-y table equipped with micrometer adjustments. Barrel positioning, performed under a binocular microscopy, is rapid and accurate. After alignment, the microscope is moved out of position and an infrared (IR) heat source is aimed at the barrel. A 5-second pulse of infrared heat flows the adhesive under the barrel and bonds it to the cable. Sapphire and Fotoform glass barrels were bonded successfully with the alignment fixture.

  1. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  2. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  3. Optics Alignment Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    The Optics Alignment Panel (OAP) was commissioned by the HST Science Working Group to determine the optimum alignment of the OTA optics. The goal was to find the position of the secondary mirror (SM) for which there is no coma or astigmatism in the camera images due to misaligned optics, either tilt or decenter. The despace position was reviewed of the SM and the optimum focus was sought. The results of these efforts are as follows: (1) the best estimate of the aligned position of the SM in the notation of HDOS is (DZ,DY,TZ,TY) = (+248 microns, +8 microns, +53 arcsec, -79 arcsec), and (2) the best focus, defined to be that despace which maximizes the fractional energy at 486 nm in a 0.1 arcsec radius of a stellar image, is 12.2 mm beyond paraxial focus. The data leading to these conclusions, and the estimated uncertainties in the final results, are presented.

  4. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  5. Orientation and Alignment Echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2015-04-01

    We present one of the simplest classical systems featuring the echo phenomenon—a collection of randomly oriented free rotors with dispersed rotational velocities. Following excitation by a pair of time-delayed impulsive kicks, the mean orientation or alignment of the ensemble exhibits multiple echoes and fractional echoes. We elucidate the mechanism of the echo formation by the kick-induced filamentation of phase space, and provide the first experimental demonstration of classical alignment echoes in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  6. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  7. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the proceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  8. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the proceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  10. 49 CFR 178.337-4 - Joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joints. 178.337-4 Section 178.337-4 Transportation... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-4 Joints. (a) Joints shall be as required in...

  11. 49 CFR 178.337-4 - Joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joints. 178.337-4 Section 178.337-4 Transportation... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-4 Joints. (a) Joints shall be as required in...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-4 - Joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joints. 178.337-4 Section 178.337-4 Transportation... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-4 Joints. (a) Joints shall be as required in...

  13. 49 CFR 178.337-4 - Joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joints. 178.337-4 Section 178.337-4 Transportation... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-4 Joints. (a) Joints shall be as required in...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-4 - Joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joints. 178.337-4 Section 178.337-4 Transportation... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-4 Joints. (a) Joints shall be as required in...

  15. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  16. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  17. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  18. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  19. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  20. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences. PMID:26792458

  1. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  2. Aligning brains and minds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Haxby and colleagues describe a new method for aligning functional brain activity patterns across participants. Their study demonstrates that objects are similarly represented across different brains, allowing for reliable classification of one person’s brain activity based on another’s. PMID:22017984

  3. Vertical Alignment and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Donna; Calzada, Lucio; LaPointe, Nancy; Lee, Audra; Sullivan, Lynn

    This study investigated whether vertical (grade level sequence) alignment of the curriculum in conjunction with teacher collaboration would enhance student performance on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) test in south Texas school districts of various sizes. Surveys were mailed to the office of the superintendent of 47 school…

  4. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  5. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  6. Host-feeding sources and habitats jointly affect wing developmental stability depending on sex in the major Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; del Pilar Fernández, María; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a slight and random departure from bilateral symmetry that is normally distributed around a 0 mean, has been widely used to infer developmental instability. We investigated whether habitats (ecotopes) and host-feeding sources influenced wing FA of the hematophagous bug Triatoma infestans. Because bug populations occupying distinct habitats differed substantially and consistently in various aspects such as feeding rates, engorgement status and the proportion of gravid females, we predicted that bugs from more open peridomestic habitats (i.e., goat corrals) were more likely to exhibit higher FA than bugs from domiciles. We examined patterns of asymmetry and the amount of wing size and shape FA in 196 adult T. infestans collected across a gradient of habitat suitability and stability that decreased from domiciles, storerooms, kitchens, chicken coops, pig corrals, to goat corrals in a well-defined area of Figueroa, northwestern Argentina. The bugs had unmixed blood meals on human, chicken, pig and goat depending on the bug collection ecotope. We documented the occurrence of FA in wing shape for bugs fed on all host-feeding sources and in all ecotopes except for females from domiciles or fed on humans. FA indices for wing shape differed significantly among host-feeding sources, ecotopes and sexes. The patterns of wing asymmetry in females from domiciles and from goat corrals were significantly different; differences in male FA were congruent with evidence showing that they had higher mobility than females across habitats. The host-feeding sources and habitats of T. infestans affected wing developmental stability depending on sex. PMID:26318543

  7. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  8. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…

  9. Subwavelength alignment mark signal analysis of advanced memory products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Wong, Alfred K. K.; Wheeler, Donald C.; Williams, Gary; Lehner, Eric A.; Zach, Franz X.; Kim, Byeong Y.; Fukuzaki, Yuzo; Lu, Zhijian G.; Credendino, Santo; Wiltshire, Timothy J.

