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1

Joint Inference of Population Assignment and Demographic History  

PubMed Central

A new approach to assigning individuals to populations using genetic data is described. Most existing methods work by maximizing Hardy–Weinberg and linkage equilibrium within populations, neither of which will apply for many demographic histories. By including a demographic model, within a likelihood framework based on coalescent theory, we can jointly study demographic history and population assignment. Genealogies and population assignments are sampled from a posterior distribution using a general isolation-with-migration model for multiple populations. A measure of partition distance between assignments facilitates not only the summary of a posterior sample of assignments, but also the estimation of the posterior density for the demographic history. It is shown that joint estimates of assignment and demographic history are possible, including estimation of population phylogeny for samples from three populations. The new method is compared to results of a widely used assignment method, using simulated and published empirical data sets.

Choi, Sang Chul; Hey, Jody

2011-01-01

2

Medical and Demographic History: Inseparable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The case is made for forms of medical history that focus explicitly on sickness, health and life chances; ones that explore the effects of health interventions by examining their impact on mor- tality risks. Using a series of examples drawn from environmental health, midwifery and obstetric care, the paper illustrates various ways in which long-term trends in health and

Robert Woods

2007-01-01

3

Demographic event history analysis: a selective review.  

PubMed

This is a selective review of the literature concerning demographic event history analysis. "We have attempted to emphasize work that we consider to be particularly important or innovative, to note some of the difficulties that may arise with the use of event history analysis, and to point to several substantive areas where research is still poorly developed." PMID:12340570

Hobcraft, J; Murphy, M

1986-01-01

4

[The application of event history analysis to historical demographic studies].  

PubMed

The authors describe some statistical methods used in event history analysis, and some possible applications to historical demographic data. An example is given using data on neonatal mortality in Venice from 1850 to 1868. Several relevant statistical packages are briefly described. PMID:12348621

Lagazio, C; Pagani, L

1996-01-01

5

[The demographic development of Russia: history and theory].  

PubMed

The author describes demographic trends in Russia in recent years, discussing the relevance of the demographic transition theory to the Russian experience. The relationship between social, economic, and political events and demographic changes is examined. The author also considers whether Russia's recent demographic experiences will give rise to new demographic theories. PMID:12348345

Klupt, M

1997-01-01

6

Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity.  

PubMed Central

The demographic history of India was examined by comparing mtDNA sequences obtained from members of three culturally divergent Indian subpopulations (endogamous caste groups). While an inferred tree revealed some clustering according to caste affiliation, there was no clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines. Comparison of pairwise nucleotide difference distributions, however, did indicate a difference in growth patterns between two of the castes. The Brahmin population appears to have undergone either a rapid expansion or steady growth. The low-ranking Mukri caste, however, may have either maintained a roughly constant population size or undergone multiple bottlenecks during that period. Comparison of the Indian sequences to those obtained from other populations, using a tree, revealed that the Indian sequences, along with all other non-African samples, form a starlike cluster. This cluster may represent a major expansion, possibly originating in southern Asia, taking place at some point after modern humans initially left Africa.

Mountain, J L; Hebert, J M; Bhattacharyya, S; Underhill, P A; Ottolenghi, C; Gadgil, M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

1995-01-01

7

Phylogeography and demographic history of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis).  

PubMed

The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a medium-sized semiaquatic carnivore with a broad distribution in the Neotropical region. Despite being apparently common in many areas, it is one of the least known otters, and genetic studies on this species are scarce. Here, we have investigated its genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history across a large portion of its geographic range by analyzing 1471 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA from 52 individuals. Our results indicate that L. longicaudis presents high levels of genetic diversity and a consistent phylogeographic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least 4 distinct evolutionary lineages in South America. The observed phylogeographic partitions are partially congruent with the subspecies classification previously proposed for this species. Coalescence-based analyses indicate that Neotropical otter mitochondrial DNA lineages have shared a rather recent common ancestor, approximately 0.5 Ma, and have subsequently diversified into the observed phylogroups. A consistent scenario of recent population expansion was identified in Eastern South America based on several complementary analyses of historical demography. The results obtained here provide novel insights on the evolutionary history of this largely unknown Neotropical mustelid and should be useful to design conservation and management policies on behalf of this species and its habitats. PMID:22589556

Trinca, Cristine S; de Thoisy, Benoit; Rosas, Fernando C W; Waldemarin, Helen F; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Vianna, Juliana A; Eizirik, Eduardo

2012-05-15

8

Comparative genetic structure and demographic history in endemic galapagos weevils.  

PubMed

The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (F(ST) = 0.094-0.541; ?: 0.014-0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003-0.026; and D((Tajima)) = -0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003-0.026 and D((Tajima)) = -0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics. PMID:22174444

Sequeira, Andrea S; Stepien, Courtney C; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lázaro

2011-12-15

9

Inferring Demographic History from a Spectrum of Shared Haplotype Lengths  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent excitement about the use of genetics to elucidate ancestral history and demography. Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. A central challenge is to estimate the timing of past admixture and divergence events, for example the time at which Neanderthals exchanged genetic material with humans and the time at which modern humans left Africa. Here, we present a method for using sequence data to jointly estimate the timing and magnitude of past admixture events, along with population divergence times and changes in effective population size. We infer demography from a collection of pairwise sequence alignments by summarizing their length distribution of tracts of identity by state (IBS) and maximizing an analytic composite likelihood derived from a Markovian coalescent approximation. Recent gene flow between populations leaves behind long tracts of identity by descent (IBD), and these tracts give our method power by influencing the distribution of shared IBS tracts. In simulated data, we accurately infer the timing and strength of admixture events, population size changes, and divergence times over a variety of ancient and recent time scales. Using the same technique, we analyze deeply sequenced trio parents from the 1000 Genomes project. The data show evidence of extensive gene flow between Africa and Europe after the time of divergence as well as substructure and gene flow among ancestral hominids. In particular, we infer that recent African-European gene flow and ancient ghost admixture into Europe are both necessary to explain the spectrum of IBS sharing in the trios, rejecting simpler models that contain less population structure.

Harris, Kelley; Nielsen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

10

Impact of Sampling Schemes on Demographic Inference: An Empirical Study in Two Species with Different Mating Systems and Demographic Histories  

PubMed Central

Most species have at least some level of genetic structure. Recent simulation studies have shown that it is important to consider population structure when sampling individuals to infer past population history. The relevance of the results of these computer simulations for empirical studies, however, remains unclear. In the present study, we use DNA sequence datasets collected from two closely related species with very different histories, the selfing species Capsella rubella and its outcrossing relative C. grandiflora, to assess the impact of different sampling strategies on summary statistics and the inference of historical demography. Sampling strategy did not strongly influence the mean values of Tajima’s D in either species, but it had some impact on the variance. The general conclusions about demographic history were comparable across sampling schemes even when resampled data were analyzed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). We used simulations to explore the effects of sampling scheme under different demographic models. We conclude that when sequences from modest numbers of loci (<60) are analyzed, the sampling strategy is generally of limited importance. The same is true under intermediate or high levels of gene flow (4Nm > 2–10) in models in which global expansion is combined with either local expansion or hierarchical population structure. Although we observe a less severe effect of sampling than predicted under some earlier simulation models, our results should not be seen as an encouragement to neglect this issue. In general, a good coverage of the natural range, both within and between populations, will be needed to obtain a reliable reconstruction of a species’s demographic history, and in fact, the effect of sampling scheme on polymorphism patterns may itself provide important information about demographic history.

