These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and demographic history of Atlantic eels  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and demographic history of Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla and A environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. European and American eel (Anguilla, in which case American eel would be expected to be the ancestral species. This scenario could, however

Bernatchez, Louis

2

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

3

Genealogy and Demographic History of a Widespread Amphibian throughout Indochina.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about spatial patterns of cryptic diversity in tropical species and the processes that generate them. Few studies examine the geographic distribution of genetic lineages in Southeast Asia, an area hypothesized to harbor substantial cryptic diversity. We investigated the evolutionary history of Asian tree frogs of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (n = 172) based on 1800 bp of the mtDNA genes ND1 and cytochrome b and tested hypotheses pertaining to climate, geology, and dispersal patterns. Analyses revealed substantial genetic diversity and lineage divergence throughout the region with evidence for widespread sympatric lineages and a general north versus south clustering. Relaxed molecular clock analysis and tests for demographic expansion identified an initial cladogenesis during the Miocene with subsequent Plio-Pleistocene diversification, with the former corresponding to periods of increased aridity and the onset of monsoonal weather systems. Rates of diversification were relatively constant until the Early Pleistocene when rates increased exponentially. We found equivocal evidence for isolation-by-distance and a potential role of some landscape features as partial barriers to dispersal. Finally, our analyses showed that divergence between insular and mainland populations occurred before Homo sapiens colonized Southeast Asia, suggesting that historical human-mediated dispersal did not drive insular diversification. Our results suggested that demographic expansion in the Late Pleistocene resulted in widespread sympatric lineages in the P. leucomystax complex throughout southern China and Indochina and further clarified the evolutionary history of lineages within P. leucomystax. PMID:23125408

Blair, Christopher; Davy, Christina M; Ngo, Andre; Orlov, Nikolai L; Shi, Hai-tao; Lu, Shun-qing; Gao, Lan; Rao, Ding-qi; Murphy, Robert W

2013-01-01

4

Phylogeography and demographic history of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis).  

PubMed

The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a medium-sized semiaquatic carnivore with a broad distribution in the Neotropical region. Despite being apparently common in many areas, it is one of the least known otters, and genetic studies on this species are scarce. Here, we have investigated its genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history across a large portion of its geographic range by analyzing 1471 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA from 52 individuals. Our results indicate that L. longicaudis presents high levels of genetic diversity and a consistent phylogeographic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least 4 distinct evolutionary lineages in South America. The observed phylogeographic partitions are partially congruent with the subspecies classification previously proposed for this species. Coalescence-based analyses indicate that Neotropical otter mitochondrial DNA lineages have shared a rather recent common ancestor, approximately 0.5 Ma, and have subsequently diversified into the observed phylogroups. A consistent scenario of recent population expansion was identified in Eastern South America based on several complementary analyses of historical demography. The results obtained here provide novel insights on the evolutionary history of this largely unknown Neotropical mustelid and should be useful to design conservation and management policies on behalf of this species and its habitats. PMID:22589556

Trinca, Cristine S; de Thoisy, Benoit; Rosas, Fernando C W; Waldemarin, Helen F; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Vianna, Juliana A; Eizirik, Eduardo

2012-07-01

5

Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations.  

PubMed

High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2-4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ?1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ?2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Indap, Amit R; Marth, Gabor T; Clark, Andrew G; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A; Bustamante, Carlos D

2011-07-19

6

Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ?1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ?2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Indap, Amit R.; Marth, Gabor T.; Clark, Andrew G.; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Altshuler, David L.; Durbin, Richard M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bentley, David R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G.; Collins, Francis S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Donnelly, Peter; Egholm, Michael; Flicek, Paul; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Lander, Eric S.; Lehrach, Hans; Mardis, Elaine R.; McVean, Gil A.; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Peltonen, Leena; Schafer, Alan J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Wang, Jun; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Deiros, David; Metzker, Mike; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeff; Wheeler, David; Wang, Jun; Li, Jingxiang; Jian, Min; Li, Guoqing; Li, Ruiqiang; Liang, Huiqing; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zheng, Huisong; Lander, Eric S.; Altshuler, David L.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Bloom, Toby; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Jaffe, David B.; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Bentley, David R.; Gormley, Niall; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Koko-Gonzales, Paula; Stone, Jennifer; McKernan, Kevin J.; Costa, Gina L.; Ichikawa, Jeffry K.; Lee, Clarence C.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Borodina, Tatiana A.; Dahl, Andreas; Davydov, Alexey N.; Marquardt, Peter; Mertes, Florian; Nietfeld, Wilfiried; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Soldatov, Aleksey V.; Timmermann, Bernd; Tolzmann, Marius; Egholm, Michael; Affourtit, Jason; Ashworth, Dana; Attiya, Said; Bachorski, Melissa; Buglione, Eli; Burke, Adam; Caprio, Amanda; Celone, Christopher; Clark, Shauna; Conners, David; Desany, Brian; Gu, Lisa; Guccione, Lorri; Kao, Kalvin; Kebbel, Andrew; Knowlton, Jennifer; Labrecque, Matthew; McDade, Louise; Mealmaker, Craig; Minderman, Melissa; Nawrocki, Anne; Niazi, Faheem; Pareja, Kristen; Ramenani, Ravi; Riches, David; Song, Wanmin; Turcotte, Cynthia; Wang, Shally; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Weinstock, George; Durbin, Richard M.; Burton, John; Carter, David M.; Churcher, Carol; Coffey, Alison; Cox, Anthony; Palotie, Aarno; Quail, Michael; Skelly, Tom; Stalker, James; Swerdlow, Harold P.; Turner, Daniel; De Witte, Anniek; Giles, Shane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wu, Honglong; Zheng, Hancheng; Zheng, Xiaole; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Huang, Weichun; Indap, Amit; Kural, Deniz; Lee, Wan-Ping; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; Daly, Mark J.; DePristo, Mark A.; Altshuler, David L.; Ball, Aaron D.; Banks, Eric; Bloom, Toby; Browning, Brian L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Grossman, Sharon R.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hanna, Matt; Hartl, Chris; Jaffe, David B.; Kernytsky, Andrew M.; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Maguire, Jared R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKenna, Aaron; Nemesh, James C.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Poplin, Ryan E.; Price, Alkes; Rivas, Manuel A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Shefler, Erica; Shlyakhter, Ilya A.; Cooper, David N.; Ball, Edward V.; Mort, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew D.; Stenson, Peter D.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Boyko, Adam; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Gravel, Simon; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Kaganovich, Mark; Keinan, Alon; Lacroute, Phil; Ma, Xin; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Herrero, Javier; Keenen, Stephen; Kulesha, Eugene; Leinonen, Rasko; McLaren, William M.; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Smith, Richard E.; Zalunin, Vadim; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Humphray, Sean; Bauer, Markus; Cheetham, R. Keira; Cox, Tony; Eberle, Michael; James, Terena; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Hyland, Fiona C. L.; Manning, Jonathan M.; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Sakarya, Onur; Sun, Yongming A.; Tsung, Eric F.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav S.; Herwig, Ralf; Parkhomchuk, Dimitri V.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Agarwala, Richa; Khouri, Hoda M.; Morgulis, Aleksandr O.; Paschall, Justin E.; Phan, Lon D.; Rotmistrovsky, Kirill E.; Sanders, Robert D.

2011-01-01

7

Inferring Demographic History from a Spectrum of Shared Haplotype Lengths  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent excitement about the use of genetics to elucidate ancestral history and demography. Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. A central challenge is to estimate the timing of past admixture and divergence events, for example the time at which Neanderthals exchanged genetic material with humans and the time at which modern humans left Africa. Here, we present a method for using sequence data to jointly estimate the timing and magnitude of past admixture events, along with population divergence times and changes in effective population size. We infer demography from a collection of pairwise sequence alignments by summarizing their length distribution of tracts of identity by state (IBS) and maximizing an analytic composite likelihood derived from a Markovian coalescent approximation. Recent gene flow between populations leaves behind long tracts of identity by descent (IBD), and these tracts give our method power by influencing the distribution of shared IBS tracts. In simulated data, we accurately infer the timing and strength of admixture events, population size changes, and divergence times over a variety of ancient and recent time scales. Using the same technique, we analyze deeply sequenced trio parents from the 1000 Genomes project. The data show evidence of extensive gene flow between Africa and Europe after the time of divergence as well as substructure and gene flow among ancestral hominids. In particular, we infer that recent African-European gene flow and ancient ghost admixture into Europe are both necessary to explain the spectrum of IBS sharing in the trios, rejecting simpler models that contain less population structure. PMID:23754952

Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

8

Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the

Péter Szövényi; Zsófia Hock; Jakob J Schneller; Zoltán Tóth

2007-01-01

9

Multilocus patterns of nucleotide variability and the demographic and selection history of Drosophila melanogaster populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty about the demographic history of populations can hamper genome-wide scans for selection based on population genetic models. To obtain a portrait of the effects of demographic history on genome variability patterns in Drosophila melanogaster populations, we surveyed noncoding DNA polymorphism at 10 X-linked loci in large samples from three African and two non-African populations. All five populations show significant

Penelope R. Haddrill; Kevin R. Thornton; Brian Charlesworth; Peter Andolfatto

2007-01-01

10

[Hereditary spherocytosis: Review. Part I. History, demographics, pathogenesis, and diagnosis].  

PubMed

Hereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent hereditary anemia excluding beta thalassemia in Argentina. Historical, demographic, genetic and pathogenic aspects of the disease are reviewed, and confirmatory laboratory tests are described. Special characteristics on the outcome of the disease in our population and prevalent protein deficiencies in our country are described. Emphasis is given on new available laboratory tests, which allow an earlier diagnosis using volume of blood samples significantly smaller than required for conventional tests. PMID:25622164

2015-01-01

11

Demographic analysis of continuous-time life-history models  

PubMed Central

I present a computational approach to calculate the population growth rate, its sensitivity to life-history parameters and associated statistics like the stable population distribution and the reproductive value for exponentially growing populations, in which individual life history is described as a continuous development through time. The method is generally applicable to analyse population growth and performance for a wide range of individual life-history models, including cases in which the population consists of different types of individuals or in which the environment is fluctuating periodically. It complements comparable methods developed for discrete-time dynamics modelled with matrix or integral projection models. The basic idea behind the method is to use Lotka's integral equation for the population growth rate and compute the integral occurring in that equation by integrating an ordinary differential equation, analogous to recently derived methods to compute steady-states of physiologically structured population models. I illustrate application of the method using a number of published life-history models. PMID:18047588

De Roos, André M

2008-01-01

12

How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons From 50 Years of Extraordinary Demographic History  

PubMed Central

The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

Lam, David

2012-01-01

13

Effects of recent population bottlenecks on reconstructing the demographic history of prairie-chickens.  

PubMed

Current methods of DNA sequence analysis attempt to reconstruct historical patterns of population structure and growth from contemporary samples. However, these techniques may be influenced by recent population bottlenecks, which have the potential to eliminate lineages that reveal past changes in demography. One way to examine the performance of these demographic methods is to compare samples from populations before and after recent bottlenecks. We compared estimates of demographic history from populations of greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) before and after recent bottlenecks using four common methods (nested clade analysis [NCA], Tajima's D, mismatch distribution, and MDIV). We found that NCA did not perform well in the presence of bottleneck events, although it did recover some genetic signals associated with increased isolation and the extinction of intermediate populations. The majority of estimates for Tajima's D, including those from bottlenecked populations, were not significantly different from zero, suggesting our data conformed to neutral expectations. In contrast, mismatch distributions including the raggedness index were more likely to identify recently bottlenecked populations with this data set. Estimates of population mutation rate (theta), population divergence time (t), and time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) from MDIV were similar before and after bottlenecks; however, estimates of gene flow (M) were significantly lower in a few cases following a bottleneck. These results suggest that caution should be used when assessing demographic history from contemporary data sets, as recently fragmented and bottlenecked populations may have lost lineages that affect inferences of their demographic history. PMID:17561885

Johnson, Jeff A; Dunn, Peter O; Bouzat, Juan L

2007-06-01

14

Unification Theory of Optimal Life Histories and Linear Demographic Models in Internal Stochasticity  

PubMed Central

Life history of organisms is exposed to uncertainty generated by internal and external stochasticities. Internal stochasticity is generated by the randomness in each individual life history, such as randomness in food intake, genetic character and size growth rate, whereas external stochasticity is due to the environment. For instance, it is known that the external stochasticity tends to affect population growth rate negatively. It has been shown in a recent theoretical study using path-integral formulation in structured linear demographic models that internal stochasticity can affect population growth rate positively or negatively. However, internal stochasticity has not been the main subject of researches. Taking account of effect of internal stochasticity on the population growth rate, the fittest organism has the optimal control of life history affected by the stochasticity in the habitat. The study of this control is known as the optimal life schedule problems. In order to analyze the optimal control under internal stochasticity, we need to make use of “Stochastic Control Theory” in the optimal life schedule problem. There is, however, no such kind of theory unifying optimal life history and internal stochasticity. This study focuses on an extension of optimal life schedule problems to unify control theory of internal stochasticity into linear demographic models. First, we show the relationship between the general age-states linear demographic models and the stochastic control theory via several mathematical formulations, such as path–integral, integral equation, and transition matrix. Secondly, we apply our theory to a two-resource utilization model for two different breeding systems: semelparity and iteroparity. Finally, we show that the diversity of resources is important for species in a case. Our study shows that this unification theory can address risk hedges of life history in general age-states linear demographic models. PMID:24945258

Oizumi, Ryo

2014-01-01

15

Signatures of Demographic History and Natural Selection in the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Loci  

PubMed Central

Many lines of evidence show that several HLA loci have experienced balancing selection. However, distinguishing among demographic and selective explanations for patterns of variation observed with HLA genes remains a challenge. In this study we address this issue using data from a diverse set of human populations at six classical HLA loci and, employing a comparative genomics approach, contrast results for HLA loci to those for non-HLA markers. Using a variety of analytic methods, we confirm and extend evidence for selection acting on several HLA loci. We find that allele frequency distributions for four of the six HLA loci deviate from neutral expectations and show that this is unlikely to be explained solely by demographic factors. Other features of HLA variation are explained in part by demographic history, including decreased heterozygosity and increased LD for populations at greater distances from Africa and a similar apportionment of genetic variation for HLA loci compared to putatively neutral non-HLA loci. On the basis of contrasts among different HLA loci and between HLA and non-HLA loci, we conclude that HLA loci bear detectable signatures of both natural selection and demographic history. PMID:16702436

Meyer, Diogo; Single, Richard M.; Mack, Steven J.; Erlich, Henry A.; Thomson, Glenys

2006-01-01

16

Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the information accumulated in the species' DNA over its history. Recent development of the coalescent theory makes it possible to reconstruct the demographic history of species using nucleotide polymorphism data. To separate the effect of natural selection and demography, multilocus analysis is needed because these two forces can produce similar patterns of polymorphisms. In this study we investigated the amount and pattern of sequence variability of a Europe wide sample set of two peat moss species (Sphagnum fimbriatum and S. squarrosum) with similar distributions and mating systems but presumably contrasting historical demographies using 3 regions of the nuclear genome (appr. 3000 bps). We aimed to draw inferences concerning demographic, and phylogeographic histories of the species. Results All three nuclear regions supported the presence of an Atlantic and Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum suggesting glacial survival of the species along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Contrarily, S. squarrosum haplotypes showed three clades but no geographic structure at all. Maximum likelihood, mismatch and Bayesian analyses supported a severe historical bottleneck and a relatively recent demographic expansion of the Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum, whereas size of S. squarrosum populations has probably decreased in the past. Species wide molecular diversity of the two species was nearly the same with an excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum. Similar levels of molecular diversity, contrasting phylogeographic patterns and excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum compared to S. squarrosum mirror unexpected differences in the demography and population history of the species. Conclusion This study represents the first detailed European wide phylodemographic investigation on bryophytes and shows how pattern of nucleotide polymorphism can reveal unexpected differences in the population history of haploid plants with seemingly similar characteristics. PMID:17714592

Szövényi, Péter; Hock, Zsófia; Schneller, Jakob J; Tóth, Zoltán

2007-01-01

17

Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y-STR data from worldwide populations.  

PubMed

The Y chromosome is one of the best genetic materials to explore the evolutionary history of human populations. Global analyses of Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) data can reveal very interesting world population structures and histories. However, previous Y-STR works tended to focus on small geographical ranges or only included limited sample sizes. In this study, we have investigated population structure and demographic history using 17 Y chromosomal STRs data of 979 males from 44 worldwide populations. The largest genetic distances have been observed between pairs of African and non-African populations. American populations with the lowest genetic diversities also showed large genetic distances and coancestry coefficients with other populations, whereas Eurasian populations displayed close genetic affinities. African populations tend to have the oldest time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs), the largest effective population sizes and the earliest expansion times, whereas the American, Siberian, Melanesian, and isolated Atayal populations have the most recent TMRCAs and expansion times, and the smallest effective population sizes. This clear geographic pattern is well consistent with serial founder model for the origin of populations outside Africa. The Y-STR dataset presented here provides the most detailed view of worldwide population structure and human male demographic history, and additionally will be of great benefit to future forensic applications and population genetic studies. PMID:25159112

Xu, Hongyang; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Shrestha, Rukesh; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Zhang, Manfei; He, Yungang; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

2015-02-01

18

The Confounding Effect of Population Structure on Bayesian Skyline Plot Inferences of Demographic History  

PubMed Central

Many coalescent-based methods aiming to infer the demographic history of populations assume a single, isolated and panmictic population (i.e. a Wright-Fisher model). While this assumption may be reasonable under many conditions, several recent studies have shown that the results can be misleading when it is violated. Among the most widely applied demographic inference methods are Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs), which are used across a range of biological fields. Violations of the panmixia assumption are to be expected in many biological systems, but the consequences for skyline plot inferences have so far not been addressed and quantified. We simulated DNA sequence data under a variety of scenarios involving structured populations with variable levels of gene flow and analysed them using BSPs as implemented in the software package BEAST. Results revealed that BSPs can show false signals of population decline under biologically plausible combinations of population structure and sampling strategy, suggesting that the interpretation of several previous studies may need to be re-evaluated. We found that a balanced sampling strategy whereby samples are distributed on several populations provides the best scheme for inferring demographic change over a typical time scale. Analyses of data from a structured African buffalo population demonstrate how BSP results can be strengthened by simulations. We recommend that sample selection should be carefully considered in relation to population structure previous to BSP analyses, and that alternative scenarios should be evaluated when interpreting signals of population size change. PMID:23667558

Heller, Rasmus; Chikhi, Lounes; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

2013-01-01

19

Demographic history of an elusive carnivore: using museums to inform management.  

PubMed

Elusive carnivores present a challenge to managers because traditional survey methods are not suitable. We applied a genetic approach using museum specimens to examine how historical and recent conditions influenced the demographic history of Puma concolor in western and southern Texas, USA. We used 10 microsatellite loci and indexed population trends by estimating historical and recent genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and effective population size. Mountain lions in southern Texas exhibited a 9% decline in genetic diversity, whereas diversity remained stable in western Texas. Genetic differentiation between western and southern Texas was minimal historically (F(ST) = 0.04, P < 0.01), but increased 2-2.5 times in our recent sample. An index of genetic drift for southern Texas was seven to eight times that of western Texas, presumably contributing to the current differentiation between western and southern Texas. Furthermore, southern Texas exhibited a >50% temporal decline in effective population size, whereas western Texas showed no change. Our results illustrate that population declines and genetic drift have occurred in southern Texas, likely because of contemporary habitat loss and predator control. Population monitoring may be needed to ensure the persistence of mountain lions in the southern Texas region. This study highlights the utility of sampling museum collections to examine demographic histories and inform wildlife management. PMID:23028402

Holbrook, Joseph D; Deyoung, Randy W; Tewes, Michael E; Young, John H

2012-09-01

20

Estimating genome-wide heterozygosity: effects of demographic history and marker type.  

PubMed

Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are often used to link individual genetic variation to differences in fitness. However, most studies examining HFCs find weak or no correlations. Here, we derive broad theoretical predictions about how many loci are needed to adequately measure genomic heterozygosity assuming different levels of identity disequilibrium (ID), a proxy for inbreeding. We then evaluate the expected ability to detect HFCs using an empirical data set of 200 microsatellites and 412 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in two populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), with different demographic histories. In both populations, heterozygosity was significantly correlated across marker types, although the strength of the correlation was weaker in a native population compared with one founded via translocation and later supplemented with additional individuals. Despite being bi-allelic, SNPs had similar correlations to genome-wide heterozygosity as microsatellites in both populations. For both marker types, this association became stronger and less variable as more markers were considered. Both populations had significant levels of ID; however, estimates were an order of magnitude lower in the native population. As with heterozygosity, SNPs performed similarly to microsatellites, and precision and accuracy of the estimates of ID increased as more loci were considered. Although dependent on the demographic history of the population considered, these results illustrate that genome-wide heterozygosity, and therefore HFCs, are best measured by a large number of markers, a feat now more realistically accomplished with SNPs than microsatellites. PMID:24149650

Miller, J M; Malenfant, R M; David, P; Davis, C S; Poissant, J; Hogg, J T; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W

2014-03-01

21

Demographic history and the low genetic diversity in Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae) from Brazilian Neotropical savannas  

PubMed Central

Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation may be undetectable because they are generally a recent event in evolutionary time or because of confounding effects such as historical bottlenecks and historical changes in species' distribution. To assess the effects of demographic history on the genetic diversity and population structure in the Neotropical tree Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae), we used coalescence analyses coupled with ecological niche modeling to hindcast its distribution over the last 21?000 years. Twenty-five populations (644 individuals) were sampled and all individuals were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. All populations presented low allelic richness and genetic diversity. The estimated effective population size was small in all populations and gene flow was negligible among most. We also found a significant signal of demographic reduction in most cases. Genetic differentiation among populations was significantly correlated with geographical distance. Allelic richness showed a spatial cline pattern in relation to the species' paleodistribution 21?kyr BP (thousand years before present), as expected under a range expansion model. Our results show strong evidences that genetic diversity in D. alata is the outcome of the historical changes in species distribution during the late Pleistocene. Because of this historically low effective population size and the low genetic diversity, recent fragmentation of the Cerrado biome may increase population differentiation, causing population decline and compromising long-term persistence. PMID:23591520

Collevatti, R G; Telles, M P C; Nabout, J C; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N

2013-01-01

22

Neutral nuclear variation in Baboons (genus Papio) provides insights into their evolutionary and demographic histories.  

PubMed

Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda, and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 noncoding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions, and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea, and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ?1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant effective population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (?30,000 to 95,000 individuals). PMID:25234435

Boissinot, Stéphane; Alvarez, Lauren; Giraldo-Ramirez, Juliana; Tollis, Marc

2014-12-01

23

Population genetic structure and demographic history of Atrina pectinata based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure). Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene) and current gene flow (through larval dispersal) were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata. PMID:24789175

Xue, Dong-Xiu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

24

Population Genetic Structure and Demographic History of Atrina pectinata Based on Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure). Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene) and current gene flow (through larval dispersal) were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata. PMID:24789175

Xue, Dong-Xiu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

25

Demographic histories and genetic diversities of Fennoscandian marine and landlocked ringed seal subspecies  

PubMed Central

Island populations are on average smaller, genetically less diverse, and at a higher risk to go extinct than mainland populations. Low genetic diversity may elevate extinction probability, but the genetic component of the risk can be affected by the mode of diversity loss, which, in turn, is connected to the demographic history of the population. Here, we examined the history of genetic erosion in three Fennoscandian ringed seal subspecies, of which one inhabits the Baltic Sea ‘mainland’ and two the ‘aquatic islands’ composed of Lake Saimaa in Finland and Lake Ladoga in Russia. Both lakes were colonized by marine seals after their formation c. 9500 years ago, but Lake Ladoga is larger and more contiguous than Lake Saimaa. All three populations suffered dramatic declines during the 20th century, but the bottleneck was particularly severe in Lake Saimaa. Data from 17 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control-region sequences show that Saimaa ringed seals have lost most of the genetic diversity present in their Baltic ancestors, while the Ladoga population has experienced only minor reductions. Using Approximate Bayesian computing analyses, we show that the genetic uniformity of the Saimaa subspecies derives from an extended founder event and subsequent slow erosion, rather than from the recent bottleneck. This suggests that the population has persisted for nearly 10,000 years despite having low genetic variation. The relatively high diversity of the Ladoga population appears to result from a high number of initial colonizers and a high post-colonization population size, but possibly also by a shorter isolation period and/or occasional gene flow from the Baltic Sea. PMID:25535558

Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U

2014-01-01

26

Diversification, Biogeographic Pattern, and Demographic History of Taiwanese Scutellaria Species Inferred from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA  

PubMed Central

The ragged topography created by orogenesis generates diversified habitats for plants in Taiwan. In addition to colonization from nearby mainland China, high species diversity and endemism of plants is also present in Taiwan. Five of the seven Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) in Taiwan, for example, are endemic to the island. Hypotheses of multiple sources or in situ radiation have arisen to explain the high endemism of Taiwanese species. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using both nuclear and chloroplast markers revealed the multiple sources of Taiwanese Scutellaria species and confirmed the rapid and recent speciation of endemic species, especially those of the “indica group” composed of S. indica, S. austrotaiwanensis, S. tashiroi, and S. playfairii. The common ancestors of the indica group colonized first in northern Taiwan and dispersed regionally southward and eastward. Climate changes during glacial/interglacial cycles led to gradual colonization and variance events in the ancestors of these species, resulting in the present distribution and genetic differentiation of extant populations. Population decline was also detected in S. indica, which might reflect a bottleneck effect from the glacials. In contrast, the recently speciated endemic members of the indica group have not had enough time to accumulate much genetic variation and are thus genetically insensitive to demographic fluctuations, but the extant lineages were spatially expanded in the coalescent process. This study integrated phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to illustrate the evolutionary history of Taiwanese Scutellaria of high endemism and may be indicative of the diversification mechanism of plants on continental islands. PMID:23226402

Liao, Pei-Chun

2012-01-01

27

Application of the Demographic Potential Concept to Understanding the Russian Population History and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with Russian population estimates since 1897 and prospects to the end of the XXI century. Concept of demographic potential is used to examine past trends and project future tendencies. Dramatic disturbances of the past century hampered population growth and brought the possibility of halving the Russian population, the possibility, which could turn into inevitably if demographic problems

Dalkhat Ediev

2001-01-01

28

Evaluation of demographic history and neutral parameterization on the performance of FST outlier tests.  

PubMed

F(ST) outlier tests are a potentially powerful way to detect genetic loci under spatially divergent selection. Unfortunately, the extent to which these tests are robust to nonequilibrium demographic histories has been understudied. We developed a landscape genetics simulator to test the effects of isolation by distance (IBD) and range expansion on FST outlier methods. We evaluated the two most commonly used methods for the identification of F(ST) outliers (FDIST2 and BayeScan, which assume samples are evolutionarily independent) and two recent methods (FLK and Bayenv2, which estimate and account for evolutionary nonindependence). Parameterization with a set of neutral loci ('neutral parameterization') always improved the performance of FLK and Bayenv2, while neutral parameterization caused FDIST2 to actually perform worse in the cases of IBD or range expansion. BayeScan was improved when the prior odds on neutrality was increased, regardless of the true odds in the data. On their best performance, however, the widely used methods had high false-positive rates for IBD and range expansion and were outperformed by methods that accounted for evolutionary nonindependence. In addition, default settings in FDIST2 and BayeScan resulted in many false positives suggesting balancing selection. However, all methods did very well if a large set of neutral loci is available to create empirical P-values. We conclude that in species that exhibit IBD or have undergone range expansion, many of the published FST outliers based on FDIST2 and BayeScan are probably false positives, but FLK and Bayenv2 show great promise for accurately identifying loci under spatially divergent selection. PMID:24655127

Lotterhos, Katie E; Whitlock, Michael C

2014-05-01

29

BA Joint Honours History and American Studies (3 years) VT17  

E-print Network

the Crusades to the Cold War and from Renaissance artists to Russian Revolutionaries, discover history in allBA Joint Honours History and American Studies (3 years) VT17 American Studies (4 years) TV71 Ancient History (3 years) V110 Ancient History (4 years) V190 Classical Civilisation (3 years) QV81

Harman, Neal.A.

30

Demographic Divergence History of Pied Flycatcher and Collared Flycatcher Inferred from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing Data  

PubMed Central

Profound knowledge of demographic history is a prerequisite for the understanding and inference of processes involved in the evolution of population differentiation and speciation. Together with new coalescent-based methods, the recent availability of genome-wide data enables investigation of differentiation and divergence processes at unprecedented depth. We combined two powerful approaches, full Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis (ABC) and pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent modeling (PSMC), to reconstruct the demographic history of the split between two avian speciation model species, the pied flycatcher and collared flycatcher. Using whole-genome re-sequencing data from 20 individuals, we investigated 15 demographic models including different levels and patterns of gene flow, and changes in effective population size over time. ABC provided high support for recent (mode 0.3 my, range <0.7 my) species divergence, declines in effective population size of both species since their initial divergence, and unidirectional recent gene flow from pied flycatcher into collared flycatcher. The estimated divergence time and population size changes, supported by PSMC results, suggest that the ancestral species persisted through one of the glacial periods of middle Pleistocene and then split into two large populations that first increased in size before going through severe bottlenecks and expanding into their current ranges. Secondary contact appears to have been established after the last glacial maximum. The severity of the bottlenecks at the last glacial maximum is indicated by the discrepancy between current effective population sizes (20,000–80,000) and census sizes (5–50 million birds) of the two species. The recent divergence time challenges the supposition that avian speciation is a relatively slow process with extended times for intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve. Our study emphasizes the importance of using genome-wide data to unravel tangled demographic histories. Moreover, it constitutes one of the first examples of the inference of divergence history from genome-wide data in non-model species. PMID:24244198

Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Burri, Reto; Olason, Pall I.; Kawakami, Takeshi; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

2013-01-01

31

Joint motion pattern classification by cluster analysis of kinematic, demographic, and subjective variables.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to identify joint motion patterns by classifying the full range of motion (ROM) into several sections. Forty participants were stratified by age and gender and they performed 18 full-swing motions at a self-selected speed. Joint angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration, and subjective discomfort rating were collected for each motion. K-means cluster analyses were used to classify joint motion patterns and ROM sections. The results showed that two or three clusters were mainly determined by the kinematic variables of angular velocity and acceleration. The motions of three clusters showed that the ROM sections of low and moderate velocity with moderate and high accelerations occurred in the initial (negative) and terminal (positive) phases, respectively, whereas those of high velocity with low acceleration were shown in the mid (neutral) phase. The motions of two clusters revealed that while the patterns of high velocity and high acceleration were found on the positive side of the ROM, those of low velocity and low acceleration were on the negative and neutral sides. The ROM sections close to both ends of the ROM may have a larger physical load than the others. This study provides information that could be useful for developing postural analysis tools for dynamic work. PMID:23347907

Hwang, Jaejin; Shin, Hyunjung; Jung, Myung-Chul

2013-07-01

32

Population structure and demographic history of a tropical lowland rainforest tree species Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) from Southeastern Asia  

PubMed Central

Distribution of tropical rainforests in Southeastern Asia has changed over geo-logical time scale, due to movement of tectonic plates and/or global climatic changes. Shorea parvifolia is one of the most common tropical lowland rainforest tree species in Southeastern Asia. To infer population structure and demographic history of S. parvifolia, as indicators of temporal changes in the distribution and extent of tropical rainforest in this region, we studied levels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the following five nuclear gene regions: GapC, GBSSI, PgiC, SBE2, and SODH. Seven populations from peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and eastern Borneo were included in the analyses. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the investigated populations are divided into two groups: Sumatra-Malay and Borneo. Furthermore, each group contained one admixed population. Under isolation with migration model, divergence of the two groups was estimated to occur between late Pliocene (2.6 MYA) and middle Pleistocene (0.7 MYA). The log-likelihood ratio tests of several demographic models strongly supported model with population expansion and low level of migration after divergence of the Sumatra-Malay and Borneo groups. The inferred demographic history of S. parvifolia suggested the presence of a scarcely forested land bridge on the Sunda Shelf during glacial periods in the Pleistocene and predominance of tropical lowland rainforest at least in Sumatra and eastern Borneo. PMID:22957170

Iwanaga, Hiroko; Teshima, Kosuke M; Khatab, Ismael A; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Finkeldey, Reiner; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Siregar, Ulfah J; Szmidt, Alfred E

2012-01-01

33

Population structure and demographic history of a tropical lowland rainforest tree species Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) from Southeastern Asia.  

PubMed

Distribution of tropical rainforests in Southeastern Asia has changed over geo-logical time scale, due to movement of tectonic plates and/or global climatic changes. Shorea parvifolia is one of the most common tropical lowland rainforest tree species in Southeastern Asia. To infer population structure and demographic history of S. parvifolia, as indicators of temporal changes in the distribution and extent of tropical rainforest in this region, we studied levels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the following five nuclear gene regions: GapC, GBSSI, PgiC, SBE2, and SODH. Seven populations from peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and eastern Borneo were included in the analyses. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the investigated populations are divided into two groups: Sumatra-Malay and Borneo. Furthermore, each group contained one admixed population. Under isolation with migration model, divergence of the two groups was estimated to occur between late Pliocene (2.6 MYA) and middle Pleistocene (0.7 MYA). The log-likelihood ratio tests of several demographic models strongly supported model with population expansion and low level of migration after divergence of the Sumatra-Malay and Borneo groups. The inferred demographic history of S. parvifolia suggested the presence of a scarcely forested land bridge on the Sunda Shelf during glacial periods in the Pleistocene and predominance of tropical lowland rainforest at least in Sumatra and eastern Borneo. PMID:22957170

Iwanaga, Hiroko; Teshima, Kosuke M; Khatab, Ismael A; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Finkeldey, Reiner; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Siregar, Ulfah J; Szmidt, Alfred E

2012-07-01

34

Effects of recent population bottlenecks on reconstructing the demographic history of prairie-chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of DNA sequence analysis attempt to reconstruct historical patterns of population structure and growth from contemporary samples. However, these techniques may be influenced by recent population bottlenecks, which have the potential to eliminate lineages that reveal past changes in demography. One way to examine the performance of these demographic methods is to compare samples from populations before and

JEFF A. J OHNSON; PETER O. DUNN; JUAN L. B OUZAT

2007-01-01

35

Impact of Demographics, Sexual History, and Psychological Functioning on the Acquisition of STDs in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the variables related to multiple episodes of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adolescent females (n=88) and males (n=44). Results indicate that acquisition of an STD is related to the demographic characteristics of age and gender, as well as to the number of lifetime partners and attitudes about STD acquisition. (RJM)

Rosenthal, Susan L.; Biro, Frank M.; Succop, Paul A.; Bernstein, David I.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

1997-01-01

36

Examination of disease-based selection, demographic history and population structure in European Y-chromosome haplogroup I.  