    2000-06-01

    The impact of alignment mark structure, mark geometry, and stepper alignment optical system on mark signal contrast was investigated using computer simulation. Several sub-wavelength poly silicon recessed film stack alignment targets of advanced memory products were studied. Stimulated alignment mark signals for both dark-field and bright-field systems using the rigorous electromagnetic simulation program TEMPEST showed excellent agreement with experimental data. For a dark-field alignment system, the critical parameters affecting signal contrast were found to be mark size and mark recess depth below silicon surface. On the other hand, film stack thickness and mark recess depth below/above silicon surface are the important parameters for a bright-field alignment system. From observed simulation results optimal process parameters are determined. Based on the simulation results some signal enhancement techniques will be discussed.

  10. A study of lubrication, processing conditions, and material combinations that affect the wear of micro-textured-carbide coated cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy surfaces used for artificial joints implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettienne-Modeste, Geriel A.

    Total joint replacement remains one of the most successful treatments for arthritis. The most common materials used for artificial joints are metals (e.g., cobalt-chrome alloys or titanium alloys), which articulate against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Wear related failures of artificial joints may be reduced with the use of novel micro-textured carbide surfaces. The micro-textured carbide surfaces were deposited on a CoCrMo alloy using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Wear tests were conducted to determine wear mechanisms and properties of the micro-textured surfaces. The research presented in this thesis addresses: (1) rheolgoical behavior of bovine calf serum with and without antibacterial agents to determine whether they can be used as appropriate models for synovial fluid, (2) the wear behavior of the micro-textured CoCrMo surface system, and (3) the mechanical and material properties of the micro-textured CoCrMo alloy surface relevant to wear performance. The rheological studies showed that the apparent viscosity of bovine calf serum increased with an increase in concentration before and after the serum was used for wear testing. The wear analysis showed that the processing conditions (2hr deposition vs. 4hr deposition times) affected the wear properties. The 2hr carbide-on-carbide lubricated in 50% BCS produced the lowest wear factor and rate for the five wear couple systems containing the carbide disk or plate material. Greater wear was produced in serum without penicillin/streptomycin (P/S) compared to the serum containing P/S. A greater carbide coating thickness 10 (micrometers) was produced during the 4hr deposition time than for the 2hr deposition (˜3mum). The nano-hardness value was higher than the micro-hardness for both the 4hr and 2hr carbide surfaces. The micro-hardness results of the worn carbide surfaces showed that an increase in BCS concentration from 0% to 100% increased the micro-hardness (HV) for carbide

  11. Image correlation method for DNA sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Curilem Saldías, Millaray; Villarroel Sassarini, Felipe; Muñoz Poblete, Carlos; Vargas Vásquez, Asticio; Maureira Butler, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of searches and the volume of genomic data make sequence alignment one of bioinformatics most active research areas. New alignment approaches have incorporated digital signal processing techniques. Among these, correlation methods are highly sensitive. This paper proposes a novel sequence alignment method based on 2-dimensional images, where each nucleic acid base is represented as a fixed gray intensity pixel. Query and known database sequences are coded to their pixel representation and sequence alignment is handled as object recognition in a scene problem. Query and database become object and scene, respectively. An image correlation process is carried out in order to search for the best match between them. Given that this procedure can be implemented in an optical correlator, the correlation could eventually be accomplished at light speed. This paper shows an initial research stage where results were "digitally" obtained by simulating an optical correlation of DNA sequences represented as images. A total of 303 queries (variable lengths from 50 to 4500 base pairs) and 100 scenes represented by 100 x 100 images each (in total, one million base pair database) were considered for the image correlation analysis. The results showed that correlations reached very high sensitivity (99.01%), specificity (98.99%) and outperformed BLAST when mutation numbers increased. However, digital correlation processes were hundred times slower than BLAST. We are currently starting an initiative to evaluate the correlation speed process of a real experimental optical correlator. By doing this, we expect to fully exploit optical correlation light properties. As the optical correlator works jointly with the computer, digital algorithms should also be optimized. The results presented in this paper are encouraging and support the study of image correlation methods on sequence alignment. PMID:22761742

  12. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  13. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  14. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  15. Alignments of RNA structures.