St. Onge, K. R.; Palme, A. E.; Wright, S. I.; Lascoux, M.

2012-01-01

11

Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the

Péter Szövényi; Zsófia Hock; Jakob J Schneller; Zoltán Tóth

2007-01-01

12

Demographic analysis of continuous-time life-history models  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present a computational approach to calculate the population growth rate, its sensitivity to life-history parameters and associated statistics like the stable population distribution and the reproductive value for exponentially growing populations, in which individual life history is described as a continuous development through time. The method is generally applicable to analyse population growth and performance for a wide range

Roos de A. M

2007-01-01

13

Joint Genome Institute's Automation Approach and History  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy/Joint Genome Institute (DOE/JGI) collaborates with DOE national laboratories and community users, to advance genome science in support of the DOE missions of clean bio-energy, carbon cycling, and bioremediation.

Roberts, Simon

2006-07-05

14

Inferring the demographic history of European Ficedula flycatcher populations  

PubMed Central

Background Inference of population and species histories and population stratification using genetic data is important for discriminating between different speciation scenarios and for correct interpretation of genome scans for signs of adaptive evolution and trait association. Here we use data from 24 intronic loci re-sequenced in population samples of two closely related species, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Results We applied Isolation-Migration models, assignment analyses and estimated the genetic differentiation and diversity between species and between populations within species. The data indicate a divergence time between the species of <1 million years, significantly shorter than previous estimates using mtDNA, point to a scenario with unidirectional gene-flow from the pied flycatcher into the collared flycatcher and imply that barriers to hybridisation are still permeable in a recently established hybrid zone. Furthermore, we detect significant population stratification, predominantly between the Spanish population and other pied flycatcher populations. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence for a divergence process where different genomic regions may be at different stages of speciation. We also conclude that forthcoming analyses of genotype-phenotype relations in these ecological model species should be designed to take population stratification into account.

2013-01-01

15

Length Distributions of Identity by Descent Reveal Fine-Scale Demographic History  

PubMed Central

Data-driven studies of identity by descent (IBD) were recently enabled by high-resolution genomic data from large cohorts and scalable algorithms for IBD detection. Yet, haplotype sharing currently represents an underutilized source of information for population-genetics research. We present analytical results on the relationship between haplotype sharing across purportedly unrelated individuals and a population’s demographic history. We express the distribution of IBD sharing across pairs of individuals for segments of arbitrary length as a function of the population’s demography, and we derive an inference procedure to reconstruct such demographic history. The accuracy of the proposed reconstruction methodology was extensively tested on simulated data. We applied this methodology to two densely typed data sets: 500 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and 56 Kenyan Maasai (MKK) individuals (HapMap 3 data set). Reconstructing the demographic history of the AJ cohort, we recovered two subsequent population expansions, separated by a severe founder event, consistent with previous analysis of lower-throughput genetic data and historical accounts of AJ history. In the MKK cohort, high levels of cryptic relatedness were detected. The spectrum of IBD sharing is consistent with a demographic model in which several small-sized demes intermix through high migration rates and result in enrichment of shared long-range haplotypes. This scenario of historically structured demographies might explain the unexpected abundance of runs of homozygosity within several populations.

Palamara, Pier Francesco; Lencz, Todd; Darvasi, Ariel; Pe'er, Itsik

2012-01-01

16

Genetic diversification and demographic history of the cactophilic pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus arizonensis from the Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were used to examine phylogenetic relationships, estimate gene flow and infer demographic history of the cactophilic chernetid pseudoscorpion, Dinocheirus arizonensis (Banks), from the Sonoran Desert. Phylogenetic trees resolved two clades of D. arizonensis, one from mainland Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona (clade I) and the

Edward Pfeiler; Ben G. Bitler; Sergio Castrezana; Luciano M. Matzkin; Therese A. Markow

2009-01-01

17

How the World Survived the Population Bomb: Lessons From 50 Years of Extraordinary Demographic History  

PubMed Central

The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain.

Lam, David

2012-01-01

18

How the world survived the population bomb: lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history.  

PubMed

The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain. PMID:22005884

Lam, David

2011-11-01

19

Signatures of Demographic History and Natural Selection in the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Loci  

PubMed Central

Many lines of evidence show that several HLA loci have experienced balancing selection. However, distinguishing among demographic and selective explanations for patterns of variation observed with HLA genes remains a challenge. In this study we address this issue using data from a diverse set of human populations at six classical HLA loci and, employing a comparative genomics approach, contrast results for HLA loci to those for non-HLA markers. Using a variety of analytic methods, we confirm and extend evidence for selection acting on several HLA loci. We find that allele frequency distributions for four of the six HLA loci deviate from neutral expectations and show that this is unlikely to be explained solely by demographic factors. Other features of HLA variation are explained in part by demographic history, including decreased heterozygosity and increased LD for populations at greater distances from Africa and a similar apportionment of genetic variation for HLA loci compared to putatively neutral non-HLA loci. On the basis of contrasts among different HLA loci and between HLA and non-HLA loci, we conclude that HLA loci bear detectable signatures of both natural selection and demographic history.

Meyer, Diogo; Single, Richard M.; Mack, Steven J.; Erlich, Henry A.; Thomson, Glenys

2006-01-01

20

Multilocus dataset reveals demographic histories of two peat mosses in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Revealing the past and present demographic history of populations is of high importance to evaluate the conservation status of species. Demographic data can be obtained by direct monitoring or by analysing data of historical and recent collections. Although these methods provide the most detailed information they are very time consuming. Another alternative way is to make use of the information accumulated in the species' DNA over its history. Recent development of the coalescent theory makes it possible to reconstruct the demographic history of species using nucleotide polymorphism data. To separate the effect of natural selection and demography, multilocus analysis is needed because these two forces can produce similar patterns of polymorphisms. In this study we investigated the amount and pattern of sequence variability of a Europe wide sample set of two peat moss species (Sphagnum fimbriatum and S. squarrosum) with similar distributions and mating systems but presumably contrasting historical demographies using 3 regions of the nuclear genome (appr. 3000 bps). We aimed to draw inferences concerning demographic, and phylogeographic histories of the species. Results All three nuclear regions supported the presence of an Atlantic and Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum suggesting glacial survival of the species along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Contrarily, S. squarrosum haplotypes showed three clades but no geographic structure at all. Maximum likelihood, mismatch and Bayesian analyses supported a severe historical bottleneck and a relatively recent demographic expansion of the Non-Atlantic clade of S. fimbriatum, whereas size of S. squarrosum populations has probably decreased in the past. Species wide molecular diversity of the two species was nearly the same with an excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum. Similar levels of molecular diversity, contrasting phylogeographic patterns and excess of replacement mutations in S. fimbriatum compared to S. squarrosum mirror unexpected differences in the demography and population history of the species. Conclusion This study represents the first detailed European wide phylodemographic investigation on bryophytes and shows how pattern of nucleotide polymorphism can reveal unexpected differences in the population history of haploid plants with seemingly similar characteristics.