PubMed

We attempted to refine the understanding of an association of Y-chromosomal haplogroup I (hg-I) with enhanced AIDS progression that had been previously reported. First, we compared the progression phenotype between hg-I and its phylogenetically closest haplogroup J. Then, we took a candidate gene approach resequencing DDX3Y, a crucial autoimmunity gene, in hg-I and other common European Y-chromosome haplogroups looking for functional variants. We extended the genetic analyses to CD24L4 and compared and contrasted the roles of disease-based selection, demographic history and population structure shaping the contemporary genetic landscape of hg-I chromosomes. Our results confirmed and refined the AIDS progression signal to hg-I, though no gene variant was identified that can explain the disease association. Molecular evolutionary and genetic analyses of the examined loci suggested a unique evolutionary history in hg-I, probably shaped by complex interactions of selection, demographic history and high geographical differentiation leading to the formation of distinct hg-I subhaplogroups that today are associated with HIV/AIDS onset. Clearly, further studies on Y-chromosome candidate loci sequencing to discover functional variants and discern the roles of evolutionary factors are warranted. PMID:20574427

Sezgin, Efe; Drosdak, Alyssa; McIntosh, Carl; Kessing, Bailey; Lautenberger, James A; Goedert, James J; Phair, John P; Troyer, Jennifer L; Smith, Michael W; O'Brien, Stephen J

2010-09-01

37

Genetic structure and demographic history of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates from Trinidad and Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background C. gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most economically important post-harvest diseases affecting papaya production worldwide. There is currently no information concerning the genetic structure or demographic history of this pathogen in any of the affected countries. Knowledge of molecular demographic parameters for different populations will improve our understanding of the biogeographic history as well as the evolutionary and adaptive potential of these pathogens. In this study, sequence data for ACT, GPDH, ?-TUB and ITS gene regions were analyzed for C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates infecting papaya in Trinidad and Mexico in order to determine the genetic structure and demographic history of these populations. Results The data indicated that Mexico is the ancestral C. gloeosporioides sensu lato population with asymmetrical migration to Trinidad. Mexico also had the larger effective population size but, both Mexico and Trinidad populations exhibited population expansion. Mexico also had greater nucleotide diversity and high levels of diversity for each gene. There was significant sub-division of the Trinidad and Mexico populations and low levels of genetic divergence among populations for three of the four gene regions; ?-TUB was shown to be under positive selection. There were also dissimilar haplotype characteristics for both populations. Mutation may play a role in shaping the population structure of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates from Trinidad and from Mexico, especially with respect to the ACT and GPDH gene regions. There was no evidence of gene flow between the C. truncatum populations and it is possible that the Mexico and Trinidad populations emerged independently of each other. Conclusions The study revealed relevant information based on the genetic structure as well as the demographic history of two fungal pathogens infecting papaya, C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum, in Trinidad and Mexico. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations will assist in determining the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and in identifying which evolutionary forces may have the greatest impact on durability of resistance. Intervention strategies that target these evolutionary forces would prove to be the most practical. PMID:23800297

2013-01-01

38

Impact of Quaternary climatic changes and interspecific competition on the demographic history of a highly mobile generalist carnivore, the coyote.  

PubMed

Recurrent cycles of climatic change during the Quaternary period have dramatically affected the population genetic structure of many species. We reconstruct the recent demographic history of the coyote (Canis latrans) through the use of Bayesian techniques to examine the effects of Late Quaternary climatic perturbations on the genetic structure of a highly mobile generalist species. Our analysis reveals a lack of phylogeographic structure throughout the range but past population size changes correlated with climatic changes. We conclude that even generalist carnivorous species are very susceptible to environmental changes associated with climatic perturbations. This effect may be enhanced in coyotes by interspecific competition with larger carnivores. PMID:22491760

Koblmüller, Stephan; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

2012-08-23

39

Recovering species demographic history from multi-model inference: the case of a Neotropical savanna tree species.  

PubMed

BackgroundGlaciations were recurrent throughout the Quaternary and potentially shaped species genetic structure worldwide by affecting population dynamics. Here, we implemented a multi-model inference approach to recover the distribution dynamics and demographic history of a Neotropical savanna tree, Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae). Exploring different algorithms and paleoclimatic simulations, we used ecological niche modelling to generate alternative hypotheses of potential demographic changes through the last glacial cycle and estimated genetic parameters using coalescent modelling.ResultsComparing predictions from demographic hypotheses with genetic parameters of modern populations, our findings revealed a likely scenario of population decline, with spatial displacement towards Northeast Brazil from the last glacial maximum to the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, populations expanded in response to the return of the climatically suitable conditions in Central-West Brazil. Nevertheless, a wide historical refugium across Central Brazil likely maintained large populations connected throughout time. The expected genetic signatures from such predicted distribution dynamics are also corroborated by spatial genetic structure observed in modern populations.ConclusionBy exploring uncertainties inherent in multiple working hypotheses, we have shown that multi-model inference is a fruitful and efficient approach to recover the nature, timing and geographical context of the Tabebuia aurea population dynamic in response to the Quaternary climate changes. PMID:25301477

Collevatti, Rosane G; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi; Guedes, Ludymila; Rosa, Fernanda F; Telles, Mariana

2014-10-11

40

A coupled phylogeographical and species distribution modelling approach recovers the demographical history of a Neotropical seasonally dry forest tree species.  

PubMed

We investigated here the demographical history of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Bignoniaceae) to understand the dynamics of the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry forests (SDFs), based on coupling an ensemble approach encompassing hindcasting species distribution modelling and statistical phylogeographical analysis. We sampled 17 populations (280 individuals) in central Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH, and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed no haplotype sharing among population but strong evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed historical constant populations size, negligible gene flow among populations, and an ancient time to most recent common ancestor dated from ~4.7 ± 1.1 Myr BP. Most divergences dated from the Lower Pleistocene, and no signal of important population size reduction was found in coalescent tree and tests of demographical expansion. Demographical scenarios were built based on past geographical range dynamic models, using two a priori biogeographical hypotheses ('Pleistocene Arc' and 'Amazonian SDF expansion') and on two additional hypotheses suggested by the palaeodistribution modelling built with several algorithms for distribution modelling and palaeoclimatic data. The simulation of these demographical scenarios showed that the pattern of diversity found so far for T. impetiginosa is in consonance with a palaeodistribution expansion during the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP), strongly suggesting that the current disjunct distribution of T. impetiginosa in SDFs may represent a climatic relict of a once more wide distribution. PMID:23094833

Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Nabout, João C; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Rangel, Thiago F; Rabelo, Suelen G; Diniz-Filho, Jose A F

2012-12-01

41

United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach  

SciTech Connect

Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.

1993-03-01

42

Museum DNA reveals the demographic history of the endangered Seychelles warbler  

PubMed Central

The importance of evolutionary conservation – how understanding evolutionary forces can help guide conservation decisions – is widely recognized. However, the historical demography of many endangered species is unknown, despite the fact that this can have important implications for contemporary ecological processes and for extinction risk. Here, we reconstruct the population history of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) – an ecological model species. By the 1960s, this species was on the brink of extinction, but its previous history is unknown. We used DNA samples from contemporary and museum specimens spanning 140 years to reconstruct bottleneck history. We found a 25% reduction in genetic diversity between museum and contemporary populations, and strong genetic structure. Simulations indicate that the Seychelles warbler was bottlenecked from a large population, with an ancestral Ne of several thousands falling to <50 within the last century. Such a rapid decline, due to anthropogenic factors, has important implications for extinction risk in the Seychelles warbler, and our results will inform conservation practices. Reconstructing the population history of this species also allows us to better understand patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding and promiscuity in the contemporary populations. Our approaches can be applied across species to test ecological hypotheses and inform conservation. PMID:25553073

Spurgin, Lewis G; Wright, David J; van der Velde, Marco; Collar, Nigel J; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S

2014-01-01

43

Accommodating the Effect of Ancient DNA Damage on Inferences of Demographic Histories  

E-print Network

and that the reconstruction of population size history is nearly identical to previously published estimates. Introduction-structured molecular sequence data. In BEAST, changes in effective population size through time are inferred accord as plots of effective population size through time (Drummond et al. 2005). All phylogenetic methods make

Shapiro, Beth

44

Khoisan hunter-gatherers have been the largest population throughout most of modern-human demographic history.  

PubMed

The Khoisan people from Southern Africa maintained ancient lifestyles as hunter-gatherers or pastoralists up to modern times, though little else is known about their early history. Here we infer early demographic histories of modern humans using whole-genome sequences of five Khoisan individuals and one Bantu speaker. Comparison with a 420?K SNP data set from worldwide individuals demonstrates that two of the Khoisan genomes from the Ju/'hoansi population contain exclusive Khoisan ancestry. Coalescent analysis shows that the Khoisan and their ancestors have been the largest populations since their split with the non-Khoisan population ~100-150?kyr ago. In contrast, the ancestors of the non-Khoisan groups, including Bantu-speakers and non-Africans, experienced population declines after the split and lost more than half of their genetic diversity. Paleoclimate records indicate that the precipitation in southern Africa increased ~80-100?kyr ago while west-central Africa became drier. We hypothesize that these climate differences might be related to the divergent-ancient histories among human populations. PMID:25471224

Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Perry, George H; Montenegro, Alvaro; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C

2014-01-01

45

Khoisan hunter-gatherers have been the largest population throughout most of modern-human demographic history  

PubMed Central

The Khoisan people from Southern Africa maintained ancient lifestyles as hunter-gatherers or pastoralists up to modern times, though little else is known about their early history. Here we infer early demographic histories of modern humans using whole-genome sequences of five Khoisan individuals and one Bantu speaker. Comparison with a 420?K SNP data set from worldwide individuals demonstrates that two of the Khoisan genomes from the Ju/’hoansi population contain exclusive Khoisan ancestry. Coalescent analysis shows that the Khoisan and their ancestors have been the largest populations since their split with the non-Khoisan population ~100–150?kyr ago. In contrast, the ancestors of the non-Khoisan groups, including Bantu-speakers and non-Africans, experienced population declines after the split and lost more than half of their genetic diversity. Paleoclimate records indicate that the precipitation in southern Africa increased ~80–100?kyr ago while west-central Africa became drier. We hypothesize that these climate differences might be related to the divergent-ancient histories among human populations. PMID:25471224

Kim, Hie Lim; Ratan, Aakrosh; Perry, George H.; Montenegro, Alvaro; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.

2014-01-01

46

Demographic history, marker variability and genetic differentiation in sandy beach fauna: What is the meaning of low FST's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note demonstrates the effect of locus variability and demographic history on the estimation of genetic differentiation and its interpretation in terms of ecological connectivity. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, mtDNA) sequences of the beach clam Donax serra from four sites along the South African coast were analysed. D. serra showed low COI haplotype diversity (h = 0.30 ± 0.069, 7 haplotypes), suggesting expansion from a small source population into extant habitats. As a consequence, statistical power to measure genetic connectivity was low. The lack of genetic population structure therefore does not necessarily demonstrate high connectivity. Although COI has been used successfully to identify species and populations isolated for prolonged periods of time, lack of differentiation has to be interpreted with caution, especially in terms of extant patterns of connectivity.

Bezuidenhout, Karien; Nel, Ronel; Hauser, Lorenz

2014-10-01

47

Lower limb joint replacement in patients with a history of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Although patients with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) who undergo lower limb joint replacement are thought to be at high risk of further VTE, the actual rate of recurrence has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the recurrence rate of VTE in patients who had undergone lower limb joint replacement, and to compare it with that of patients who had undergone a joint replacement without a history of VTE. From a pool of 6646 arthroplasty procedures (3344 TKR, 2907 THR, 243 revision THR, 152 revision TKR) in 5967 patients (68% female, mean age 67.7; 21 to 96) carried out between 2009 and 2011, we retrospectively identified 118 consecutive treatment episodes in 106 patients (65% female, mean age 70; 51 to 88,) who had suffered a previous VTE. Despite mechanical prophylaxis and anticoagulation with warfarin, we had four recurrences by three months (3.4% of 118) and six by one year (5.1% of 118). In comparison, in all our other joint replacements the rate of VTE was 0.54% (35/6528). The relative risk of a VTE by 90 days in patients who had undergone a joint replacement with a history of VTE compared with those with a joint replacement and no history of VTE was 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 17.5). There were five complications in the previous VTE group related to bleeding or over-anticoagulation. PMID:25371466

Allen, D; Sale, G

2014-11-01

48

Multilocus coalescent analyses reveal the demographic history and speciation patterns of mouse lemur sister species  

PubMed Central

Background Debate continues as to whether allopatric speciation or peripatric speciation through a founder effect is the predominant force driving evolution in vertebrates. The mouse lemurs of Madagascar are a system in which evolution has generated a large number of species over a relatively recent time frame. Here, we examine speciation patterns in a pair of sister species of mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus and M. griseorufus. These two species have ranges that are disparately proportioned in size, with M. murinus showing a much more extensive range that marginally overlaps that of M. griseorufus. Given that these two species are sister taxa, the asymmetric but overlapping geographic ranges are consistent with a model of peripatric speciation. To test this hypothesis, we analyze DNA sequence data from four molecular markers using coalescent methods. If the peripatric speciation model is supported, we predict substantially greater genetic diversity in M. murinus, relative to M. griseorufus. Further, we expect a larger effective population size in M. murinus and in the common ancestor of the two species than in M. griseorufus, with a concomitant decrease in gene tree/species tree incongruence in the latter and weak signs of demographic expansion in M. murinus. Results Our results reject a model of peripatric divergence. Coalescent effective population size estimates were similar for both extant species and larger than that estimated for their most recent common ancestor. Gene tree results show similar levels of incomplete lineage sorting within species with respect to the species tree, and locus-specific estimates of genetic diversity are concordant for both species. Multilocus demographic analyses suggest range expansions for M. murinus, with this species also experiencing more recent population declines over the past 160 thousand years. Conclusions Results suggest that speciation occurred in allopatry from a common ancestor narrowly distributed throughout southwest Madagascar, with subsequent range expansion for M. murinus. Population decline in M. murinus is likely related to patterns of climate change in Madagascar throughout the Pleistocene, potentially exacerbated by continual anthropogenic perturbation. Genome-level data are needed to quantify the role of niche specialization and adaptation in shaping the current ranges of these species. PMID:24661555

2014-01-01

49

Blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus, have high genetic structure and varying demographic histories in their Indo-Pacific range.  

PubMed

For free-swimming marine species like sharks, only population genetics and demographic history analyses can be used to assess population health/status as baseline population numbers are usually unknown. We investigated the population genetics of blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus; one of the most abundant reef-associated sharks and the apex predator of many shallow water reefs of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Our sampling includes 4 widely separated locations in the Indo-Pacific and 11 islands in French Polynesia with different levels of coastal development. Four-teen microsatellite loci were analysed for samples from all locations and two mitochondrial DNA fragments, the control region and cytochrome b, were examined for 10 locations. For microsatellites, genetic diversity is higher for the locations in the large open systems of the Red Sea and Australia than for the fragmented habitat of the smaller islands of French Polynesia. Strong significant structure was found for distant locations with FST values as high as ~0.3, and a smaller but still significant structure is found within French Polynesia. Both mitochondrial genes show only a few mutations across the sequences with a dominant shared haplotype in French Polynesia and New Caledonia suggesting a common lineage different to that of East Australia. Demographic history analyses indicate population expansions in the Red Sea and Australia that may coincide with sea level changes after climatic events. Expansions and flat signals are indicated for French Polynesia as well as a significant recent bottleneck for Moorea, the most human-impacted lagoon of the locations in French Polynesia. PMID:25251515

Vignaud, Thomas M; Mourier, Johann; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Leblois, Raphael; Spaet, Julia; Clua, Eric; Neglia, Valentina; Planes, Serge

2014-11-01

50

Utilizing Spatial Demographic and Life History Variation to Optimize Sustainable Yield of a Temperate Sex-Changing Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish populations vary geographically in demography and life history due to environmental and ecological processes and in response to exploitation. However, population dynamic models and stock assessments, used to manage fisheries, rarely explicitly incorporate spatial variation to inform management decisions. Here, we describe extensive geographic variation in several demographic and life history characteristics (e.g., size structure, growth, survivorship, maturation, and sex change) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher), a temperate rocky reef fish targeted by recreational and commercial fisheries. Fish were sampled from nine locations throughout southern California in 2007–2008. We developed a dynamic size and age-structured model, parameterized separately for each location, to assess the potential cost or benefit in terms of fisheries yield and conservation objectives of changing minimum size limits and/or fishing mortality rates (compared to the status quo). Results indicate that managing populations individually, with location-specific regulations, could increase yield by over 26% while maintaining conservative levels of spawning biomass. While this local management approach would be challenging to implement in practice, we found statistically similar increases in yield could be achieved by dividing southern California into two separate management regions, reflecting geographic similarities in demography. To maximize yield, size limits should be increased by 90 mm in the northern region and held at current levels in the south. We also found that managing the fishery as one single stock (the status quo), but with a size limit 50 mm greater than the current regulations, could increase overall fishery yield by 15%. Increases in size limits are predicted to enhance fishery yield and may also have important ecological consequences for the predatory role of sheephead in kelp forests. This framework for incorporating demographic variation into fisheries models can be exported generally to other species and may aid in identifying the appropriate spatial scales for fisheries management. PMID:21915353

Hamilton, Scott L.; Wilson, Jono R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Caselle, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

51

Utilizing spatial demographic and life history variation to optimize sustainable yield of a temperate sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Fish populations vary geographically in demography and life history due to environmental and ecological processes and in response to exploitation. However, population dynamic models and stock assessments, used to manage fisheries, rarely explicitly incorporate spatial variation to inform management decisions. Here, we describe extensive geographic variation in several demographic and life history characteristics (e.g., size structure, growth, survivorship, maturation, and sex change) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher), a temperate rocky reef fish targeted by recreational and commercial fisheries. Fish were sampled from nine locations throughout southern California in 2007-2008. We developed a dynamic size and age-structured model, parameterized separately for each location, to assess the potential cost or benefit in terms of fisheries yield and conservation objectives of changing minimum size limits and/or fishing mortality rates (compared to the status quo). Results indicate that managing populations individually, with location-specific regulations, could increase yield by over 26% while maintaining conservative levels of spawning biomass. While this local management approach would be challenging to implement in practice, we found statistically similar increases in yield could be achieved by dividing southern California into two separate management regions, reflecting geographic similarities in demography. To maximize yield, size limits should be increased by 90 mm in the northern region and held at current levels in the south. We also found that managing the fishery as one single stock (the status quo), but with a size limit 50 mm greater than the current regulations, could increase overall fishery yield by 15%. Increases in size limits are predicted to enhance fishery yield and may also have important ecological consequences for the predatory role of sheephead in kelp forests. This framework for incorporating demographic variation into fisheries models can be exported generally to other species and may aid in identifying the appropriate spatial scales for fisheries management. PMID:21915353

Hamilton, Scott L; Wilson, Jono R; Ben-Horin, Tal; Caselle, Jennifer E

2011-01-01

52

Genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Cycas simplicipinna (Cycadaceae) assessed by DNA sequences and SSR markers  

PubMed Central

Background Cycas simplicipinna (T. Smitinand) K. Hill. (Cycadaceae) is an endangered species in China. There were seven populations and 118 individuals that we could collect were genotyped in this study. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of this species. Results Analyses of data of DNA sequences (two maternally inherited intergenic spacers of chloroplast, cpDNA and one biparentally inherited internal transcribed spacer region ITS4-ITS5, nrDNA) and sixteen microsatellite loci (SSR) were conducted in the species. Of the 118 samples, 86 individuals from the seven populations were used for DNA sequencing and 115 individuals from six populations were used for the microsatellite study. We found high genetic diversity at the species level, low genetic diversity within each of the seven populations and high genetic differentiation among the populations. There was a clear genetic structure within populations of C. simplicipinna. A demographic history inferred from DNA sequencing data indicates that C. simplicipinna experienced a recent population contraction without retreating to a common refugium during the last glacial period. The results derived from SSR data also showed that C. simplicipinna underwent past effective population contraction, likely during the Pleistocene. Conclusions Some genetic features of C. simplicipinna such as having high genetic differentiation among the populations, a clear genetic structure and a recent population contraction could provide guidelines for protecting this endangered species from extinction. Furthermore, the genetic features with population dynamics of the species in our study would help provide insights and guidelines for protecting other endangered species effectively. PMID:25016306

2014-01-01

53

Conservation genetics and demographic history of the endangered Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas).  

PubMed

We examined allelic variation at 22 nuclear-encoded markers (21 microsatellites and one anonymous locus) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA in two geographical samples of the endangered cyprinid fish Notropis mekistocholas (Cape Fear shiner). Genetic diversity was relatively high in comparison to other endangered vertebrates, and there was no evidence of small population effects despite the low abundance reported for the species. Significant heterogeneity (following Bonferroni correction) in allele distribution at three microsatellites and in haplotype distribution in mtDNA was detected between the two localities. This heterogeneity may be due to reduced gene flow caused by a dam built in the early 1900 s. Bayesian coalescent analysis of microsatellite variation indicated that effective population size of Cape Fear shiners has declined in recent times (11-25 435 years ago, with highest posterior probabilities between 126 and 2007 years ago) by one-two orders of magnitude, consistent with the observed decline in abundance of the species. A decline in effective size was not indicated by analysis of mtDNA, where sequence polymorphism appeared to carry the signature of an older expansion phase that dated to the Pleistocene ( approximately 12 700 > 1 million years ago). Cape Fear shiners thus appear to have undergone an expansion phase following a glacial cycle but to have declined significantly in more recent times. These results suggest that rapidly evolving markers such as microsatellites may constitute a suitable tool when inferring recent demographic dynamics of populations. PMID:15367111

Saillant, E; Patton, J C; Ross, K E; Gold, J R

2004-10-01

54

Malthus in state space: Macro economic-demographic relations in English history, 1540 to 1870  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The history of preindustrial Europe provides an opportunity to examine the causes and consequences of population change\\u000a at a macro level. However, serious statistical problems arise from the endogeneity of all observed variables in a Malthusian\\u000a system (fertility, mortality, population size, and real wages), and from unobserved influences such as shifts in the demand\\u000a for labor and variations in

Ronald Lee; Michael Anderson

2002-01-01

55

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility. PMID:18593304

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

56

Population genomic analysis reveals a rich speciation and demographic history of orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii).  

PubMed

To gain insights into evolutionary forces that have shaped the history of Bornean and Sumatran populations of orang-utans, we compare patterns of variation across more than 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms found by previous mitochondrial and autosomal genome sequencing of 10 wild-caught orang-utans. Our analysis of the mitochondrial data yields a far more ancient split time between the two populations (~3.4 million years ago) than estimates based on autosomal data (0.4 million years ago), suggesting a complex speciation process with moderate levels of primarily male migration. We find that the distribution of selection coefficients consistent with the observed frequency spectrum of autosomal non-synonymous polymorphisms in orang-utans is similar to the distribution in humans. Our analysis indicates that 35% of genes have evolved under detectable negative selection. Overall, our findings suggest that purifying natural selection, genetic drift, and a complex demographic history are the dominant drivers of genome evolution for the two orang-utan populations. PMID:24194868

Ma, Xin; Kelley, Joanna L; Eilertson, Kirsten; Musharoff, Shaila; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Martins, André L; Vinar, Tomas; Kosiol, Carolin; Siepel, Adam; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Bustamante, Carlos D

2013-01-01

57

Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax) inferred from mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Results Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A. fallax, migration from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was detected but not in the opposite direction, with colonization of the North Atlantic probably occurring after last glacial maximum. Conclusion The similar haplotype network topologies between the two species support a common intraspecific history of isolation. Despite these similarities, A. alosa and A. fallax have clearly responded differently to the hydrological dynamics of the Pleistocene, as reflected in their distinct demographic histories. As the species additionally occupy different ecological niches it should not be surprising that they differ in resilience to natural or human-mediated climatic changes. For A. fallax, it is further clear that its demographic response to large-scale hydrological events is not synchronized between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. These regional and species-specific differences should be incorporated into future predictive modeling of biological response to climate change as well as current management concepts. PMID:23020523

2012-01-01

58

Demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To explore demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (OA) (First MTPJ OA). Design Adults aged ?50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a Health Survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12 months were invited to undergo a clinical assessment and weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. Radiographic first MTPJ OA in the most severely affected foot was graded into four categories using a validated atlas. Differences in selected demographic and clinical factors were explored across the four radiographic severity subgroups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ordinal regression. Results Clinical and radiographic data were available from 517 participants, categorised as having no (n = 105), mild (n = 228), moderate (n = 122) or severe (n = 62) first MTPJ OA. Increased radiographic severity was associated with older age and lower educational attainment. After adjusting for age, increased radiographic first MTPJ OA severity was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dorsal hallux and first MTPJ pain, hallux valgus, first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) hyperextension, keratotic lesions on the dorsal aspect of the hallux and first MTPJ, decreased first MTPJ dorsiflexion, ankle/subtalar joint eversion and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and a trend towards a more pronated foot posture. Conclusions This cross-sectional study has identified several dose–response associations between radiographic severity of first MTPJ OA and a range of demographic and clinical factors. These findings highlight the progressive nature of first MTPJ OA and provide insights into the spectrum of presentation of the condition in clinical practice. PMID:25450852

Menz, H.B.; Roddy, E.; Marshall, M.; Thomas, M.J.; Rathod, T.; Myers, H.; Thomas, E.; Peat, G.M.

2015-01-01

59

Inference of gorilla demographic and selective history from whole-genome sequence data.  

PubMed

Although population-level genomic sequence data have been gathered extensively for humans, similar data from our closest living relatives are just beginning to emerge. Examination of genomic variation within great apes offers many opportunities to increase our understanding of the forces that have differentially shaped the evolutionary history of hominid taxa. Here, we expand upon the work of the Great Ape Genome Project by analyzing medium to high coverage whole-genome sequences from 14 western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), 2 eastern lowland gorillas (G. beringei graueri), and a single Cross River individual (G. gorilla diehli). We infer that the ancestors of western and eastern lowland gorillas diverged from a common ancestor approximately 261 ka, and that the ancestors of the Cross River population diverged from the western lowland gorilla lineage approximately 68 ka. Using a diffusion approximation approach to model the genome-wide site frequency spectrum, we infer a history of western lowland gorillas that includes an ancestral population expansion of 1.4-fold around 970 ka and a recent 5.6-fold contraction in population size 23 ka. The latter may correspond to a major reduction in African equatorial forests around the Last Glacial Maximum. We also analyze patterns of variation among western lowland gorillas to identify several genomic regions with strong signatures of recent selective sweeps. We find that processes related to taste, pancreatic and saliva secretion, sodium ion transmembrane transport, and cardiac muscle function are overrepresented in genomic regions predicted to have experienced recent positive selection. PMID:25534031

McManus, Kimberly F; Kelley, Joanna L; Song, Shiya; Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Stevison, Laurie S; Ryder, Oliver A; Ape Genome Project, Great; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Wall, Jeffrey D; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F

2015-03-01

60

Nautilus pompilius life history and demographics at the Osprey Reef Seamount, Coral Sea, Australia.  

PubMed

Nautiloids are the subject of speculation as to their threatened status arising from the impacts of targeted fishing for the ornamental shell market. Life history knowledge is essential to understand the susceptibility of this group to overfishing and to the instigation of management frameworks. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the life of Nautilus in the wild. At Osprey Reef from 1998-2008, trapping for Nautilus was conducted on 354 occasions, with 2460 individuals of one species, Nautilus pompilius, captured and 247 individuals recaptured. Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) were deployed on 15 occasions and six remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives from 100-800 m were conducted to record Nautilus presence and behavior. Maturity, sex and size data were recorded, while measurements of recaptured individuals allowed estimation of growth rates to maturity, and longevity beyond maturity. We found sexual dimorphism in size at maturity (males: 131.9±SD?=?2.6 mm; females: 118.9±7.5 mm shell diameter) in a population dominated by mature individuals (58%). Mean growth rates of 15 immature recaptured animals were 0.061±0.023 mm day(-1) resulting in an estimate of around 15.5 years to maturation. Recaptures of mature animals after five years provide evidence of a lifespan exceeding 20 years. Juvenile Nautilus pompilius feeding behavior was recorded for the first time within the same depth range (200-610 m) as adults. Our results provide strong evidence of a K-selected life history for Nautilus from a detailed study of a 'closed' wild population. In conjunction with population size and density estimates established for the Osprey Reef Nautilus, this work allows calculations for sustainable catch and provides mechanisms to extrapolate these findings to other extant nautiloid populations (Nautilus and Allonautilus spp.) throughout the Indo-Pacific. PMID:21347356

Dunstan, Andrew J; Ward, Peter D; Marshall, N Justin

2011-01-01

61

Understanding patterns of genetic diversity in the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida: demographic history or a Wolbachia selective sweep?  

PubMed

The endosymbiont Wolbachia can be responsible for selective sweeps on mitochondrial DNA variability within species. Similar signals can also result from demographic processes, although crucially the latter affect nuclear as well as mitochondrial loci. Here we present data on Wolbachia infection status and phylogeographic patterning for a widely distributed insect host, the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Two hundred and eighteen females from eight European countries were screened for Wolbachia. All individuals from Hungary, Italy, France, U.K., Ireland, Switzerland, Sweden, and northern and southern Spain were infected with a single group A strain of Wolbachia, while populations in central Spain were not infected. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b) shows low variation and departure from neutrality in infected populations, but greater variation and no deviation from neutrality in Wolbachia-free populations. This pattern is compatible with a Wolbachia-induced selective sweep. However, we also find parallel differences between infected and uninfected populations for nuclear markers (sequence data for ITS1 and ITS2). All markers support the existence of a deep split between populations in Spain (some free of Wolbachia), and those in the rest of Europe (all infected). Allelic variation for five allozyme loci is also consistent with the Spain-rest of Europe split. Concordant patterns for nuclear and mitochondrial markers suggest that differences in the nature and extent of genetic diversity between these two regions are best explained by differing demographic histories (perhaps associated with range expansion from Pleistocene glacial refugia), rather than a Wolbachia-associated selective sweep. PMID:11737276

Rokas, A; Atkinson, R J; Brown, G S; West, S A; Stone, G N

2001-09-01

62

Genetic variation and demographic history of the Haplochromis laparogramma group of Lake Victoria--An analysis based on SINEs and mitochondrial DNA  

E-print Network

Genetic variation and demographic history of the Haplochromis laparogramma group of Lake Victoria More than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid species inhabit Lake Victoria. This striking species and population structure of closely related Lake Victoria cichlids and in showing the importance of applying

63

Demographic history of Diadema antillarum, a keystone herbivore on Caribbean reefs.  

PubMed Central

The sea urchin Diadema antillarum was the most important herbivore on Caribbean reefs until 1983, when mass mortality reduced its populations by more than 97%. Knowledge of its past demography is essential to reconstruct reef ecology as it was before human impact, which has been implicated as having caused high pre-mortality Diadema abundance. To determine the history of its population size, we sequenced the ATPase 6 and 8 region of mitochondrial DNA from populations in the Caribbean and in the eastern Atlantic (which was not affected by the mass mortality), as well as from the eastern Pacific D. mexicanum. The Caribbean population harbours an order of magnitude more molecular diversity than those of the eastern Pacific or the eastern Atlantic and, despite the recent mass mortality, its DNA sequences bear the genetic signature of a previous population expansion. By estimating mutation rates from divergence between D. antillarum and D. mexicanum, that were separated at a known time by the Isthmus of Panama, and by using estimates of effective population size derived from mismatch distributions and a maximum likelihood coalescence algorithm, we date the expansion as having occurred no more recently than 100 000 years before the present. Thus, Diadema was abundant in the Caribbean long before humans could have affected ecological processes; the genetic data contain no evidence of a recent, anthropogenically caused, population increase. PMID:11703875

Lessios, H. A.; Garrido, M. J.; Kessing, B. D.