    PubMed

    Blin, Guillaume; Denise, Alain; Dulucq, Serge; Herrbach, Claire; Touzet, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    We describe a theoretical unifying framework to express the comparison of RNA structures, which we call alignment hierarchy. This framework relies on the definition of common supersequences for arc-annotated sequences and encompasses the main existing models for RNA structure comparison based on trees and arc-annotated sequences with a variety of edit operations. It also gives rise to edit models that have not been studied yet. We provide a thorough analysis of the alignment hierarchy, including a new polynomial-time algorithm and an NP-completeness proof. The polynomial-time algorithm involves biologically relevant edit operations such as pairing or unpairing nucleotides. It has been implemented in a software, called gardenia, which is available at the Web server http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/RNA/gardenia. PMID:20431150

  16. On the alignment space.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi-Yi; Wang, Kui; Hu, Gang; Chen, Lu-Sheng; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Shu-Tao

    2005-01-01

    Sequences with generalized errors which are called mutations in bioinformatics and generalized error-correcting codes are studied in this paper. In the areas of bioinformatics, computer science and information theory, sequences with generalized errors are discussed respectively for different aims. Firstly, we give the definitions of alignment distance and Levenshtein distance by expansion sequences and discuss their properties and relations. Then the modular structure theory is introduced for strictly describe the expansion sequences. We show that the expansion modular structures of sequences form a Boolean algebra. As applications of the modular structure theory, we give a new and more strict proof of triangle inequality for alignment distance. At last, the definition and construction of generalized error-correcting codes are studied, and some optimal codes with small length are listed. PMID:17282158

  17. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  18. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  19. Docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for three-dimensional translation and three-dimensional rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera 18 is fixedly mounted to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm 10 of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface 30 is fixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture 20. A monitor 50 displays in real-time images from the camera, such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible markings on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm 10 manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  20. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  1. Sagittal alignment of the spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. J.; Liu, F.; Zhu, Y.W.; Sun, M.H.; Qiu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Normal sagittal spine-pelvis-lower extremity alignment is crucial in humans for maintaining an ergonomic upright standing posture, and pathogenesis in any segment leads to poor balance. The present study aimed to investigate how this sagittal alignment can be affected by severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and whether associated changes corresponded with symptoms of lower back pain (LBP) in this patient population. Methods Lateral radiograph films in an upright standing position were obtained from 59 patients with severe KOA and 58 asymptomatic controls free from KOA. Sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, hip and proximal femur was quantified by measuring several radiographic parameters. Global balance was accessed according to the relative position of the C7 plumb line to the sacrum and femoral heads. The presence of chronic LBP was documented. Comparisons between the two groups were carried by independent samples t-tests or chi-squared test. Results Patients with severe KOA showed significant backward femoral inclination (FI), hip flexion, forward spinal inclination, and higher prevalence of global imbalance (27.1% versus 3.4%, p < 0.001) compared with controls. In addition, patients with FI of 10° (n = 23) showed reduced lumbar lordosis and significant forward spinal inclination compared with controls, whereas those with FI > 10° (n = 36) presented with significant pelvic anteversion and hip flexion. A total of 39 patients with KOA (66.1%) suffered from LBP. There was no significant difference in sagittal alignment between KOA patients with and without LBP. Conclusions The sagittal alignment of spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis was significantly influenced by severe KOA. The lumbar spine served as the primary source of compensation, while hip flexion and pelvic anteversion increased for further compensation. Changes in sagittal alignment may not be involved in the pathogenesis of LBP in this patient population. Cite this article: W. J. Wang, F. Liu

  2. Arthritis at the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Sankaye, Prashant; Ostlere, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The shoulder is a complex joint with numerous structures contributing to mobility and stability. Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint that may be due to a wide spectrum of disorders including rotator cuff disease, instability, and arthropathy. Primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is uncommon because it is a non-weight-bearing joint. Significant osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is unusual in the absence of trauma, and the detection of advanced degenerative changes in patients without a known history of trauma should alert the clinician to search for other disorders. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and key imaging findings of the common categories of the arthritis affecting the glenohumeral joint. PMID:26021591

  3. Alignment and alignment transition of bent core nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamain, Omaima; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Komitov, Lachezar

    2013-07-01

    We report on the alignment of nematics consisting of bimesogen bent core molecules of chlorine substituent of benzene derivative and their binary mixture with rod like nematics. It was found that the alignment layer made from polyimide material, which is usually used for promoting vertical (homeotropic) alignment of rod like nematics, promotes instead a planar alignment of the bent core nematic and its nematic mixtures. At higher concentration of the rod like nematic component in these mixtures, a temperature driven transition from vertical to planar alignment was found near the transition to isotropic phase.

  4. Polar cap arcs: Sun-aligned or cusp-aligned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L. J.; Zhang, Qinghe; Xing, Zanyang

    2016-08-01

    Polar cap arcs are often called sun-aligned arcs. Satellite observations reveal that polar cap arcs join together at the cusp and are actually cusp aligned. Strong ionospheric plasma velocity shears, thus field aligned currents, were associated with polar arcs and they were likely caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves around the low-latitude magnetopause under a northward IMF Bz. The magnetic field lines around the magnetopause join together in the cusp region so are the field aligned currents and particle precipitation. This explains why polar arcs are cusp aligned.

  5. Effects of diatomic reagent alignment on the A + BC reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattengill, M. D.; Zare, R. N.; Jaffe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computational study is reported on the A + BC - AB + C bimolecular exchange reaction in which BC is aligned with respect to the approach direction of atom A so that the initial rotational angular momentum vector of BC is either parallel (or equivalently antiparallel) or perpendicular to the initial velocity vector of A. The calculations employ a modification of the extended LEPS potential, which permits straightforward generation of noncollinear minimum energy reaction paths. The calculations clearly demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment can markedly affect the nature of reaction product early partitioning; they also demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment affects reactive cross sections.