Szovenyi, Peter; Hock, Zsofia; Schneller, Jakob J; Toth, Zoltan

2007-01-01

21

Genetic diversification and demographic history of the cactophilic pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus arizonensis from the Sonoran Desert  

PubMed Central

Sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were used to examine phylogenetic relationships, estimate gene flow and infer demographic history of the cactophilic chernetid pseudoscorpion, Dinocheirus arizonensis (Banks, 1901), from the Sonoran Desert. Phylogenetic trees resolved two clades of D. arizonensis, one from mainland Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona (clade I) and the other from the Baja California peninsula and southern Arizona (clade II). The two clades were separated by a mean genetic distance (d) of ~2.6%. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance indicated highly significant population structuring in D. arizonensis (overall ?ST = 0.860; P < 0.0001), with 80% of the genetic variation distributed among the two clades. Most pairwise comparisons of ?ST among populations within each clade, however, were not significant. The results suggest that phoretic dispersal on vagile cactophilic insects such as the neriid cactus fly Odontoloxozus longicornis (Coquillett, 1904) provides sufficient gene flow to offset the accumulation of unique haplotypes within each clade of the non-vagile pseudoscorpion. Preliminary results on dispersal capability of O. longicornis were consistent with this conclusion. Tests designed to reconstruct demographic history from sequence data indicated that both clades of D. arizonensis, as well as O. longicornis, have experienced historical population expansions. Potential barriers to gene flow that may have led to genetic isolation and diversification in clades I and II of Dinocheirus arizonensis are discussed.

Pfeiler, Edward; Bitler, Ben G.; Castrezana, Sergio; Matzkin, Luciano M.; Markow, Therese A.

2009-01-01

22

Genetic diversification and demographic history of the cactophilic pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus arizonensis from the Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

Sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were used to examine phylogenetic relationships, estimate gene flow and infer demographic history of the cactophilic chernetid pseudoscorpion, Dinocheirus arizonensis (Banks), from the Sonoran Desert. Phylogenetic trees resolved two clades of D. arizonensis, one from mainland Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona (clade I) and the other from the Baja California peninsula and southern Arizona (clade II). The two clades were separated by a mean genetic distance (d) of approximately 2.6%. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance indicated highly significant population structuring in D. arizonensis (overall Phi(ST)=0.860; P<0.0001), with 80% of the genetic variation distributed among the two clades. Most pairwise comparisons of Phi(ST) among populations within each clade, however, were not significant. The results suggest that phoretic dispersal on vagile cactophilic insects such as the neriid cactus fly Odontoloxozus longicornis (Coquillett) provides sufficient gene flow to offset the accumulation of unique haplotypes within each clade of the non-vagile pseudoscorpion. Preliminary results on dispersal capability of O. longicornis were consistent with this conclusion. Tests designed to reconstruct demographic history from sequence data indicated that both clades of D. arizonensis, as well as O. longicornis, have experienced historical population expansions. Potential barriers to gene flow that may have led to genetic isolation and diversification in clades I and II of D. arizonensis are discussed. PMID:19166949

Pfeiler, Edward; Bitler, Ben G; Castrezana, Sergio; Matzkin, Luciano M; Markow, Therese A

2008-12-31

23

Demographic history of an elusive carnivore: using museums to inform management  

PubMed Central

Elusive carnivores present a challenge to managers because traditional survey methods are not suitable. We applied a genetic approach using museum specimens to examine how historical and recent conditions influenced the demographic history of Puma concolor in western and southern Texas, USA. We used 10 microsatellite loci and indexed population trends by estimating historical and recent genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and effective population size. Mountain lions in southern Texas exhibited a 9% decline in genetic diversity, whereas diversity remained stable in western Texas. Genetic differentiation between western and southern Texas was minimal historically (FST = 0.04, P < 0.01), but increased 2–2.5 times in our recent sample. An index of genetic drift for southern Texas was seven to eight times that of western Texas, presumably contributing to the current differentiation between western and southern Texas. Furthermore, southern Texas exhibited a >50% temporal decline in effective population size, whereas western Texas showed no change. Our results illustrate that population declines and genetic drift have occurred in southern Texas, likely because of contemporary habitat loss and predator control. Population monitoring may be needed to ensure the persistence of mountain lions in the southern Texas region. This study highlights the utility of sampling museum collections to examine demographic histories and inform wildlife management.

Holbrook, Joseph D; DeYoung, Randy W; Tewes, Michael E; Young, John H

2012-01-01

24

Demographic and phylogeographic histories of two venomous North American snakes of the genus Agkistrodon.  

PubMed

Many studies have revealed that lineages currently inhabiting formerly glaciated areas were pushed into southern glacial refugia and have expanded into their modern range since the last glacial maximum. There have been few studies that compare the effects of glacial cycles on lineage diversification and historical demography in closely related species with overlapping ranges. In this study we compare phylogeographic structure, historical demography, and approximate lineage age in two closely related and broadly co-occurring venomous snakes in eastern North America, the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and copperhead (A. contortrix) using sequences from the mtDNA gene cytochrome b. We inferred three geographic lineages of A. contortrix and two of A. piscivorus with no common geographic or temporal pattern of lineage diversification identified for these species. Lineage diversification occurred in the Late Pliocene for A. piscivorus (approximately 2.5mya) and in the Early Pleistocene for A. contortrix ( approximately 1.5mya). Demographic estimates revealed population expansion following the last glacial maximum (approximately 20,000 years ago) in two lineages of A. contortrix (the Central clade and Eastern clade) and one lineage of A. piscivorus (the Continental clade). The Florida clade of A. piscivorus is the only lineage for which constant population size through time was inferred, possibly due to stable populations persisting in areas unaffected by glacial advances. Our data suggest that unique habitat preferences may have shaped both the phylogeographic and demographic histories of each species. PMID:18539486

Guiher, Timothy J; Burbrink, Frank T

2008-04-14

25

Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation.  

PubMed

The panda lineage dates back to the late Miocene and ultimately leads to only one extant species, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Although global climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are recognized to shape animal population demography their contribution to panda population dynamics remains largely unknown. We sequenced the whole genomes of 34 pandas at an average 4.7-fold coverage and used this data set together with the previously deep-sequenced panda genome to reconstruct a continuous demographic history of pandas from their origin to the present. We identify two population expansions, two bottlenecks and two divergences. Evidence indicated that, whereas global changes in climate were the primary drivers of population fluctuation for millions of years, human activities likely underlie recent population divergence and serious decline. We identified three distinct panda populations that show genetic adaptation to their environments. However, in all three populations, anthropogenic activities have negatively affected pandas for 3,000 years. PMID:23242367

Zhao, Shancen; Zheng, Pingping; Dong, Shanshan; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Qi; Guo, Xiaosen; Hu, Yibo; He, Weiming; Zhang, Shanning; Fan, Wei; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xuemei; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Hemin; Zhang, Zhihe; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Jinguo; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wei, Fuwen

2012-12-16

26

Exploring the demographic history of DNA sequences using the generalized skyline plot.  

PubMed

We present an intuitive visual framework, the generalized skyline plot, to explore the demographic history of sampled DNA sequences. This approach is based on a genealogy inferred from the sequences and provides a nonparametric estimate of effective population size through time. In contrast to previous related procedures, the generalized skyline plot is more applicable to cases where the underlying tree is not fully resolved and the data is not highly variable. This is achieved by the grouping of adjacent coalescent intervals. We employ a small-sample Akaike information criterion to objectively choose the optimal grouping strategy. We investigate the performance of our approach using simulation and subsequently apply it to HIV-1 sequences from central Africa and mtDNA sequences from red pandas. PMID:11719579

Strimmer, K; Pybus, O G

2001-12-01

27

Life history and demographic variation in the lizard Sceloporus graciosus: A long-term study  

SciTech Connect

An 11-yr study of life history and demographic variation in the sagebrush lizard Sceloporus graciosus was carried out on two study areas (Rattlesnake Ridge and Ponderosa Flat) in the Kolob Mesa Section of Zion National Park, Utah. Two primary objectives of this mark-recapture study were to: (1) quantify variation in age structure, age, and size at maturity, age-specific survivorship and fecundity, and individual growth rates, and (2) conduct a series of density reduction experiments designed to elucidate the effects of density on growth rates and survival of posthatchling lizards. In addition, the authors examined the relationships of variation in population density and deviation from long-term average precipitation and temperature to variation in individual growth, reproduction, and demography. 43 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Tinkle, D.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Dunham, A.E. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Congdon, J.D. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

1993-12-01

28

Comparative Genetic Structure and Demographic History in Endemic Gal?pagos Weevils  

PubMed Central

The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (FST = 0.094–0.541; ?: 0.014–0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026; and D(Tajima) = ?0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026 and D(Tajima) = ?0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics.