2001-01-01

64

Concordant phylogeographies of 2 malaria vectors attest to common spatial and demographic histories.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of South American lineages is a topic of heated debate. Although a single process is unlikely to describe entire ecosystems, related species, which incur similar habitat limitations, can inform the history for a subsection of assemblages. We compared the phylogeographic patterns of the cytochrome oxidase I marker from Anopheles triannulatus (N = 72) and previous results for A. darlingi (N = 126) in a broad portion of their South American distributions. Both species share similar population subdivisions, with aggregations northeast of the Amazon River, in southern coastal Brazil and 2 regions in central Brazil. The average capital EF, Cyrillic(ST) between these groups was 0.39 for A. triannulatus. Populations northeast of the Amazon and in southeastern Brazil are generally reciprocally monophyletic to the remaining groups. Based on these initial analyses, we constructed the a priori hypothesis that the Amazon and regions of high declivity pose geographic barriers to dispersal in these taxa. Mantel tests confirmed that these areas block gene flow for more than 1000 km for both species. The efficacy of these impediments was tested using landscape genetics, which could not reject our a priori hypothesis but did reject simpler scenarios. Results form summary statistics and phylogenetics suggest that both lineages originated in central Amazonia (south of the Amazon River) during the late Pleistocene (579 000 years ago) and that they followed the same paths of expansion into their contemporary distributions. These results may have implications for other species sharing similar ecological limitations but probably are not applicable as a general paradigm of Neotropical biogeography. PMID:20511380

Pedro, Pedro M; Uezu, Alexandre; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

2010-01-01

65

Genetic Structure and Demographic History Should Inform Conservation: Chinese Cobras Currently Treated as Homogenous Show Population Divergence  

PubMed Central

An understanding of population structure and genetic diversity is crucial for wildlife conservation and for determining the integrity of wildlife populations. The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) has a distribution from the mouth of the Yangtze River down to northern Vietnam and Laos, within which several large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence population structure. We combined 12 microsatellite loci and 1117 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to explore genetic structure and demographic history in this species, using 269 individuals from various localities in Mainland China and Vietnam. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. mtDNA data revealed two main (Vietnam + southern China + southwestern China; eastern + southeastern China) and one minor (comprising only two individuals from the westernmost site) clades. Microsatellite data divided the eastern + southeastern China clade further into two genetic clusters, which include individuals from the eastern and southeastern regions, respectively. The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains may be important barriers affecting the diversification of lineages. In the haplotype network of cytchrome b, many haplotypes were represented within a “star” cluster and this and other tests suggest recent expansion. However, microsatellite analyses did not yield strong evidence for a recent bottleneck for any population or genetic cluster. The three main clusters identified here should be considered as independent management units for conservation purposes. The release of Chinese cobras into the wild should cease unless their origin can be determined, and this will avoid problems arising from unnatural homogenization. PMID:22558439

Lin, Long-Hui; Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Ji, Xiang

2012-01-01

66

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

67

Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus  

PubMed Central

We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. The pattern of virus evolution was inferred based on nucleotide sequence variation from isolates sampled across a wide area in Europe at different points in time. Phylogeny and time estimates suggested that CHV-1 was introduced together with its fungal host to Europe and that it rapidly colonized the central range along the south facing slopes of the Alps and the north-east facing slopes of the Dinaric Alps. These central populations were the source for two waves of simultaneous invasions toward the southern Balkans and Turkey, as indicated by migration rates. Our results showed that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. As infection with CHV-1 reduces the pathogenicity of C. parasitica toward the chestnut tree, CHV-1 invasions of the newly established C. parasitica populations probably prevented the development of devastating chestnut blight epidemics in Europe. We propose that in this, and supposedly in other pathosystems, geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors may help explain the correlated invasion pattern of a parasite and its host. PMID:23301186

Bryner, Sarah F; Rigling, Daniel; Brunner, Patrick C

2012-01-01

68

Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a species of conservation concern  

PubMed Central

The North American deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona. We sampled 109 individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA sequences for 14 nuclear loci, and found that U. scoparia has low genetic diversity relative to the U. notata species complex, comparable to that of chimpanzees and southern elephant seals. Analyses of genotypes using Bayesian clustering algorithms did not identify discrete populations within U. scoparia. Using isolation-with-migration (IM) models and a novel coalescent-based hypothesis testing approach, we estimated that U. scoparia diverged from U. notata in the Pleistocene epoch. The likelihood ratio test and the Akaike Information Criterion consistently rejected nested speciation models that included parameters for migration and population growth of U. scoparia. We reject the Neogene vicariance hypothesis for the speciation of U. scoparia and define this species as a single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation purposes. PMID:25360285

Gottscho, Andrew D; Marks, Sharyn B; Jennings, W Bryan

2014-01-01

69

Speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a species of conservation concern.  

PubMed

The North American deserts were impacted by both Neogene plate tectonics and Quaternary climatic fluctuations, yet it remains unclear how these events influenced speciation in this region. We tested published hypotheses regarding the timing and mode of speciation, population structure, and demographic history of the Mojave Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma scoparia), a sand dune specialist endemic to the Mojave Desert of California and Arizona. We sampled 109 individual lizards representing 22 insular dune localities, obtained DNA sequences for 14 nuclear loci, and found that U. scoparia has low genetic diversity relative to the U. notata species complex, comparable to that of chimpanzees and southern elephant seals. Analyses of genotypes using Bayesian clustering algorithms did not identify discrete populations within U. scoparia. Using isolation-with-migration (IM) models and a novel coalescent-based hypothesis testing approach, we estimated that U. scoparia diverged from U. notata in the Pleistocene epoch. The likelihood ratio test and the Akaike Information Criterion consistently rejected nested speciation models that included parameters for migration and population growth of U. scoparia. We reject the Neogene vicariance hypothesis for the speciation of U. scoparia and define this species as a single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation purposes. PMID:25360285

Gottscho, Andrew D; Marks, Sharyn B; Jennings, W Bryan

2014-06-01

70

Genetic structure and demographic history should inform conservation: Chinese cobras currently treated as homogenous show population divergence.  

PubMed

An understanding of population structure and genetic diversity is crucial for wildlife conservation and for determining the integrity of wildlife populations. The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) has a distribution from the mouth of the Yangtze River down to northern Vietnam and Laos, within which several large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence population structure. We combined 12 microsatellite loci and 1117 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to explore genetic structure and demographic history in this species, using 269 individuals from various localities in Mainland China and Vietnam. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. mtDNA data revealed two main (Vietnam + southern China + southwestern China; eastern + southeastern China) and one minor (comprising only two individuals from the westernmost site) clades. Microsatellite data divided the eastern + southeastern China clade further into two genetic clusters, which include individuals from the eastern and southeastern regions, respectively. The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains may be important barriers affecting the diversification of lineages. In the haplotype network of cytchrome b, many haplotypes were represented within a "star" cluster and this and other tests suggest recent expansion. However, microsatellite analyses did not yield strong evidence for a recent bottleneck for any population or genetic cluster. The three main clusters identified here should be considered as independent management units for conservation purposes. The release of Chinese cobras into the wild should cease unless their origin can be determined, and this will avoid problems arising from unnatural homogenization. PMID:22558439

Lin, Long-Hui; Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Ji, Xiang

2012-01-01

71

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-01-01

72

Reconstructing the Demographic History of the Human Lineage Using Whole-Genome Sequences from Human and Three Great Apes  

PubMed Central

The demographic history of human would provide helpful information for identifying the evolutionary events that shaped the humanity but remains controversial even in the genomic era. To settle the controversies, we inferred the speciation times (T) and ancestral population sizes (N) in the lineage leading to human and great apes based on whole-genome alignment. A coalescence simulation determined the sizes of alignment blocks and intervals between them required to obtain recombination-free blocks with a high frequency. This simulation revealed that the size of the block strongly affects the parameter inference, indicating that recombination is an important factor for achieving optimum parameter inference. From the whole genome alignments (1.9 giga-bases) of human (H), chimpanzee (C), gorilla (G), and orangutan, 100-bp alignment blocks separated by ?5-kb intervals were sampled and subjected to estimate ? = ?T and ? = 4?gN using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, where ? is the mutation rate and g is the generation time. Although the estimated ?HC differed across chromosomes, ?HC and ?HCG were strongly correlated across chromosomes, indicating that variation in ? is subject to variation in ?, rather than T, and thus, all chromosomes share a single speciation time. Subsequently, we estimated Ts of the human lineage from chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to be 6.0–7.6, 7.6–9.7, and 15–19 Ma, respectively, assuming variable ? across lineages and chromosomes. These speciation times were consistent with the fossil records. We conclude that the speciation times in our recombination-free analysis would be conclusive and the speciation between human and chimpanzee was a single event. PMID:22975719

Hara, Yuichiro; Imanishi, Tadashi; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

73

Divorcing the Late Upper Palaeolithic demographic histories of mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6 in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background A Southwest Asian origin and dispersal to North Africa in the Early Upper Palaeolithic era has been inferred in previous studies for mtDNA haplogroups M1 and U6. Both haplogroups have been proposed to show similar geographic patterns and shared demographic histories. Results We report here 24 M1 and 33 U6 new complete mtDNA sequences that allow us to refine the existing phylogeny of these haplogroups. The resulting phylogenetic information was used to genotype a further 131 M1 and 91 U6 samples to determine the geographic spread of their sub-clades. No southwest Asian specific clades for M1 or U6 were discovered. U6 and M1 frequencies in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe do not follow similar patterns, and their sub-clade divisions do not appear to be compatible with their shared history reaching back to the Early Upper Palaeolithic. The Bayesian Skyline Plots testify to non-overlapping phases of expansion, and the haplogroups’ phylogenies suggest that there are U6 sub-clades that expanded earlier than those in M1. Some M1 and U6 sub-clades could be linked with certain events. For example, U6a1 and M1b, with their coalescent ages of ~20,000–22,000 years ago and earliest inferred expansion in northwest Africa, could coincide with the flourishing of the Iberomaurusian industry, whilst U6b and M1b1 appeared at the time of the Capsian culture. Conclusions Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of both haplogroups and coalescent time assessments suggest that the extant main branching pattern of both haplogroups arose and diversified in the mid-later Upper Palaeolithic, with some sub-clades concomitantly with the expansion of the Iberomaurusian industry. Carriers of these maternal lineages have been later absorbed into and diversified further during the spread of Afro-Asiatic languages in North and East Africa. PMID:23206491

2012-01-01

74

ENCOUNTER HISTORY MODELING OF JOINT MARK RECAPTURE, TAG-RESIGHTING AND TAG-RECOVERY DATA UNDER TEMPORARY EMIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a joint analysis of mark-recapture, tag-resight and tag- recovery data that directly models the encounter history of an animal. The proba- bility of the encounter history for each animal is partitioned into survival, recapture, resighting, and recovery components, and a component for the probability that the animal is never encountered again. Temporary migration enters into the likelihood through

Richard J. Barker; Kenneth P. Burnham; Gary C. White

75

Relation of demographic factors, menstrual history, reproduction and medication use to sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In postmenopausal women, levels of estrogens, androgens, and perhaps prolactin have been related to risk of breast and other\\u000a hormonal cancers in women. However, the determinants of these hormone concentrations have not been firmly established. Associations\\u000a among various demographic, menstrual, and reproductive factors, medication use and endogenous sex hormone concentrations (estradiol,\\u000a free estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, free testosterone, sex

Anne McTiernan; LieLing Wu; Vanessa M. Barnabei; Chu Chen; Susan Hendrix; Francesmary Modugno; Thomas Rohan; Frank Z. Stanczyk; C. Y. Wang

2008-01-01

76

Joint morphology in the insect leg: evolutionary history inferred from Notch loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Joints permit efficient locomotion, especially among animals with a rigid skeleton. Joint morphologies vary in the body of individual animals, and the shapes of homologous joints often differ across species. The diverse locomotive behaviors of animals are based, in part, on the developmental and evolutionary history of joint morphogenesis. We showed previously that strictly coordinated cell-differentiation and cell-movement events within the epidermis sculpt the interlocking ball-and-socket joints in the adult Drosophila tarsus (distal leg). Here, we show that the tarsal joints of various insect species can be classified into three types: ball-and-socket, side-by-side and uniform. The last two probably result from joint formation without the cell-differentiation step, the cell-movement step, or both. Similar morphological variations were observed in Drosophila legs when Notch function was temporarily blocked during joint formation, implying that the independent acquisition of cell differentiation and cell movement underlay the elaboration of tarsal joint morphologies during insect evolution. These results provide a framework for understanding how the seemingly complex morphology of the interlocking joint could have developed during evolution by the addition of simple developmental modules: cell differentiation and cell movement. PMID:21989911

Tajiri, Reiko; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Shigeo

2011-01-01

77

Strong population genetic structure and contrasting demographic histories for the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) in the Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

Coastal and demersal chondrichthyans, such as the small-spotted catshark, are expected to exhibit genetic differentiation in areas of complex geomorphology like the Mediterranean Basin because of their limited dispersal ability. To test this hypothesis, we used a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci in order to investigate the genetic structure and historical demography of this species, and to identify potential barriers to gene flow. Samples were collected from the Balearic Islands, the Algerian Basin, the Ionian Sea, the Corinthian Gulf and various locations across the Aegean Sea. Additional sequences from the Atlantic and the Levantine Basin retrieved from GenBank were included in the mitochondrial DNA analysis. Both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite DNA data revealed a strong genetic subdivision, mainly between the western and eastern Mediterranean, whereas the Levantine Basin shared haplotypes with both areas. The geographic isolation of the Mediterranean basins seems to enforce the population genetic differentiation of the species, with the deep sea acting as a strong barrier to its dispersal. Contrasting historical demographic patterns were also observed in different parts of the species' distribution, most notably a population growth trend in the western Mediterranean/Atlantic area and a slight decreasing one in the Aegean Sea. The different effects of the Pleistocene glacial periods on the habitat availability may explain the contrasting demographic patterns observed. The current findings suggest that the small-spotted catshark exhibits several genetic stocks in the Mediterranean, although further study is needed. PMID:25469687

Kousteni, V; Kasapidis, P; Kotoulas, G; Megalofonou, P

2015-03-01

78

Life-history and demographic variation in an alpine specialist at the latitudinal extremes of the range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine environments are unique systems to examine variation in life-history strategies because temperature and seasonality\\u000a are similar across broad latitudinal gradients. We studied the life-history strategies, demography and population growth of\\u000a white-tailed ptarmigan Lagopus leucura, an alpine specialist, at the latitudinal extremes of the range in the Yukon (YK, studied from 2004 to 2008) and Colorado\\u000a (CO, 1987–1996). The two

Scott Wilson; Kathy Martin

2011-01-01

79

Pragmatic Perspective on Conservation Genetics and Demographic History of the Last Surviving Population of Kashmir Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India  

PubMed Central

The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies. PMID:25671567

Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P.; Sharma, Lalit K.; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

2015-01-01

80

-Demographic and life-history correlates for Amazonian trees -625 Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 625-634, 2005  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Amazon; Growth; Mortality; Rain forest; Recruit- ment; Tree guild; Tree life history; Wood within this assemblage? Location: Central Amazonian rain forest. Methods: Using long-term data from 24 1 by low-light and other con- ditions in the forest understorey. Conclusions: Trees of Amazonian rain

Bermingham, Eldredge

81

Life history and demographic determinants of effective/census size ratios as exemplified by brown trout (Salmo trutta)  

PubMed Central

A number of demographic factors, many of which related to human-driven encroachments, are predicted to decrease the effective population size (Ne) relative to the census population size (N), but these have been little investigated. Yet, it is necessary to know which factors most strongly impact Ne, and how to mitigate these effects through sound management actions. In this study, we use parentage analysis of a stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to quantify the effect of between-individual variance in reproductive success on the effective number of breeders (Nb) relative to the census number of breeders (Ni). Comprehensive estimates of the Nb/N ratio were reduced to 0.16–0.28, almost entirely due to larger than binomial variance in family size. We used computer simulations, based on empirical estimates of age-specific survival and fecundity rates, to assess the effect of repeat spawning (iteroparity) on Ne and found that the variance in lifetime reproductive success was substantially higher for repeat spawners. Random family-specific survival, on the other hand, acts to buffer these effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of small populations, where maintaining high and stable levels of Ne is crucial to extenuate inbreeding and protect genetic variability. PMID:23028401

Serbezov, Dimitar; Jorde, Per Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

2012-01-01

82

Selection and demographic history shape the molecular evolution of the gamete compatibility protein bindin in Pisaster sea stars  

PubMed Central

Reproductive compatibility proteins have been shown to evolve rapidly under positive selection leading to reproductive isolation, despite the potential homogenizing effects of gene flow. This process has been implicated in both primary divergence among conspecific populations and reinforcement during secondary contact; however, these two selective regimes can be difficult to discriminate from each other. Here, we describe the gene that encodes the gamete compatibility protein bindin for three sea star species in the genus Pisaster. First, we compare the full-length bindin-coding sequence among all three species and analyze the evolutionary relationships between the repetitive domains of the variable second bindin exon. The comparison suggests that concerted evolution of repetitive domains has an effect on bindin divergence among species and bindin variation within species. Second, we characterize population variation in the second bindin exon of two species: We show that positive selection acts on bindin variation in Pisaster ochraceus but not in Pisaster brevispinus, which is consistent with higher polyspermy risk in P. ochraceus. Third, we show that there is no significant genetic differentiation among populations and no apparent effect of sympatry with congeners that would suggest selection based on reinforcement. Fourth, we combine bindin and cytochrome c oxidase 1 data in isolation-with-migration models to estimate gene flow parameter values and explore the historical demographic context of our positive selection results. Our findings suggest that positive selection on bindin divergence among P. ochraceus alleles can be accounted for in part by relatively recent northward population expansions that may be coupled with the potential homogenizing effects of concerted evolution. PMID:24967076

Popovic, Iva; Marko, Peter B; Wares, John P; Hart, Michael W

2014-01-01

83

Evolutionary history of a widespread Indo-Pacific goby: the role of Pleistocene sea-level changes on demographic contraction/expansion dynamics.  

PubMed

Compared to endemics, widespread species are of particular interest to retrace recent evolutionary history. These species have a large population size which provides a clearer genetic signature of past events. Moreover, their wide geographic range increases the potential occurrence of evolutionary events (expansion, divergence, etc.). Here, we used several coalescent-based methods to disentangle the evolutionary history of a widespread amphidromous goby (Sicyopterus lagocephalus), in the light of sea-level variations during the Pleistocene. Using 75 samples recovered from three biogeographic regions (Western Indian Ocean, Melanesia and Polynesia), we analysed a portion of the cytochromeb gene and confirmed three major haplogroups, each specific to a region. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the Melanesian haplogroup was the oldest while the two peripheral regions hosted daughter haplogroups; (2) two centrifugal colonisation events occurred from Melanesia to the periphery, each synchronised with periods of strong paleo-ENSO episodes; (3) the demographic contraction-expansion events were linked to Pleistocene sea-level changes; (4) Melanesia and Polynesia acted as efficient refuges during the Last Glacial Maximum. These results highlight the importance of studying widespread species to better understand the role of climate changes and paleo-oceanography on the evolution of biodiversity. PMID:22037473

Hoareau, Thierry Bernard; Boissin, Emilie; Berrebi, Patrick

2012-01-01

84

Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Comparisons of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally-inherited non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation have provided important insights into the impact of sex-biased processes (such as migration, residence pattern, and so on) on human genetic variation. However, such comparisons have been limited by the different molecular methods typically used to assay mtDNA and NRY variation (for example, sequencing hypervariable segments of the control region for mtDNA vs. genotyping SNPs and/or STR loci for the NRY). Here, we report a simple capture array method to enrich Illumina sequencing libraries for approximately 500 kb of NRY sequence, which we use to generate NRY sequences from 623 males from 51 populations in the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP). We also obtained complete mtDNA genome sequences from the same individuals, allowing us to compare maternal and paternal histories free of any ascertainment bias. Results We identified 2,228 SNPs in the NRY sequences and 2,163 SNPs in the mtDNA sequences. Our results confirm the controversial assertion that genetic differences between human populations on a global scale are bigger for the NRY than for mtDNA, although the differences are not as large as previously suggested. More importantly, we find substantial regional variation in patterns of mtDNA versus NRY variation. Model-based simulations indicate very small ancestral effective population sizes (<100) for the out-of-Africa migration as well as for many human populations. We also find that the ratio of female effective population size to male effective population size (Nf/Nm) has been greater than one throughout the history of modern humans, and has recently increased due to faster growth in Nf than Nm. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA sequences provide new insights into the paternal and maternal histories of human populations, and the methods we introduce here should be widely applicable for further such studies. PMID:25254093

2014-01-01

85

Ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration shaped the demographic history of brown bears and polar bears.  

PubMed

Recent studies have reported discordant gene trees in the evolution of brown bears and polar bears. Genealogical histories are different among independent nuclear loci and between biparentally inherited autosomal DNA (aDNA) and matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Based on multi-locus genomic sequences from aDNA and mtDNA, we inferred the population demography of brown and polar bears and found that brown bears have 6 times (aDNA) or more than 14 times (mtDNA) larger population sizes than polar bears and that polar bear lineage is derived from within brown bear diversity. In brown bears, the effective population size ratio of mtDNA to aDNA was at least 0.62, which deviated from the expected value of 0.25, suggesting matriarchal population due to female philopatry and male-biased migration. These results emphasize that ancestral polymorphisms and sex-biased migration may have contributed to conflicting branching patterns in brown and polar bears across aDNA genes and mtDNA. PMID:24236053

Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Masami

2013-01-01

86

When competition eclipses cooperation: an event history analysisof joint venture failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do so many joint ventures fail? Despite the fact that their success is the exception rather than the rule, the literature on why joint venture performance has been so poor remains fragmentary. We address this issue, adopting a transaction-cost economics perspective and modeling joint ventures as governance structures that blend the advantages and drawbacks of both markets and hierarchies.

Seung Ho Park; Michael V. Russo

1996-01-01

87

Demographic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

88

Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. Methods This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure is a useful tool to guide malaria control programmes. Analyses were based on mtDNA COI gene sequences and four microsatellite loci of individuals collected in eight populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia. Results Two distinctive groups were consistently detected corresponding to COI haplotypes from each region. A star-shaped statistical parsimony network, significant and unimodal mismatch distribution, and significant negative neutrality tests together suggest a past demographic expansion or a selective sweep in An. albimanus from the Caribbean coast approximately 21,994 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Overall moderate to low genetic differentiation was observed between populations within each region. However, a significant level of differentiation among the populations closer to Buenaventura in the Pacific region was observed. The isolation by distance model best explained genetic differentiation among the Caribbean region localities: Los Achiotes, Santa Rosa de Lima and Moñitos, but it could not explain the genetic differentiation observed between Turbo (Magdalena providence), and the Pacific region localities (Nuquí, Buenaventura, Tumaco). The patterns of differentiation in the populations from the different biogeographic provinces could not be entirely attributed to isolation by distance. Conclusion The data provide evidence for limited past gene flow between the Caribbean and the Pacific regions, as estimated by mtDNA sequences and current gene flow patterns among An. albimanus populations as measured by MS loci which may be mainly influenced by semi-permeable natural barriers in each biogeographical region that lead to the genetic differences and effective population sizes detected. The relatively high genetic differentiation in the port city of Buenaventura may be the result of specific ecological conditions, human migration and activities and/or differences in effective population sizes. This knowledge could serve to evaluate and coordinate vector control strategies in these regions of Colombia. PMID:19922672

2009-01-01

89

MOLECULAR DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE ANNUAL SUNFLOWERS HELIANTHUS ANNUUS AND H. PETIOLARIS—LARGE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZES AND RATES OF LONG-TERM GENE FLOW  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between distinct species may lead to introgression of genes across species boundaries, and this pattern can potentially persist for extended periods as long as selection at some loci or genomic regions prevents thorough mixing of gene pools. However, very few reliable estimates of long-term levels of effective migration are available between hybridizing species throughout their history. Accurate estimates of divergence dates and levels of gene flow require data from multiple unlinked loci as well as an analytical framework that can distinguish between lineage sorting and gene flow and incorporate the effects of demographic changes within each species. Here we use sequence data from 18 anonymous nuclear loci in two broadly sympatric sunflower species, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris, analyzed within an “isolation with migration” framework to make genome-wide estimates of the ages of these two species, long-term rates of gene flow between them, and effective population sizes and historical patterns of population growth. Our results indicate that H. annuus and H. petiolaris are approximately one million years old and have exchanged genes at a surprisingly high rate (long-term Nef m estimates of approximately 0.5 in each direction), with somewhat higher rates of introgression from H. annuus into H. petiolaris than vice versa. In addition, each species has undergone dramatic population expansion since divergence, and both species have among the highest levels of genetic diversity reported for flowering plants. Our results provide the most comprehensive estimate to date of long-term patterns of gene flow and historical demography in a nonmodel plant system, and they indicate that species integrity can be maintained even in the face of extensive gene flow over a prolonged period. PMID:18462213

Strasburg, Jared L.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2008-01-01

90

Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

2013-01-01

91

Time history analysis of axial forces (Pass Through Forces) at joints in a braced frame  

E-print Network

As buildings keep getting taller, traditional braced lateral systems take more loads. This generates a phenomenon at every joint of a frame called "Pass Through Force". Pass through forces come from the transfer of axial ...

Paschini, Vincent

2012-01-01

92

Conservation genetics of a rare Gerbil species: a comparison of the population genetic structures and demographic histories of the locally rare Pygmy Gerbil and the common Anderson's Gerbil  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is identifying rare species and devising management plans to protect them while also sustaining their genetic diversity. However, in attempting a broad understanding of rarity, single-species studies provide limited insights because they do not reveal whether the factors that affect rare species differ from those that affect more common species. To illustrate this important concept and to arrive at a better understanding of the form of rarity characterizing the rare Gerbillus henleyi, we explored its population genetic structure alongside that of the locally common Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi. We trapped gerbils in several locations in Israel's western and inner Negev sand dunes. We then extracted DNA from ear samples, and amplified two mitochondrial sequences: the control region (CR) and the cytochrome oxidase 2 gene (CO2). Results Nucleotide diversity was low for all sequences, especially for the CR of G. a. allenbyi, which showed no diversity. We could not detect any significant population genetic structure in G. henleyi. In contrast, G. a. allenbyi's CO2 sequence showed significant population genetic structure. Pairwise PhiPT comparisons showed low values for G. henleyi but high values for G. a. allenbyi. Analysis of the species' demographic history indicated that G. henleyi's population size has not changed recently, and is under the influence of an ongoing bottleneck. The same analysis for G. a. allenbyi showed that this species has undergone a recent population expansion. Conclusions Comparing the two species, the populations of G. a. allenbyi are more isolated from each other, likely due to the high habitat specificity characterizing this species. The bottleneck pattern found in G. henleyi may be the result of competition with larger gerbil species. This result, together with the broad habitat use and high turnover rate characterizing G. henleyi, may explain the low level of differentiation among its populations. The evidence for a recent population expansion of G. a. allenbyi fits well with known geomorphological data about the formation of the Negev sand dunes and paleontological data about this species' expansion throughout the Levant. In conclusion, we suggest that adopting a comparative approach as presented here can markedly improve our understanding of the causes and effects of rarity, which in turn can allow us to better protect biodiversity patterns. PMID:20525191

2010-01-01

93

Encounter history modeling of joint mark-recapture, tag-resighting and tag-recovery data under temporary emigration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a joint analysis of mark-recapture, tag-resight and tag-recovery data that directly models the encounter history of an animal. The probability of the encounter history for each animal is partitioned into survival, recapture, resighting, and recovery components, and a component for the probability that the animal is never encountered again. Temporary migration enters into the likelihood through the recapture component, and movement of marked animals in and out of the area where they are subject to capture is modeled using a Markov chain. Random temporary emigration and permanent emigration are special cases. An important feature of directly modeling the encounter histories is that covariates that are specific to individuals can be included in the analysis. The model is applied to a brown trout tagging data set and provides strong evidence of Markovian temporary emigration. The new model is needed to provide correct estimates of trout survival probabilities which are shown to depend on the length of the fish at first capture.

Barker, R.J.; Burnham, K.P.; White, G.C.

2004-01-01

94

Look before You Leap: Underestimating Chinese Student History, Chinese University Setting and Chinese University Steering in Sino-British HE Joint Ventures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case--in three parts--that many Anglo-Chinese university collaborations (joint ventures) to date have seriously underestimated Chinese (student) history, the Chinese university setting and Chinese national governmental steering as part of the process of "glocalisation". Recent turbulence in this particular HE collaborative…

Dow, Ewan G.

2010-01-01

95

Hip joint disease in psoriatic arthritis: risk factors and natural history  

PubMed Central

Patients and methods: 504 patients with PsA according to ESSG criteria were studied. Mean follow up was 5.7 years (range <1–45). Mean age at onset of psoriasis was 32 years and of PsA, 39 years. The most common pattern of PsA at onset was oligoarticular (49%) and at the latest examination, polyarticular (65%). Sacroiliitis or spondylitis was diagnosed in 94 (18.7%) patients. Results: 32 (6.3%) patients developed psoriatic hip arthropathy, and of these, 26 (81%) also had sacroiliitis or spondylitis. In 7/17 (41%) patients the hip became affected within 1 year after the onset of PsA. Hip disease occurred more often in younger patients. Sex, pattern of peripheral arthritis, duration of psoriasis before arthritis affected the distal interphalangeal joints, dactylitis, or enthesitis were not associated with the risk of hip disease. Seventeen patients were followed up and nine required hip arthroplasty. Sixteen (50%) first had arthroplasty within 5 years after the onset of hip pain. Conclusions: Psoriatic hip arthropathy occurs infrequently in PsA and is associated with earlier onset of arthritis and psoriatic spondylitis. Bilateral hip involvement and rapid progression to hip arthroplasty are common. PMID:15958761

Michet, C; Mason, T; Mazlumzadeh, M

2005-01-01

96

Dounreay PFR irradiation history for the joint US/UK actinide sample exposures  

SciTech Connect

The operating history of the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor is presented to the extent that it is relevant to the irradiation of actinide specimens that were subsequently analyzed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Three fuel pins with actinide samples were irradiated from July 1982 to July 1988 and returned to ORNL for analysis. They contained isotopes of elements from thorium to curium. The times when each of these fuel pins were in the reactor core are described as are the operating power levels and neutron spectra. The appendices give daily power levels of the reactor as well as six-group neutron energy spectra for various times and axial positions in the core.

Raman, S.; Murphy, B.D.; Nestor, C.W. Jr. [and others

1995-07-01

97

A joint history of the nature of genetic variation and the nature of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This essay traces the history of concepts of genetic variation and schizophrenia from Darwin and Mendel to the present. For Darwin, the important form of genetic variation for evolution is continuous in nature and small in effect. Biometricians led by Pearson agreed and developed statistical genetic approaches utilizing trait correlations in relatives. Mendel studied discontinuous traits and subsequent Mendelians, led by Bateson, assumed that important genetic variation was large in effect producing discontinuous phenotypes. Although biometricians studied 'insanity', schizophrenia genetics under Kraepelin and Rüdin utilized Mendelian approaches congruent with their anatomical-clinical disease model of dementia praecox. Fisher showed, assuming many genes of small effect, Mendelian and Biometrical models were consilient. Echoing prior conflicts, psychiatric genetics since then has utilized both biometrical models, largely in twins, and Mendelian models, based on advancing molecular techniques. In 1968, Gottesman proposed a polygenic model for schizophrenia based on a threshold version of Fisher's theory. Since then, rigorous studies of the schizophrenia spectrum suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia is more likely continuous than categorical. The last 5 years has seen increasingly convincing evidence from genome-wide association study (GWAS) and sequencing that genetic risk for schizophrenia is largely polygenic, and congruent with Fisher's and Gottesman's models. The gap between biometrical and molecular Mendelian models for schizophrenia has largely closed. The efforts to ground a categorical biomedical model of schizophrenia in Mendelian genetics have failed. The genetic risk for schizophrenia is widely distributed in human populations so that we all carry some degree of risk. PMID:25134695

Kendler, K S

2015-02-01

98

The joint evolutionary histories of Wolbachia and mitochondria in Hypolimnas bolina  

PubMed Central

Background The interaction between the Blue Moon butterfly, Hypolimnas bolina, and Wolbachia has attracted interest because of the high prevalence of male-killing achieved within the species, the ecological consequences of this high prevalence, the intensity of selection on the host to suppress the infection, and the presence of multiple Wolbachia infections inducing different phenotypes. We examined diversity in the co-inherited marker, mtDNA, and the partitioning of this between individuals of different infection status, as a means to investigate the population biology and evolutionary history of the Wolbachia infections. Results Part of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced from 298 individuals of known infection status revealing ten different haplotypes. Despite very strong biological evidence that the sample represents a single species, the ten haplotypes did not fall within a monophyletic clade within the Hypolimnas genus, with one haplotype differing by 5% from the other nine. There were strong associations between infection status and mtDNA haplotype. The presence of wBol1 infection in association with strongly divergent haplotypes prompted closer examination of wBol1 genetic variation. This revealed the existence of two cryptic subtypes, wBol1a and wBol1b. The wBol1a infection, by far the most common, was in strict association with the single divergent mtDNA haplotype. The wBol1b infection was found with two haplotypes that were also observed in uninfected specimens. Finally, the wBol2 infection was associated with a large diversity of mtDNA haplotypes, most often shared with uninfected sympatric butterflies. Conclusion This data overall supports the hypothesis that high prevalence of male-killing Wolbachia (wBol1) in H. bolina is associated with very high transmission efficiency rather than regular horizontal transmission. It also suggests this infection has undergone a recent selective sweep and was introduced in this species through introgression. In contrast, the sharing of haplotypes between wBol2-infected and uninfected individuals indicates that this strain is not perfectly transmitted and/or shows a significant level of horizontal transmission. PMID:19317891

Charlat, Sylvain; Duplouy, Anne; Hornett, Emily A; Dyson, Emily A; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K; Wedell, Nina; Hurst, Gregory DD

2009-01-01

99

Present-day genetic composition suggests contrasting demographic histories of two dominant chaetognaths of the North-East Atlantic, Sagitta elegans and S. setosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagitta elegans and S. setosa are the two dominant chaetognaths in the North-East (NE) Atlantic. They are closely related and have a similar ecology and\\u000a life history, but differ in distributional ranges. Sagitta setosa is a typical neritic species occurring exclusively above shelf regions, whereas S. elegans is a more oceanic species with a widespread distribution. We hypothesised that neritic

K. T. C. A. Peijnenburg; E. K. van Haastrecht; C. Y. Fauvelot

2005-01-01

100

History  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common approach to a biblical text involves drawing out the lines of the implied dimensions of the text, in particular, the author, historical background, and audience to which the text bears witness. Another dimension of the text is represented by its history of interpretation. The latter may also be described as an extension of the text insofar as it

H. Butterfield; John Higham; Leonard Krieger; Felix Gilbert

1966-01-01

101

Undergraduate History Degrees School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University  

E-print Network

Undergraduate History Degrees School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University BA History BA History with Welsh History BA Integrated Degree (Archaeology & Medieval History, Ancient History & Medieval History) BA Joint Schemes (with Archaeology, Religious Studies, Languages etc.) Bsc

Davies, Christopher

102

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

103

History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

Jelavich, Barbara

104

Evolutionary shaping of demographic schedules  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary processes of natural selection may be expected to leave their mark on age patterns of survival and reproduction. Demographic theory includes three main strands—mutation accumulation, stochastic vitality, and optimal life histories. This paper reviews the three strands and, concentrating on mutation accumulation, extends a mathematical result with broad implications concerning the effect of interactions between small age-specific effects of deleterious mutant alleles. Empirical data from genomic sequencing along with prospects for combining strands of theory hold hope for future progress. PMID:25024186

Wachter, Kenneth W.; Steinsaltz, David; Evans, Steven N.