  6. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  7. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  8. Joint Attention Revisited: Examining Heterogeneity among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention has long been considered absent or deviant in children with autism. Although this deficit is seen, there is variability in joint attention within the population and some children with autism employ it. Little is known about the profile of joint attention skills of these children or how joint attention use affects concurrent…

  9. Solar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The sun was such an important divinity in antiquity, and even today, that solar alignments should be expected within a large variety of places and cultures. These are probably the most conspicuous kind of astronomical alignments a field researcher can deal with. The need for a correct identification is thus evident. The different kind of solar phenomena susceptible of being determined by astronomical alignments will be scrutinized, following by the way in which such alignments can materialize in space. It will be shown that analyzing solar alignments is not always an easy task.

  10. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  11. Ultrasonic Probing Of Complexly Shaped Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1993-01-01

    Technique developed involves use of ultrasonics to inspect first bond surfaces of solid-rocket-motor joints. By fitting pieces of insulating materials to mate exactly with complicated shapes of affected parts of insulation, complicated shapes redefined into simpler ones probed more easily. When technique used to insonify from insulation side, one readily detects difference between disbond and good bond. Same technique applied to field tang joints, field clevis joints, and aft-dome-to-fixed-nozzle-housing attachment points. Although developed for inspecting joints in solid rocket motors, also applicable to nondestructive evaluation of other complicated joints.

  12. Conditional alignment random fields for multiple motion sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung

    2013-11-01

    We consider the multiple time-series alignment problem, typically focusing on the task of synchronizing multiple motion videos of the same kind of human activity. Finding an optimal global alignment of multiple sequences is infeasible, while there have been several approximate solutions, including iterative pairwise warping algorithms and variants of hidden Markov models. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model that represents the conditional densities of the latent target sequences which are aligned with the given observed sequences through the hidden alignment variables. By imposing certain constraints on the target sequences at the learning stage, we have a sensible model for multiple alignments that can be learned very efficiently by the EM algorithm. Compared to existing methods, our approach yields more accurate alignment while being more robust to local optima and initial configurations. We demonstrate its efficacy on both synthetic and real-world motion videos including facial emotions and human activities. PMID:24051737

  13. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  14. Fourier transform interferometer alignment method.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Kenneth A; Naulleau, Patrick; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2002-08-01

    A rapid and convenient method has been developed to facilitate the alignment of the image-plane components of point-diffraction interferometers, including the phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer. In real time, the Fourier transform of the detected image is used to calculate a pseudoimage of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where thecritical alignment o f variousoptical components is performed. Reconstruction of the pseudoimage is similar to off-axis, Fourier transform holography. Intermediate steps in the alignment procedure are described. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global-contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier transform. Additional applications include the alignment of image-plane apertures in general optical systems, the rapid identification of patterned image-plane alignment marks, and the probing of important image-plane field properties. PMID:12153074

  15. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  16. Alignment system for encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villani, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An improved encoder alignment system is disclosed which provides an indication of the extent of misalignment and a measure of the rate at which the misalignment may be changing. The invention is adapted for use with a conventional encoder which provides a digital coarse word having at least significant bit and a digital fine word having a least significant bit and a most significant bit. The invention generates the exclusive or of the least significant bit of the coarse digital signal and the least significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide a first signal. The invention then generates the exclusive or of the first signal and the complement of the most significant bit of the fine digital signal to provide an output signal which represents the misalignment of the encoder.

  17. Aligned Defrosting Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  19. Effects of joint on dynamics of space deployable structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Rongqiang; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-09-01

    Joints are necessary components in large space deployable truss structures which have significant effects on dynamic behavior of these joint dominated structures. Previous researches usually analyzed effects of one or fewer joint characters on dynamics of jointed structures. Effects of joint stiffness, damping, location, number, clearance and contact stiffness on dynamics of jointed structures are systematically analyzed. Cantilever beam model containing linear joints is developed based on finite element method, influence of joint on natural frequencies and mode shapes of the jointed system are analyzed. Analytical results show that frequencies of jointed system decrease dramatically when peak mode shapes occur at joint locations, and there are cusp shapes present in mode shapes. System frequencies increase with joint damping increasing, there are different joint damping to achieve maximum system damping for different joint stiffness. Joint nonlinear force-displacement is described by describing function method, one-DOF model containing nonlinear joints is established to analyze joints freeplay and hysteresis nonlinearities. Analysis results show that nonlinear effects of freeplay and hysteresis make dynamic responses switch from one resonance frequency to another frequency when amplitude exceed demarcation values. Joint contact stiffness determine degree of system nonlinearity, while exciting force level, clearance and slipping force affect amplitude of dynamic response. Dynamic responses of joint dominated deployable truss structure under different sinusoidal exciting force levels are tested. The test results show obvious nonlinear behaviors contributed by joints, dynamic response shifts to lower frequency and higher amplitude as exciting force increasing. The test results are further compared with analytical results, and joint nonlinearity tested is coincident with hysteresis nonlinearity. Analysis method of joint effects on dynamic characteristics of jointed