Stepien, Courtney C.; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lazaro

2012-01-01

29

When History moves on: The Foundations and Diffusion of a Second Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the contrasts between a first (FDT) and a second demographic transition (SDT) in terms of their respective demographic, structural and cultural dimensions. In this section we show that the \\

Ron Lesthaeghe; Johan Surkyn

30

Risk Assessment in Offenders With Mental Disorders. Relative Efficacy of Personal Demographic, Criminal History, and Clinical Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following the meta-analysis by Bonta, Law, and Hanson, (1998) this study examined the ability of personal demographic, criminal history, and clinical variables to predict reoffending in offenders in the United Kingdom who had mental disorders. The efficacy of each variable in predicting rate of general reoffending and violent reoffending was…

Phillips, Helen K.; Gray, Nicola S.; MacCulloch, Sophie I.; Taylor, John; Moore, Simon C.; Huckle, Phil; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.

2005-01-01

31

Genetic differentiation and demographic history in Drosophila pachea from the Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at six microsatellite DNA loci and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) locus was used to estimate gene flow, population structure, and demographic history in the cactophilic Drosophila pachea from the Sonoran Desert of North America, a species that shows a strict association with its senita host cactus (genus Lophocereus). For microsatellite analyses, thirteen populations of D. pachea were sampled, five in mainland Mexico and the southwestern USA, and eight on the Baja California (Baja) peninsula, covering essentially the entire range of the species. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of microsatellite data revealed that populations from both the mainland and the Baja peninsula generally showed little structure, although there were a few exceptions, suggesting some local differentiation and restriction of gene flow within both regions. Pairwise comparisons of F(ST) among each of the mainland and Baja populations showed evidence of both panmixia and population subdivision. AMOVA performed on grouped populations from both the mainland and Baja, however, revealed significant partitioning of genetic variation among the two regions, but no partitioning among localities within each region. Bayesian skyline analyses of the COI data set, consisting of four mainland and seven peninsular populations, revealed population expansions dating to the Pleistocene or late Pliocene in D. pachea from both regions, although regional differences were seen in the estimated timing of the expansions and in changes in effective population size over time. PMID:17567443

Pfeiler, Edward; Erez, Tamar; Hurtado, Luis A; Markow, Therese A

2007-05-01

32

Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas  

PubMed Central

To scrutinize the male ancestry of extant Native American populations, we examined eight biallelic and six microsatellite polymorphisms from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, in 438 individuals from 24 Native American populations (1 Na Dené and 23 South Amerinds) and in 404 Mongolians. One of the biallelic markers typed is a recently identified mutation (M242) characterizing a novel founder Native American haplogroup. The distribution, relatedness, and diversity of Y lineages in Native Americans indicate a differentiated male ancestry for populations from North and South America, strongly supporting a diverse demographic history for populations from these areas. These data are consistent with the occurrence of two major male migrations from southern/central Siberia to the Americas (with the second migration being restricted to North America) and a shared ancestry in central Asia for some of the initial migrants to Europe and the Americas. The microsatellite diversity and distribution of a Y lineage specific to South America (Q-M19) indicates that certain Amerind populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region, suggesting an early onset for tribalization of Native Americans. Age estimates based on Y-chromosome microsatellite diversity place the initial settlement of the American continent at ?14,000 years ago, in relative agreement with the age of well-established archaeological evidence.

Bortolini, Maria-Catira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stuart, Steven; Nasanen, Selja P. K.; Bau, Claiton H. D.; Hutz, Mara H.; Layrisse, Zulay; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M.; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Torres, Maria M.; Groot, Helena; Michalski, Roman; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Bedoya, Gabriel; Bradman, Neil; Labuda, Damian; Ruiz-Linares, Andres

2003-01-01

33

Demographic Histories of ERV-K in Humans, Chimpanzees and Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

We detected 19 complete endogenous retroviruses of the K family in the genome of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta; RhERV-K) and 12 full length elements in the genome of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes; CERV-K). These sequences were compared with 55 human HERV-K and 20 CERV-K reported previously, producing a total data set of 106 full-length ERV-K genomes. Overall, 61% of the human elements compared to 21% of the chimpanzee and 47% of rhesus elements had estimated integration times less than 4.5 million years before present (MYBP), with an average integration times of 7.8 MYBP, 13.4 MYBP and 10.3 MYBP for HERV-K, CERV-K and RhERV-K, respectively. By excluding those ERV-K sequences generated by chromosomal duplication, we used 63 of the 106 elements to compare the population dynamics of ERV-K among species. This analysis indicated that both HERV-K and RhERV-K had similar demographic histories, including markedly smaller effective population sizes, compared to CERV-K. We propose that these differing ERV-K dynamics reflect underlying differences in the evolutionary ecology of the host species, such that host ecology and demography represent important determinants of ERV-K dynamics.

Romano, Camila M.; de Melo, Fernando L.; Corsini, Marco Aurelio B.; Holmes, Edward C.; de A. Zanotto, Paolo M.

2007-01-01

34

Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor): implications for late Quaternary history of the taiga species in Eurasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between demographic history, genealogy and geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b haplotypes was studied in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor), a species that is closely associated with the boreal forest of the Eurasian taiga zone from Scandinavia to the Pacific coast. Except for a major phylogeographic discontinuity (0.9% nucleotide divergence) in southeastern Siberia, only shallow regional genetic

V. B. FEDOROV; A. V. GOROPASHNA YA; G. G. BOESKOROV; J. A. COOK

2008-01-01

35

Complex population genetic and demographic history of the Salangid, Neosalanx taihuensis, based on cytochrome b sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The Salangid icefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) is an economically important fish, which is endemic to China, restricted to large freshwater systems (e.g. lakes, large rivers and estuaries) and typically exhibit low vagility. The continuous distribution ranges from the temperate region of the Huai and Yellow River basins to the subtropical region of the Pearl River basin. This wide ranging distribution makes the species an ideal model for the study of palaeoclimatic effects on population genetic structure and phylogeography. Here, we aim to analyze population genetic differentiation within and between river basins and demographic history in order to understand how this species responded to severe climatic oscillations, decline of the sea levels during the Pleistocene ice ages and tectonic activity. Results We obtained the complete mtDNA cytochrome b sequences (1141 bp) of 354 individuals from 13 populations in the Pearl River, the Yangze River and the Huai River basin. Thirty-six haplotypes were detected. Haplotype frequency distributions were strongly skewed, with most haplotypes (n = 24) represented only in single samples each and thus restricted to a single population. The most common haplotype (H36) was found in 49.15% of all individuals. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a random pattern in the distribution of genetic diversity, which is inconsistent with contemporary hydrological structure. Significant levels of genetic subdivision were detected among populations within basins rather than between the three basins. Demographic analysis revealed that the population size in the Pearl River basin has remained relatively constant whereas the populations in the Yangze River and the Huai River basins expanded about 221 and 190 kyr ago, respectively, with the majority of mutations occurring after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Conclusion The observed complex genetic pattern of N. taihuensis is coherent with a scenario of multiple unrelated founding events by long-distance colonization and dispersal combined with contiguous population expansion and locally restricted gene flow. We also found that this species was likely severely impacted by past glaciations. More favourable climate and the formation of large suitable habitations together facilitated population expansion after the late Quaternary (especially the LGM). We proposed that all populations should be managed and conserved separately, especially for habitat protection.