2014-01-01

105

[Supporting demographic research].  

PubMed

The World Conference on Social Development focused on the question of global poverty. Africa is the poverty continent. Its populations, governments, and institutions are poor. Some of these institutions work on population and demographic research. More preoccupying is the demographic situation in Africa in relation to development. The stakes of the debate are certainly enormous, which haunted the meeting rooms and minds at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. Specialists and responsible policymakers regretted that this conference did not deeply examine the question of socioeconomic development. One of the major difficulties impeding closure of this debate is the uncertainty of the nature of relations between demographic growth and economic development. Demographic research in Africa is very recent. The first population censuses occurred in the 1970s. African demographic research is a prisoner of poverty. To be effective, acceptable, and accepted, population and demographic research would have to depend on precise knowledge of the demographic-economic situation of Africa. African researchers do not have statistical and qualitative arguments at their command, which would allow them to consider the debate on conclusions and actions which will come out of the debate. It is tempting to call for a plan for the future of African demographic research centers and the paths and means to reinvigorate them to make them sustainable and to allow them to support a substantial contribution to this debate. Development in Africa must be the work of the African populations. African researchers must think of and execute the demographic research necessary to this development. PMID:12346445

Ouedraogo, D

1995-03-01

106

Coordinating rooks and bishops: an institutional history of the joint army and navy board, 1903-1919  

E-print Network

: __________________ __________________ James C. Bradford H.W. Brands (Chair of Committee) (Member) __________________ __________________ Brian M. Linn Walter Buenger (Member) (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: History iii ABSTRACT Coordinating Rooks... so much along my journey towards being a professional historian. I look forward to continuing that journey with you. Dr. Brian M. Linn found time during his Guggenheim Fellowship to provide me with invaluable contacts both at the Library...

Godin, Jason Robert

2005-11-01

107

Joint Effects of Habitat Heterogeneity and Species’ Life-History Traits on Population Dynamics in Spatially Structured Landscapes  

PubMed Central

Both habitat heterogeneity and species’ life-history traits play important roles in driving population dynamics, yet there is little scientific consensus around the combined effect of these two factors on populations in complex landscapes. Using a spatially explicit agent-based model, we explored how interactions between habitat spatial structure (defined here as the scale of spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality) and species life-history strategies (defined here by species environmental tolerance and movement capacity) affect population dynamics in spatially heterogeneous landscapes. We compared the responses of four hypothetical species with different life-history traits to four landscape scenarios differing in the scale of spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality. The results showed that the population size of all hypothetical species exhibited a substantial increase as the scale of spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality increased, yet the pattern of population increase was shaped by species’ movement capacity. The increasing scale of spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality promoted the resource share of individuals, but had little effect on the mean mortality rate of individuals. Species’ movement capacity also determined the proportion of individuals in high-quality cells as well as the proportion of individuals experiencing competition in response to increased spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality. Positive correlations between the resource share of individuals and the proportion of individuals experiencing competition indicate that large-scale spatial autocorrelation in habitat quality may mask the density-dependent effect on populations through increasing the resource share of individuals, especially for species with low mobility. These findings suggest that low-mobility species may be more sensitive to habitat spatial heterogeneity in spatially structured landscapes. In addition, localized movement in combination with spatial autocorrelation may increase the population size, despite increased density effects. PMID:25232739

Ye, Xinping; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun

2014-01-01

108

Reassessing the Demographic Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years gerontologists have discussed the consequences of advances that have lengthened lives but have been less successful at improving the quality of those lives. While this debate continues, the resulting demographic shift in the age profile of the United States threatens to overwhelm our ability to care for those who most need…

Folts, W. Edward; Rosenberg, Edwin; Muir, Kenneth B.; Baumhover, Lorin A.

2005-01-01

109

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

110

Emergency Care Handover (ECHO study) across care boundaries: the need for joint decision making and consideration of psychosocial history  

PubMed Central

Background Inadequate handover in emergency care is a threat to patient safety. Handover across care boundaries poses particular problems due to different professional, organisational and cultural backgrounds. While there have been many suggestions for standardisation of handover content, relatively little is known about the verbal behaviours that shape handover conversations. This paper explores both what is communicated (content) and how this is communicated (verbal behaviours) during different types of handover conversations across care boundaries in emergency care. Methods Three types of interorganisational (ambulance service to emergency department (ED) in ‘resuscitation’ and ‘majors’ areas) and interdepartmental handover conversations (referrals to acute medicine) were audio recorded in three National Health Service EDs. Handover conversations were segmented into utterances. Frequency counts for content and language forms were derived for each type of handover using Discourse Analysis. Verbal behaviours were identified using Conversation Analysis. Results 203 handover conversations were analysed. Handover conversations involving ambulance services were predominantly descriptive (60%–65% of utterances), unidirectional and focused on patient presentation (75%–80%). Referrals entailed more collaborative talk focused on the decision to admit and immediate care needs. Across all types of handover, only 1.5%–5% of handover conversation content related to the patient's social and psychological needs. Conclusions Handover may entail both descriptive talk aimed at information transfer and collaborative talk aimed at joint decision-making. Standardisation of handover needs to accommodate collaborative aspects and should incorporate communication of information relevant to the patient's social and psychological needs to establish appropriate care arrangements at the earliest opportunity. PMID:24026973

Sujan, Mark A; Chessum, Peter; Rudd, Michelle; Fitton, Laurence; Inada-Kim, Matthew; Spurgeon, Peter; Cooke, Matthew W

2015-01-01

111

Asians in New York City: A Demographic Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This demographic survey provides the following information on Asian Americans: (1) states with the highest Asian American population; (2) ethnic breakdown among Asians; (3) Asian immigration history and legislation affecting it; (4) individual immigration histories of Asian Americans in New York City (New York), including the Chinese, Japanese,…

Steingasser, Jean; And Others

112

[Reforms and demographic crisis].  

PubMed

During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All these disasters took place after the Great Patriotic War, but an aspiration for long and happy life was prevalent in the consciousness of the people who has won the war. At present, neither the whole able-bodied population nor all young people have an internal aim at living long. To overcome this tragic gap in the consciousness requires primarily a great working motivation. PMID:12187540

Velichkovski?, B T

2002-01-01

113

Joint swelling  

MedlinePLUS

Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

114

KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

Dethloff, Henry C.

2001-01-01

115

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

116

Electronic Appendix A. Details of demographic models used in simulations. Solid boxes are shaded to indicate life history stages on the two hosts: white for the native host, Astragalus  

E-print Network

to indicate life history stages on the two hosts: white for the native host, Astragalus canadensis (Ac + B0, where B1 and B0 are the slope and intercept from the following regression model: y (1/AstragalusFlowerFactor, 1) = B1 * x (0, 1) + B0, y is a vector with two values (1/AstragalusFlowerFactor, 1) and x

Fordyce, James

117

Rural health's demographic destiny.  

PubMed

Demography is the study of the size and composition of populations. Populations change size through births, deaths and net-migration. Over time, mortality, fertility and migration patterns create populations that may be large or small, young or old, growing or declining. Rural and remote Australia has a unique demography that determines its health problems and health service needs. The tendency of young adults to leave rural and remote areas for cities means that they leave behind communities which are, on average, older than those found in the cities. Rural and remote women have slightly more children at significantly younger ages, but because of out-migration, the actual number of babies born outside of the cities is smaller than would be expected. Most rural and remote areas already have a high proportion of their population over 65 years old. Many communities with an older population are declining in absolute numbers but the need for health services may be greater than required for smaller, younger communities. In contrast to the trends in total population, the rural and remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is growing rapidly. This is the result of a higher proportion of young people, higher fertility rates and lower rates of moving to cities. The health characteristics of rural and remote Australia increasingly reflects the higher morbidity of Indigenous and older people. Responding to this demographic destiny is the present and future challenge. PMID:16623618

Larson, Ann

2006-01-01

118

Demographics and the Rural Ethos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

Ward, James G.

2003-01-01

119

Demographic Data in Community Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of a community assessment, students research demographic data for a local community. The data of the community are compared to the state and the US. This information is used to help identify needs in the community.

Shari Goldberg

120

KSC History Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

Snaples, Lee

2001-01-01

121

Demographic change and income distribution.  

PubMed

This paper examines the interactions between demographic change and income distribution, especially in the context of government. Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, this paper established an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, 2 income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. The superimposition of different age structures on populations of otherwise identical characteristics is non-neutral with respect to income distribution: disregarding state interventions, population aging increases income inequality. This result may no longer generally hold if redistribution policies are taken into account. The paper provides an example of how indirect demographic effects may lead to a reversal of sign. In the absence of any government program, a higher ratio of pensioners to active workers raises income inequality. In the presence of a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and pay-as-you-go financed state pension system, a higher dependency ratio decreases income dispersion. The restoration of government budget equilibrium induces unintended distributional effects which put the incidence of demographic shifts in a different light. Varying important aging indicator with realistic forecast bounds leads to inequality fluctuations up to 35%. This illustrates the quantitative scale and hence the political importance of demographically caused inequality distortions. PMID:12316299

Von Weizsacker, R K

1989-03-01

122

Utility of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Minimally Invasive Fusion of the Sacroiliac Joint  

PubMed Central

Study Design. Retrospective case series. Objective. To document the clinical utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion for patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction (as a direct result of sacroiliac joint disruptions or degenerative sacroiliitis) and determine stimulated electromyography thresholds reflective of favorable implant position. Summary of Background Data. Intraoperative neuromonitoring is a well-accepted adjunct to minimally invasive pedicle screw placement. The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring during minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion using a series of triangular, titanium porous plasma coated implants has not been evaluated. Methods. A medical chart review of consecutive patients treated with minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion was undertaken at a single center. Baseline patient demographics and medical history, intraoperative electromyography thresholds, and perioperative adverse events were collected after obtaining IRB approval. Results. 111 implants were placed in 37 patients. Sensitivity of EMG was 80% and specificity was 97%. Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentially avoided neurologic sequelae as a result of improper positioning in 7% of implants. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that intraoperative neuromonitoring may be a useful adjunct to minimally invasive surgical sacroiliac joint fusion in avoiding nerve injury during implant placement. PMID:25544898

Woods, Michael; Birkholz, Denise; MacBarb, Regina; Capobianco, Robyn; Woods, Adam

2014-01-01

123

Influence of a family history of type 2 diabetes, demographic and clinical data on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery is a surrogate end point of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying the factors associated with a higher IMT may contribute to the identification of subjects with higher CVD risk. Our objective was to compare the common carotid IMT of type 1 diabetes patients to healthy control subjects. The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with a higher carotid IMT. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between March 2009 and October 2013, comprising 127 type 1 diabetes patients and 125 control subjects matched by age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Carotid IMT was measured using semi-automated edge detection software. Results Type 1 diabetes patients had a higher median IMT compared with control subjects (0.538; IQR: 0.500-0.607 vs 0.513 mm; IQR: 0.481-0.557, respectively p?=?0.001). Women with type 1 diabetes had a higher median IMT difference compared to the control group (0.537; IQR: 0.495-0.596 vs 0.502 mm; IQR: 0.472-0.543, respectively p?=?0.003) than did men with type 1 diabetes (0.547; IQR: 0.504-0.613 vs 0.528 mm; IQR: 0.492-0.575, respectively p?=?0.2). Age and diabetes duration had an additive effect on the IMT of type 1 diabetes patients. Multivariate gamma regression model analysis showed that in type 1 diabetes patients, the IMT was associated with age (Exp (?)?=?1.006, p?history of type 2 diabetes (Exp (?)?=?1.044, p?=?0.033), total cholesterol (Exp (?)?=?0.999, p?=?0.001) and creatinine clearance (Exp (?)?=?1.000, p?=?0.043). Conclusions Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased IMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The CVD risk may be similar between men and women with type 1 diabetes, suggesting a loss of gender protection. Also, CVD risk may be higher in those with a family history of type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these findings and the causal effect between IMT and CVD in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24886106

2014-01-01

124

Hip joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The human hips are an example of a ball-and-socket joint. Ball-and-socket joints have the ability to rotate in a circular motion. The joint where the arm connects to the shoulder is also a type of ball-and-socket joint.

Connie Raab (National Institutes of Health;)

2006-05-17

125

Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

Ulvestad, James S.

2011-05-01

126

A demographic approach to?selection  

PubMed Central

The concepts of demography provide a means of combining the ecological approach to population growth with the genetical approach to natural selection. We have utilized the demographic theory of natural selection developed by Norton and Charlesworth to analyze life history schedules of births and deaths for populations of genotypes in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Our populations illustrate a stable genetic equilibrium, an unstable genetic equilibrium, and a case of no equilibrium. We have estimated population growth rates and Darwinian fitnesses of the genotypes and have explored the role of population growth in determining natural selection. The age-specific rates of births and deaths provide insights into components of selection. Both viability and fertility are important components in our populations. PMID:9223258

Anderson, Wyatt W.; Watanabe, Takao K.

1997-01-01

127

Enrollment Management: Demographic Changes. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Institutional Development and Technology and the Public Information Office created this report that identifies several topics of research in order to inform marketing efforts associated with enrollment management. The report is based upon demographic studies done at the College of Canyons to measure things such as changes in the size…

Gribbons, Barry C.; Meuschke, Daylene M.

128

DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000  

EPA Science Inventory

This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

129

Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch  

E-print Network

Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch NICHD Report to the NACHHD Council June 2003 U.S. According to projections from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, by 2040, non-Hispanic white children will make, coastlines, rivers, railroad routes, and, in the United States, along the interstate highway system. (Portion

Rau, Don C.

130

Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

131

Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations  

E-print Network

The Thousand Genomes Project (1000G) is the most extensive study to date of human genomic diversity (1. Gibbse , The 1000 Genomes Projecte , and Carlos D. Bustamantea,1 a Department of Genetics, Stanford Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; and e Human Genome

Keinan, Alon

132

Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal.  

PubMed

Although the grey seal Halichoerus grypus is one of the most familiar and intensively studied of all pinniped species, its global population structure remains to be elucidated. Little is also known about how the species as a whole may have historically responded to climate-driven changes in habitat availability and anthropogenic exploitation. We therefore analysed samples from over 1500 individuals collected from 22 colonies spanning the Western and Eastern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea regions, represented by 350 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region and up to nine microsatellites. Strong population structure was observed at both types of marker, and highly asymmetrical patterns of gene flow were also inferred, with the Orkney Islands being identified as a source of emigrants to other areas in the Eastern Atlantic. The Baltic and Eastern Atlantic regions were estimated to have diverged a little over 10 000 years ago, consistent with the last proposed isolation of the Baltic Sea. Approximate Bayesian computation also identified genetic signals consistent with postglacial population expansion across much of the species range, suggesting that grey seals are highly responsive to changes in habitat availability. PMID:25041117

Klimova, A; Phillips, C D; Fietz, K; Olsen, M T; Harwood, J; Amos, W; Hoffman, J I

2014-08-01

133

Joint effects of density and a growth inhibitor on the life history and population growth rate of the midge Chironomus riparius.  

PubMed

Results of previous laboratory studies suggest that high population density often buffers the effects of chemical stressors that predominately increase mortality. Mortality stressors act to release more resources for the survivors and, therefore, produce less-than-additive effects. By contrast, growth stressors are expected to have opposite results or more-than-additive effects. We investigated the effects of a growth inhibitor (lufenuron) on larval growth and survival of Chironomus riparius and examined its joint effects with density on population growth rate (PGR). Exposure to 60 microg/kg sediment or greater inhibited larval growth, and exposure to 88 microg/kg or greater often resulted in mortality before reaching emergence. The effects of lufenuron, however, differed with population density. At 88 microg/kg, mortalities and, to a lesser extent, reduced fecundity resulted in a reduction in PGR at low density. Conversely, when populations were initiated at high density, PGR was similar to that of controls, because the few survivors reached maturity sooner and started producing offspring earlier. The effect of density as a growth stressor therefore was stronger than the effect of lufenuron, which had effects similar to those of a mortality stressor and produced less-than-additive effects. Long-term studies under field conditions, however, are needed before less-than-additive effects are considered to be the norm. PMID:16110992

Hooper, Helen L; Sibly, Richard M; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Maund, Stephen J

2005-05-01

134

Joint Control for Dummies: An Elaboration of Lowenkron's Model of Joint (Stimulus) Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following paper describes Lowenkron's model of joint (stimulus) control. Joint control is described as a means of accounting for performances, especially generalized performances, for which a history of contingency control does not provide an adequate account. Examples are provided to illustrate instances in which joint control may facilitate…

Sidener, David W.

2006-01-01

135

Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life-cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life-states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as OVFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, I.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as OVFOOF000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kery et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capture-recapture (CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state-transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kery et aI., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kery & Gregg, submitted) in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked ramets over 10 years, and for Cypripedium, two populations with 98 and 258 marked ramets over 11 years. We chose the ramet (= single stem or shoot) as the demographic unit of our study since there was no way distinguishing among genets (genet = genetical individual, I.e., the 'individual' that animal ecologists are mostly concerned with). This will introduce some non-independence into the data, which can nevertheless be dealt with easily by correcting variances for overdispersion. Using ramets instead of genets has the further advantage that individuals can be assigned to a state such as flowering or vegetative in an unambiguous manner. This is not possible when genets are the demographic units. In all three populations, auxiliary data was available to show that detection probability of aboveground plants was > 0.995. We fitted multistate models in program MARK by specifying three states (D, V, F), even though the dormant state D does not occur in the encounter histories. Detection probability is fixed at 1 for the vegetative (V) and the flowering state (F) and at zero for the dormant state (D). Rates of survival and of state transitions as well as slopes of covariate relationships can be estimated and LRT or the AIC machinery be used to select among models. To estimate the fraction of the population in the unobservable dormant state, the encounter histories are collapsed to 0 (plant not observed aboveground) and 1 (plant observed aboveground). The Cormack-Jolly-Seber model without constraints on detection probability is used to estimate detection probability, the complement of which is the estimated fraction of the population in the dormant state. Parameter identifiability is an important issue in multi state models. We used the Catchpole-Morgan-Freeman approach to determine which parameters are estimable in principle in our multi state models. Most of 15 tested models were indeed estimable with the notable exception of the most ge

Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.

2004-01-01

136

India's demographic change: opportunities and challenges.  

PubMed

This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome labor shortage in some parts. At the same time, there are serious challenges in the form of enhancing human capital development, addressing the issue of skewed sex ratio, and the possible rise in social and political unrest and conflict. PMID:21798938

James, K S

2011-07-29

137

Demographic Change and Rural Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Future demographic change in Australia’s rural environments will yield substantial challenges and opportunities for biodiversity\\u000a conservation. Humans preferentially settle in the most biodiverse regions resulting in considerable spatial conflict between\\u000a human settlement\\u000a and species conservation. The natural amenities\\u000a of rural landscapes (e.g., mountains and forests) are recognised increasingly as factors important in influencing rural population\\u000a growth. A combination of natural

Gary W. Luck

138

Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae).  

PubMed

The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America. PMID:24385863

Matte, Eunice M; Castilho, Camila S; Miotto, Renata A; Sana, Denis A; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

2013-12-01

139

A pain in the joints.  

PubMed

Arthralgia is a rare but recognised complication of meningococcal septicaemia. We report a case of a 29-year-old man presenting with a 24?h history of fever, joint swelling and subsequent development of a non-blanching, petechial rash. He was treated for probable meningococcal septicaemia and the causative pathogen was later identified as Neisseria meningitidis. He was treated with ceftriaxone and after 10?days the pain and swelling in his joints improved. PMID:25694633

Peters, Rosie; Virani, Farzana; Haddadin, Yazan; Baldowska, Helena

2015-01-01

140

Gabrielle Hecht Department of History  

E-print Network

and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania, 1988 S.B., Physics, Massachusetts in Anthropology and History, 1999-present · Associate Professor (joint appointment), Residential). Special journal issue "Postcolonial technoscience." Social Studies of Science Vol. 32

Edwards, Paul N.

141

Ceramic joints  

DOEpatents

Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

Miller, Bradley J. (Worcester, MA); Patten, Jr., Donald O. (Sterling, MA)

1991-01-01

142

184 History History (Hist)  

E-print Network

Civilization, 1789 to the Present Prerequisite:Freshmanorsophomorestanding. The French Revolution and Napoleon history's longest lasting monarchical system, ignited two of its largest revolutions, began World War IIandalternateyears History 107 (3)--History of the United states to 1876 The colonial period, the American Revolution

Dresden, Gregory

143

The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.  

PubMed

Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p?joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p?=?0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p?=?0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition. PMID:23609408

Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

2013-09-01

144

Selection Against Demographic Stochasticity in Age-Structured Populations  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that differences in fecundity variance can influence the probability of invasion of a genotype in a population; i.e., a genotype with lower variance in offspring number can be favored in finite populations even if it has a somewhat lower mean fitness than a competitor. In this article, Gillespie's results are extended to population genetic systems with explicit age structure, where the demographic variance (variance in growth rate) calculated in the work of Engen and colleagues is used as a generalization of “variance in offspring number” to predict the interaction between deterministic and random forces driving change in allele frequency. By calculating the variance from the life-history parameters, it is shown that selection against variance in the growth rate will favor a genotypes with lower stochasticity in age-specific survival and fertility rates. A diffusion approximation for selection and drift in a population with two genotypes with different life-history matrices (and therefore different mean growth rates and demographic variances) is derived and shown to be consistent with individual-based simulations. It is also argued that for finite populations, perturbation analyses of both the mean and the variance in growth rate may be necessary to determine the sensitivity of fitness to changes in the life-history parameters. PMID:17947406

Shpak, Max

2007-01-01

145

The Importance of Demographic Data in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most effective astronomical workforce will be one that comprises a diverse and inclusive community. The “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” Decadal Survey, with input from its Infrastructure Study Group on Demographics, provided an overview of recent demographic trends. Demographics in astronomy have undergone significant changes over the past two generations in several, but not all, categories. Maintaining records of demographics regarding age, gender, and minority status, as well as trends by discipline and career choices, is vital in planning for the future training and employment of astronomers.

Elmegreen, Debra M.

2014-01-01

146

Is joint hypermobility important in prepubertal children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate serum prolidase activity and its relationship with collagen metabolism and joint\\u000a hypermobility, and to determine the prevalence and characteristics of joint hypermobility in prepubertal children. Serum prolidase\\u000a activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Joint hypermobility was defined using Beighton criteria. The children underwent\\u000a complete history and physical examination. Serum levels of prolidase were lower

Pelin Yazgan; ?clal Geyikli; Dost Zeyrek; Lutfu Baktiroglu; Mehmet Ali Kurcer

2008-01-01

147

Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

Ogawa, Seiko

2005-01-01

148

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

149

Investigation of the Demographic and Selective Forces Shaping the Nucleotide Diversity of Genes Involved in Nod Factor Signaling in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are able to trigger root deformation in their Fabaceae host plants, allowing their intracellular accommodation. They do so by delivering molecules called Nod factors. We analyzed the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism of five genes controlling early Nod factor perception and signaling in the Fabaceae Medicago truncatula to understand the selective forces shaping the evolution of these genes. We used 30 M. truncatula genotypes sampled in a genetically homogeneous region of the species distribution range. We first sequenced 24 independent loci and detected a genomewide departure from the hypothesis of neutrality and demographic equilibrium that suggests a population expansion. These data were used to estimate parameters of a simple demographic model incorporating population expansion. The selective neutrality of genes controlling Nod factor perception was then examined using a combination of two complementary neutrality tests, Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's standardized H. The joint distribution of D and H expected under neutrality was obtained under the fitted population expansion model. Only the gene DMI1, which is expected to regulate the downstream signal, shows a pattern consistent with a putative selective event. In contrast, the receptor-encoding genes NFP and NORK show no significant signatures of selection. Among the genes that we analyzed, only DMI1 should be viewed as a candidate for adaptation in the recent history of M. truncatula. PMID:18073426

De Mita, Stéphane; Ronfort, Joëlle; McKhann, Heather I.; Poncet, Charles; El Malki, Redouane; Bataillon, Thomas

2007-01-01

150

[Contemplations on demographic theories (author's transl)].  

PubMed

All demographic theories make statements on the relationship between population developments and economic developments. The demographic teachings of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and Karl Marx are embedded in their specific economic theories and contain ideologic statements which are not detrimental to demographic and economic sciences but a stimulus for research. The demographic theories which developed with the onset of the industrial revolution of the 19th century are all sceptical of too high populations independent of their analysis of the market mechanisms or of capitalistic production relationships. This has remained unchanged to date. The statistical evaluation of the 1980's underlines this problem. The reproductive behaviour and demographic theory of a highly industrialized economy can not be based on experience alone but must also be based on rational findings. The rejection of the prestige value of children on the reproductive behaviour which is independent of circumstances must be recognized. PMID:437463

Maier, W

1979-03-01

151

Demographic Processes Underlying Subtle Patterns of Population Structure in the Scalloped Hammerhead  

E-print Network

Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini Holly A. Nance1 *, Peter Klimley2 , Felipe Galva´n-Magan~ a3 , Jimmy Marti scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S Underlying Subtle Patterns of Population Structure in the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini. PLo

Klimley, A. Peter

152

Demographic Processes Underlying Subtle Patterns of Population Structure in the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity (?), effective population size (Ne), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination

Holly A. Nance; Peter Klimley; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Jimmy Martínez-Ortíz; Peter B. Marko

2011-01-01

153

Posttraumatic Temporomandibular Joint Disorders  

PubMed Central

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has many essential functions. None of its components are exempt from injury. Facial asymmetry, malocclusion, disturbances in growth, osteoarthritis, and ankylosis can manifest as complications from trauma to the TMJ. The goals of initial treatment include achievement of pretraumatic function, restoration of facial symmetry, and resolution of pain. These same objectives hold true for late repairs and reconstruction of the TMJ apparatus. Treatment is demanding, and with opposing approaches. The following article explores various treatment options for problems presenting as a result of a history of trauma to the TMJ. PMID:22110802

Giannakopoulos, Helen E.; Quinn, Peter D.; Granquist, Eric; Chou, Joli C.

2009-01-01

154

Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013  

E-print Network

Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013 Information Sheet Bilateral Programs (MoU) ­ Joint Projects (JP) / Joint Seminars (JS) FWF has signed bilateral agreements ­ so called "Memorandums of Understanding" (MoU) ­ with several international partner organisations. These agreements usually aim at jointly

Fuchs, Clemens

155

Joint Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... shoulder joint. About 30% of older people have tears in their rotator cuff muscles and tendons, but many have no symptoms. Carpal tunnel syndrome is pressure on a nerve in the wrist and may cause tingling, numbness and pain in the hand. It ... Updated: March 2012 Posted: March 2012

156

[Demographic processes and world population numbers].  

PubMed

Recent global population trends are reviewed. The author notes the growing divergence in demographic trends between the developed and developing regions. These differences are analyzed in the light of Marxist population theory. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12280530

Donkov, K

1986-01-01

157

Public pension reform, demographics, and inequality.  

PubMed

"Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of an aging population. Several policy conflicts arise. The point is re-emphasized by an analysis of the German Pension Reform Act of 1992. The study reveals that the design of the pension formula decisively drives the relation between demographics and inequality." PMID:12319695

Von Weizsacker, R K

1995-05-01

158

Changing Demographics of the American Population.  

PubMed

Since 1950, the United States has been in the midst of a profound demographic change: the rapid aging of the population. The baby boom generation began turning 65 in 2011 and is now driving growth at the older ages of the population. This article highlights geriatric demographic changes and illustrates how these and future trends will have wide ranging implications for the US health care system. PMID:25459538

Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

2015-02-01

159

Art History 95 Art History  

E-print Network

Art History 95 Art History The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA, BFA The Department of Art History offers a wide range of courses in European, American,Asian, and Middle Eastern/Islamic art history with additional strengths in architectural history and film and media studies.The major in art history is struc

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

160

Art History 97 Art History  

E-print Network

Art History 97 Art History The School of Humanities Degrees Offered: BA The Department of Art History offers a wide range of courses in European, American,Asian, and Middle Eastern/Islamic art history with additional strengths in architectural history and film and media studies.The major in art history is struc

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

161

Comparing simple quasar demographics models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores several simple model variations for the connections among quasars, galaxies, and dark matter haloes for redshifts 1 < z < 6. A key component of these models is that we enforce a self-consistent black hole (BH) history by tracking both BH mass and BH growth rate at all redshifts. We connect objects across redshift with a simple constant-number-density procedure, and choose a fiducial model with a relationship between BH and galaxy growth rates that is linear and evolves in a simple way with redshift. Within this fiducial model, we find the quasar luminosity function (QLF) by calculating an `intrinsic' luminosity based on either the BH mass or BH growth rate, and then choosing a model of quasar variability with either a lognormal or truncated power-law distribution of instantaneous luminosities. This gives four model variations, which we fit to the observed QLF at each redshift. With the best-fitting models in hand, we undertake a detailed comparison of the four fiducial models, and explore changes to our fiducial model of the BH-galaxy relationship. Each model variation can successfully fit the observed QLF, the shape of which is generally set by the `intrinsic' luminosity at the faint end and by the scatter due to variability at the bright end. We focus on accounting for the reasons why physically different models can make such similar predictions, and on identifying what observational data or physical arguments are most essential in breaking the degeneracies among models.

Veale, Melanie; White, Martin; Conroy, Charlie

2014-12-01

162

Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises.  

PubMed

Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (N e ) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For 15 populations of Galápagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis sp.), we used 12 microsatellite loci and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial control region and a nuclear intron, to reconstruct demographic history on shallow (past ?100 generations, ?2500 years) and deep (pre-Holocene, >10 thousand years ago) timescales. At the deep timescale, three populations showed strong signals of growth, but with different magnitudes and timing, indicating different underlying causes. Furthermore, estimated historical N e of populations across the archipelago showed no correlation with island age or size, underscoring the complexity of predicting demographic history a priori. At the shallow timescale, all populations carried some signature of a genetic bottleneck, and for 12 populations, point estimates of contemporary N e were very small (i.e., < 50). On the basis of the comparison of these genetic estimates with published census size data, N e generally represented ?0.16 of the census size. However, the variance in this ratio across populations was considerable. Overall, our data suggest that idiosyncratic and geographically localized forces shaped the demographic history of tortoise populations. Furthermore, from a conservation perspective, the separation of demographic events occurring on shallow versus deep timescales permits the identification of naturally rare versus newly rare populations; this distinction should facilitate prioritization of management action. PMID:25691990

Garrick, Ryan C; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Hyseni, Chaz; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa

2015-02-01

163

Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises  

PubMed Central

Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (Ne) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For 15 populations of Galápagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis sp.), we used 12 microsatellite loci and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial control region and a nuclear intron, to reconstruct demographic history on shallow (past ?100 generations, ?2500 years) and deep (pre-Holocene, >10 thousand years ago) timescales. At the deep timescale, three populations showed strong signals of growth, but with different magnitudes and timing, indicating different underlying causes. Furthermore, estimated historical Ne of populations across the archipelago showed no correlation with island age or size, underscoring the complexity of predicting demographic history a priori. At the shallow timescale, all populations carried some signature of a genetic bottleneck, and for 12 populations, point estimates of contemporary Ne were very small (i.e., < 50). On the basis of the comparison of these genetic estimates with published census size data, Ne generally represented ?0.16 of the census size. However, the variance in this ratio across populations was considerable. Overall, our data suggest that idiosyncratic and geographically localized forces shaped the demographic history of tortoise populations. Furthermore, from a conservation perspective, the separation of demographic events occurring on shallow versus deep timescales permits the identification of naturally rare versus newly rare populations; this distinction should facilitate prioritization of management action.

Garrick, Ryan C; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Hyseni, Chaz; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa

2015-01-01

164

Learning History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Learning History" (Dickinson, Lee, and Rogers, 1984), a book which focuses on the nature and structure of history and the need to relate this to the psychological make-up of the pupil. Chapters cover such topics as: Why learn history?, the value of teaching history in schools, and how students learn history. (JDH)

Booth, Martin B.

1986-01-01

165

Demographic variation across successional stages and their effects on the population dynamics of the neotropical palm Euterpe precatoria.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Environmental heterogeneity is a strong selective force shaping adaptation and population dynamics across temporal and spatial scales. Natural and anthropogenic gradients influence the variation of environmental and biotic factors, which determine population demography and dynamics. Successional gradients are expected to influence demographic parameters, but the relationship between these gradients and the species life history, habitat requirements, and degree of variation in demographic traits remains elusive.• Methods: We used the palm Euterpe precatoria to test the effect of successional stage on plant demography within a continuous population. We calculated demographic parameters for size stages and performed matrix analyses to investigate the demographic variation within primary and secondary forests of La Selva, Costa Rica.• Key results: We observed differences in mortality and recruitment of small juveniles between primary and secondary forests. Matrix models described satisfactorily the chronosequence of population changes, which were characterized by high population growth rate in disturbed areas, and decreased growth rate in old successional forests until reaching stability.• Conclusions: Different demographic parameters can be expressed in contiguous subpopulations along a gradient of successional stages with important consequences for population dynamics. Demographic variation superimposed on these gradients contributes to generate subpopulations with different demographic composition, density, and ecological properties. Therefore, the effects of spatial variation must be reconsidered in the design of demographic analyses of tropical palms, which are prime examples of subtle local adaptation. These considerations are crucial in the implementation of management plans for palm species within spatially complex and heterogeneous tropical landscapes. PMID:24907255

Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Avalos, Gerardo

2014-06-01

166

Identifying image preferences based on demographic attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study is to determine what sorts of images are considered more interesting by which demographic groups. Specifically, we attempt to identify images whose interestingness ratings are influenced by the demographic attribute of the viewer's gender. To that end, we use the data from an experiment where 18 participants (9 women and 9 men) rated several hundred images based on "visual interest" or preferences in viewing images. The images were selected to represent the consumer "photo-space" - typical categories of subject matter found in consumer photo collections. They were annotated using perceptual and semantic descriptors. In analyzing the image interestingness ratings, we apply a multivariate procedure known as forced classification, a feature of dual scaling, a discrete analogue of principal components analysis (similar to correspondence analysis). This particular analysis of ratings (i.e., ordered-choice or Likert) data enables the investigator to emphasize the effect of a specific item or collection of items. We focus on the influence of the demographic item of gender on the analysis, so that the solutions are essentially confined to subspaces spanned by the emphasized item. Using this technique, we can know definitively which images' ratings have been influenced by the demographic item of choice. Subsequently, images can be evaluated and linked, on one hand, to their perceptual and semantic descriptors, and, on the other hand, to the preferences associated with viewers' demographic attributes.

Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Lawrence, Daniel R.

2014-02-01

167

Clinical and Demographic Factors Associated with Fractures Among Older Americans  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates the associations of a history of fracture, comorbid chronic conditions, and demographic characteristics with incident fractures among Medicare beneficiaries. The majority of fracture incidence studies have focused on the hip and on white females. This study examines a greater variety of fracture sites and more population subgroups than prior studies. Methods We used Medicare claims data to examine the incidence of fracture at six anatomic sites in a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries during the time period 2000 through 2005. Results For each type of incident fracture, women had a higher rate than men, and there was a positive association with age and an inverse association with income. Whites had a higher rate than nonwhites. Rates were lowest among African Americans for all sites except ankle and tibia/fibula, which were lowest among Asian Americans. Rates of hip and spine fracture were highest in the South, and fractures of other sites were highest in the Northeast. Fall-related conditions and depressive illnesses were associated with each type of incident fracture, conditions treated with glucocorticoids with hip and spine fractures and diabetes with ankle and humerus fractures. Histories of hip and spine fractures were associated positively with each site of incident fracture except ankle; histories of nonhip, nonspine fractures were associated with most types of incident fracture. Conclusions This study confirmed previously established associations for hip and spine fractures and identified several new associations of interest for nonhip, nonspine fractures. PMID:20559818

Taylor, Allison J.; Gary, Lisa C.; Arora, Tarun; Becker, David J.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Morrisey, Michael A.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Matthews, Robert; Yun, Huifeng; Smith, Wilson; Delzell, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

168

Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

Link, W.A.; Royle, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

2003-01-01

169

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-14

170

Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhiça district  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated

Ariel Q Nhacolo; Delino A Nhalungo; Charfudin N Sacoor; John J Aponte; Ricardo Thompson; Pedro Alonso

2006-01-01

171

Knee joint replacement  

MedlinePLUS

Knee joint replacement is surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis . ... cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. Man-made pieces are then placed in the ...

172

Demographic variation in the U.K. serotine bat: filling gaps in knowledge for management.  

PubMed

Species of conservation concern, or those in conflict with man, are most efficiently managed with an understanding of their population dynamics. European bats exemplify the need for successful and cost-effective management for both reasons, often simultaneously. Across Europe, bats are protected, and the concept of Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) is used as a key tool for the assessment and licensing of disruptive actions to populations. However, for efficient decision-making, this assessment requires knowledge on the demographic rates and long-term dynamics of populations. We used capture-mark-recapture to describe demographic rates for the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) at two sites in England and investigate the transition rates between three stages: juveniles, immatures, and breeders. We then use these rates in an individual-based population dynamics model to investigate the expected trajectories for both populations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence and scale of temporal variation in this species' demography. We describe the lengthy prereproductive period (3.5 years) that female Serotines experience. Finally, we show how site-specific variation in demographic rates can produce divergent population trajectories. Effective management of European bat populations can be achieved through the understanding of life histories, and local demographic rates and population dynamics, in order to anticipate the presence of source and sink sites in the landscape. Using the Serotine bat in England, we show that these can be obtained from rigorous and systematic studies of long-term demographic datasets. PMID:25614796

Chauvenet, Alienor L M; Hutson, Anthony M; Smith, Graham C; Aegerter, James N

2014-10-01

173

Demographic variation in the U.K. serotine bat: filling gaps in knowledge for management  

PubMed Central

Species of conservation concern, or those in conflict with man, are most efficiently managed with an understanding of their population dynamics. European bats exemplify the need for successful and cost-effective management for both reasons, often simultaneously. Across Europe, bats are protected, and the concept of Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) is used as a key tool for the assessment and licensing of disruptive actions to populations. However, for efficient decision-making, this assessment requires knowledge on the demographic rates and long-term dynamics of populations. We used capture–mark–recapture to describe demographic rates for the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) at two sites in England and investigate the transition rates between three stages: juveniles, immatures, and breeders. We then use these rates in an individual-based population dynamics model to investigate the expected trajectories for both populations. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence and scale of temporal variation in this species' demography. We describe the lengthy prereproductive period (3.5 years) that female Serotines experience. Finally, we show how site-specific variation in demographic rates can produce divergent population trajectories. Effective management of European bat populations can be achieved through the understanding of life histories, and local demographic rates and population dynamics, in order to anticipate the presence of source and sink sites in the landscape. Using the Serotine bat in England, we show that these can be obtained from rigorous and systematic studies of long-term demographic datasets.

Chauvenet, Alienor L M; Hutson, Anthony M; Smith, Graham C; Aegerter, James N

2014-01-01

174

Demographic Transition, Income Distribution, and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the dynamic interactions among demographic transition, income distribution, and economic growth. Consistent with empirical evidence we show that fertility and income distribution follow an inverted U-shaped dynamics in the process of economic development. In the first stage fertility increases and income inequality widens, whereas in the second stage fertility declines, income becomes more equally distributed, human capital

Momi Dahan; Daniel Tsiddon

1998-01-01

175

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

176

Saving and Demographic Change: The Global Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a panel data set of 85 countries covering 1960-2005 to investigate the macroeconomic linkages between national rates of saving and investment and population aging. The issue takes on added significance because of the recent suggestion that the decline in global interest rates has been driven by demographic changes in the industrial economies. We do find a significant

Barry Bosworth; Gabriel Chodorow-Reich

2007-01-01

177

STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF ASIAN DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Asia today, three big demographic tendencies are exerting special influ- ence on the region's economic and political calculus. The first is rapid population aging, especially in East Asia. By 2025 China's median age may be approaching 40 years, and Japan's may well exceed 50. Second, adverse mortality trends—in Russia already, but possibly in China and India as well—stand to

Nicholas Eberstadt

178

Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men.

Vetter, B.M. (Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (US))

1992-03-01

179

Space-Use, Diet, Demographics, and  

E-print Network

squirrels (30%), northern flying squirrels (5%), grouse (3%), martens (3%), and voles (3%). Kitten351 Chapter 12 Space-Use, Diet, Demographics, and Topographic Associations of Lynx in the Southern at southern latitudes are thought to remain at low and stable densities through time. Hence, the ecology

180

Some Demographic Correlates of Changing Newspaper Circulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are varied opinions on the relationship between the circulation penetration of the American daily newspapers and certain demographic indicators. Previous studies have treated the growth of circulation figures by utilizing gross national data and have indicated the role newspaper circulation plays in defining the limits of major urban…

Eberhard, Wallace B.

181

Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

182

Demographic Influences on American Education. ERS Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National and regional student population projections and factors related to enrollment trends are provided in this report. Demographic data are presented on national and regional enrollment trends and projections, the national and regional school-age population, regional and state growth patterns, minority populations and immigration patterns, and…

Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

183

A Model for External Demographic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A data-collection model is presented for the gathering of timely information on population demographic characteristics, as well as economic, educational, environmental, and social trends. First, the paper discusses the importance of anticipating internal and external changes and establishing priorities for resource allocation in the design of a…

Hall, Barbara Ann

184

The Hadj and migration: Islamic demographic perspectives.  

PubMed

The distinction between migration, population movements, and the Hadj pilgrimage to Mecca is studied by reviewing various demographic and religious writings. The author concludes that the nature and characteristics of migration are different from those of a pilgrimage and that the Hadj cannot be classified as migration because it fulfills a religious obligation. PMID:12265200

Al-alwani, M

1981-06-01

185

Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

2010-01-01

186

Joint x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

187

JOINT SEMINAR FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

JOINT SEMINAR FINAL REPORT Project number Name of applicant at FWF: __________________________________ Title of the Joint Seminar: ____________________________________________________ Name of the partner): ____________________________________________________ Name of applicant at partner organisation: _______________________ Date and place of Joint Seminar

Fuchs, Clemens

188

Temporomandibular Joint Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Article Chapters Temporomandibular Joint Disorder What ... men. Updated: November 2008 Previous Next Related Articles: Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD) Are You Biting Off More ...

189

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

2006-01-01

190

Star Cluster Demographics. I. A General Framework and Application to the Antennae Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for understanding the demographics of star cluster\\u000asystems, and develop a toy model which incorporates a universal initial power\\u000alaw mass function, selected formation histories, selected disruption laws, and\\u000aa convolution with common artifacts and selection effects found in\\u000aobservational data. The model confirms that the observed correlation between\\u000athe brightest young cluster in a galaxy

Bradley C. Whitmore; Rupali Chandar; S. Michael Fall

2006-01-01

191

Demographic consequences of adaptive growth and the ramifications for conservation of long-lived organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how organisms respond to human impacts is increasingly challenging biologists. Short-lived organisms can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental hazards, but only recently have long-lived organisms been shown to adapt to human impacts. Changes in any life-history trait, such as individual growth rates, may affect demographic model predictions and reliability of elasticity analyses that are often used to help

Ricky-John Spencer; Fredric J. Janzen

2010-01-01

192

Spacesuit mobility joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

Vykukal, H. C. (inventor)

1978-01-01

193

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Substance Abuse Disorders in a Medicaid Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N = 9,484) were explored and…

Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

2010-01-01

194

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

195

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Genomics All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics Family Health History Share Compartir Family History ...

196

Local History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local history studied by the professional historian applying new methods gained from social history has provided abundant new evidence which challenges a number of conventional opinions about larger historical phenomena. (Author/MB)

Goubert, Pierre

1971-01-01

197

Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture  

PubMed Central

Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing— while favoured by increasing—population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change. PMID:25048625

Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

2014-01-01

198

Modeling the evolutionary demographic processes for geomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the principles for constructing evolutionary demographic models for geomedical statistics. Several variants of evolutionary models are proposed: (1) a model of the evolution of a closed population taking into account distribution by age, (2) a model that takes into account the morbidity and difference in mortality for groups of patients and healthy individuals, (3) a model that takes into account the distribution of different age groups by fertile ability, (4) a migration model that takes into account the population exchange between several localities, and (5) a model of the propagation of infectious diseases. Each model depends on a group of parameters determined from the medical and demographic state of the population. We discuss the possible application of the proposed evolutionary models to geomedical statistics.

Lushnikov, A. A.; Kagan, A. I.; Gvishiani, A. D.; Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.

2014-12-01

199

Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.  

PubMed

Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from 22% to 32% of the total population, with the female participation rate varying from 3.5% to 18.5%. In the nonagricultural sector, the average activity rate of women over the age of 15 usually does not exceed 6%. Arab countries are also characterized by their high infant mortality rates. In 1975 these rates ranged from 60 to 200/1000. Illiteracy rates for the group, as a whole, are also high, and they are significantly higher among women than among men. A multipurpose survey conducted in Saudi Arabia during 1976 and 1977 reported a live birthrate of 54.2/1000. This is somewhat above the UN figure of 49.5 for the country and over the average for Arab countries of 46.6 for 1975. The mortality rate for the Saudi population is 14.1/1000. If one accepts the birth and death rates indicated by the multipurpose survey, the population is growing at a national rate of 3% or more per year. PMID:12340437

Looney, R E

1985-06-01

200

Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

201

Global demographic trends and social security reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

How sustainable are the current social security systems in the developed economies, given the projected demographic trends? The most recent literature has answered this question through dynamic general-equilibrium models in a closed-economy framework. This paper provides a new quantitative benchmark of analysis for this question represented by a two-region model (South and North) of the world economy where capital flows

Orazio Attanasio; Sagiri Kitao; Giovanni L. Violante

2007-01-01

202

Soft Selective Sweeps in Complex Demographic Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Adaptation from de novo mutation can produce so-called soft selective sweeps, where adaptive alleles of independent mutational origin sweep through the population at the same time. Population genetic theory predicts that such soft sweeps should be likely if the product of the population size and the mutation rate toward the adaptive allele is sufficiently large, such that multiple adaptive mutations can establish before one has reached fixation; however, it remains unclear how demographic processes affect the probability of observing soft sweeps. Here we extend the theory of soft selective sweeps to realistic demographic scenarios that allow for changes in population size over time. We first show that population bottlenecks can lead to the removal of all but one adaptive lineage from an initially soft selective sweep. The parameter regime under which such “hardening” of soft selective sweeps is likely is determined by a simple heuristic condition. We further develop a generalized analytical framework, based on an extension of the coalescent process, for calculating the probability of soft sweeps under arbitrary demographic scenarios. Two important limits emerge within this analytical framework: In the limit where population-size fluctuations are fast compared to the duration of the sweep, the likelihood of soft sweeps is determined by the harmonic mean of the variance effective population size estimated over the duration of the sweep; in the opposing slow fluctuation limit, the likelihood of soft sweeps is determined by the instantaneous variance effective population size at the onset of the sweep. We show that as a consequence of this finding the probability of observing soft sweeps becomes a function of the strength of selection. Specifically, in species with sharply fluctuating population size, strong selection is more likely to produce soft sweeps than weak selection. Our results highlight the importance of accurate demographic estimates over short evolutionary timescales for understanding the population genetics of adaptation from de novo mutation. PMID:25060100

Wilson, Benjamin A.; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Messer, Philipp W.

2014-01-01

203

DEMOGRAPHIC UNCERTAINTY IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS. (R825347)  

EPA Science Inventory

We built a Ricker's model incorporating demographic stochasticity to simulate the effects of demographic uncertainty on responses of gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) populations to pesticide applications. We constructed models with mark-recapture data collected from populat...

204

Impact of demographics on supply chain risk management practices  

E-print Network

Do demographic factors play a role in the choice of supply chain risk management practices by supply chain professionals? Are there stronger relationships between certain demographic factors and supply chain risk management ...

Kanyagui, Kenneth (Kenneth K.)

2010-01-01

205

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

2008-01-01

206

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.  

PubMed

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

2008-02-01

207

The influence of demographic stochasticity on evolutionary dynamics and stability.  

PubMed

We derive the frequency-dependent selection coefficient caused by "demographic" stochasticity resulting from the random sampling of opponents an individual faces during behavioral "contests" with other individuals. The mean, variance, and higher moments of fitness all influence the direction and strength of selection. A frequency-dependent trait can be stable when an individual's fitness depends upon an infinite number of contests with other individuals and unstable when it depends upon a finite number of contests. Conversely, unstable equilibria for an infinite number of contests can be stable when there is a finite number of contests. At stable equilibria for a finite number of contests, higher moments of fitness can outweigh the joint influence of the first two moments so that natural selection favors "within-generation" or developmental-trait variation (also known as phenotypic plasticity) contrary to the claim that natural selection always acts against such variation. We use second-moment estimates of the fitness functions in a diffusion approximation to compute fixation probabilities of competing strategies. These estimates are shown to be qualitatively consistent with those derived from simulations when population sizes are sufficiently large to ignore the contribution of higher-moment terms. We also show that explicit solutions to the diffusion approximation only exist for pair-wise interactions that lead to positive frequency-dependent selection. PMID:23810907

Shpak, Max; Orzack, Steven Hecht; Barany, Ernest

2013-09-01

208

Joint ownership and alienability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most legal traditions view individual ownership as paradigmatic. Yet most property is jointly owned. This paper analyzes how joint ownership affects alienability by focusing on two fundamental issues raised by joint ownership—the nature of the class of those who may benefit from a joint asset and the nature of the process for making decisions about such an asset. I identify

Clifford G. Holderness

2003-01-01

209

Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas  

PubMed Central

Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70–140?kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas. PMID:25223336

He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

2014-01-01

210

American Cultural History History 390  

E-print Network

.1 .C684 2008 (and Online) A Dictionary of American History REF E174 .A2 (and Online) Encyclopedia literature, consult the following indexes: Humanities and Social Sciences Index Retrospective (Online of American History REF E174 .E53 2003 Oxford Companion to United States History (Online) Find Primary Sources

Abolmaesumi, Purang

211

Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees)  

E-print Network

94 Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art universities. Times Higher Education World Rankings 2012-2013. Features * Film Studies is open to those who have had no previous experience of learning about cinema as well as those who may have studied film

Brierley, Andrew

212

Semiconstrained distal radioulnar joint prosthesis.  

PubMed

Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) problems can occur as a result of joint instability, abutment, or incongruity. The DRUJ is a weight-bearing joint; the ulnar head is frequently excised either totally or partially, and in some cases it is fused, because of degenerative, rheumatoid, or posttraumatic arthritis. Articles about these procedures report the ability to pronate and supinate, but they rarely discuss grip strength, and even less do they address lifting capacity. We report the long term results of the first 35 patients who underwent total DRUJ arthroplasty with the Aptis DRUJ prosthesis after 5 years follow-up. Surgical indications were all causes of dysfunctional DRUJ (degenerative, posttraumatic, autoimmune, congenital). We recorded data for patient demographics, range of motion (ROM), strength, and lifting capacity of the operated and of the nonoperated extremity. Pain and functional assessments were also recorded. The Aptis DRUJ prosthesis, a bipolar self-stabilizing DRUJ endoprosthesis that restores forearm function, consists of a semiconstained and modular implant designed to replace the function of the ulnar head, the sigmoid notch of the radius, and the triangular fibrocartilage ligaments. The surgical technique is presented in detail. The majority of the patients regained adequate ROM and improved their strength and lifting capacity to the operated side. Pain and activities of daily living were improved. Twelve patients experienced complications, most commonly being extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendinitis, ectopic bone formation, bone resorption with stem loosening, low-grade infection, and need for ball replacement. The Aptis total DRUJ replacement prosthesis is an alternative to salvage procedures that enables a full range of motion as well as the ability to grip and lift weights encountered in daily living activities. PMID:24436788

Savvidou, Christiana; Murphy, Erin; Mailhot, Emilie; Jacob, Shushan; Scheker, Luis R

2013-02-01

213

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

Harper, Sarah

2012-03-01

214

Mark-recapture statistics and demographic analysis  

E-print Network

Mark-recapture analysis of populations is becoming an important tool in population biology. Mark-recapture methods can be used to estimate transition probabilities among life-stages from capture histories of marked individuals ...

Fujiwara, Masami, 1970-

2002-01-01

215

Demographic dynamics and kinship in anthropological populations  

PubMed Central

Changes in fertility and mortality affect the size of surviving sibling sets and thus numbers of surviving kin. Because the genealogical generations specifying kinship relations are not temporal cohorts and most plausible demographic changes in anthropological populations are period shocks, the effect of such shocks on kin counts are complex. Shocks increasing fertility or decreasing mortality produce larger numbers of kin per ego and decrease the inequality of the distribution of kin and vice versa. Effects are more diffuse at more distant collateral ranges. Effects are stronger the more intense the shock and the longer its duration. Kinship distributions return to their initial state after the shock and as the original age structure of the population is ergodically reattained. Alternating shocks produce more complex patterns. Implications of these outcomes are that opportunities for political networking and consolidation by means of kinship are altered by demographic instabilities, as are the dynamics of kin selection. This analysis is limited for simplicity to unilineal agnatic reckoning of kin. PMID:15677714

Hammel, E. A.

2005-01-01

216

The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

Price, A.

2012-04-01

217

Life Histories and the Strengths of Species Interactions: Combining Mortality, Growth, and Fecundity Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive effects of one species on another may simultaneously influence mortality, growth, and fecundity. To quantify the strength of an interaction between two species, we must therefore use techniques that integrate these various responses into es- timates of overall effect. Demographic models of populations provide such a framework. Here we develop a demographic model describing the life history of a

Mark A. McPeek; Barbara L. Peckarsky

1998-01-01

218

Canadian History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

School Libraries in Canada, 2003

2003-01-01

219

Demographic, Maltreatment, and Neurobiological Correlates of PTSD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the relationships of demographic, maltreatment, neurostructural and neuropsychological measures with total posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.?Methods?Participants included 216 children with maltreatment histories (N = 49), maltreatment and PTSD (N = 49), or no maltreatment (N = 118). Participants received diagnostic interviews, brain imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations.?Results?We examined a hierarchical regression model comprised of independent variables including demographics, trauma and maltreatment-related variables, and hippocampal volumes and neuropsychological measures to model PTSD symptoms. Important independent contributors to this model were SES, and General Maltreatment and Sexual Abuse Factors. Although hippocampal volumes were not significant, Visual Memory was a significant contributor to this model.?Conclusions?Similar to adult PTSD, pediatric PTSD symptoms are associated with lower Visual Memory performance. It is an important correlate of PTSD beyond established predictors of PTSD symptoms. These results support models of developmental traumatology and suggest that treatments which enhance visual memory may decrease symptoms of PTSD. PMID:20008084

Hooper, Stephen R.; Woolley, Donald P.; Shenk, Chad E.

2010-01-01

220

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utilizing digital and online technologies to teach different disciplines continues to be quite popular, and the Digital History website will be a most welcome find for teachers (and students) of American history. Developed in collaboration with the University of Houston, the Chicago Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston and several other entities the site includes an online American history textbook, an interactive timeline, a multimedia section, and a very rich selection of primary source materials. The multimedia section is a real find, as it contains several well-thought out lectures with titles like "The History of Domestic Violence", "The Cultural Civil War of the 1960s", and "America Today and America Past". Students will also appreciate the writing guide area, as it contains several short essays on how to write in a history class and how to compose a critical book review.

221

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

222

Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)  

MedlinePLUS

... JIA, formerly called rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is ... Lyme Disease Risk Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints Lyme Disease Arthritis Word! ...

223

Large displacement spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

224

Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

225

Socio-demographic characteristics of the "unbooked mother".  

PubMed

In a study to investigate the characteristics of the "Unbooked mother", the medical records of 467 patients who presented for delivery with no prenatal care at the obstetric unit of the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, during the period 1991 to 1995 were evaluated. For controls, the records of 415 mothers who had pre-natal care in the Unit over the same period were also evaluated. Data pertaining to their socio-demographic characteristics, previous obstetric history, prevalence of pregnancy-related and familial diseases, gestation age at delivery and weights of the babies, were extracted and analysed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (C.I.). The unbooked mother tended to be young (< or = 24 years), unskilled worker, or student. On the other hand, the booked ones tended to be primigravid, with pregnancy-related (PET) and familial diseases (hypertension and diabetes). However, the level of parity, gestation age and birth weights did not appear to significantly influence the tendency to be booked or unbooked. These findings highlight the group of women who should be targeted for health education counselling regarding the value of prenatal care. This way, one can avoid some of the catastrophes often said to be associated with deliveries in the unbooked mother. PMID:10593156

Adelusi, B; al-Nuaim, L A; Chowdhury, N; Abotalib, Z; Moghraby, S; Kangave, D

1999-01-01

226

Temporomandibular joint dislocation: experiences from Zaria, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint may occur for various reasons. Although different invasive methods have been advocated for its treatment, this study highlights the value of non-invasive treatment options even in chronic cases in a resource-poor environment. Materials and Methods A seven-year retrospective analysis of all patients managed for temporomandibular joint dislocation in our department was undertaken. Patient demographics, risk factors associated with temporomandibular joint dislocation and treatment modalities were retrieved from patient records. Results In all, 26 patients were managed over a seven-year period. Males accounted for 62% of the patients, and yawning was the most frequent etiological factor. Conservative treatment methods were used successfully in 86.4% of the patients managed. Two (66.7%) of the three patients who needed surgical treatment developed complications, while only one (5.3%) patient who was managed conservatively developed complications. Conclusion Temporomandibular joint dislocation appears to be associated with male sex, middle age, yawning, and low socio-economic status, although these observed relationships were not statistically significant. Non-invasive methods remain an effective treatment option in this environment in view of the low socio-economic status of the patients affected. PMID:25045637

Fomete, Benjamin; Obiadazie, Athanasius Chukwudi; Idehen, Kelvin; Okeke, Uche

2014-01-01

227

LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, & CULTURECULTURECULTURE  

E-print Network

theoretical and analytical perspectives on ethical, political, and social issues relevant to law by exploring from a historical perspective; explores the interaction of law, culture, and politics from of departments within USC Dornsife, including Classics, History, Philosophy, and Political Science. Center

Rohs, Remo

228

Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.  

PubMed

Butana and Kenana breeds from Sudan are part of the East African zebu Bos indicus type of cattle. Unlike other indigenous zebu cattle in Africa, they are unique due to their reputation for high milk production and are regarded as dairy cattle, the only ones of their kind on the African continent. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop of 70 animals to understand the maternal genetic variation, demographic profiles and history of the two breeds in relation to the history of cattle pastoralism on the African continent. Only taurine mtDNA sequences were identified. We found very high mtDNA diversity but low level of maternal genetic structure within and between the two breeds. Bayesian coalescent-based analysis revealed different historical and demographic profiles for the two breeds, with an earlier population expansion in the Butana vis a vis the Kenana. The maternal ancestral populations of the two breeds may have diverged prior to their introduction into the African continent, with first the arrival of the ancestral Butana population. We also reveal distinct demographic history between the two breeds with the Butana showing a decline in its effective population size (Ne ) in the recent past ~590 years. Our results provide new insights on the early history of cattle pastoralism in Sudan indicative of a large ancient effective population size. PMID:25308478

Salim, Bashir; Taha, Khalid M; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwacharo, Joram M

2014-12-01

229

History Extra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The official website of the BBC History magazine is a great place to learn about British history via a litany of blogs, book reviews, fun quizzes, and more. It also maintains a trove of informative podcasts dating back to 2007 that will be a joy and a delight to anyone with a penchant for history. Recent conversations cover Britain in 1914, depictions of Jesus throughout the ages, and Gandhi's early years. Additionally, users can sign up to receive updates when new podcasts are added to the site.

230

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

2013-04-01

231

Globally coupled chaotic maps and demographic stochasticity.  

PubMed

The effect of noise on a system of globally coupled chaotic maps is considered. Demographic stochasticity is studied since it provides both noise and a natural definition for extinction. A two-step model is presented, where the intrapatch chaotic dynamics is followed by a migration step with global dispersal. The addition of noise to the already chaotic system is shown to dramatically change its behavior. The level of migration in which the system attains maximal sustainability is identified. This determines the optimal way to manipulate a fragmented habitat in order to conserve endangered species. The quasideterministic dynamics that appears in the large N limit of the stochastic system is analyzed. In the clustering phase, the infinite degeneracy of deterministic solutions emerges from the single steady state of the stochastic system via a mechanism that involves an almost defective Markov matrix. PMID:20365819

Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

2010-03-01

232

Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations  

E-print Network

Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

233

Demographic and childhood environmental predictors of resilience in a community sample.  

PubMed

Scientific investigation of resilient responses to stress and trauma has the potential to inform models of the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related psychiatric disorders (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder). Despite building interest in and investigation of resilience, many basic questions regarding this construct remain unstudied. This study contributes to the empirical literature on resilience by providing novel information on the distribution and correlates of stress resilience in the general community. A well-validated self-report measure of resilience was completed by a large sample (N=764) of respondents to a telephone-based community survey that also included questions about demographics and history of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses showed that several demographic characteristics (sex, education level, and income level) uniquely predicted subjects' resilience to stress and that, taken together, these factors explained approximately 11% of the variance in resilience. Reported history of childhood maltreatment independently contributed to prediction of resilience and explained an additional 2% of the variance in this trait. While females, individuals with lower levels of education and income, and individuals with histories of childhood maltreatment reported diminished resilience overall, the majority of variance in the resilience measure was left unexplained leaving much room for other variables to influence a person's resilience to stress. Relationships of the present results to other research on resilient and pathological stress responses are discussed, as well as implications of these findings for future investigations of resilience. PMID:19264325

Campbell-Sills, Laura; Forde, David R; Stein, Murray B

2009-08-01

234

[Demographic change and state income support: an incidence analysis].  

PubMed

"Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, two income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. Several policy conflicts arise." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12316190

Von Weizsacker, R K

1989-01-01

235

Climate History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This climate history website of the PALEOMAP project provides information on climates during past geological eras using maps and animations. Also included is a discussion of the methods used to evaluate historical climate conditions.

Christopher R. Scotese

236

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

237

Simulating the Structural Response of a Preloaded Bolted Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper describes the structural analyses performed on a preloaded bolted-joint configuration. The joint modeled was comprised of two L-shaped structures connected together using a single bolt. Each L-shaped structure involved a vertical flat segment (or shell wall) welded to a horizontal segment (or flange). Parametric studies were performed using elasto-plastic, large-deformation nonlinear finite element analyses to determine the influence of several factors on the bolted-joint response. The factors considered included bolt preload, washer-surface-bearing size, edge boundary conditions, joint segment length, and loading history. Joint response is reported in terms of displacements, gap opening, and surface strains. Most of the factors studied were determined to have minimal effect on the bolted-joint response; however, the washer-bearing-surface size affected the response significantly.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

2008-01-01

238

Australian Demographic & Social Research Institute International conference  

E-print Network

Health & Disasters, Medical School, University of Western Sydney and ANU College of Medicine, Biology Mingfang Institute of Qing History, Renmin University, Beijing The disintegration and revival of families consequences of the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran 4.25­4.45pm Professor Tadjuddin Nur Effendi Gadjah Madah

Botea, Adi

239

Map History: History of Cartography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Tony Campbell, Map Librarian at the British Library, this site is a gateway to the History of Cartography. Users will find information on a variety of map-related resources, including conferences, fellowships, current research guides, journals, lecture series, map collections, and map interest societies. Additional features include a list of related links and a brief introduction to MapHist, the Cartographic history discussion list.

1996-01-01

240

Efficient Sentiment Correlation for Large-scale Demographics  

E-print Network

Efficient Sentiment Correlation for Large-scale Demographics Mikalai Tsytsarau University of Trento@disi.unitn.eu ABSTRACT Analyzing sentiments of demographic groups is becoming impor- tant for the Social Web, where- ing sentiments from product reviews or micro-blogs, little atten- tion has been devoted to aggregating

Palpanas, Themis

241

Demographic Faultlines: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting…

Thatcher, Sherry M. B.; Patel, Pankaj C.

2011-01-01

242

China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

Peng, Xizhe

2013-01-01

243

Demographic Patterns and Household Saving in China Chadwick C. Curtis  

E-print Network

as a result of the government's one-child policy, fertility rates plummeted. Today, less than 25 percentDemographic Patterns and Household Saving in China Chadwick C. Curtis University of Richmond the aggregate household saving rate. We focus on China because it is experiencing an historic demographic

Shyu, Mei-Ling

244

Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

2012-01-01

245

Christian Schools and Demographic Change: Two Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how two Christian school systems have responded to neighborhood demographic change. Researchers conducted interviews, attended meetings, and reviewed documents to explore two case studies--one of a school struggling to redefine its identity, purpose, and vision in response to demographic change, and another school that has…

Huyser, Mackenzi; Boerman-Cornell, Bill; DeBoer, Kendra

2011-01-01

246

Conservation biology for suites of species: Demographic modeling for Pacific island kingfishers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation practitioners frequently extrapolate data from single-species investigations when managing critically endangered populations. However, few researchers initiate work with the intent of making findings useful to conservation efforts for other species. We presented and explored the concept of conducting conservation-oriented research for suites of geographically separated populations with similar natural histories, resource needs, and extinction threats. An example was provided in the form of an investigation into the population demography of endangered Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus). We provided the first demographic parameter estimates for any of the 12 endangered Pacific Todiramphus species, and used results to develop a population projection matrix model for management throughout the insular Pacific. Further, we used the model for elasticity and simulation analyses with demographic values that randomly varied across ranges that might characterize congener populations. Results from elasticity and simulation analyses indicated that changes in breeding adult survival exerted the greatest magnitude of influence on population dynamics. However, changes in nestling survival were more consistently correlated with population dynamics as demographic rates were randomly altered. We concluded that conservation practitioners working with endangered Pacific kingfishers should primarily focus efforts on factors affecting nestling and breeder survival, and secondarily address fledgling juveniles and helpers. Further, we described how the generalized base model might be changed to focus on individual populations and discussed the potential application of multi-species models to other conservation situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

2007-01-01

247

History Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weider History Group publishes a wide range of military history magazines, including "America's Civil War" and "Civil War Times". They've also been generous enough to create this website, which offers a wide range of articles from their different publications. First-time visitors to the homepage may want to start out by taking a shot at the "Daily Quiz", which offers up a range of questions on everything from steamship battles to military operations in the South Pacific. Next, visitors may wish to click on over to the "Features" area, which includes articles culled from the magazines on Marine POWs, the Battle of New Orleans, as well as noted gunfighter Ben Thompson and his brother Billy. Moving on, visitors can also take part in the online forums where they can ask questions about battle tactics, the history of ground warfare, and the USS Ironsides.

248

Talking History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yet another project at the indefatigable History Department at the University at Albany, SUNY (last reviewed in the March 19, 1999 Scout Report), Talking History is a weekly broadcast/ Internet radio program that "focuses on all aspects of history: how we recall it, how we preserve it, how we interpret it, how we transform it into myth, and how we pass it on -- as teachers, researchers, archivists, museum curators, documentary filmmakers, and so on." Aimed at a non-professional audience, the program attempts to bridge the gap between professional historians and the general public. At the site, users can listen to recent and archived programs (back to 1997) in their entirety, in high or low fidelity. Recent programs include "The Religious Roots of American Radicalism," "The Invention of George Washington," "Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine Mystique," and "Dangerous Liaisons: Governor Dewey, Lucky Luciano, and Operation Underworld." An excellent site for the armchair historian and academic alike.