  20. Effects of joints in truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, R.

    1988-01-01

    The response of truss-type structures for future space applications, such as Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), will be directly affected by joint performance. Some of the objectives of research at BAC were to characterize structural joints, establish analytical approaches that incorporate joint characteristics, and experimentally establish the validity of the analytical approaches. The test approach to characterize joints for both erectable and deployable-type structures was based upon a Force State Mapping Technique. The approach pictorially shows how the nonlinear joint results can be used for equivalent linear analysis. Testing of the Space Station joints developed at LaRC (a hinged joint at 2 Hz and a clevis joint at 2 Hz) successfully revealed the nonlinear characteristics of the joints. The Space Station joints were effectively linear when loaded to plus or minus 500 pounds with a corresponding displacement of about plus or minus 0.0015 inch. It was indicated that good linear joints exist which are compatible with errected structures, but that difficulty may be encountered if nonlinear-type joints are incorporated in the structure.

  1. Gold Alignment and Internal Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.

    1997-07-01

    The measures of mechanical alignment are obtained for both prolate and oblate grains whose temperatures are comparable to the grain kinetic energy divided by k, the Boltzmann constant. For such grains, the alignment of angular momentum, J, with the axis of maximal inertia, a, is only partial, which substantially alters the mechanical alignment as compared with the results obtained by Lazarian and Roberge, Hanany, & Messinger under the assumption of perfect alignment. We also describe Gold alignment when the Barnett dissipation is suppressed and derive an analytical expression that relates the measure of alignment to the parameters of grain nonsphericity and the direction of the gas-grain drift. This solution provides the lower limit for the measure of alignment, while the upper limit is given by the method derived by Lazarian. Using the results of a recent study of incomplete internal relaxation by Lazarian & Roberge, we find measures of alignment for the whole range of ratios of grain rotational energy to kTs, where Ts is the grain temperature. To describe alignment for mildly supersonic drifts, we suggest an analytical approach that provides good correspondence with the results of direct numerical simulations by Roberge, Hanany, & Messinger. We also extend our approach to account for simultaneous action of the Gold and Davis-Greenstein mechanisms.

  2. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C. E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  3. [Pathobiochemistry of joint destruction in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Greiling, H; Kleesiek, K; Reinards, R

    1987-08-01

    While the biochemical mechanism which leads to the destruction of joints in the course of degenerative and inflammatory arthropathies has not been cleared up completely to this day, basic differences have been noted in the way the two types of arthropathy affect the articular cartilage. The differences are described from the viewpoint of pathobiochemistry as they are fundamental to causal therapy. PMID:3314203

  4. Pyrophosphate arthropathy in the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints.

    PubMed Central

    Bourqui, M; Vischer, T L; Stasse, P; Docquier, C; Fallet, G H

    1983-01-01

    The hand x-rays of group of patients with generalised osteoarthrosis alone were compared with those patients with generalised osteoarthrosis and chondrocalcinosis (CC). An arthropathy seemingly specific for CC could be identified in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and carpal joints. In the MCP joints it was characterised by subchondral rarefactions, deviation of the joint axis, joint space narrowing, and osteophytosis. Usually only the second and/or third MCP joints are affected. In the carpal joints similar subchondral cysts, sometimes associated with joint space narrowing, were found much more frequently in the group with CC. There was no direct relation with the presence of calcification. Images PMID:6651367

  5. Thematic roles, markedness alignment and processing complexity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the second NP (nominative vs. accusative) were manipulated in the first experiment and the markings of the first NP (nominative vs. topic) were manipulated in the second experiment. Results revealed that the animacy manipulation and the nominative-topicality manipulation showed measurable influence on the participants' reading of the complex sentences. Also, the effect of the prominence misalignment caused by animacy seems to have a stronger effect on reading than the effect caused by the nominative-topicality manipulation. The experiments suggested that on-line processing of Korean complex sentences are affected by the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of NPs. PMID:25341491

  6. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-F.

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5 deg x 5 deg regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars was made and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  7. On the alignment of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing-fen

    1986-06-01

    Taking the two Savage-Bolton 5° × 5° regions of optical quasar patrol as samples, I made a systematic analysis of the number of aligned quasars and compared with the random data generated by Monte Carlo method. The statistical result is that, at least for these two samples, there is no clear evidence for alignment.