2008-01-01

36

Epidemiology, demographics, and natural history of congenital hip disease in adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the epidemiology and demographics of congenital hip disease in 468 (660 hips) patients who were examined between 1970 and 1996. In 356 (54%) hips, the diagnosis was secondary osteoarthritis due to congenital hip disease, and in 272 (41%) hips, the diagnosis was idiopathic osteoarthritis. In the remaining 32 (5%) hips, the diagnosis was uncertain. Of the hips with congenital hip disease, 170 (47.7%) hips were dysplastic, 85 (23.9%) had low dislocation, and 101 (28.4%) high dislocation. The majority of patients with congenital hip disease were women (338 [95%] hips). The natural history of the three types of congenital hip disease was studied in 157 patients (202 hips: 102 dysplastic, 42 low dislocation, and 58 high dislocation) who had received no treatment before the initial examination. Average length of follow-up was 17 years. In dysplastic hips, the disease remained undiagnosed until the onset of symptoms at an average age of 34.5 years. In patients with low dislocation, pain had started at an average of 32.5 years due to progressive degenerative arthritis within the false acetabulum. In patients with high dislocation, in the presence of a false acetabulum, pain started at an average age of 31.2 years, while in its absence, pain started at an average age of 46.4 years due to muscle fatigue. These findings suggest dysplasia, low dislocation, and high dislocation in adults are the results of untreated dysplasia, subluxation, and complete dislocation in infancy, respectively. PMID:10952045

Hartofilakidis, G; Karachalios, T; Stamos, K G

2000-08-01

37

Demographic history and population structure of blackfin flounder (Glyptocephalus stelleri) in Japan revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences.  

PubMed

The demographic history and population genetic structure of the blackfin flounder (Glyptocephalus stelleri) along coastal regions of Japan were investigated. Genetic variation in DNA sequences was examined from the first hypervariable region of the mitochondrial DNA control region. A high level of haplotypic diversity (h = 0.99 +/- 0.004) was detected, indicating a high level of intrapopulation genetic diversity. The starburst structure of the minimum spanning tree suggested a very recent origin for most haplotypes. The demographic history of G. stelleri was examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analysis, which also indicated a Pleistocene population expansion at about 124,100-413,400 years ago. Hierarchical molecular variance analysis and conventional population Fst comparisons revealed no significant genetic differentiation throughout the range examined. PMID:20047073

Xiao, Yongshuang; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Yan; Yanagimoto, Takashi

2010-01-03

38

Genetic variability and demographic history of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from Brazil inferred by mtDNA sequences.  

PubMed

Intra- and inter-population genetic variability and the demographic history of Heliothis virescens (F.) populations were evaluated by using mtDNA markers (coxI, coxII and nad6) with samples from the major cotton- and soybean-producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10. AMOVA indicated low and non-significant genetic structure, regardless of geographical scale, growing season or crop, with most of genetic variation occurring within populations. Clustering analyzes also indicated low genetic differentiation. The haplotype network obtained with combined datasets resulted in 35 haplotypes, with 28 exclusive occurrences, four of them sampled only from soybean fields. The minimum spanning network showed star-shaped structures typical of populations that underwent a recent demographic expansion. The recent expansion was supported by other demographic analyzes, such as the Bayesian skyline plot, the unimodal distribution of paired differences among mitochondrial sequences, and negative and significant values of neutrality tests for the Tajima's D and Fu's F(S) parameters. In addition, high values of haplotype diversity (?) and low values of nucleotide diversity (?), combined with a high number of low frequency haplotypes and values of ?(?)demographic expansion of H. virescens populations in Brazil. This demographic event could be responsible for the low genetic structure currently found; however, haplotypes present uniquely at the same geographic regions and from one specific host plant suggest an initial differentiation among H. virescens populations within Brazil. PMID:22126989

Albernaz, K C; Silva-Brandão, K L; Fresia, P; Cônsoli, F L; Omoto, C

2011-11-30

39

Uptake of HPV Vaccine: Demographics, Sexual History and Values, Parenting Style, and Vaccine Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine the relationships of demographics, parenting, and vaccine attitudes with the acceptance of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine or to the intent to vaccinate in the next 12 months.

Susan L. Rosenthal; Richard Rupp; Gregory D. Zimet; Heather M. Meza; Melissa L. Loza; Mary B. Short; Paul A. Succop

2008-01-01

40

United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach  

SciTech Connect

Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.

1993-03-01

41

The demographic history of populations experiencing asymmetric gene flow: combining simulated and empirical data.  

PubMed

Population structure can significantly affect genetic-based demographic inferences, generating spurious bottleneck-like signals. Previous studies have typically assumed island or stepping-stone models, which are characterized by symmetric gene flow. However, many organisms are characterized by asymmetric gene flow. Here, we combined simulated and empirical data to test whether asymmetric gene flow affects the inference of past demographic changes. Through the analysis of simulated genetic data with three methods (i.e. bottleneck, M-ratio and msvar), we demonstrated that asymmetric gene flow biases past demographic changes. Most biases were towards spurious signals of expansion, albeit their strength depended on values of effective population size and migration rate. It is noteworthy that the spurious signals of demographic changes also depended on the statistical approach underlying each of the three methods. For one of the three methods, biases induced by asymmetric gene flow were confirmed in an empirical multispecific data set involving four freshwater fish species (Squalius cephalus, Leuciscus burdigalensis, Gobio gobio and Phoxinus phoxinus). However, for the two other methods, strong signals of bottlenecks were detected for all species and across two rivers. This suggests that, although potentially biased by asymmetric gene flow, some of these methods were able to bypass this bias when a bottleneck actually occurred. Our results show that population structure and dispersal patterns have to be considered for proper inference of demographic changes from genetic data. PMID:23718226

Paz-Vinas, I; Quéméré, E; Chikhi, L; Loot, G; Blanchet, S

2013-05-30

42

Population structure and demographic history of a tropical lowland rainforest tree species Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) from Southeastern Asia  

PubMed Central

Distribution of tropical rainforests in Southeastern Asia has changed over geo-logical time scale, due to movement of tectonic plates and/or global climatic changes. Shorea parvifolia is one of the most common tropical lowland rainforest tree species in Southeastern Asia. To infer population structure and demographic history of S. parvifolia, as indicators of temporal changes in the distribution and extent of tropical rainforest in this region, we studied levels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in the following five nuclear gene regions: GapC, GBSSI, PgiC, SBE2, and SODH. Seven populations from peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and eastern Borneo were included in the analyses. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the investigated populations are divided into two groups: Sumatra-Malay and Borneo. Furthermore, each group contained one admixed population. Under isolation with migration model, divergence of the two groups was estimated to occur between late Pliocene (2.6 MYA) and middle Pleistocene (0.7 MYA). The log-likelihood ratio tests of several demographic models strongly supported model with population expansion and low level of migration after divergence of the Sumatra-Malay and Borneo groups. The inferred demographic history of S. parvifolia suggested the presence of a scarcely forested land bridge on the Sunda Shelf during glacial periods in the Pleistocene and predominance of tropical lowland rainforest at least in Sumatra and eastern Borneo.