249

Characterizing the Demographics of Exoplanet Bulk Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of sub-Saturn-sized transiting planet candidates. Using planet interior structure models, we constrain the bulk compositions of the more than 50 known sub-Saturn-sized transiting planets with measured masses. Our model considers fully differentiated planets comprised of up to four layers: an iron core, a silicate mantle, a water mantle, and a gas envelope. We calculate the planet interior structure by integrating the coupled differential equations describing an evolving self-gravitating body, employing modern equations of state for the iron, silicates, water, and gas. For any individual planet, a wide range of compositions is consistent with the measured mass and radius. We consider the planets as an ensemble, and discuss how thermal evolution, mass loss, and observational biases sculpt the observed planet mass-radius-insolation distribution. Understanding these effects is crucial for constraining the demographics of small planet bulk compositions and for extracting signatures of the planet formation process from the accumulating census of transiting planets with dynamical confirmation.

Rogers, Leslie

2013-10-01

250

A demographic snapshot of midwives in Victoria.  

PubMed

Midwifery in Victoria has experienced significant change over the last twenty years. Over more recent years, midwifery workforce issues have become prominent with studies highlighting an ageing midwifery population and a high proportion of part time employment. During a study conducted in 2005 that explored midwives' attitudes to online and computer based learning the demographic data proved to warrant more detailed analysis. This paper presents a discussion on that data. Participants for the study were drawn from the membership of the Australian College of Midwives (ACM) Victorian branch. However, while the sample was small (n=169), the findings presented in the paper add to the existing body of knowledge around the midwifery workforce in Victoria. They reinforce that the midwifery workforce remained an ageing one, predominantly female, and a significant percentage were employed on part time or casual bases. With graduates emerging from recently introduced undergraduate midwifery programs, it is argued that it is timely for larger studies of the midwifery workforce to be conducted. Studies should seek to explore a range of factors such as reasons why midwives are choosing not to work in full time employment. PMID:19117502

McLelland, Gayle; McKenna, Lisa

2008-12-01

251

Mechanics of Suture Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

2011-03-01

252

Sacroiliac joint pain.  

PubMed

The sacroiliac joint is a source of pain in the lower back and buttocks in approximately 15% of the population. Diagnosing sacroiliac joint-mediated pain is difficult because the presenting complaints are similar to those of other causes of back pain. Patients with sacroiliac joint-mediated pain rarely report pain above L5; most localize their pain to the area around the posterior superior iliac spine. Radiographic and laboratory tests primarily help exclude other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and bone scans of the sacroiliac joint cannot reliably determine whether the joint is the source of the pain. Controlled analgesic injections of the sacroiliac joint are the most important tool in the diagnosis. Treatment modalities include medications, physical therapy, bracing, manual therapy, injections, radiofrequency denervation, and arthrodesis; however, no published prospective data compare the efficacy of these modalities. PMID:15473677

Dreyfuss, Paul; Dreyer, Susan J; Cole, Andrew; Mayo, Keith

2004-01-01

253

Lunar History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2009-01-01

254

History of San Marco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

Caporale, A. J.

1968-01-01

255

Evaluating the Y chromosomal timescale in human demographic and lineage dating  

PubMed Central

Y chromosome is a superb tool for inferring human evolution and recent demographic history from a paternal perspective. However, Y chromosomal substitution rates obtained using different modes of calibration vary considerably, and have produced disparate reconstructions of human history. Here, we discuss how substitution rate and date estimates are affected by the choice of different calibration points. We argue that most Y chromosomal substitution rates calculated to date have shortcomings, including a reliance on the ambiguous human-chimpanzee divergence time, insufficient sampling of deep-rooting pedigrees, and using inappropriate founding migrations, although the rates obtained from a single pedigree or calibrated with the peopling of the Americas seem plausible. We highlight the need for using more deep-rooting pedigrees and ancient genomes with reliable dates to improve the rate estimation. PMID:25215184

2014-01-01

256

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

257

Arguing History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2013-01-01

258

Humanistic History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the theories of McGregor, Maslow, and Herzberg, presents a model for teaching history which involves students in designing their own course objectives. Includes humanistic approaches, organizational management assumptions, and models with motivational, hygiene, physiological, and safety factors. (DMM)

Marrow, Alvin J.

1982-01-01

259

Detecting concerted demographic response across community assemblages using hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation.  

PubMed

Methods that integrate population-level sampling from multiple taxa into a single community-level analysis are an essential addition to the comparative phylogeographic toolkit. Detecting how species within communities have demographically tracked each other in space and time is important for understanding the effects of future climate and landscape changes and the resulting acceleration of extinctions, biological invasions, and potential surges in adaptive evolution. Here, we present a statistical framework for such an analysis based on hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) with the goal of detecting concerted demographic histories across an ecological assemblage. Our method combines population genetic data sets from multiple taxa into a single analysis to estimate: 1) the proportion of a community sample that demographically expanded in a temporally clustered pulse and 2) when the pulse occurred. To validate the accuracy and utility of this new approach, we use simulation cross-validation experiments and subsequently analyze an empirical data set of 32 avian populations from Australia that are hypothesized to have expanded from smaller refugia populations in the late Pleistocene. The method can accommodate data set heterogeneity such as variability in effective population size, mutation rates, and sample sizes across species and exploits the statistical strength from the simultaneous analysis of multiple species. This hABC framework used in a multitaxa demographic context can increase our understanding of the impact of historical climate change by determining what proportion of the community responded in concert or independently and can be used with a wide variety of comparative phylogeographic data sets as biota-wide DNA barcoding data sets accumulate. PMID:24925925

Chan, Yvonne L; Schanzenbach, David; Hickerson, Michael J

2014-09-01

260

Combining genetic and demographic data for prioritizing conservation actions: insights from a threatened fish species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Prioritizing and making efficient conservation plans for threatened populations requires information at both evolutionary and ecological timescales. Nevertheless, few studies integrate multidisciplinary approaches, mainly because of the difficulty for conservationists to assess simultaneously the evolutionary and ecological status of populations. Here, we sought to demonstrate how combining genetic and demographic analyses allows prioritizing and initiating conservation plans. To do so, we combined snapshot microsatellite data and a 30-year-long demographic survey on a threatened freshwater fish species (Parachondrostoma toxostoma) at the river basin scale. Our results revealed low levels of genetic diversity and weak effective population sizes (<63 individuals) in all populations. We further detected severe bottlenecks dating back to the last centuries (200–800 years ago), which may explain the differentiation of certain populations. The demographic survey revealed a general decrease in the spatial distribution and abundance of P. toxostoma over the last three decades. We conclude that demo-genetic approaches are essential for (1) identifying populations for which both evolutionary and ecological extinction risks are high; and (2) proposing conservation plans targeted toward these at risk populations, and accounting for the evolutionary history of populations. We suggest that demo-genetic approaches should be the norm in conservation practices. We combined genetic and demographic data from a threatened freshwater fish species (Parachondrostoma toxostoma) at the river basin scale for conservation purposes. Genetic diversity and effective population sizes are very low, probably due to the strong genetic bottlenecks detected in this study. The species spatial distribution and abundance also decreased during the last decades. PMID:24567833

Paz-Vinas, Ivan; Comte, Lise; Chevalier, Mathieu; Dubut, Vincent; Veyssiere, Charlotte; Grenouillet, Gaël; Loot, Geraldine; Blanchet, Simon

2013-01-01

261

Detecting Concerted Demographic Response across Community Assemblages Using Hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation  

PubMed Central

Methods that integrate population-level sampling from multiple taxa into a single community-level analysis are an essential addition to the comparative phylogeographic toolkit. Detecting how species within communities have demographically tracked each other in space and time is important for understanding the effects of future climate and landscape changes and the resulting acceleration of extinctions, biological invasions, and potential surges in adaptive evolution. Here, we present a statistical framework for such an analysis based on hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) with the goal of detecting concerted demographic histories across an ecological assemblage. Our method combines population genetic data sets from multiple taxa into a single analysis to estimate: 1) the proportion of a community sample that demographically expanded in a temporally clustered pulse and 2) when the pulse occurred. To validate the accuracy and utility of this new approach, we use simulation cross-validation experiments and subsequently analyze an empirical data set of 32 avian populations from Australia that are hypothesized to have expanded from smaller refugia populations in the late Pleistocene. The method can accommodate data set heterogeneity such as variability in effective population size, mutation rates, and sample sizes across species and exploits the statistical strength from the simultaneous analysis of multiple species. This hABC framework used in a multitaxa demographic context can increase our understanding of the impact of historical climate change by determining what proportion of the community responded in concert or independently and can be used with a wide variety of comparative phylogeographic data sets as biota-wide DNA barcoding data sets accumulate. PMID:24925925

Chan, Yvonne L.; Schanzenbach, David; Hickerson, Michael J.

2014-01-01

262

History Matters: The US Survey Course on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed for educators, History Matters serves as an information gateway, fostering the instructional methods of American history teachers at the high school and university levels. This ripe site features historical resources in textual, graphic, and audio formats and interactive instructional modules that emphasize student analysis and interpretation of primary historical documents. Other resources available to instructors include a list of annotated syllabi, online interviews with distinguished history teachers, a searchable, annotated subject guide of relevant Websites, and Talking History, a discussion forum about teaching US History. The discussion topic changes monthly and a different prominent scholar moderates the forum each month. Currently, most content at the site covers US History from 1876 to 1946. History Matters is a joint project of the City University of New York's American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning and George Mason University's Center for History and New Media. Note: users will need RealPlayer to listen to the oral histories.

263

Demographics of the European apicultural industry.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of the industry to replace lost honey bee stocks. PMID:24236084

Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

2013-01-01

264

Demographics of the European Apicultural Industry  

PubMed Central

Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620 000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220 000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of the industry to replace lost honey bee stocks. PMID:24236084

Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

2013-01-01

265

Postglacial range shift and demographic expansion of the marine intertidal snail Batillaria attramentaria  

PubMed Central

To address the impacts of past climate changes, particularly since the last glacial period, on the history of the distribution and demography of marine species, we investigated the evolutionary and demographic responses of the intertidal batillariid gastropod, Batillaria attramentaria, to these changes, using the snail as a model species in the northwest Pacific. We applied phylogeographic and divergence population genetic approaches to mitochondrial COI sequences from B. attramentaria. To cover much of its distributional range, 197 individuals collected throughout Korea and 507 publically available sequences (mostly from Japan) were used. Finally, a Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method was applied to reconstruct the demographic history of this species. We found four differentiated geographic groups around Korea, confirming the presence of two distinct, geographically subdivided haplogroups on the Japanese coastlines along the bifurcated routes of the warm Tsushima and Kuroshio Currents. These two haplogroups were estimated to have begun to split approximately 400,000 years ago. Population divergence analysis supported the hypothesis that the Yellow Sea was populated by a northward range expansion of a small fraction of founders that split from a southern ancestral population since the last glacial maximum (LGM: 26,000–19,000 years ago), when the southern area became re-submerged. BSP analyses on six geographically and genetically defined groups in Korea and Japan consistently demonstrated that each group has exponentially increased approximately since the LGM. This study resolved the phylogeography of B. attramentaria as a series of events connected over space and time; while paleoceanographic conditions determining the connectivity of neighboring seas in East Asia are responsible for the vicariance of this species, the postglacial sea-level rise and warming temperatures have played a crucial role in rapid range shifts and broad demographic expansions of its populations.

Ho, Phuong-Thao; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Kim, Boa; Won, Yong-Jin

2015-01-01

266

Recent range-wide demographic expansion in a Taiwan endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii)  

PubMed Central

Background The subtropical island of Taiwan is an area of high endemism and a complex topographic environment. Phylogeographic studies indicate that vicariance caused by Taiwan's mountains has subdivided many taxa into genetic phylogroups. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the evolutionary history of an endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii), fit the general vicariant paradigm for a montane organism. Results We found that while mountains appear to channel gene flow they are not a significant barrier for Steere's Liocichla. Recent demographic expansion was evident, and genetic diversity was relatively high across the island, suggesting expansion from multiple areas rather than a few isolated refugia. Ecological niche modeling corroborated the molecular results and suggested that populations of Steere's Liocichla are connected by climatically suitable habitat and that there was less suitable habitat during the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions Genetic and ecological niche modeling data corroborate a single history--Steere's Liocichla was at lower density during the Last Glacial Maximum and has subsequently expanded in population density. We suggest that such a range-wide density expansion might be an overlooked cause for the genetic patterns of demographic expansion that are regularly reported. We find significant differences among some populations in FST indices and an admixture analysis. Though both of these results are often used to suggest conservation action, we affirm that statistically significant results are not necessarily biologically meaningful and we urge caution when interpreting highly polymorphic data such as microsatellites. PMID:20219124

2010-01-01

267

Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.  

SciTech Connect

The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.

Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray

2009-07-01

268

Investigation of joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and management of the major arthropathies is critically reviewed, with particular reference to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and similar forms of arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, non-specific back pain, gout, the neuropathic joint, avascular necrosis, infection and the consequences of prosthetic joint insertion. Attention is drawn both to practical applications and deficiencies in current techniques and

M. V. Merrick

1992-01-01

269

Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

Parsons, Marie

270

Temperomandibular joint ankylosis in children  

PubMed Central

Temperomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis or hypo mobility involves fusion of the mandibular condyle to the base of the skull. Impairment of speech, difficulty in mastication, poor oral hygiene, rampant caries, and acute compromise of the airway pose a severe psychological burden on the tender minds of children. The treatment of TMJ ankylosis poses a significant challenge because of technical difficulties and a high incidence of recurrence. This report describes a case of 7-year-old with inability to open mouth, diagnosed with unilateral right bony TMJ ankylosis. The surgical approach consisted of inter-positional arthroplasty followed by physiotherapy. A detailed history, clinical and functional examination, and radiographic examination facilitating correct diagnosis followed by immediate surgical intervention and physiotherapy can help us to restore physical, psychological and emotional health of the child patient. PMID:25210367

Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, S. P.; Vinit, G. B.

2014-01-01

271

Demographics of Giant Planets--Insights from Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demographics of giant planets arise from a combination of the physical properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the planet formation process itself, and the dynamical evolution of planets post-formation. In this talk, I will review each of these contributions to giant planet demographics with an emphasis on how future discoveries can be used to separate and constrain their effects. I will particularly discuss how giant planet demographics will constrain the mechanism by which giant planets form, an old theoretical problem on the cusp of an observational breakthrough.

Murray-Clay, Ruth

2014-06-01

272

Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).  

PubMed

The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137?823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. PMID:25399021

Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

2014-12-01

273

Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.  

PubMed

The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

2014-10-01

274

TESTING LIFE HISTORY CORRELATES OF INVASIVENESS USING CONGENERIC PLANT SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used three congeneric annual thistles, which vary in their ability to invade California (USA) annual grasslands, to test whether invasiveness is related to differences in life history traits. We hypothesized that populations of these summer-flowering Centaurea species must pass through a demographic gauntlet of survival and reproduction in order to persist and that the most invasive species (C. solstitialis)

John D. Gerlach; Kevin J. Rice

2003-01-01

275

Smart History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the headline "Art. History. Conversation.", Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker started the Smarthistory site in 2005 as a weblog that featured free audio guides. Since that time, the site as grown into a multimedia web-book "designed as a dynamic enhancement (or even substitute) for the traditional and static art history textbook." Visitors to the site will find several hundred artworks (along with videos and podcasts) organized thematically and by time period. Additionally, visitors can also use the drop down menus on the homepage to look for certain styles, artists, and themes that include "Image and Power", "The Artist as Professional", and "Bronze Casting". The videos are a real treat, and they include offerings like "Magritte's treacherous pipe" and "Mies's corporate classicism". Finally, visitors can also learn about making a donation to their group.

276

Organ History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by Professor James H. Cook at Birmingham - Southern College, this site is an online tutorial that offers an interesting and interactive perspective of that king of all instruments, the organ. The site is divided into three main sections: The Organ and How it Works, Organ History, and Geographical Tour. In the first section, visitors are taken through a basic description of an organ, which then continues into a discussion of the various parts of an organ, such as the keyboards, consoles, pipes, chests, cases, and chambers. The history section begins with the invention of what is commonly understood to be the first organ, the ktseibios, built by a Greek engineer working in the third century BCE. The final section takes visitors on a chronological tour of the organ and its development throughout a number of countries, including England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.

Cook, James H.

277

Naval History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of naval history is quite vast, especially considering that it is linked to the earliest days of warfare and stretches back thousands of years. Designed by Gordon Smith, this particular site details the history of various national navies during the twentieth century, with a particular focus on the World Wars and other military actions. Not surprisingly, visitors to the site will want to take a look at the areas dedicated to the World Wars, as the coverage of the role of various navies is quite good here. In these sections, visitors can learn about the various ships used during each period and also look at the campaigns and battles by year and by month. There is also a rather touching section dedicated to Gordon Smith's father, George Smith, who was lost in the sinking of the HMS Charybdis off the Brittany coast on October 23rd, 1943.

278

Pennsylvania History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you know someone who is fascinated with the history of Pennsylvania, they will want to explore this site in great detail. Created by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, the site brings together primary documents, photographs, and a timeline of Keystone State history. The sections here include People, Places, Events, and Things. Users with a penchant for material culture will love the Things area, as it features topical sections covering Canals, Archaeology, Railroads, and Roads. The Places area provides meditations and narrative essays on the Governor's Residence and the long-gone French Asylum on the Susquehanna River, which was actually more of a utopian outpost of sorts. Also, the People area profiles well- and lesser-known individuals who left their mark on the state, including William Penn, Ida Tarbell, and noted military man, Henry Bouquet.

279

History uncovered  

E-print Network

). As Stamatoplos (2009) pointed out, many undergraduates also engage in independent projects that require them to use different methods of information searching, and this is not always reflected in information literacy programs. The History Uncovered project... (Krause, 2010; Malkmus, 2008; Stamatoplos, 2009) focus on the library’s role in enhancing the undergraduate experience through primary sources and mentored undergraduate research. It is worth noting that library studies on undergraduate users...

Keim, Carolyn

280

River history.  

PubMed

During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

Vita-Finzi, Claudio

2012-05-13

281

MISR JOINT_AS Data  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

Joint Aerosol Product (JOINT_AS) The MISR Level 3 Products are global or regional ... field campaigns at daily and monthly time scales. The Joint Aerosol product provides a monthly global statistical summary of MISR ...

2014-07-21

282

JOINT APPENDICES 2005 BUILDING ENERGY  

E-print Network

JOINT APPENDICES CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION for the 2005 BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS, Deputy Director ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS DIVISION #12;NOTICE This version of the 2005 Joint. #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Joint Appendix I ­ Glossary ........................................... Pages

283

Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... medications. Artificial joint infection symptoms — People who develop infections immediately after joint replacement surgery typically have pain, redness, and swelling at the joint or drainage from the wound. Those who develop infections later usually notice a ...

284

Demographic situation and development in Nepal.  

PubMed

In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population programs, 5) to introduce population education into the school curriculum, 6) to promote economic development research, and 7) to coordinate the work of the numerous family planning agencies and organizations which are operating in the country. Many voluntary, international, foreign, and government agencies are involved in Nepal's economic and population endeavors. These organizations are listed. PMID:12339820

Pradhanang, A L

1983-01-01

285

Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.  

PubMed

Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1) understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2) explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km) and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae) to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults). Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc.) determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation) acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats) functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the landscape and habitat-quality level processes (eutrophication, fragmentation, etc.) that together regulate the populations of this keystone herbivore. PMID:22536355

Prado, Patricia; Tomas, Fiona; Pinna, Stefania; Farina, Simone; Roca, Guillem; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

2012-01-01

286

Habitat and Scale Shape the Demographic Fate of the Keystone Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean Macrophyte Communities  

PubMed Central

Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1) understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2) explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km) and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae) to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults). Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc.) determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation) acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats) functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the landscape and habitat-quality level processes (eutrophication, fragmentation, etc.) that together regulate the populations of this keystone herbivore. PMID:22536355

Prado, Patricia; Tomas, Fiona; Pinna, Stefania; Farina, Simone; Roca, Guillem; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

2012-01-01

287

DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF THE CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) IN COMMERCIALLY EXPLOITED AND  

E-print Network

DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF THE CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) IN COMMERCIALLY;DISSERTATION APPROVAL DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF THE CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS Carbondale TITLE: Demographics and the Ecological Role of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus

288

Uncovering History for Future History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

Fischer, Fritz

2010-01-01

289

Department of History Teaching Major in History  

E-print Network

Department of History Teaching Major in History Students interested in earning a teaching major in history must complete the requirements for a BA in history, to include the following courses: 4 credits HSTR 101 or 102 European Civilization ________ 4 credits HSTA 101 or 102 American History ________ 1

Vonessen, Nikolaus

290

[Periprosthetic fractures of the knee joint].  

PubMed

Periprosthetic fractures are a challenging problem in view of the demographic development and the increasing number of implanted prostheses. Most of these fractures occur postoperatively after a period of two to four years after implantation of a total knee arthroplasty. They are usually caused by traumata, implantation-specific factors and loosening of the prosthesis. Beside further risk factors osteopenia and a reduced mobility of the prosthesis predispose to these fractures. Numerous classifications which also include a loosening of the prosthesis in the fracture discription are an important tool for planning the therapy. Beside the conservative treatment, the stabilization of the fracture or changing the prosthesis should be considered. The treatment options of periprosthetic fractures of the knee joint are discussed in view of different initial situations with the aim of achieving a load-stable situation. PMID:23079760

Fehringer, M; Münzberg, M; Grützner, P A; Franke, J

2012-10-01

291

Dream Recall and Political Ideology: Results of a Demographic Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents findings from a survey of 2992 demographically diverse American adults who answered questions about dream recall and questions about their political views. Participants who described themselves as \\

Kelly Bulkeley

2012-01-01

292

The Hungarians in East Central Europe: a demographic profile.  

PubMed

Tabular data are presented on the demographic characteristics of ethnic Hungarians in East Central Europe. Information is included on the total Hungarian population in neighboring states; nationality; language; and religion. PMID:12293201

Sebok, L

1996-09-01

293

Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

294

WTO History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A joint project of the University of Washington's (UW's) Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies and the University Library, the WTO History Project focuses on the history-making protests of late 1999 in Seattle during the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial meetings. A particularly groovy and educational highlight of this Website is the database of fliers, posters, notes, letters, etc. that the Manuscripts, Special Collections and University Archives Division of the UW Libraries makes Internet-accessible using CONTENTdm, a multimedia database developed at the UW. "CONTENTdm allows users to create customized searches of the collection and for high-quality digital reproductions to be viewed online, enabling some research to be conducted without visiting the collection." Visitors to the WTO History Project Website will also find a timeline of events prior to and during the 1999 protests in Seattle, including locations and sponsors, and a chart of organizations (with contact information) that were vocal in their opposition to the WTO, along with a list of registered WTO meeting attendees (MS Excel). In addition, this site features a page of interview transcripts with words from more than 80 organizers of and participants in the Seattle protests (.pdf). Organizations represented here include the Industrial Workers of the World, People for Fair Trade, the AFL-CIO, and the Sierra Club, to name just a few. This is a fantastic resource for students looking for primary texts dealing with labor and globalization issues or anyone wanting to learn more about the groups and individuals involved in the WTO protests. This site is still being developed, so check back often.

2001-01-01

295

JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND  

E-print Network

JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM "Speckle Statistics, Coherence confirmation of the increase in the well- defined polarization state of the output radiation. In the joint

296

Pressure vessel flex joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

Kahn, Jon B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

297

Joint Consideration of Distal and Proximal Predictors of Premature Mortality among Serious Juvenile Offenders  

PubMed Central

Purpose Juvenile offenders are at heightened risk of death in adolescence and young adulthood compared to adolescents in the general population. The current study extends previous research by testing the joint contributions of distal (historical and demographic characteristics) and proximal (closer to the time of the death) predictors of mortality. We also tested and whether proximal variables were potential mediators of the effects of distal variables on mortality. Methods Participants were 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, 45 (3.32%) of whom were deceased by the completion of the study. Data were collected through self-reports and official records. Results Significant distal predictors of mortality were being African-American and having a history of substance use disorder. Proximal predictors that added significantly to prediction included gun carrying, gang membership, and substance use problems. Potential mediators of the effects of substance use disorder history were continuing substance use problems and gang membership. However, proximal variables could not explain the heightened risk for African-Americans. Conclusions Gang membership, gun carrying, and substance use problems are risk factors for early mortality among juvenile offenders, but they do not explain the elevated risk for death among African Americans. Thus, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying risk for premature death among African-American adolescent offenders. Implications and contributions Findings suggest that interventions to reduce substance use problems, gang membership, and gun carrying have the potential to reduce risk of mortality for serious juvenile offenders. However, these factors cannot explain the heightened risk for death among African-American participants. PMID:23415755

Chassin, Laurie; Piquero, Alex R.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Mansion, Andre D.; Schubert, Carol A.

2012-01-01

298

Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

Kitchen, Andrew

2008-01-01

299

First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis.  

PubMed

Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is used primarily for end-stage hallux rigidus whereby pain, crepitus, and limitation of motion is noted at the joint. Arthrodesis at the first MTPJ also has it uses as a primary procedure for rheumatoid arthritis when severe deformity is present, as well as for salvage procedures for failed joint arthroplasties with or without implant, fractures with intra-articular extension, avascular necrosis, and infection management. A first MTPJ arthrodesis should provide stable fixation, attain suitable positioning for a reasonable gait, maintain adequate length, and create a stable platform for a plantigrade foot type. PMID:22243568

Rajczy, Robert M; McDonald, Patrick R; Shapiro, Howard S; Boc, Steven F

2012-01-01

300

Compliant Joints For Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

Kerley, James J., Jr.

1990-01-01

301

Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genetic diversity of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) from four Caribbean islands and five African countries was compared by analyzing the sequences of three gene fragments, two mitochondrial (12SrDNA and D-Loop-DL), and one nuclear (intergenic transcribed spacer 2 [ITS2]). Genetic variability of the ITS2 DNA fragment consisted of only uninformative single nucleotide mutations, and therefore this gene was excluded from further analyses. Mitochondrial gene divergences among African populations and between Caribbean and African populations were very low. Nevertheless, the data suggest that A. variegatum is divided into distinct East and West African groups, the western group including all Caribbean samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the 12SrDNA and DL gene sequences showed that the West African A. variegatum clustered in a well-supported monophyletic clade, distinct from eastern paraphyletic lineages. Sequences of A. variegatum from the Caribbean were embedded in the West African clade, which supports the known West African historical origin for these ticks. PMID:22448720

Patel, Jaymin; Lucas-Williams, Helene; Adakal, Hassane; Kanduma, Esther G.; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Krecek, Rosina; Mertins, James W.; Alfred, Jeffery T.; Kelly, Susyn; Kelly, Patrick

2012-01-01

302

Life history analysis for black bears ( Ursus americanus) in a changing demographic landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used matrix population models to evaluate the relative importance of different vital rates to population growth (?) for female black bears on the Southeastern Coastal Plain (SCP) of the United States, and to determine whether reductions in subadult and adult survival due to ongoing habitat fragmentation and human disturbance will cause shifts in the relative importance of vital rates.

Adam H. Freedman; Kenneth M. Portier; Melvin E. Sunquist

2003-01-01

303

Stock structure and demographic history of the Indo-West Pacific mud crab Scylla serrata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing exploitation of mangrove forests, without any sustainable planning, has been seriously compromising the survival of this ecosystem and of its exclusive resources. Scylla serrata is one of the most commercially exploited crabs inhabiting mangroves and estuaries of the Indo-Pacific region. This species is extensively harvested, mainly for selling to the tourist market, and, as a consequence, its populations are in constant decline. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of genetic exchange of S. serrata within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), using a population genetic structure approach. To achieve this goal, we reconstructed the intra-specific geographic pattern of genetic variation by partial sequencing the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I, in samples from seven mangrove sites of the WIO. Our data set then encompassed all the sequences for the same genetic marker deposited in Genbank and corresponding to samples from South East Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands: this allowed us to estimate the level of connectivity among S. serrata populations within its distribution area. Our results show that an unique Scylla serrata metapopulation exists within the WIO; while throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region at least three distinct genetic stocks occur, corresponding to well-defined geographic regions (WIO, Eastern Australia and Pacific Ocean, North-Western Australia). South East China appears as the depositary of the most ancient haplotype and at the present time shares a haplotype with the Red Sea. The WIO populations show the signature of recent population bottlenecks, as expected for populations deeply exploited in a recent past. On the basis of our results, we can conclude that both the S. serrata populations and their habitats, i.e. mangrove forests and estuaries, of the WIO require future management and conservation regulations to avoiding overexploitation of this important key predator and marketable resource.

Fratini, Sara; Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano

2010-01-01

304

POPULATION STRUCTURE AND DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF HUMAN ARCTIC POPULATIONS USING QUANTITATIVE CRANIAL TRAITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic of North America provides an excellent laboratory for examining human population movement and differentiation. This research utilizes cranial morphological variation from 27 discrete Arctic populations spread across the North American Arctic to examine the role that culture and migration may have played in defining biological relationships and population structure among modern human Arctic populations. The unique pattern of

Blaine Maley

2011-01-01

305

Population Structure and Demographic History of Human Arctic Populations Using Quantitative Cranial Traits.  

E-print Network

??The Arctic of North America provides an excellent laboratory for examining human population movement and differentiation. This research utilizes cranial morphological variation from 27 discrete… (more)

Maley, Blaine

2011-01-01

306

Speciation and demographic history of Atlantic eels (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) revealed by mitogenome sequencing.  

PubMed

Processes leading to speciation in oceanic environments without obvious physical barriers remain poorly known. European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata) spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea. Larvae are advected by the Gulf Stream and other currents towards the European/North African and North American coasts, respectively. We analyzed 104 mitogenomes from the two species along with mitogenomes of other Anguilla and outgroup species. We estimated divergence time between the two species to identify major events involved in speciation. We also considered two previously stated hypotheses: one where the ancestral species was present in only one continent but was advected across the Atlantic by ocean current changes and another where population declines during Pleistocene glaciations led to increasing vicariance, facilitating speciation. Divergence time was estimated to ?3.38 Mya, coinciding with the closure of the Panama Gateway that led to reinforcement of the Gulf Stream. This could have advected larvae towards European/North African coasts, in which case American eel would be expected to be the ancestral species. This scenario could, however, not be unequivocally confirmed by analyses of dN/dS, nucleotide diversity and effective population size estimates. Extended bayesian skyline plots showed fluctuations of effective population sizes and declines during glaciations, and thus also lending support to the importance of vicariance during speciation. There was evidence for positive selection at the ATP6 and possibly ND5 genes, indicating a role in speciation. The findings suggest an important role of ocean current changes in speciation of marine organisms. PMID:24865601

Jacobsen, M W; Pujolar, J M; Gilbert, M T P; Moreno-Mayar, J V; Bernatchez, L; Als, T D; Lobon-Cervia, J; Hansen, M M

2014-11-01

307

Gene flow and demographic history of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the central Indian highlands  

PubMed Central

Gene flow is a critical ecological process that must be maintained in order to counteract the detrimental effects of genetic drift in subdivided populations, with conservation benefits ranging from promoting the persistence of small populations to spreading adaptive traits in changing environments. We evaluated historical and contemporary gene flow and effective population sizes of leopards in a landscape in central India using noninvasive sampling. Despite the dramatic changes in land-use patterns in this landscape through recent times, we did not detect any signs that the leopard populations have been through a genetic bottleneck, and they appear to have maintained migration–drift equilibrium. We found that historical levels of gene flow (mean mh = 0.07) were significantly higher than contemporary levels (mean mc = 0.03), and populations with large effective population sizes (Satpura and Kanha Tiger Reserves) are the larger exporters of migrants at both timescales. The greatest decline in historical versus contemporary gene flow is between pairs of reserves that are currently not connected by forest corridors (i.e., Melghat-Pench mh ? mc = 0.063; and Kanha-Satpura mh ? mc = 0.054). We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries, and suggest protection of forest corridors to maintain gene flow in this landscape. PMID:24062803

Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra S; Seidensticker, John

2013-01-01

308

Origin and demographic history of the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola)  

PubMed Central

Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) is a vulnerable conifer species endemic to the island of Taiwan. A warming climate and competition from subtropical tree species has limited the range of Taiwan spruce to the higher altitudes of the island. Using seeds sampled from an area in the central mountain range of Taiwan, 15 nuclear loci were sequenced in order to measure genetic variation and to assess the long-term genetic stability of the species. Genetic diversity is low and comparable to other spruce species with limited ranges such as Picea breweriana, Picea chihuahuana, and Picea schrenkiana. Importantly, analysis using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) provides evidence for a drastic decline in the effective population size approximately 0.3–0.5 million years ago (mya). We used simulations to show that this is unlikely to be a false-positive result due to the limited sample used here. To investigate the phylogenetic origin of Taiwan spruce, additional sequencing was performed in the Chinese spruce Picea wilsonii and combined with previously published data for three other mainland China species, Picea purpurea, Picea likiangensis, and P. schrenkiana. Analysis of population structure revealed that P. morrisonicola clusters most closely with P. wilsonii, and coalescent analyses using the program MIMAR dated the split to 4–8 mya, coincidental to the formation of Taiwan. Considering the population decrease that occurred after the split, however, led to a much more recent origin. PMID:24223271

Bodare, Sofia; Stocks, Michael; Yang, Jeng-Chuann; Lascoux, Martin

2013-01-01

309

Adolescent Sexual OffendersDemographics, Criminal and Sexual Histories, and Recommendations for Reducing Future Offenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual aggression is a serious and widespread problem in our society. Over the past 15 years considerable effort has been directed toward educating society about the problem and addressing the needs of victims of sexual crimes. Research efforts have focused on both adult and child victims and to a lesser extent on adult sexual offenders. Only recently have any research

JUDITH V. BECKER; JERRY CUNNINGHAM-RATHNER; MEG S. KAPLAN

1986-01-01

310

Conservation genetics and demographic history of the endangered Cape Fear shiner ( Notropis mekistocholas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined allelic variation at 22 nuclear-encoded markers (21 microsatellites and one anonymous locus) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA in two geographical samples of the endan- gered cyprinid fish Notropis mekistocholas (Cape Fear shiner). Genetic diversity was rela- tively high in comparison to other endangered vertebrates, and there was no evidence of small population effects despite the low abundance reported for the

E. SAILLANT; J. C. PATTON; K. E. ROSS; J. R. GOLD

2004-01-01

311

Phylogeographic structure, demographic history and morph composition in a colour polymorphic lizard.  