  8. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ebbe S.; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne; Kristensen, Susie E.; Havgaard, Jakob H.; Torarinsson, Elfar; Larsen, Niels; Zwieb, Christian; Sestoft, Peter; Kjems, Jørgen; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a semiautomated RNA sequence editor (SARSE) that integrates tools for analyzing RNA alignments. The editor highlights different properties of the alignment by color, and its integrated analysis tools prevent the introduction of errors when doing alignment editing. SARSE readily connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture of the SARSE editor makes it a flexible tool to improve all RNA alignments with relatively little human intervention. Online documentation and software are available at http://sarse.ku.dk. PMID:17804647

  9. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  10. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  11. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  12. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  13. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Henstock, Peter V.; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  14. Effects of barrel joints on hypervelocity projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahinpoor, M.; Asay, J.R.; Dixon, W.R.; Hawke, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Development of new hypervelocity launchers is necessary for equation of state (EOS) studies at high impact velocities. The requirements for barrel joint alignment and concentricity at high velocities place severe constraints on fabrication and assembly procedures; small steps or longitudinal direction changes at joints may cause major damage to precision projectiles. Research has been initiated to identify the technical limits of fabrication and assembly tolerances for hypervelocity gun barrels. Numerical and experimental studies have evaluated projectile performance at velocities of 6 to 15 km/s and have identified failure modes for Lexan projectiles with thin metal facings.

  15. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  16. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  17. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansur; Schiffman, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) affect 5% to 12% of the United States population. This article discusses common conditions related to temporomandibular joints, including disc displacements, inflammatory disturbances, loose joint bodies, traumatic disturbances, and developmental conditions. Also addressed are the appropriate imaging modalities and diagnostic criteria for TMD. PMID:26614951

  18. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. Availability: http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. PMID:24813445

  19. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  20. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  1. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  2. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  3. Effectiveness of Using Fewer Implanted Fiducial Markers for Prostate Target Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J. Lee, Andrew K.; Yu Zhiqian; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Zhang Lifei; Zhang Yongbin; Amos, Richard A.; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Atsushi; Dong Lei

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the number and location of intraprostatic fiducial markers on the accuracy and reproducibility of daily prostate target alignment and to evaluate the migration of such markers. Methods and Materials: Three gold fiducial markers were implanted transrectally under ultrasound guidance near the apex, middle, and base of the prostate in 10 prostate cancer patients. The patients had pretreatment in-room computed tomography (CT) scans three times a week, for approximately 25 CT scans per patient during the 8-week treatment course. A total of 1280 alignments were performed using different alignment scenarios: whole-prostate soft tissue alignment (the gold standard), bone alignment, and seven permutations of alignments using one, two, or three fiducial markers. The results of bone alignment and fiducial alignment were compared with the results of whole-prostate alignment. Fiducial migration was also evaluated. Results: Single-fiducial-marker alignment was more accurate and reproducible than bone alignment. However, due to organ deformation, single fiducial markers did not always reliably represent the position of the entire prostate. The use of two-fiducial combinations was more accurate and reproducible than single-fiducial alignment, and use of all three fiducials was the best. Use of an apex fiducial together with a base fiducial rivaled the use of all three fiducials markers together. Fiducial migration was minimal. Conclusions: The number and the location of implanted fiducial markers affect the accuracy and reliability of daily prostate target alignment. The use of two or more fiducial markers is recommended.

  4. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  5. Myosins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 Affect Asexual and Sexual Development, Reduces Pathogenicity, and FaMyo2B Acts Jointly with the Myosin Passenger Protein FaSmy1 to Affect Resistance to Phenamacril in Fusarium asiaticum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhitian; Liu, Xiumei; Li, Bin; Cai, Yiqiang; Zhu, Yuanye; Zhou, Mingguo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that mutations occurred in the gene myosin5 were responsible for resistance to the fungicide phenamacril in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we determined whether there is a functional link between phenamacril resistance and the myosin proteins FaMyo2B and Famyo2 in Fusarium asiaticum, which is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight in China. We found that FaMyo2B acts jointly with FaSmy1 to affect resistance to phenamacril in F. asiaticum. We also found that FaMyo2B disruption mutant and Famyo2 deletion mutant were defective in hyphal branching, conidiation, and sexual reproduction. ΔFamyo2 also had an enhanced sensitivity to cell wall damaging agents and an abnormal distribution of septa and nuclei. In addition, the FaMyo2B and Famyo2 mutants had reduced pathogenicity on wheat coleoptiles and flowering wheat heads. Taken together, these results reveal that FaMyo2B and Famyo2 are required for several F. asiaticum developmental processes and activities, which help us better understand the resistance mechanism and find the most effective approach to control FHB. PMID:27099966