Iwanaga, Hiroko; Teshima, Kosuke M; Khatab, Ismael A; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Finkeldey, Reiner; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Siregar, Ulfah J; Szmidt, Alfred E

2012-01-01

43

Uptake of HPV Vaccine: Demographics, Sexual History and Values, Parenting Style, and Vaccine Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationships of demographics, parenting, and vaccine attitudes with the accep- tance of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine or to the intent to vaccinate in the next 12 months. Methods: Mothers (n 153) with daughters ages 11 to 17 years were recruited through the pediatric clinic waiting room\\/announcements to complete a questionnaire. Results: Eighteen percent of the

Susan L. Rosenthal; Richard Rupp; Gregory D. Zimet; Heather M. Mezaa; Melissa L. Lozaa; Mary B. Short; Paul A. Succop

44

Impact of Demographics, Sexual History, and Psychological Functioning on the Acquisition of STDs in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the variables related to multiple episodes of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adolescent females (n=88) and males (n=44). Results indicate that acquisition of an STD is related to the demographic characteristics of age and gender, as well as to the number of lifetime partners and attitudes about STD acquisition. (RJM)|

Rosenthal, Susan L.; Biro, Frank M.; Succop, Paul A.; Bernstein, David I.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

1997-01-01

45

Demographic history and genetic diversity in West Indian Coereba flaveola populations.  

PubMed

The bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) has been well studied throughout the Caribbean region from a phylogenetic perspective. However, data concerning the population genetics and long-term demography of this bird species are lacking. In this study, we focused on three populations within the Lesser Antilles and one on Puerto Rico and assessed genetic and demographic processes, using five nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. We found that genetic diversity of bananaquits on Puerto Rico exceeds that on the smaller islands (Dominica, Guadeloupe and Grenada); this might reflect either successive founder events from Puerto Rico to Grenada, or more rapid drift in smaller populations subsequent to colonization. Population growth rate estimates showed no evidence of rapid expansion and migration was indicated only between populations from the closest islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe. Overall, our results suggest that a "demographic fission" model, considering only mutation and drift, but without migration, can be applied to these bananaquit populations in the West Indies. PMID:22855326

Bellemain, Eva; Gaggiotti, Oscar E; Fahey, Anna; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

2012-08-02

46

Genetic structure and demographic history of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates from Trinidad and Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background C. gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most economically important post-harvest diseases affecting papaya production worldwide. There is currently no information concerning the genetic structure or demographic history of this pathogen in any of the affected countries. Knowledge of molecular demographic parameters for different populations will improve our understanding of the biogeographic history as well as the evolutionary and adaptive potential of these pathogens. In this study, sequence data for ACT, GPDH, ?-TUB and ITS gene regions were analyzed for C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum isolates infecting papaya in Trinidad and Mexico in order to determine the genetic structure and demographic history of these populations. Results The data indicated that Mexico is the ancestral C. gloeosporioides sensu lato population with asymmetrical migration to Trinidad. Mexico also had the larger effective population size but, both Mexico and Trinidad populations exhibited population expansion. Mexico also had greater nucleotide diversity and high levels of diversity for each gene. There was significant sub-division of the Trinidad and Mexico populations and low levels of genetic divergence among populations for three of the four gene regions; ?-TUB was shown to be under positive selection. There were also dissimilar haplotype characteristics for both populations. Mutation may play a role in shaping the population structure of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates from Trinidad and from Mexico, especially with respect to the ACT and GPDH gene regions. There was no evidence of gene flow between the C. truncatum populations and it is possible that the Mexico and Trinidad populations emerged independently of each other. Conclusions The study revealed relevant information based on the genetic structure as well as the demographic history of two fungal pathogens infecting papaya, C. gloeosporioides sensu lato and C. truncatum, in Trinidad and Mexico. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations will assist in determining the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and in identifying which evolutionary forces may have the greatest impact on durability of resistance. Intervention strategies that target these evolutionary forces would prove to be the most practical.

2013-01-01

47

Great War More Worthy Of Relation Than Any That Had Preceded It: Thucycides History of the Peloponnesian War as a Rosetta Stone for Joint Warfare and Operational Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of military history is a vital component of Joint Professional Military Education (JPME) as a complement to the study of Joint Doctrine. The Joint Military Operations Historical Collection (JMOHC) illustrates principles of Joint Doctrine and Joi...

K. M. McGowan

2006-01-01

48

Genetic signals of past demographic changes and the history of oak populations in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A retrospective view of species' demographic changes can inform on population stability through times of climatic change and the origins and spatial structure of genetic diversity in contemporary populations. The former provides the means to predict responses to future climatic change, while the latter allows us to infer the ability of populations to buffer the effects of reductions in population size and fragmentation. The approximately 1.8 my of the Pleistocene is believed to have had a significant impact on diversity through high rates of extinction during early glacial cycles and population expansions and contractions during the later cycles. In the Mediterranean basin, early emphasis on taxa with wide latitudinal ranges led to models of refugial sites and subsequent recolonization routes that could explain geographic patterns in genetic diversity, with a trend towards reduced genetic diversity in the north. More recently, the study of strictly Mediterranean taxa has revealed relictual sites that have persisted over very long periods of time, commonly relatively poor in diversity, but populations well differentiated from one site to another. In California, relatively little is known of the population dynamics of plant taxa during the Pleistocene glacial cycles, or to what extent differentiation today is a result of pre-Pleistocene events. For several animal taxa, differentiation between Coastal and Sierran taxa are believed to date to the Pliocene. Major demographic changes resulting in population isolation, bottlenecks, founder events and population expansions leave a genetic signal that can be detected through appropriate genetic markers and analyses. Such signals help to infer whether past climate fluctuations have had important effects on population demographics. Here, I will focus on key oak species of the California mediterranean climate zone. I will explore the likely effects of the last glacial maximum on oak populations using palaeoclimate and niche modeling together with analyses of population genetic structure. One of the major questions that will be addressed is whether populations have persisted over long periods of time and if the contemporary population structure has derived from events earlier than the Pleistocene. Population genetic structure will then be used to propose strategies that will optimize conservation of genetic resources.

Dodd, R. S.

2009-04-01

49

Psychosocial Outcomes for Adult Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illnesses: Demographic and Clinical History Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children of parents with mental illness are at risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems. Few studies have investigated the psychosocial outcomes of these children in adulthood or the parental psychiatric history variables that predict resilience. From a sample of 379 mothers with serious mental illnesses, 157 women who had at least one adult…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; MacFarlane, Peter; Bowersox, Nicholas

2006-01-01

50

Adverse ffects of covert iridovirus infection on life history and demographic parameters of Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal viral infections can cause changes in the body size and demography of insect vectors, with important consequences for population dynamics and the probability that individual mosquitoes will transmit disease. This study examined the effects of covert (sublethal) infection by Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) on the demography of female Aedes aegypti and the relationship between key life history parameters

Carlos F. Marina; Jorge E. Ibarra; Juan I. Arredondo-Jimenez; Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas; Pablo Liedo; Trevor Williams

2003-01-01

51

Life History and Demographic Variation in the California Tiger Salamander ( Ambystoma californiense )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1991, we initiated a long-term study of the California Tiger Sala- mander (Ambystoma californiense) at a breeding pond in Monterey County, California. Because of habitat loss, this species is a candidate for federal endangered species status, but many basic features of its life history and demography have not been studied in detail. During the first seven years of

Peter C. Trenham; H. Bradley Shaffer; Walter D. Koenig; Mark R. Stromberg; S. T. Ross

2000-01-01

52

Relatioinships among and between ELL Status, Demographic Characterisitcs, Enrollment History, and School Persistence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines enrollment history, achievement gaps, and persistence in school for ELL students and reclassified ELL students as compared to non-ELL students. The study uses statewide individual-level data sets merged from students entry to exit in ...