PubMed

In polymorphic species, population divergence in morph composition and frequency has the potential to promote speciation. We assessed the relationship between geographic variation in male throat colour polymorphism and phylogeographic structure in the tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii. We identified four genetically distinct lineages, corresponding to two polymorphic lineages in the Northern Flinders Ranges and Southern Flinders Ranges/Olary Ranges regions respectively, and a monomorphic lineage in the Mt Lofty Ranges/Kangaroo Island region. The degree of divergence between these three lineages was consistent with isolation to multiple refugia during Pleistocene glacial cycles, whereas a fourth, deeply divergent (at the interspecific level) and monomorphic lineage was restricted to western New South Wales. The same four morphs occurred in both polymorphic lineages, although populations exhibited considerable variation in the frequency of morphs. By contrast, male throat coloration in the monomorphic lineages differed from each other and from the polymorphic lineages. Our results suggest that colour polymorphism has evolved once in the C. decresii species complex, with subsequent loss of polymorphism in the Mt Lofty Ranges/Kangaroo Island lineage. However, an equally parsimonious scenario, that polymorphism arose independently twice within C. decresii, could not be ruled out. We also detected evidence of a narrow contact zone with limited genotypic admixture between the polymorphic Olary Ranges and monomorphic Mt Lofty Ranges regions, yet no individuals of intermediate colour phenotype. Such genetic divergence and evidence for barriers to gene flow between lineages suggest incipient speciation between populations that differ in morph composition. PMID:25146412

McLean, C A; Stuart-Fox, D; Moussalli, A

2014-10-01

312

Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Cajanus spp. Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNPs  

PubMed Central

Understanding genetic structure of Cajanus spp. is essential for achieving genetic improvement by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping or association studies and use of selected markers through genomic assisted breeding and genomic selection. After developing a comprehensive set of 1,616 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and their conversion into cost effective KASPar assays for pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), we studied levels of genetic variability both within and between diverse set of Cajanus lines including 56 breeding lines, 21 landraces and 107 accessions from 18 wild species. These results revealed a high frequency of polymorphic SNPs and relatively high level of cross-species transferability. Indeed, 75.8% of successful SNP assays revealed polymorphism, and more than 95% of these assays could be successfully transferred to related wild species. To show regional patterns of variation, we used STRUCTURE and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) to partition variance among hierarchical sets of landraces and wild species at either the continental scale or within India. STRUCTURE separated most of the domesticated germplasm from wild ecotypes, and separates Australian and Asian wild species as has been found previously. Among Indian regions and states within regions, we found 36% of the variation between regions, and 64% within landraces or wilds within states. The highest level of polymorphism in wild relatives and landraces was found in Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh provinces of India representing the centre of origin and domestication of pigeonpea respectively. PMID:24533111

Saxena, Rachit K.; von Wettberg, Eric; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Sanchez, Vanessa; Songok, Serah; Saxena, Kulbhushan; Kimurto, Paul; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2014-01-01

313

Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-03

314

History Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games and other fun information about history. The Battle of the Atlantic Game Defeat the U-boats and guide your convoy to safety The Battle of Hastings Game Discover the tactics and try putting them into practice Gladiator: Dressed to Kill Prepare a gladiator for battle in the arena of death Viking Quest Build a ship, loot a monastery and claim your prize Pyramid Challenge Complete the construction of the pharaoh\\'s tomb Mummy Maker Prepare the body of Ramose, officer to the king, for ...

Thatcher, Ms.

2006-10-17

315

Volcanic Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this in-class problem, students should have read about volcanism in their introductory text. Specifically they will need to know the types of volcanoes, the characteristics of volcanic products, such as lava flows of different silica compositions, tephra, lahars, and pyroclastic flows. Students should be able to connect the types of activity of a volcano to its type, such as composite volcanoes having abundant tephra, with some lava flows, while a shield volcano may have less tephra and more low viscosity lava flows. This activity is similar to the process used by geoscientists to evaluate the history and hazards of a volcano.

Filson, Robert H.

316

Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

317

Joint Special Operations University  

E-print Network

The Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) provides its publications to contribute toward expanding the body of knowledge about joint special operations. JSOU publications advance the insights and recommendations of national security professionals and the Special Operations Forces (SOF) students and leaders for consideration by the SOF community and defense leadership. JSOU is the educational component of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. The JSOU mission is to educate SOF executive, senior, and intermediate leaders and selected other national and international security decision makers, both military and civilian, through teaching, outreach, and research in the science and art of joint special operations. JSOU provides education to the men and women of SOF and to those who enable the SOF mission in a joint and interagency environment. JSOU conducts research through its Strategic Studies Department where

Brian A. Maher; Ed. D; William S. Wildrick; U. S. Navy; Ret Resident; Senior Fellows; John B. Alexander; Roby C. Barrett, Ph.D.; Joseph D. Celeski; Chuck Cunningham

318

Joint fluid Gram stain  

MedlinePLUS

Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

319

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... jaw joint. TMJ disorders can cause headaches, ear pain, bite problems, clicking sounds, locked jaws, and other ... three main categories: Muscle Disorders These disorders include pain in the muscles that control jaw function, as ...

320

New plastic joints for plastic orthoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic joints for orthoses have more advantages than metal joints. They are lightweight, noiseless comfortable to use, rust proof, corrosion free, and radiolucent. Two types of plastic joints were developed by the authors, one for the ankle joint and the other for the knee joint, elbow joint or hip joint. Polypropylene was chosen as the joint material because of its

H. WATANABE; T. KUTSUNA; H. MORINAGA; T. OKABE

321

[List of household demographic surveys conducted in Cameroon].  

PubMed

A list of data collection operations in Cameroon since 1921, with notes on geographic coverage, implementing agency, and publications is prefaced by a series of observations about the history and development of data gathering in colonial days and since independence. Cameroon has undertaken a number of efforts since independence to collect demographic data, but the administrative censuses, sectorial surveys, and isolated data gathering operations yielded results that varied widely from 1 project to another, from 1 administration to another, and from 1 period to another. Only after 1950 was an attempt made by the French administration to gain a better knowledge of Cameroon's poplation after the German occupation through more scientific investigations. Between 1950-59, 5 censuses were carried out in 5 cities. No census of national scope was conducted before independence, so that the new nation was uninformed of its exact population. Shorlty after independence a population and agricultural census was planned, along with a sample survey of national scope, but budgetary difficlites and insecurity in the southern part of the country prevented realization of the goal, and a series of regional inquiries were undertaken instead. Examples of specialized surveys conducted in the late 1960s and the 1970s included a budget-consumption survey in the city of Victoria in 1966, as sample survey in Yaounde in 1969, an employment survey in 1971, and an agricultural census in 1972. Planning for the 1st census was again initiated in 1973, and the 1976 census was a decisive steps toward to goal outlined in 1960 by the government of mastering data collection techniques and exploitation and analysis fo results. After 1976, the administrative and technical structures put in place for the census, the Central Bureau of Censuses and Surveys, and the sampling base created for the 1976 general census were used for a series of specialized surveys, including the National Fertility Survey of 1977-78, the National Nutrition Survey of 1978, the Budget-Consumption Survey of 1982 which is currently at the stage of fieldwork, and the National Employment Survey in process of preparation. PMID:12339839

Fotso, E

1984-01-01

322

Bullet in Hip Joint  

PubMed Central

Recently, hip arthroscopy has become more popular in the diagnosis and extraction of intraarticular foreign bodies compared to open surgery. If a foreign object such as a bullet is not extracted from the hip joint, it may cause mechanical arthritis, infection and systemic lead toxicity. We present the arthroscopic excision of a bullet from the hip joint of a 33-year-old male patient who sustained a gunshot injury.

Kaya, Ibrahim; Ugras, Akin; Saglam, Necdet; Sungur, Ibrahim; Cetinus, Ercan

2013-01-01

323

Competing Research Joint Ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development (R&D) competition among firms has recently been extended to R&D competition involving research joint ventures. It was previously shown that in an industry conducting cost-reducing R&D followed by competition in the product market, if all firms both fully share R&D information and coordinate investments to maximize joint profits, final products prices are lower, and firms' profits are

Morton I. Kamien; Israel Zang

1993-01-01

324

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOEpatents

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30

325

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOEpatents

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01

326

HISTORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

HISTORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12; 1 to Degree 12 M.A. Degree in History of Consciousness 12 #12; 2 HISTORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS HANDBOOK Welcome to graduate study in the History of Consciousness

California at Santa Cruz, University of

327

Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii reaches a new frontier: prosthetic hip joint infection.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen primarily in countries with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. Here we report the detection of a bla OXA23 carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii strain in a German patient with prosthetic hip joint infection following several hip joint surgeries but no history of foreign travel. PMID:25037735

Hischebeth, G T R; Wimmer, M D; Molitor, E; Seifert, H; Gravius, S; Bekeredjian-Ding, I

2015-02-01

328

Mapping History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Queen's tantrums? Children's puzzles? Those might not be the first things to come to mind when thinking about maps, but when one is considering the British LibraryâÂÂs online Mapping History exhibit, both those curious subjects and others are definitely present. Given that the Library has thousands of maps spanning the known world, this collection helps remind users "there is often more to a map than meets the eye." The collection is divided into four areas, including "Worlds at war" and "Wealth and poverty". Each section contains four to seven maps along with a brief essay that explains the importance of each document. Perhaps the most delightful section is titled "Deception, lies, and made-up lands". Here visitors can wander across a Chinese map of the world from 1644 and a map of Wellington in New Zealand from 1840 that gives the city an orderly appearance that bore only a partial resemblance to actual conditions on the ground.

2006-01-01

329

Harlem History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beyond a shadow of a doubt, Harlem is perhaps the most famous African-American neighborhood in the United States (though over history it has been host to a number of ethnic groups), and hundreds of its residents have gone on to major positions of prominence in politics, the arts, and a host of other areas. This multimedia website, designed by the Columbia University Digital Knowledge Ventures group (in conjunction with The Institute for Research in African-American Studies) brings together a number of archival highlights and scholarship from a number of sources at Columbia University. The thematic areas on the site include "Arts and Culture", "The Neighborhood" and "Politics". Visitors can delve into each of these areas and read essays on the architecture and growth of Harlem, its former Jewish identity, and the recollections of the famed labor leader A. Philip Randolph. Finally, the site also contains a number of photo essays of note.

330

Cygnus History  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

2009-07-02

331

Department of History Teaching Minor in History  

E-print Network

Department of History Teaching Minor in History Students interested in earning a teaching minor in history must complete the following requirements: 4 credits HSTR 101 or 102 European Civilization ________ 8 credits HSTA 101 and 102 American History ________ 1 credit HSTR 200 Introduction to Historical

Vonessen, Nikolaus

332

Demographic stochasticity alters the outcome of exploitation competition.  

PubMed

Temporal variability in resource density is one of the mechanisms that facilitate coexistence between competitors. This study examines whether demographic stochasticity as a source of resource fluctuation can facilitate coexistence. The dynamics of a deterministic model (without demographic stochasticity) and a stochastic individual-based model (with demographic stochasticity) are compared. The deterministic model is an exploitation competition module consisting of two consumer species and one resource. The Gillespie algorithm is used to simulate demographic stochasticity in the corresponding individual-based model. The parameters of the models are chosen to represent cases where the deterministic model shows competitive exclusion according to the R(?) rule and exhibits only stable equilibrium dynamics based on any combinations of the species. The analysis of the individual-based model shows that demographic stochasticity induces persistent population cycles between a consumer and the resource (i.e., when one of the consumers is absent), and this resource fluctuation allows the two consumers to coexist. Coexistence becomes possible through emerging tradeoffs that allow an inferior species (predicted by the deterministic model) to become competitively dominant (e.g., deviation of the R(?) rule). These tradeoffs are useful for interpreting apparently contradicting empirical observations. PMID:25451527

Okuyama, Toshinori

2015-01-21

333

Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect of these new, rapid demographic changes.

Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

1992-09-01

334

BA Joint Honours French and Geography LR71  

E-print Network

BA French with Film R1P3 BA Modern Languages R900 (three languages) Studying French at Swansea means in the French-speaking world. Our staff are experts in film, gender studies, medieval and early modern below: BA Single Honours French R101 BA Joint Honours French and Ancient History VR11 Classical

Harman, Neal.A.

335

BA Joint Honours German and English Language QRJ2  

E-print Network

. Follow us on Twitter: Apply_Swansea_C New for 2015 BA German with Film R2P3 BA Modern Languages R900910 BA Joint Honours German and Ancient History VR12 Classical Civilisation QR82 #12;www German and a module on German culture designed to introduce you to the rich diversity of film, literature

Harman, Neal.A.

336

The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is intended to provide a reliable methodology for those tasked with generating price tags on construction (C0F) and research and development (R&D) activities in the NASA performance world. This document consists of a collection of cost-related engineering detail and project fulfillment information from early agency days to the present. Accurate historical detail is the first place to start when determining improved methodologies for future cost and schedule estimating. This paper contains a beneficial proposed cost estimating method for arriving at more reliable numbers for future submits. When comparing current cost and schedule methods with earlier cost and schedule approaches, it became apparent that NASA's organizational performance paradigm has morphed. Mission fulfillment speed has slowed and cost calculating factors have increased in 21st Century space exploration.

Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent

2009-01-01

337

Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental constraints for life history variation in dinosaurs  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent speculation concerning the nature of life history variation in dinosaurs (Case, 1978; Bakker, 1986; Horner, 1982, 1984a). The purpose of this paper is to review the data on dinosaur life histories and to examine the nature and magnitude of the demographic and physiological factors that must have constrained life history variation in this group. 145 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Dunham, A.E.; Overall, K.L.; Forster, C.A.; Porter, W.P.

1988-01-01

338

See also History Middle East Studies page 116 See also Modern Languages page 140  

E-print Network

, German, Italian, Persian, Russian, Spanish]) and one of Ancient History, English, International Relations64 Arabic See also History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 See also Modern Languages page 140 `With options MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Arabic and one of: Art History (European & North American Art

Brierley, Andrew

339

Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many ancient civilizations such as the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions. Even contemporary societies such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin, Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Skeptics of hydroclimatic determinism have often cautioned against the use of hydroclimatic change as the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions by suggesting that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity. We here develop a simple overlapping generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. It models technological change not as an exogenous random sequence of events but as an endogenous process (as is widely accepted in contemporary literature) that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the endogenous diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, individuals' patience in terms of its present consumption versus future consumption, the production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of these factors. The population growth rate is modeled to decline once consumption per capita crosses a ';survival' threshold. The model demonstrates that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but only to a certain extent in many cases. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water society, leading to an exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require that the rate of success of investment in technological advancement is high. In other more realistic cases of technological success, we find that endogenous technology change has an effect delaying the peak of population before it starts to decline. While the model is a rather simple model of societal growth, it is capable of replicating (not to scale) patterns of technological change (proxies of which in ancient technology include irrigation canals, metal tools, and the use of horses for labor while in contemporary societies its proxies may be the advent of drip irrigation, increasing reservoir storage capacity etc) and population change. It is capable of replicating the pattern of declining consumption per capita in presence of growth in aggregate production. It is also capable of modeling the exponential population rise even under increasing water scarcity. The results of the model suggest, as one of the many other possible explanations, that ancient societies that declined in the face of extreme water scarcity may have done so due to slower rate of success of investment in technological advancement. The model suggests that the population decline occurs after a prolonged decline in consumption per capita, which in turn is due to the joint effect of initially increasing population and increasing water scarcity. This is despite technological advancement and increase in aggregate production. Thus declining consumption per capita despite technological advancement and increase in aggregate production may serve as a useful predictor of upcoming decline in contemporary societies in water scarce basins.

Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

2013-12-01

340

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150?km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. PMID:25433704

Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel Ljc; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

2014-11-29

341

Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS).  

PubMed

The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km(2) along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. PMID:25009309

Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

2014-08-01

342

Dissimilar metals joint evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

1974-01-01

343

Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions  

PubMed Central

Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (?) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed. PMID:24141961

Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

2013-01-01

344

Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Ghanaian women: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008.  

PubMed

This study identifies factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Ghanaian women of reproductive age, using data from 1,378 female respondents of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships between key socio-demographic factors and user status. Discontinued use occurred among 56% of ever users and switching among 55% of current users. The IUD was most abandoned (70%) and its use was associated with almost twice the odds of discontinuation (OR = 1.97; 95% CI (1.04, 3.75)). Having a history of terminated pregnancy significantly predicted both discontinuation (OR = 1.36; 95% CI (1.03, 1.79) and switching (OR = 1.78; 95% CI (1.16, 2.73)) and intention to limit births significantly predicted lower discontinuation (OR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.52, 0.96)). Counseling services emphasizing contraceptive options and reinforcing switching are critically needed to reduce unwanted pregnancies that may result from poor method use and discontinuation especially among post-abortion clients and IUD users. PMID:24796172

Modey, Emefa J; Aryeetey, Richmond; Adanu, Richard

2014-03-01

345

Memory-endowed US cities and their demographic interactions.  

PubMed

A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in a European country (Spain), indicating more coherent evolution in US cities. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (such as the American Civil War) or economic crisis (such as the 1929 Stock Market Crash). PMID:25551139

Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

2015-01-01

346

Ras history  

PubMed Central

Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

2010-01-01

347

Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of university students referred to an eating disorders service.  

PubMed

This study describes the socio-demographic characteristics and eating disorders symptomatology of university students assessed by a specialised NHS eating disorders service in the UK over a 4-year period. Information was gathered on past treatment history, source of referral, details of university and course of study, whether the patient was still open to the service or discharged, and if the patient had dropped out of contact from services. The study also describes the diagnosis of the assessed patients as well as the results of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Revised Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. The study shows that the university students attending an eating disorder service often suffer from severe conditions, which are generally well-established before they start their university studies. The study discusses the implication of those results in service delivery and future service development. PMID:17676683

Arcelus, Jon; Button, Eric

2007-03-01

348

Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.  

PubMed

Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

2014-02-19

349

First Person History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will choose an event in history to research, and use pictures to provide evidence. 1. Using \\"Hyper History Online\\", \\"American Studies Links\\" and \\"History Matters\\", select an event or person in history (for example, the sinking of the Lusitania or Andrew Jackson). History Matters American Studies Links Recommended by Richard P. Horowitz Hyper History Online 2. Research this person or event using the above resources. 3. Search \\"Images of American Political History\\" for pictures that relate to your ...

Mrs. Merkley

2007-11-30

350

Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity (?), effective population size (N(e)), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of ? are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral ?, indicating large decreases in N(e) (? = 4N(e)?), where ? is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM) model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7), with divergence times (t) among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow) fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs) for the onset of the decline in N(e) predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present. PMID:21789171

Nance, Holly A; Klimley, Peter; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Martínez-Ortíz, Jimmy; Marko, Peter B

2011-01-01

351

Demographic Processes Underlying Subtle Patterns of Population Structure in the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity (?), effective population size (Ne), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of ? are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral ?, indicating large decreases in Ne (??=?4Ne?), where ? is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM) model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm?=?0.1–16.7), with divergence times (t) among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow) fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs) for the onset of the decline in Ne predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present. PMID:21789171

Nance, Holly A.; Klimley, Peter; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Martínez-Ortíz, Jimmy; Marko, Peter B.

2011-01-01

352

New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

353

Chronic disease, functional health status, and demographics: a multi-dimensional approach to risk adjustment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study was to develop unbiased risk-assessment models to be used for paying health plans on the basis of enrollee health status and use propensity. We explored the risk structure of adult employed HMO members using self-reported morbidities, functional status, perceived health status, and demographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Data were collected on a random sample of members of a large, federally qualified, prepaid group practice, hospital-based HMO located in the Pacific Northwest. STUDY DESIGN. Multivariate linear nonparametric techniques were used to estimate risk weights on demographic, morbidity, and health status factors at the individual level. The dependent variable was annual real total health plan expense for covered services for the year following the survey. Repeated random split-sample validation techniques minimized outlier influences and avoided inappropriate distributional assumptions required by parametric techniques. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. A mail questionnaire containing an abbreviated medical history and the RAND-36 Health Survey was administered to a 5 percent sample of adult subscribers and their spouses in 1990 and 1991, with an overall 44 percent response rate. Utilization data were extracted from HMO automated information systems. Annual expenses were computed by weighting all utilization elements by standard unit costs for the HMO. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Prevalence of such major chronic diseases as heart disease, diabetes, depression, and asthma improve prediction of future medical expense; functional health status and morbidities are each better than simple demographic factors alone; functional and perceived health status as well as demographic characteristics and diagnoses together yield the best prediction performance and reduce opportunities for selection bias. We also found evidence of important interaction effects between functional/perceived health status scales and disease classes. CONCLUSIONS. Self-reported morbidities and functional health status are useful risk measures for adults. Risk-assessment research should focus on combining clinical information with social survey techniques to capitalize on the strengths of both approaches. Disease-specific functional health status scales should be developed and tested to capture the most information for prediction. PMID:8698586

Hornbrook, M C; Goodman, M J

1996-01-01

354

Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains in life expectancy from the 1950s through the 1990s in a context of preponderant communicable diseases in all African countries; 5) the salient role of adult mortality, mostly ascribed to HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities, since the 1990s in reversing trends in mortality decline, its interruption of life expectancy improvements, and its reversal of gender differences in life expectancies disadvantaging women in several countries with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS; 6) the huge impact of wars in reversing the trends in under-five mortality decline in sub-Saharan countries in the 1990s and beyond. These assessments of these transition frameworks and these phenomena were not well documented to date for all five regions and 57 countries of Africa. Conclusion Prevailing frameworks of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions as descriptive and predictive models are incomplete or irrelevant for charting the population and health experiences and prospects of national populations in the African context. PMID:24848648

Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

2014-01-01

355

Joints in a Cornstarch Analog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Joints are very important to problems in applied geology (fluid flow, slope stability), but three-dimensional exposures of simple joint sets are not readily accessible from my campus. I developed this exercise based on the experiments of Miller (2001) to give students hands-on practice describing and interpreting joints. For the exercise, I prepare a cornstarch-water mixture a few days in advance and pour it into plastic petri dishes. I add a "flaw" to each dish (typically a small pebble). As the cornstarch dries, vertical joints develop. In class, each group of 3-4 students is provided a petri dish of desiccated cornstarch. Students are asked to draw a map of the joints, paying particular attention to intersection angles. (The joints curve to intersect at 90 degrees.) They determine relative ages of the joints using abutting relationships. (Typically 3-6 generations of joints.) Students next dissect the sample and describe the surface textures of the larger joints and the location of the flaw. The cornstarch produces beautiful plumose structure (hackles). Students then interpret the joint propagation direction from the surface textures, and note the origin of the joint. (Typically, a first- or second-generation joint initiates at the flaw.) Students discuss the role of flaws in the initiation of joints in their groups.

Crider, Juliet

356

Celebrate Women's History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

357

History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.

1985-01-01

358

Stud Reinforcement in Beam-Column Joints under Seismic Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current codes recommend large amounts of shear reinforcement for reinforced concrete beam-column joints causing significant congestion. This research aims at investigating experimentally and numerically the efficiency of using studs with a head at each end in lieu of conventional closed hoops in reinforced concrete beam-column joints. The proposed reinforcement reduces congestion and ensures easier assembly of the reinforcing cage, saving labour cost and enhancing performance of the joint. Based on this research, a recommended arrangement and detailing of headed studs and their design for exterior beam-column joint are presented. The experimental investigation consisted of testing ten full-scale beam-column joint specimens under quasi-static cyclic loading. The specimens represented an exterior beam-column joint subassembly isolated at the points of contra-flexure from a typical multi-storey, multi-bay reinforced concrete frame. A test setup was developed to simulate the lateral inter-storey drift. The test parameters included: the type, arrangement and amount of shear reinforcement, the load history and rate of loading, and the amount of reinforcement for out-of-plane confinement of the joint. Envelopes of the hysteretic behaviour of the specimens and the joint deformation under shear stress are presented. The stiffness degradation, the strain levels in the joint reinforcement, the contribution of joint, beam, and column to the inter-storey drift, and the energy dissipation were compared. All the test specimens reinforced with headed studs in the joint achieved considerable enhancement in their behaviour under cyclic loads and exhibited a performance close to that of a joint reinforced with closed hoops and cross ties according to the code. All the specimens with adequate out-of-plane confinement had an equivalent behaviour compared with the code-based specimen and achieved a desirable mode of failure. Use of double-headed studs proved to be a viable option for reinforcing exterior beam-column joints. A three dimensional finite element model was developed. The concrete material model used combines constitutive models for cracking and plasticity. The model was verified against the experimental results. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical hysteretic behaviour. The strengths and weaknesses of the model were identified. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the joint behaviour including: concrete strength, column load and out-of-plane confinement.

Ibrahim, Hatem Hassan Ali

359

Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

2011-01-01

360

Demographic & related differences in ethical views among small businesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of demographic characteristics on ethical perceptions. While earlier research has produced conflicting results regarding the predictive power of these variables, significant and definite insights were obtained with proper controls. The following predictors of ethical attitudes are examined: age, gender, marital status, education, dependent children status, region of the country and years in business, while controlling

Paul J. Serwinek

1992-01-01

361

Genetic and demographic implications of aquaculture in white sturgeon (Acipenser  

E-print Network

Genetic and demographic implications of aquaculture in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus traits controlling early density-dependent survival. Simulated aquaculture selected for a density caractéristiques hypothétiques favorisant la survie précoce reliée à la densité. Une aquaculture simulée

Jager, Henriette I.

362

Demographic, Educational, Employment, and Professional Characteristics of Counseling Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling psychologist members of Division 17 (n = 1,792) were compared with counseling psychologist nonmembers of Division 17 within the American Psychological Association (APA; n = 6,917) with respect to demographic, educational, and professional characteristics reported in the 2003 APA Directory Survey. Employment setting and work activities…

Munley, Patrick H.; Pate, William E., II; Duncan, Lonnie E.

2008-01-01

363

The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT). Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in

Evgenia Bystrov

2012-01-01

364

Vintage Human Capital, Demographic Trends, and Endogenous Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how economic growth is affected by demographics in an OLG model with a realistic survival law. Individuals optimally chose the dates at which they leave school to work and at which they retire. Endogenous growth arises thanks to the accumulation of generation-specific human capital. Favorable shifts in the survival probabilities induce longer schooling and later retirement but have

Raouf Boucekkine; David de la Croix; Omar Licandro

2002-01-01

365

Marriage Market Implications of the Demographic Department of Economics  

E-print Network

Marriage Market Implications of the Demographic Transition V Bhaskar Department of Economics international evidence on the marriage market implications of cohort size growth, and set out a theoretical model of how marriage markets adjust to imbalances. Since men marry younger women, secular growth

Royal Holloway, University of London

366

The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on the minority languages of Europe, those other than the national languages of European Union member states, by looking at the demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational aspects of both regional and immigrant languages. Empirical evidence for the status of these other languages of multicultural Europe is brought together in a…

Extra, Guus, Ed.; Gorter, Durk, Ed.

367

Gun incidents at the local level: understanding the demographic variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain public safety and improve system response, a strong need exists for understanding the demographic variables associated with gun offenders and gun cases. This paper was focused on exploring these variables by creating and analyzing a weapon-related database at a local police department. The findings, although limited due to the explorative nature of the study and the quality of

Allan Y. Jiao

2012-01-01

368

A Demographic Survey of Appalachian Parents of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a demographic survey of families with preschool children in the Appalachian area conducted to provide information concerning the target audience for the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Home-Oriented Preschool Education Program (HOPE). HOPE is an integrated approach to education for preschool and kindergarten children using home, group…

Shively, Joe E.

369

Management and Conservation Article Demographic Sensitivity of Population Change in  

E-print Network

, management, or control. Two types of stochastic population models in widespread use include the parametricManagement and Conservation Article Demographic Sensitivity of Population Change in Northern that is currently undergoing widespread population declines. Despite considerable research on the population ecology

Sandercock, Brett K.

370

Education in the 1990's: A Demographic View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1975, the United States has experienced the largest wave of immigration since the beginning of the century. This demographic fact holds important implications for education in the 1990s. First, because the birthrate among recent immigrants is relatively high, an increasing number of first generation Americans will enter the school system. As…

Garcia, Ernest F.

371

Continuum of Intellectual Disability: Demographic Evidence for the "Forgotten Generation."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic features of Americans with mild intellectual disabilities were estimated in an analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. Comparison on basic indices of adaptive functioning and socioeconomic status suggests a large cohort of Americans who share support needs and social and economic vulnerabilities with the mentally retarded.…

Fujiura, Glenn T.

2003-01-01

372

RESEARCH Open Access Testing for fertility stalls in demographic and  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Testing for fertility stalls in demographic and health surveys Michel L Garenne1,2,3 Abstract This study compares two methods for testing fertility trends and fertility stalls fertility stalls with similar statistical evidence. They can also be used to refute apparent fertility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Post Secondary Education Planning: The Demographic Context. A Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demographic context that will affect postsecondary education in Western Australia is examined, with attention to recent trends in population growth as well as population distribution and projections to the year 2021. The analysis is based on the 1981 Population and Housing Census and population projections of the Australian Bureau of…

Jones, Evan; And Others

374

Are We Ready for the Approaching Demographic Tsunami?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those at the high school and college levels who have been tracking the demographic changes occurring throughout the United States during the past few decades, it came as no surprise when recent U.S. Census statistics revealed that the 2010 kindergarten class is 25% Hispanic, up from 19% in 2000, and 5% Asian, up from 4% in 2000. The class is…

Vargas, Bolgen; Conlon, Jill E.

2011-01-01

375

Evaluation of demographic factors that influence acute radiation response.  

PubMed

Casualty estimation tools are critical in planning for nuclear event scenarios. Current consequence assessment models based on healthy adult males may not adequately represent the population. To develop an understanding of the impact of demographic variables on casualty estimates, human data was surveyed to identify key demographic factors that affect acute radiation response. Information on in utero exposures, gender, age, and comorbidity status was collected from atomic bomb survivors, radiation accidents, and clinical oncology. Burn and trauma studies were also examined to gain insight into the impact of demographic variables on acute injury outcomes. Fetal radiation sensitivity is well documented; increased mortality or malformations are observed depending on gestational age. A greater incidence of radiation syndrome was observed among male atomic bomb survivors. Trauma data show increased mortality in males, apparently due to immunological differences between genders. Limited data suggest vulnerability in the very young and old due to immunological status and comorbidities, respectively. Certain genetically susceptible subpopulations demonstrate marked increased sensitivity to radiation exposure. Interaction of radiation and comorbid conditions has not been well studied; however, burn and trauma data indicate that comorbidities negatively impact response to acute injury. Key factors evaluated together with their prevalence indicate the importance of modeling demographic variability in casualty estimations. Also they can help identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide insight on treatment requirements. PMID:22951482

Stricklin, Daniela; Millage, Kyle

2012-08-01

376

Attention, Demographics, and the Stock Market Stefano DellaVigna  

E-print Network

Attention, Demographics, and the Stock Market Stefano DellaVigna UC Berkeley and NBER sdellavi financial markets, stock prices should reflect all avail- able information. However, evidence on post that are not perfectly competitive. Consequently, the timing of the stock market reaction to these predictable demand

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

377

The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study: Study Design and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We describe the design and methods of the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS), a new national study that will provide data on the antecedents, prevalence, outcomes, and costs of dementia and ‘cognitive impairment, not demented’ (CIND) using a unique study design based on the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We also illustrate potential uses of the

Kenneth M. Langa; Brenda L. Plassman; Robert B. Wallace; A. Regula Herzog; Steven G. Heeringa; Mary Beth Ofstedal; James R. Burke; Gwenith G. Fisher; Nancy H. Fultz; Michael D. Hurd; Guy G. Potter; Willard L. Rodgers; David C. Steffens; David R. Weir; Robert J. Willis

2005-01-01

378

Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

2010-01-01

379

Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: the Nigerian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim

Temitope Ayodeji Esan; Adeyemi Oluniyi Olusile; Patricia Adetokunbo Akeredolu; Ayodeji Omobolanle Esan

2004-01-01

380

A survey of demographics and information demands of dairy producers.  

PubMed Central

Survey responses from 75 randomly selected dairy producers on Prince Edward Island were summarized to obtain a demographic picture of the dairy industry in this province and to determine information management practices and demands for the future. The results indicate a preparedness for dairy production in the future. PMID:11195525

VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P

2001-01-01

381

Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

2008-01-01

382

Demographic costs of Chaoborus -induced phenotypic plasticity in Daphnia pulex  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that morphological defenses against predation have demographic costs. We measured the cost of a predator-induced morphological defense, using predaceous phantom midge larvae Chaoborus americanus (Insecta, Diptera) and the prey species Daphnia pulex (Crustacea, Cladocera). The induced defense is a neck tooth (and other pleiotropic structures) developed in juvenile D. pulex in the presence of C. americanus.

A. Ross Black; Stanley I. Dodson

1990-01-01

383

Online Students: Relationships between Participation, Demographics and Academic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using information technology to support teaching and learning is becoming ubiquitous in tertiary education. However, how students participate and perform when a major component of the learning experience is conducted via an online learning environment is still an open question. The objective of this study was to investigate any relationships between the participation, demographics and academic performance of students in

J. Coldwell; A. Craig; T. Paterson; J. Mustard

384

Demographic Predictors of Media Use Among Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of research during the past four decades has explored the effects of media use on children, but remarkably little work has explored the factors that determine how much time a child spends interacting with various media. This article does so with a focus on very young children, ages 6 months to 6 years, and on demographic predictors

Sowmya Anand; Jon A. Krosnick

2005-01-01

385

Predicting Audience Demographics of Web Sites Using Local Cues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size and dynamism of the Web poses challenges for all its stakeholders, which include producers/consumers of content, and advertisers who want to place advertisements next to relevant content. A critical piece of information for the stakeholders is the demographics of the consumers who are likely to visit a given web site. However, predicting…

Kim, Iljoo

2011-01-01

386

New Insights on Cheetah Conservation through Demographic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have recently argued that ecological factors, especially high levels of cub predation, are more important than genetic impoverishment in limiting wild populations of the endangered cheetah ( Acino- nyx jubatus ). Despite considerable controversy, however, the forces actually driving cheetah population dy- namics remain unclear. We used a combination of demographic techniques to investigate how variation in survival and

Kevin R. Crooks; M. A. Sanjayan; Daniel F. Doak

1998-01-01

387

Demographically associated variations in outcomes after bariatric surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe incidence of morbid obesity and the use of bariatric surgery as a weight loss tool have increased significantly over the past decade. Despite this increase, there has been limited large-scale database evaluation of the effects of demographics on postoperative occurrences.