  6. Modeling forest development after fire disturbance: Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly affect forest canopy species and long-term ecosystem carbon accumulation in the North American boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L.; Medvigy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic layer dynamics strongly affect boreal forest development after fire. Field studies show that soil organic layer thickness exerts a species-specific control on propagule establishment in the North American boreal forest. On organic soils thicker than a few centimeters, all propagules are less able to recruit, but broadleaf trees recruit less effectively than needleleaf trees. In turn, forest growth controls organic layer accumulation through modulating litter input and litter quality. These dynamics have not been fully incorporated into models, but may be essential for accurate projections of ecosystem carbon storage. Here, we develop a data-constrained model for understanding boreal forest development after fire. We update the ED2 model to include new aspen and black spruce species-types, species-specific propagule survivorship dependent on soil organic layer depth, species-specific litter decay rates, dynamically accumulating moss and soil organic layers, and nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria associated with moss. The model is validated against diverse observations ranging from monthly to centennial timescales and spanning a climate gradient in Alaska, central Canada, and Quebec. We then quantify differences in forest development that result from changes in organic layer accumulation, temperature, and nitrogen. We find that (1) the model accurately reproduces a range of observations throughout the North American boreal forest; (2) the presence of a thick organic layer results in decreased decomposition and decreased aboveground productivity, effects that can increase or decrease ecosystem carbon uptake depending on location-specific attributes; (3) with a mean warming of 4°C, some forests switch from undergoing succession to needleleaf forests to recruiting multiple cohorts of broadleaf trees, decreasing ecosystem accumulation by ~30% after 300 years; (4) the availability of nitrogen regulates successional dynamics such than broadleaf species are

  7. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  8. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  9. An adiabatic approximation for grain alignment theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, W. G.

    1997-10-01

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain `internal' and `external' variables, where the former describe the orientation of the axes of a grain with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical time-scales of the internal and external variables - which is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude - can be exploited to simplify calculations of the required distribution greatly. The method is based on an `adiabatic approximation' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the `fast' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the `slow' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to O(epsilon), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical time-scales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.

  10. An Adiabatic Approximation for Grain Alignment Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, W. G.

    1997-12-01

    The alignment of interstellar dust grains is described by the joint distribution function for certain ``internal'' and ``external'' variables, where the former describe the orientation of a grain's axes with respect to its angular momentum, J, and the latter describe the orientation of J relative to the interstellar magnetic field. I show how the large disparity between the dynamical timescales of the internal and external variables--- which is typically 2--3 orders of magnitude--- can be exploited to greatly simplify calculations of the required distribution. The method is based on an ``adiabatic approximation'' which closely resembles the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics. The adiabatic approximation prescribes an analytic distribution function for the ``fast'' dynamical variables and a simplified Fokker-Planck equation for the ``slow'' variables which can be solved straightforwardly using various techniques. These solutions are accurate to cal {O}(epsilon ), where epsilon is the ratio of the fast and slow dynamical timescales. As a simple illustration of the method, I derive an analytic solution for the joint distribution established when Barnett relaxation acts in concert with gas damping. The statistics of the analytic solution agree with the results of laborious numerical calculations which do not exploit the adiabatic approximation.

  11. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics® (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  12. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  13. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  14. Adaptive control of molecular alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, C.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Krug, M.; Baumert, T.; Nalda, R. de; Banares, L.

    2006-03-15

    We demonstrate control on nonadiabatic molecular alignment by using a spectrally phase-shaped laser pulse. An evolutionary algorithm in a closed feedback loop has been used in order to find pulse shapes that maximize a given effect. In particular, this scheme has been applied to the optimization of total alignment, and to the control of the temporal structure of the alignment transient within a revival. Asymmetric temporal pulse shapes have been found to be very effective for the latter and have been studied separately in a single-parameter control scheme. Our experimental results are supported by numerical simulations.

  15. The Effect of Foot Structure on 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint Flexibility and Hallucal Loading

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Smita; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew; Backus, Sherry; Ellis, Scott J.; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint motion and flexibility and plantar loads in individuals with high, normal and low arch foot structure. Asymptomatic individuals (n=61), with high, normal and low arches participated in this study. Foot structure was quantified using malleolar valgus index (MVI) and arch height index (AHI). First MTP joint flexibility was measured using a specially constructed jig. Peak pressure under the hallux, 1st and 2nd metatarsals during walking was assessed using a pedobarograph. A one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc comparisons was used to assess between-group differences in MVI, AHI, Early and Late 1st MTP joint flexibility in sitting and standing, peak dorsiflexion (DF), and peak pressure under the hallux, 1st and 2nd metatarsals. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify predictors of hallucal loading. Significant between-group differences were found in MVI (F2,56=15.4, p<0.01), 1st MTP late flexibility in sitting (F2,57=3.7, p=0.03), and standing (F2,57=3.7, p=0.03). Post-hoc comparisons demonstrated that 1st MTP late flexibility in sitting was significantly higher in individuals with low arch compared to high arch structure, and that 1st MTP late flexibility in standing was significantly higher in individuals with low arch compared to normal arch structure. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that MVI and 1st MTP joint early flexibility in sitting explain about 20% of the variance in hallucal peak pressure. Our results provide objective evidence indicating that individuals with low arches show increased 1st MTP joint late flexibility compared to individuals with normal arch structure, and that hindfoot alignment and 1st MTP joint flexibility affect hallucal loading. PMID:21536440