J. Kim

2011-01-01

53

Relationships among and between ELL Status, Demographic Characteristics, Enrollment History, and School Persistence. CRESST Report 810  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines enrollment history, achievement gaps, and persistence in school for ELL students and reclassified ELL students as compared to non-ELL students. The study uses statewide individual-level data sets merged from students' entry to exit in the state's public school system for graduate cohorts of 2006, 2007, and 2008. Analytic…

Kim, Jinok

2011-01-01

54

Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor): implications for late Quaternary history of the taiga species in Eurasia.  

PubMed

The association between demographic history, genealogy and geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b haplotypes was studied in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor), a species that is closely associated with the boreal forest of the Eurasian taiga zone from Scandinavia to the Pacific coast. Except for a major phylogeographic discontinuity (0.9% nucleotide divergence) in southeastern Siberia, only shallow regional genetic structure was detected across northern Eurasia. Genetic signs of demographic expansions imply that successive range contractions and expansions on different spatial scales represented the primary historical events that shaped geographical patterns of genetic variation. Comparison of phylogeographic structure across a taxonomically diverse array of other species that are ecologically associated with the taiga forest revealed similar patterns and identified two general aspects. First, the major south-north phylogeographic discontinuity observed in five out of six species studied in southeastern Siberia and the Far East implies vicariant separation in two different refugial areas. The limited distribution range of the southeastern lineages provides no evidence of the importance of the putative southeastern refugial area for postglacial colonization of northern Eurasia by boreal forest species. Second, the lack of phylogeographic structure associated with significant reciprocal monophyly and genetic signatures of demographic expansion in all nine boreal forest animal species studied to date across most of northern Eurasia imply contraction of each species to a single refugial area during the late Pleistocene followed by range expansion on a continental scale. Similar phylogeographic patterns observed in this taxonomically diverse set of organisms with different life histories and dispersal potentials reflect the historical dynamics of their shared environment, the taiga forest in northern Eurasia. PMID:18179438

Fedorov, V B; Goropashnaya, A V; Boeskorov, G G; Cook, J A

2007-12-20

55

Salivary alpha-amylase during pregnancy: diurnal course and associations with obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood.  

PubMed

Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in pregnant women have not previously been described. The current study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between the diurnal sAA, obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood during pregnancy. Saliva was self-collected by 83 pregnant women (89% White, age 25.3-43.0 years; mean gestational age 21.9 weeks, range 6-37 weeks; gravida 1-6) at home over three days. Results indicated that current pregnancy (gestational age and fetal sex) and maternal demographics were not related to diurnal sAA. In contrast, a history of previous miscarriage (Parameter = -.17; SE = .05; p < .05) was associated with an atypical diurnal pattern. Even after accounting for obstetric history, trait anxiety (Parameter = .16; SE = .04; p < .001) was associated with increased sAA over the day while chronic levels of fatigue (Parameter = -.06; SE = .03; p < .05) were associated with decreased sAA. In a separate model, we also tested the time varying covariation of sAA and mood. The effects of momentary mood were in contrast to those for trait mood. Both momentary depression (Parameter = .22; SE = .09; p < .01) and vigour/positive mood (Parameter = .12; SE = .04; p < .001) were associated with momentary increases in sAA while momentary anxiety and fatigue were not related to sAA. The findings suggest that basal sAA during pregnancy is sensitive to emotional arousal. Evaluating diurnal patterns of sAA holds promise for advancing understanding of how emotional arousal during pregnancy may affect fetal development. PMID:22315130

Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Granger, Douglas A; Campbell, Tavis; Kaplan, Bonnie

2012-02-07

56

AFRICAN GENETIC DIVERSITY: Implications for Human Demographic History, Modern Human Origins, and Complex Disease Mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies of ethnically diverse human populations, particularly in Africa, are important for reconstructing human evolutionary history and for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation and complex disease. African populations are characterized by greater levels of genetic diversity, extensive population substructure, and less linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci compared to non-African populations. Africans also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to diverse climates and diets, as well as exposure to infectious disease. This review summarizes patterns and the evolutionary origins of genetic diversity present in African populations, as well as their implications for the mapping of complex traits, including disease susceptibility.

Campbell, Michael C.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

2010-01-01

57

Population structure and demographic history of Sicyopterus japonicus (Perciformes; Gobiidae) in Taiwan inferred from mitochondrial control region sequences.  

PubMed

The amphidromous goby Sicyopterus japonicus is distributed throughout southern Taiwan and Japan. Larvae of this freshwater fish go through a long marine stage. This migratory mode influences population genetic structure. We examined the genetic diversity, population differentiation, and demographic history of S. japonicus based on the mitochondrial DNA control region. We identified 102 haplotypes from 107 S. japonicus individuals from 22 populations collected from Taiwan and Islet Lanyu. High mean haplotype diversity (h = 0.999) versus low nucleotide diversity (?? = 0.008) was detected across populations. There was low correspondence between clusters identified in the neighbor-joining tree and geographical region, as also indicated by AMOVA and pairwise FST estimates. Both mismatch distribution analysis and Tajima's D test indicated that S. japonicus likely experienced a demographic expansion. Using a Bayesian skyline plot approach, we estimated the time of onset of the expansion of S. japonicus at 135 kyr (during the Pleistocene) and the time of stable effective population size at approximately 2.5 kyr (last glacial maximum). Based on these results, we suggest 1) a panmictic population at the oceanic planktonic larval stage, mediated by the Kuroshio current; 2) a long planktonic marine stage and long period of dispersal, which may have permitted efficient tracking of environmental shifts during the Pleistocene; and 3) a stable, constant population size ever since the last glacial maximum. PMID:24089094

Ju, Y M; Hsu, C H; Fang, L S; Lin, H D; Wu, J H; Han, C C; Chen, I-S; Chiang, T Y

2013-09-27

58

Multilocus Patterns of Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Demographic History of Populus tremula  

PubMed Central

I have studied nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium using multilocus data from 77 fragments, with an average length of fragments of 550 bp, in the deciduous tree Populus tremula (Salicaceae). The frequency spectrum across loci showed a modest excess of mutations segregating at low frequency and a marked excess of high-frequency derived mutations at silent sites, relative to neutral expectations. These excesses were also seen at replacement sites, but were not so pronounced for high-frequency derived mutations. There was a marked excess of low-frequency mutations at replacement sites, likely indicating deleterious amino acid-changing mutations that segregate at low frequencies in P. tremula. I used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to evaluate a number of different demographic scenarios and to estimate parameters for the best-fitting model. The data were found to be consistent with a historical reduction in the effective population size of P. tremula through a bottleneck. The timing inferred for this bottleneck is largely consistent with geological data and with data from several other long-lived plant species. The results show that P. tremula harbors substantial levels of nucleotide polymorphism with the posterior mode of the scaled mutation rate, ? = 0.0177 across loci. The ABC analyses also provided an estimate of the scaled recombination rate that indicates that recombination rates in P. tremula are likely to be 2–10 times higher than the mutation rate. This study reinforces the notion that linkage disequilibrium is low and decays to negligible levels within a few hundred base pairs in P. tremula.