Patricia L. Turner; Tolulope A. Oyetunji; Gerald Gantt; David C. Chang; Edward E. Cornwell; Terrence M. Fullum

2011-01-01

388

Demographic and Social Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia  

E-print Network

it at the hands of her intimate partner (Watts and Zimmerman 2002). Research into the causes and correlates of such intimate partner violence (IPV) suggests that with the exception of poverty, the social and demographic, the paradox of contradictory causes may be resolved. In this paper, we suggest a straightforward structural

Jones, James Holland

389

Critical Demographic Parameters for Declining Songbirds Breeding in Restored Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land area occupied by tallgrass prairie has declined throughout the midcontinental United States during the past 2 centuries, and migratory birds breeding in these habitats have also experienced precipitous population declines. State and federal agencies have responded by restoring and reconstructing grassland habitats. To understand consequences of restoration for grassland bird populations, we combined demographic data collected over 4 breeding

ROBERT J. FLETCHER; ROLF R. KOFORD; DANA A. SEAMAN

2006-01-01

390

Parental divorce in childhood and demographic outcomes in young adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We investigated the long-term effects of parental divorce in childhood on demographic outcomes in young adulthood, using a British longitudinal national survey of children. Our analyses control for predisruption characteristics of the child and the family, including emotional problems, cognitive achievement, and socioeconomic status. The results show that by age 23, those whose parents divorced were more likely to

Andrew J. Cherlin; Kathleen E. Kiernan; P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale

1995-01-01

391

Hip joint replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... Jones CA. Total joint arthroplasties: current concepts of patient outcomes after surgery. Rheum Dis Clin North Am . 2007;33(1):71-86. Schmalzried TP. Metal-metal bearing surfaces in hip arthroplasty. Orthopedics . 2009;32. Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis ...

392

Dolphin Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;)

2007-07-14

393

Clad metal joint closure  

SciTech Connect

A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

Siebert, O.W.

1985-04-09

394

Impact of temperature cycle profile on fatigue life of solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the influence of the temperature cycle time history profile on the fatigue life of ball grid array (BGA) solder joints is studied. Temperature time history in a Pentium processor laptop computer was measured for a three-month period by means of thermocouples placed inside the computer. In addition, Pentium BGA packages were subjected to industry standard temperature cycles

Terry Dishongh; Cemal Basaran; Alexander N. Cartwright; Ying Zhao; Heng Liu

2002-01-01

395

History Channel: This Day in History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking to find out about a variety of important historical events on a particular day, this site provided by the History Channel will be both entertaining and informative. This Day in History collects information about historical events organized around a number of topical sections, such as Cold War History, Literary History, Old West History, Technology History, Wall Street History, and Civil War History. Along with brief essays describing the events of a particular day, some of the more recent events also have short video clips that users can watch. On one recent day (January 28th), events covered included the tragic explosion of the Challenger space shuttle in 1986 and the United States' failure to capture Pancho Villa, the Mexican revolutionary. Visitors can also type in their birthdays to find out about events that occurred on that day, as well as for a list of well-known persons who share their birthday.

396

Bone Health History in Breast Cancer Patients on Aromatase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was performed to assess bone health history among aromatase inhibitor (AI) users before breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, which may impact fracture risk after AI therapy and choice of initial hormonal therapy. A total of 2,157 invasive BC patients initially treated with an AI were identified from a prospective cohort study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Data on demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from in-person interviews, and bone health history and clinical data from KPNC clinical databases. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal AI users was assessed, compared with 325 postmenopausal TAM users. The associations of bone health history with demographic and lifestyle factors in AI users were also examined. Among all initial AI users, 11.2% had a prior history of osteoporosis, 16.3% had a prior history of any fracture, and 4.6% had a prior history of major fracture. Postmenopausal women who were taking TAM as their initial hormonal therapy had significantly higher prevalence of prior osteoporosis than postmenopausal AI users (21.5% vs. 11.8%, p<0.0001). Among initial AI users, the associations of history of osteoporosis and fracture in BC patients with demographic and lifestyle factors were, in general, consistent with those known in healthy older women. This study is one of the first to characterize AI users and risk factors for bone morbidity before BC diagnosis. In the future, this study will examine lifestyle, molecular, and genetic risk factors for AI-induced fractures. PMID:25354083

Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lo, Joan C.; Tang, Li; Laurent, Cecile A.; Roh, Janise M.; Chandra, Malini; Hahn, Theresa E.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Hershman, Dawn L.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Yao, Song

2014-01-01

397

Joint Institute Marine and Atmospheric  

E-print Network

Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION Contribution 00-328 #12;ii This research is funded by Cooperative Agreement Number NA67RJ0154 between the Joint

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

398

Restless Legs Syndrome in an Appalachian Primary Care Population: Prevalence, Demographic and Lifestyle Correlates, and Burden  

PubMed Central

Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and distressing sensorimotor disorder of unknown etiology. While the epidemiology of RLS has been examined in several North American and European studies, research on RLS and RLS burden in poor, rural populations, including those residing in Appalachia, remains sparse. In this study, we investigated RLS prevalence in an Appalachian primary care population and examined the association of RLS to demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, sleep quality, and mood disorders. Methods: Participants of this anonymous survey study were community-dwelling adults aged ? 18 years visiting one of 4 West Virginia primary care clinics. Data gathered included detailed information on sleep patterns, demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and health/medical history; the survey also included questions specific to RLS diagnosis and severity. Response rates were excellent, with 68% of eligible adults contacted returning completed surveys (N = 1,424/2,087). Pregnant women (N = 65) and those with missing data on key variables (N = 142) were excluded from the analyses. Results: Of the 1,217 participants included in the final analytic sample, 19.6% (18.2% with symptoms at least once/month) met the 4 IRLSSG diagnostic criteria in the absence of positional discomfort or leg cramps; 14.5% reported RLS symptoms at least once/week and 10.1% indicated symptoms ? 3×/week. Excluding respondents with diabetes, kidney disease, or anemia reduced these rates only slightly. Those with RLS were more likely to be older, female, lower income, unemployed, disabled, non-Hispanic white, and less likely to be college educated than those without RLS. Mood and sleep impairment were significantly elevated in those with RLS; after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle characteristics, health history, and other factors, those with RLS remained significantly more likely to indicate a history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.6) and anxiety (OR = 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.2), to report sleep impairment both 4 (OR = 2.4, CI 1.6, 3.7) and 7 days/week (OR = 1.8, CI 1.3, 2.4), and a mean sleep duration < 5 h/night (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2, 2.3). These associations increased in both strength and magnitude with increasing symptom frequency (p's for trend ? 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this preliminary anonymous survey study suggest that RLS prevalence is high in this Appalachian primary care population and that RLS is associated with significant burden in terms of both mood and sleep impairment. Citation: Innes KE; Flack KL; Selfe TK; Kandati S; Agarwal P. Restless legs syndrome in an Appalachian primary care population: prevalence, demographic and lifestyle correlates, and burden. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(10):1065-1075. PMID:24127151

Innes, Kim E.; Flack, Kathryn L.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Kandati, Sahiti; Agarwal, Parul

2013-01-01

399

History of Silk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nicely illustrated history of silk and explanation of silk production. A fine discussion of the moths, life history, and feeding are included, as well as the extensive cultural history of this outstanding insect product.

0000-00-00

400

Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities with and without substance abuse disorders in a Medicaid population.  

PubMed

Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N=9,484) were explored and compared with people with intellectual disability but without substance abuse. Age- and/or gender-adjusted odds ratios were derived from logistic regression analyses to consider differences in demographic and clinical diagnoses. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse constituted 2.6% of all people with intellectual disability, most of whom had a diagnosis of mild or moderate intellectual disability. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse problems were, on average, 2 years older than the comparison group and less likely to be White. The sample was more likely than the comparison group to have serious mental illness or depression and substance abuse-related disorders were not prevalent. These data provide a comparison point for existing studies of mental health diagnoses as well as new information about substance abuse disorders. Implications relate to the identification of substance abuse among people with intellectual disabilities as well as the establishment of demographic and clinical correlates. PMID:21166548

Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

2010-12-01

401

Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA  

E-print Network

Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY longitudinal covariates are involved in the modeling of the survival data. A joint likelihood approach has been data. However, in the presence of left truncation, there are additional challenges for the joint

Wang, Lily

402

JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum  

E-print Network

July 2012 JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum of Concrete Pavements #12; #12;Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Report Date Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements July 2012 6. Performing

403

Double slotted socket spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints is disclosed. These spherical joints are capable of extremely large angular displacements (full cone angles in excess of 270.degree.), while exhibiting no singularities or dead spots in their range of motion. These joints can improve or simplify a wide range of mechanical devices.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-05-22

404

Demographic Window, H. G. Muller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing Life  

E-print Network

information content of marked or captured individuals'. Keywords: capture, demographic identity, density of life tables since in the analysis of field populations one often encounters and marks individuals Life Tables and Estimating Survival Functions from Marked Individuals of Unknown Age Hans-Georg M

Müller, Hans-Georg

405

Demographic Norms for Metropolitan, Nonmetropolitan and Rural Counties. Mental Health Demographic Profile System Working Paper No. 24, July 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing 1970 census statistics for metropolitan, nonmetropolitan, rural, and "all" counties, this paper presents the selected percentile values for the 130 statistics (social indicators) in the Mental Health Demographic Profile System (the MHDPS is a system which allows the delineation of residential areas with common social rank, life style,…

Goldsmith, Harold F.; And Others

406

What history courses are there? History and Film Studies  

E-print Network

Essentials What history courses are there? History History and Film Studies History and Philosophy History and Politics History and Sociology American Studies and History (p33) Anthropology and History (p35) English and History (p69) What A levels/IB scores do I need? (For other qualifications

Sussex, University of

407

Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students  

E-print Network

Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students 26 June 2014 MATTEA CAPELLI & ALESSANDRA GALLERANO INTERNATIONAL OFFICE #12;Joint Degrees and Promotion towards European students Joint degrees guidelines and template for agreements Support to student participation Promotion of Joint Degrees towards

Di Pillo, Gianni

408

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2012-10-01

409

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2013-10-01

410

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2011-10-01

411

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2010-10-01

412

Differences in demographic traits of four butterflyfish species between two reefs of the Great Barrier Reef separated by 1,200 km  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many species demonstrate variation in life history attributes in response to gradients in environmental conditions. For fishes, major drivers of life history variation are changes in temperature and food availability. This study examined large-scale variation in the demography of four species of butterflyfishes ( Chaetodon citrinellus, Chaetodon lunulatus, Chaetodon melannotus, and Chaetodon trifascialis) between two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island and One Tree Island, separated by approximately 1,200 km). Variation in age-based demographic parameters was assessed using the re-parameterised von Bertalanffy growth function. All species displayed measurable differences in body size between locations, with individuals achieving a larger adult size at the higher latitude site (One Tree Island) for three of the four species examined. Resources and abundances of the study species were also measured, revealing some significant differences between locations. For example, for C. trifascialis, there was no difference in its preferred resource or in abundance between locations, yet it achieved a larger body size at the higher latitude location, suggesting a response to temperature. For some species, resources and abundances did vary between locations, limiting the ability to distinguish between a demographic response to temperature as opposed to a response to food or competition. Future studies of life histories and demographics at large spatial scales will need to consider the potentially confounding roles of temperature, resource usage and availability, and abundance/competition to disentangle the effects of these environmental variables.

Berumen, M. L.; Trip, E. D. L.; Pratchett, M. S.; Choat, J. H.

2012-03-01

413

Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint  

PubMed Central

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare disease. It is a benign neoplastic process typically affecting young to middle-aged adults and most commonly involving the knee, hip, and shoulder joints. The symptoms include diffuse pain and swelling with discomfort. We report a rare case of localized PVNS originating at the proximal tibiofibular joint in a 39-year-old female patient with radiologic changes for short duration of time. The clinical history, plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and pathologic findings of the reported patient were reviewed. Complete surgical excision was performed and there was no evidence of recurrence after one-year follow-up. PMID:25505708

Kwon, Jae Ho; Han, Jae Hwi; Almeida, Vivian RD'; Kim, Seong Hyun; Park, Hai Jin

2014-01-01

414

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew

415

Finger Joint Injuries.  

PubMed

Finger joint dislocations and collateral ligament tears are common athletic hand injuries. Treatment of the athlete requires a focus on safe return to play and maximizing function. Certain dislocations, such as proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal volar dislocations, may be associated with tendon injuries and must be treated accordingly. Treatment of other dislocations is ultimately determined by postreduction stability, with many dislocations amenable to nonoperative treatment (ie, immobilization followed by rehabilitation). Protective splinting does not necessarily preclude athletic participation. Minor bone involvement typically does not affect the treatment plan, but significant articular surface involvement may necessitate surgical repair or stabilization. Percutaneous and internal fixation are the mainstays of surgical treatment. Treatment options that do not minimize recovery or allow the patient to return to protected play, such as external fixation, are generally avoided during the season of play. Undertreated joint injuries and unrecognized ligament injuries can result in long term disability. PMID:25455398

Prucz, Roni B; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

2015-01-01

416

Spontaneous elimination of hepatitis C virus infection: A retrospective study on demographic, clinical, and serological correlates  

PubMed Central

AIM: To find correlates to spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, this study compared individuals with self-limited and chronic infection with regard to clinical, demographic, and serological parameters. METHODS: Sixty-seven anti-HCV positive and repeatedly HCV RNA negative individuals were considered to have resolved HCV infection spontaneously. To determine the viral genotype these patients had been infected with HCV serotyping was performed. For comparison reasons, 62 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled. Cases and controls were compared stratified for age and sex. RESULTS: Retrospective analysis showed (1) a lower humoral reactivity to HCV in patients with self-limited compared to chronic HCV-infection and (2) that younger age, history of iv drug use, and acute/post-acute hepatitis A or B co-infections, but not viral genotypes, are independent correlates for spontaneous HCV clearance. CONCLUSION: The stronger humoral reactivity to HCV in patients with persistent infections and in those with a history of iv drug use is supposed to be due to continuous or repeated contact(s) to the antigen. Metachronous hepatitis A or hepatitis B infections might favor HCV clearance. PMID:17696252

Wietzke-Braun, Perdita; Mänhardt, Larissa Bettina; Rosenberger, Albert; Uy, Angela; Ramadori, Giuliano; Mihm, Sabine

2007-01-01

417

Benign joint hypermobility syndrome in soldiers; what is the effect of military training courses on associated joint instabilities?  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypermobile joints are joints with beyond normal range of motion and may be associated with joint derangements. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) among soldiers and effect of training courses on related joint instabilities. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cohort study on 721 soldiers of Iran Army in Isfahan in 2013 the prevalence of joint hypermobility was obtained by using Beighton criteria. Soldiers divided in two groups of healthy and suffered based on their scores. The prevalence of ankle sprain, shoulder and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocations identified before beginning service by history-taking and reviewing paraclinical documents. After 3 months of military training, a recent occurrence of mentioned diseases was revaluated in two groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software using Independent-T and Chi-square tests. Results: The frequency of BJHS before military training was 29.4%. After passing military training period, the incidence of ankle sprain was significantly higher in suffered group achieving the minimum Beighton score (BS) of 4 (4.3%, P = 0.03), 5 (5.5%, P = 0.005) and also 6 out of 9 (6.5%, P = 0.01). The incidence of TMJ dislocation was not significantly different based on a minimum score of 4, while it was higher in suffered group when considering the score of 5 (2.1%) and 6 (2.6%) for discrimination of two groups (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference between two groups in case of shoulder dislocation anyway. Conclusion: Military training can increase the incidence of ankle sprains and TMJ dislocations in hypermobility persons with higher BS in comparison with healthy people. Therefore, screening of joint hypermobility may be useful in identifying individuals at increased risk for joint instabilities. PMID:25364364

Azma, Kamran; Mottaghi, Peyman; Hosseini, Alireza; Abadi, Hossein Hassan; Nouraei, Mohammad Hadi

2014-01-01

418

Prosthetic elbow joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial, manually positionable elbow joint for use in an upper extremity, above-elbow, prosthetic is described. The prosthesis provides a locking feature that is easily controlled by the wearer. The instant elbow joint is very strong and durable enough to withstand the repeated heavy loadings encountered by a wearer who works in an industrial, construction, farming, or similar environment. The elbow joint of the present invention comprises a turntable, a frame, a forearm, and a locking assembly. The frame generally includes a housing for the locking assembly and two protruding ears. The forearm includes an elongated beam having a cup-shaped cylindrical member at one end and a locking wheel having a plurality of holes along a circular arc on its other end with a central bore for pivotal attachment to the protruding ears of the frame. The locking assembly includes a collar having a central opening with a plurality of internal grooves, a plurality of internal cam members each having a chamfered surface at one end and a V-shaped slot at its other end; an elongated locking pin having a crown wheel with cam surfaces and locking lugs secured thereto; two coiled compression springs; and a flexible filament attached to one end of the elongated locking pin and extending from the locking assembly for extending and retracting the locking pin into the holes in the locking wheel to permit selective adjustment of the forearm relative to the frame. In use, the turntable is affixed to the upper arm part of the prosthetic in the conventional manner, and the cup-shaped cylindrical member on one end of the forearm is affixed to the forearm piece of the prosthetic in the conventional manner. The elbow joint is easily adjusted and locked between maximum flex and extended positions.

Weddendorf, Bruce C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

419

[Effect of demographic, anamnestic and clinical factors on hospital mortality in patients with myocardial infarct].  

PubMed

The objective of the work was to analyze local priority data on the possible effect of demographic, anamnestic and clinical factors in a non-selected population of 3123 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AIM) on the hospital mortality (HM). 12.6% patients with AIM died in hospital. The mean age of those who died was 71.92 years. There were more than 4 times more patients above 64 years than 64-year-old ones or younger ones who died. The mortality rate of 64-year-old patients and younger ones (5.2% is significantly lower than in patients above 64 years (19%). The mortality rate of patients above 74 years was 27.1%. Important correlations of the HM were moreover found--in women, patients living permanently in rural areas, in widowed subjects, in patients with elementary education, old age, pensioners and non-smokers. The HM was lower (< 10%) in patients with a history of complex ventricular arrhythmias, impaired lipid metabolism and those who had no other serious disease in the case-history. A higher HM (> 15%) was recorded in patients with a history of a cerebrovascular attack, with data on heart failure and in diabetic patients. The majority of patients (39.4% of all who died) died within 24 hours after admission. During the first three days 57% patients died. Analysis of the characteristic of AIM and HM revealed some clinically important data on the HM less than 30% (patients with complicated AIM, with elevated ST segments, with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40% and with and concurrent heart failure). An adverse course of the disease with a high HM (> 30%) was found in patients with complications of AIM. It was highest, more than 60%, in patients after implemented cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in patients with a combination of three markers of imminent shock and patients in shock. The local priority findings on the HM assembled in Slovakia in a non-selected population of patients with AIM confirm that the high HM still persists in patients of advanced age and in women. It is adversely influenced also by some demographic data, educational level, some anamnestic and clinical factors. The HM of patients with AIM may be adversely influenced also by side-effects of protracted economic transformation which is under way. Data assembled in Slovakia are comparable with similar results assembled in other countries. PMID:12577459

Cagán, S; Wimmerová, S; Besedová, I; Trnovec, T

2002-11-01

420

Laboratory characterization of rock joints  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

1994-05-01

421

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Co-Founder Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

422

African-American Women and Abortion: A Neglected History  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The history of African-American women's efforts to control their fertility is largely unknown. From slavery to the present, the growth rate of the African-American population has been cut in half. Demographers and historians frequently attribute this change to external factors such as poverty, disease, and coerced birth control, rather than the deliberate agency of African-American women. This essay assembles a

Loretta J. Ross

1992-01-01

423

Joint measurements and Bell inequalities  

E-print Network

Joint quantum measurements of non-commuting observables are possible, if one accepts an increase in the measured variances. A necessary condition for a joint measurement to be possible is that a joint probability distribution exists for the measurement. This fact suggests that there may be a link with Bell inequalities, as these will be satisfied if and only if a joint probability distribution for all involved observables exists. We investigate the connections between Bell inequalities and conditions for joint quantum measurements to be possible. Mermin's inequality for the three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state turns out to be equivalent to the condition for a joint measurement on two out of the three quantum systems to exist. Gisin's Bell inequality for three co-planar measurement directions, meanwhile, is shown to be less strict than the condition for the corresponding joint measurement.

Wonmin Son; Erika Andersson; Stephem M. Barnett; M. S. Kim

2005-09-20

424

Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status  

PubMed Central

Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted mTICS total score, and depression and premorbid intellect further enhanced this prediction. These results were comparable when only examining the 153 cognitively intact subjects. By using these corrections, clinicians and researchers can more accurately predict an individual’s cognitive status with this telephone screening measure. PMID:23767464

Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

2013-01-01

425

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

PubMed

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

426

Demographic transition and population aging with Caribbean nation states.  

PubMed

This paper considers the role which the demographic parameters of fertility, mortality and migration will play on the pace and concentration of aging within the context of a developing region. This paper examines the demographic transition and analyzes historic and projected data for the development patterns of the anglophone nation states of the Caribbean. Trends in fertility, mortality, and migration are contrasted among the larger (Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad/Tobago), mid-sized (Bahamas, Barbados, Belize) and smaller (Antigua/Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts/Nevis, St Lucia, and St Vincent/Grenadines) states. The paper then goes on to consider shifts in the structure of population at older ages due to the decline in fertility and mortality and points to some of the policy considerations that these relatively small and newly independent states will need to deal with during the next several decades. PMID:14617904

Serow, W J; Cowart, M E

1998-01-01

427

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees  

PubMed Central

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

2014-01-01

428

The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.  

PubMed

Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation. PMID:16230615

Forest, Benjamin

2005-10-25

429

The impact of extrinsic demographic factors on Cantonese speech acquisition.  

PubMed

This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education, presence of siblings and having a domestic helper as the main caregiver was collected via parent questionnaires. After controlling for age and sex, higher maternal education and higher household income were significantly associated with better speech skills; however, these variables explained a negligible amount of variance. Paternal education, number of siblings and having a foreign domestic helper did not associate with a child's speech acquisition. Extrinsic factors only exerted minimal influence on children's speech acquisition. A large amount of unexplained variance in speech ability still warrants further research. PMID:23635334

To, Carol K S; Cheung, Pamela S P; McLeod, Sharynne

2013-05-01

430

Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized) and powered (scooter, standard, and customized) mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user. PMID:21748007

Karmarkar, Amol M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Collins, Diane M.; Matthews, Judith T.; Koontz, Alicia; Teodorski, Emily E.; Cooper, Rory A.

2011-01-01

431

Progressive Damage Modeling of Durable Bonded Joint Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures for launch vehicles is being pursued for the U.S. Space Launch System. The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology applicable to a wide range of sandwich structures for a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented Durable Redundant Joint. Both designs involve a honeycomb sandwich with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined with adhesively bonded doublers. Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage. For structures that include multiple materials, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be considered increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The joints were modeled using Abaqus parametric finite element models, in which damage was modeled with user-written subroutines. Each ply was meshed discretely, and layers of cohesive elements were used to account for delaminations and to model the adhesive layers. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and predicted failure mechanisms.

Leone, Frank A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Lin, Shih-Yung; Smeltzer, Stan; Girolamo, Donato; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; McCarville, Duglas A.

2013-01-01

432

Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among mexican american women.  

PubMed

Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the United States were more likely to report IPV than foreign-born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24958135

Jackson, Corrie L; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Coonrod, Dean V

2015-02-01

433

Exome resequencing reveals signatures of demographic and adaptive processes across the genome and range of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).  

PubMed

Extant variation in temperate and boreal plant species has been influenced by both demographic histories associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles and adaptation to local climate. We used sequence capture to investigate the role of these neutral and adaptive processes in shaping diversity in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Nucleotide diversity and Tajima's D were lowest at replacement sites and highest at intergenic sites, while LD showed the opposite pattern. With samples grouped into three populations arrayed latitudinally, effective population size was highest in the north, followed by south and centre, and LD was highest in the south followed by the north and centre, suggesting a possible northern glacial refuge. FST outlier analysis revealed that promoter, 5'-UTR and intronic sites were enriched for outliers compared with coding regions, while no outliers were found among intergenic sites. Codon usage bias was evident, and genes with synonymous outliers had 30% higher average expression compared with genes containing replacement outliers. These results suggest divergent selection related to regulation of gene expression is important to local adaptation in P. trichocarpa. Finally, within-population selective sweeps were much more pronounced in the central population than in putative northern and southern refugia, which may reflect the different demographic histories of the populations and concomitant effects on signatures of genetic hitchhiking from standing variation. PMID:24750333

Zhou, L; Bawa, R; Holliday, J A

2014-05-01

434

[Population and crisis. Economic inflexibility or demographic subordination].  

PubMed

Much speculation, fact-based and subjective, has centered on the links between population and economic crisis, and between population and progress. In the past, famines directly affected the size and dynamics of population in affected regions, and such cycles inspired theories that regarded subsistence as the adjustment mechanism for demographic regimes. Population has alternatively been viewed as a crucial factor of production and a force for modernization and progress. After World War I and the Great Depression, many economists believed that population growth would be indispensable for renewing economic expansion. The favorable view of population growth in Mexico led to measures to repatriate emigrants, attract immigrants, and improve health conditions. The gross national product grew by around 6.0% annually on average between 1940 and 1960, and the per capita GNP by about 3%. Demographic dynamics acquired momentum by the 1960s, with high growth rates, a young age structure, considerable demographic inertia, and relative predominance of the urban population. Indications began to appear that a primarily economic solution to achieving full development would be unlikely. The polarization of development, distributive insufficiency, distortions in exchange relations for agricultural products, and incorporation of inappropriate technologies were factors decreasing the ability of the economy to respond adequately to population demands. National development was insufficient to meet growing demographic pressures in the labor market, educational system, housing, and urban services. The adjustment programs reduced even further the flexibility of the government to respond to pressures. Expectations for the future have been seriously compromised by the fall of real incomes. PMID:12158103

Morelos, J B

1989-01-01

435

Passages to Adulthood: Linking Demographic Change and Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how demographic change has altered the terrain of early adult life. It considers some new and possible\\u000a hallmarks of this period of life; some of the psychological capacities and social skills that may serve young people well\\u000a in a variety of contexts; and the role of families and welfare states as sources of developmental exploration or drift,

Richard A. Settersten

2007-01-01

436

ESP 171 Urban and Regional Planning Demographic Report  

E-print Network

, it will not be obvious as to what data are relevant, but see if you can find something that at least indirectly relates-page demographic report for a city of your choice. Let's say that you are an intern at the city a different city if you want, but it should be a city you know something about. Task 2. Think about the issues

Handy, Susan L.

437

Demographic differences between degree and diploma student nurses.  

PubMed

This paper explores the assumptions and the motivation of students undertaking degree and diploma courses. The socio-demographic characteristics are explored in order to illuminate the discussion. The areas covered focus on the students' gender, age, education, reasons for choosing nursing, and expectations of the course. The students undertaking degree courses were further sub-divided into those attending universities running four-year degree courses and 'new universities; (formerly polytechnics) offering three-year degree courses. PMID:7703148

Winson, S K

438

[Basic issues and trends in the demographic development of Bulgaria].  

PubMed

Demographic trends in Bulgaria are outlined, with a focus on the period since World War II. Topics considered include changes in birth, death, and natural increase rates; life expectancy at birth; the aging of the population; urbanization and migration to the cities; development of agricultural and nonagricultural means of production; and industrialization. The pro-natalist policy of the Bulgarian government is also briefly reviewed. (summary in ENG, RUS) PMID:12339559

Totev, A

1983-01-01

439

Teaching History Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 articles included in this collection touch on several aspects of the teaching of history. The articles are: (1) "Observations on University Teaching and Research" (N. Graebner); (2) "Teaching History: A Changing Clientele and an Affirmation of Goals" (E. Burns); (3) "History for Citizens" (W. McNeill); (4) "Reflections on the History of…

Bausum, Henry S., Ed.

440

Let History Reign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spanish River High School is one of 40 U.S. History Schools and 21 affiliates around the country that get resources and academic support from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. The schools require participating students to take a U.S. history course each year, in addition to any requisites in world history and other subjects. The…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2008-01-01

441

Demographic stochasticity and evolution of dispersion I. Spatially homogeneous environments.  

PubMed

The selection of dispersion is a classical problem in ecology and evolutionary biology. Deterministic dynamical models of two competing species differing only in their passive dispersal rates suggest that the lower mobility species has a competitive advantage in inhomogeneous environments, and that dispersion is a neutral characteristic in homogeneous environments. Here we consider models including local population fluctuations due to both individual movements and random birth and death events to investigate the effect of demographic stochasticity on the competition between species with different dispersal rates. In this paper, the first of two, we focus on homogeneous environments where deterministic models predict degenerate dynamics in the sense that there are many (marginally) stable equilibria with the species' coexistence ratio depending only on initial data. When demographic stochasticity is included the situation changes. A novel large carrying capacity ([Formula: see text]) asymptotic analysis, confirmed by direct numerical simulations, shows that a preference for faster dispersers emerges on a precisely defined [Formula: see text] time scale. We conclude that while there is no evolutionarily stable rate for competitors to choose in these models, the selection mechanism quantified here is the essential counterbalance in spatially inhomogeneous models including demographic fluctuations which do display an evolutionarily stable dispersal rate. PMID:24682331

Lin, Yen Ting; Kim, Hyejin; Doering, Charles R

2015-02-01

442

Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Demographic Determinants of Hypertension Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective : Research evidence supports the relationship of psychological and demographic factors with hypertension and these variables are strongest predictors of hypertension which are scarcely studied in Pakistan. The present study was carried out to explore the correlation of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic factors with hypertension. Method: We used correlation research design and a sample of (N = 237), hypertensive patients (N = 137) and their age matched healthy controls (N = 100) was taken from hospitals. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) was used to assess depression, anxiety and stress. Results: Results indicated significant positive correlation between depression (?2MH = 104.18, p < .001), anxiety (?2MH = 78.48, p < .001), stress (?2MH = 110.95, p < .001) and overall negative states (?2MH = 97.43, p < .001) with hypertension. Depression (OR = 1.44, p < .01), anxiety (OR = 1. 76, p < .01) stress (OR = 1.37, p < .01), job and dependents, working hours and weight turned out as predictors of hypertension. Conclusion: Hypertension has significant positive relationship with depression, anxiety, stress and with demographic variables. The findings of the present study will contribute in the existing knowledge of health professionals to enhance public awareness regarding the harmful outcomes of depression, anxiety and stress upon human health.

Mushtaq, Mamoona; Najam, Najma

2014-01-01

443

Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System  

PubMed Central

The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

2013-01-01

444

Primates and the Evolution of Long-Slow Life Histories  

PubMed Central

Summary Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explain their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. PMID:21959161

Jones, James Holland

2011-01-01

445

China’s New Demographic Reality: Learning from the 2010 Census1  

PubMed Central

The paper provides an examination of China’s 2010 census data to evaluate its quality and to assess China’s demographic situation. The demographic trends revealed by the new census data suggest that China has entered a new demographic era characterized by prolonged low fertility, elevated sex ratios, rapid aging, fast urbanization and major geographic redistribution. How China responses to these demographic challenges will have profound implications for its social and economic future.

Cai, Yong

2015-01-01

446

Approaches for the direct estimation of ??, and demographic contributions to ??, using capture-recapture data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, ??i, using capture-recapture data from open populations. We review estimation and modelling of ??i under three main approaches to modelling open-population data: The classic approach of Jolly (1965) and Seber (1965), the superpopulation approach of Crosbie and Manly (1985) and Schwarz and Arnason (1996), and the temporal symmetry approach of Pradel (1996). Next, we consider the contributions of different demographic components to ??i using a probabilistic approach based on the composition of the population at time i + 1 (Nichols et al., 2000b). The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, ??i, of Pradel (1996). We review estimation of ??i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches. We then compare these direct estimation approaches for ??i and ??i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types.

Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

2002-01-01

447

Evaluation and management of adult shoulder pain: a focus on rotator cuff disorders, acromioclavicular joint arthritis, and glenohumeral arthritis.  

PubMed

Shoulder pain is a common reason for a patient to see their primary care physician. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of 3 common shoulder disorders; rotator cuff disorders, acromioclavicular joint arthritis, and glenohumeral joint arthritis. The typical history and physical examination findings for each of these entities are highlighted, in addition to treatment options. PMID:24994050

Armstrong, April

2014-07-01

448

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Omani Children - Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods A retrospective analysis of all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the Pediatric Endocrine Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2006 to May 2013. Results One hundred and forty-four patients were included in the study. The mean±SD of age at diagnosis was 6.7 ± 3.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 10 days (IQR; 5-14). The most commonly reported presenting symptoms were polyuria (94%), polydipsia (82%), and weight loss (59%). Diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation was diagnosed in 31% of the patients. Different insulin regimens were prescribed: multiple daily injections in 109 (76%) patients, twice daily insulin regimen in 23 (16%) patients, and insulin pump therapy in 12 (8%) patients. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus was present in 31 (22%) patients. There were no significant differences in presenting complaints (polyuria, p=0.182; polydipsia, p=0.848), duration of symptoms (p=0.331), reported weight loss (p=0.753), or diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (p=0.608) between patients with and without family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the studied patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was found to be less common in Oman compared to other diabetes centers in the Middle East. PMID:24715939

Al-Yaarubi, Saif; Ullah, Irfan; Sharef, Sharef Waadallah; Al Shidhani, Azza; Al Hanai, Shaima; Al Kalbani, Rabaa; Al Jamoodi, Shamsa

2014-01-01