  16. Leg and Joint Stiffness in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy during Level Walking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting-Ming; Huang, Hsing-Po; Li, Jia-Da; Hong, Shih-Wun; Lo, Wei-Ching; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Individual joint deviations are often identified in the analysis of cerebral palsy (CP) gait. However, knowledge is limited as to how these deviations affect the control of the locomotor system as a whole when striving to meet the demands of walking. The current study aimed to bridge the gap by describing the control of the locomotor system in children with diplegic CP in terms of their leg stiffness, both skeletal and muscular components, and associated joint stiffness during gait. Twelve children with spastic diplegia CP and 12 healthy controls walked at a self-selected pace in a gait laboratory while their kinematic and forceplate data were measured and analyzed during loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance and pre-swing. For calculating the leg stiffness, each of the lower limbs was modeled as a non-linear spring, connecting the hip joint center and the corresponding center of pressure, with varying stiffness that was calculated as the slope (gradient) of the axial force vs. the deformation curve. The leg stiffness was further decomposed into skeletal and muscular components considering the alignment of the lower limb. The ankle, knee and hip of the limb were modeled as revolute joints with torsional springs whose stiffness was calculated as the slope of the moment vs. the angle curve of the joint. Independent t-tests were performed for between-group comparisons of all the variables. The CP group significantly decreased the leg stiffness but increased the joint stiffness during stance phase, except during terminal stance where the leg stiffness was increased. They appeared to rely more on muscular contributions to achieve the required leg stiffness, increasing the muscular demands in maintaining the body posture against collapse. Leg stiffness plays a critical role in modulating the kinematics and kinetics of the locomotor system during gait in the diplegic CP. PMID:26629700

  17. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  18. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  19. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  20. Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures. PMID:23486213

  1. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  2. Synovial Lipomatosis of the Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Ori

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens) is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature. PMID:27563476

  3. Equine rehabilitation therapy for joint disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mimi

    2005-12-01

    The principles of physical rehabilitation therapy can be applied to the horse to provide a reduction in discomfort and dysfunction associated with the various forms of joint disease. Physical agents,such as ice, heat, electricity, sound, light, magnetic fields, compression, and movement, can be used by the rehabilitation therapist to attempt to control pain, reduce swelling, and restore optimal movement and function in the affected joint. The equine therapist's attention is focused not only on the affected joint but on the body as a whole to manage secondary or compensatory problems. PMID:16297723

  4. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  5. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  6. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  7. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  8. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  9. Reduced oxygen cost of running is related to alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis vector: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moore, I S; Jones, A M; Dixon, S J

    2016-07-01

    This pilot study investigated whether a 10-week running program (10wkRP), which reduced the oxygen cost of running, affected resultant ground reaction force (GRF), leg axis alignment, joint moment characteristics, and gear ratios. Ten novice, female runners completed a 10wkRP. Running kinematics and kinetics, in addition to oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) during steady-state running, were recorded pre- and post-10wkRP. V ˙ O 2 decreased (8%) from pre-10wkRP to post-10wkRP. There was a better alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis at peak propulsion post-10wkRP compared with pre-10wkRP (10.8 ± 4.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.2°), as the resultant GRF vector was applied 7 ± 0.6° (P = 0.008) more horizontally. There were shorter external ankle moment arms (24%) and smaller knee extensor moments (23%) at peak braking post-10wkRP. The change in V ˙ O 2 was associated with the change in alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis (rs  = 0.88, P = 0.003). As runners became more economical, they exhibited a more aligned resultant GRF vector and leg axis at peak propulsion. This appears to be a self-optimization strategy that may improve performance. Additionally, changes to external ankle moment arms indicated beneficial low gear ratios were achieved at the time of peak braking force. PMID:26148145

  10. Vacuum Phenomenon of the Sacroiliac Joint: Correlation with Sacropelvic Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Higashino, Kosaku; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yamashita, Kazuta; Abe, Mitusnobu; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A radiologic study of sacropelvic morphology and vacuum phenomenon of sacroiliac joint in subjects unrelated to low back pain. Purpose The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between sacropelvic morphology and vacuum phenomenon of the sacroiliac joint. Overview of Literature Lumbopelvic alignment and sacropelvic morphology are associated with the pathomechanisms of various spinal disorders. The vacuum phenomena of the sacroiliac joint (SJVP) are often observed in clinical practice, but the relationships between these phenomena and sacropelvic morphology have not been investigated. This study examined the prevalence of SJVP in computed tomography (CT) images and the relationship between sacropelvic morphology and SJVP. Methods We analyzed multiplanar CT images of 93 subjects (59 men, 34 women). Pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and lumbar lordosis (LL) were measured using the three-dimensional reconstruction method. The prevalence of SJVP in multiplanar CT images were reviewed. Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) scores and the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, which focuses on subjective symptoms and restriction of activities of daily living, were also obtained from all the subjects. Results Thirty-six of the 93 subjects had SJVP (39%), with marked female predominance (91% women, 8.5% men). Men with SJVP had significantly lower PI than men without SJVP (35.1° vs. 46.3°, p<0.05). There was no correlation between SJVP and the modified JOA or RDQ scores. Conclusions These data suggest that differences in sacropelvic morphology can influence the biomechanical environment and contribute to SJVP in men. Presence of SJVP did not affect JOA or RDQ scores. PMID:27559459