Ingvarsson, Par K.

2008-01-01

59

Utilizing Spatial Demographic and Life History Variation to Optimize Sustainable Yield of a Temperate Sex-Changing Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish populations vary geographically in demography and life history due to environmental and ecological processes and in response to exploitation. However, population dynamic models and stock assessments, used to manage fisheries, rarely explicitly incorporate spatial variation to inform management decisions. Here, we describe extensive geographic variation in several demographic and life history characteristics (e.g., size structure, growth, survivorship, maturation, and sex change) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher), a temperate rocky reef fish targeted by recreational and commercial fisheries. Fish were sampled from nine locations throughout southern California in 2007–2008. We developed a dynamic size and age-structured model, parameterized separately for each location, to assess the potential cost or benefit in terms of fisheries yield and conservation objectives of changing minimum size limits and/or fishing mortality rates (compared to the status quo). Results indicate that managing populations individually, with location-specific regulations, could increase yield by over 26% while maintaining conservative levels of spawning biomass. While this local management approach would be challenging to implement in practice, we found statistically similar increases in yield could be achieved by dividing southern California into two separate management regions, reflecting geographic similarities in demography. To maximize yield, size limits should be increased by 90 mm in the northern region and held at current levels in the south. We also found that managing the fishery as one single stock (the status quo), but with a size limit 50 mm greater than the current regulations, could increase overall fishery yield by 15%. Increases in size limits are predicted to enhance fishery yield and may also have important ecological consequences for the predatory role of sheephead in kelp forests. This framework for incorporating demographic variation into fisheries models can be exported generally to other species and may aid in identifying the appropriate spatial scales for fisheries management.

Hamilton, Scott L.; Wilson, Jono R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Caselle, Jennifer E.

2011-01-01

60

Utilizing spatial demographic and life history variation to optimize sustainable yield of a temperate sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Fish populations vary geographically in demography and life history due to environmental and ecological processes and in response to exploitation. However, population dynamic models and stock assessments, used to manage fisheries, rarely explicitly incorporate spatial variation to inform management decisions. Here, we describe extensive geographic variation in several demographic and life history characteristics (e.g., size structure, growth, survivorship, maturation, and sex change) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher), a temperate rocky reef fish targeted by recreational and commercial fisheries. Fish were sampled from nine locations throughout southern California in 2007-2008. We developed a dynamic size and age-structured model, parameterized separately for each location, to assess the potential cost or benefit in terms of fisheries yield and conservation objectives of changing minimum size limits and/or fishing mortality rates (compared to the status quo). Results indicate that managing populations individually, with location-specific regulations, could increase yield by over 26% while maintaining conservative levels of spawning biomass. While this local management approach would be challenging to implement in practice, we found statistically similar increases in yield could be achieved by dividing southern California into two separate management regions, reflecting geographic similarities in demography. To maximize yield, size limits should be increased by 90 mm in the northern region and held at current levels in the south. We also found that managing the fishery as one single stock (the status quo), but with a size limit 50 mm greater than the current regulations, could increase overall fishery yield by 15%. Increases in size limits are predicted to enhance fishery yield and may also have important ecological consequences for the predatory role of sheephead in kelp forests. This framework for incorporating demographic variation into fisheries models can be exported generally to other species and may aid in identifying the appropriate spatial scales for fisheries management. PMID:21915353

Hamilton, Scott L; Wilson, Jono R; Ben-Horin, Tal; Caselle, Jennifer E

2011-09-06

61

Nautilus pompilius Life History and Demographics at the Osprey Reef Seamount, Coral Sea, Australia  

PubMed Central

Nautiloids are the subject of speculation as to their threatened status arising from the impacts of targeted fishing for the ornamental shell market. Life history knowledge is essential to understand the susceptibility of this group to overfishing and to the instigation of management frameworks. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the life of Nautilus in the wild. At Osprey Reef from 1998–2008, trapping for Nautilus was conducted on 354 occasions, with 2460 individuals of one species, Nautilus pompilius, captured and 247 individuals recaptured. Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) were deployed on 15 occasions and six remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives from 100–800 m were conducted to record Nautilus presence and behavior. Maturity, sex and size data were recorded, while measurements of recaptured individuals allowed estimation of growth rates to maturity, and longevity beyond maturity. We found sexual dimorphism in size at maturity (males: 131.9±SD?=?2.6 mm; females: 118.9±7.5 mm shell diameter) in a population dominated by mature individuals (58%). Mean growth rates of 15 immature recaptured animals were 0.061±0.023 mm day?1 resulting in an estimate of around 15.5 years to maturation. Recaptures of mature animals after five years provide evidence of a lifespan exceeding 20 years. Juvenile Nautilus pompilius feeding behavior was recorded for the first time within the same depth range (200–610 m) as adults. Our results provide strong evidence of a K-selected life history for Nautilus from a detailed study of a ‘closed’ wild population. In conjunction with population size and density estimates established for the Osprey Reef Nautilus, this work allows calculations for sustainable catch and provides mechanisms to extrapolate these findings to other extant nautiloid populations (Nautilus and Allonautilus spp.) throughout the Indo-Pacific.

Dunstan, Andrew J.; Ward, Peter D.; Marshall, N. Justin

2011-01-01

62

Nautilus pompilius life history and demographics at the Osprey Reef Seamount, Coral Sea, Australia.  

PubMed

Nautiloids are the subject of speculation as to their threatened status arising from the impacts of targeted fishing for the ornamental shell market. Life history knowledge is essential to understand the susceptibility of this group to overfishing and to the instigation of management frameworks. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the life of Nautilus in the wild. At Osprey Reef from 1998-2008, trapping for Nautilus was conducted on 354 occasions, with 2460 individuals of one species, Nautilus pompilius, captured and 247 individuals recaptured. Baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) were deployed on 15 occasions and six remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives from 100-800 m were conducted to record Nautilus presence and behavior. Maturity, sex and size data were recorded, while measurements of recaptured individuals allowed estimation of growth rates to maturity, and longevity beyond maturity. We found sexual dimorphism in size at maturity (males: 131.9±SD?=?2.6 mm; females: 118.9±7.5 mm shell diameter) in a population dominated by mature individuals (58%). Mean growth rates of 15 immature recaptured animals were 0.061±0.023 mm day(-1) resulting in an estimate of around 15.5 years to maturation. Recaptures of mature animals after five years provide evidence of a lifespan exceeding 20 years. Juvenile Nautilus pompilius feeding behavior was recorded for the first time within the same depth range (200-610 m) as adults. Our results provide strong evidence of a K-selected life history for Nautilus from a detailed study of a 'closed' wild population. In conjunction with population size and density estimates established for the Osprey Reef Nautilus, this work allows calculations for sustainable catch and provides mechanisms to extrapolate these findings to other extant nautiloid populations (Nautilus and Allonautilus spp.) throughout the Indo-Pacific. PMID:21347356

Dunstan, Andrew J; Ward, Peter D; Marshall, N Justin

2011-02-10

63

Genetic structuring and recent demographic history of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

Clarification of the genetic structure and population history of a species can shed light on the impacts of landscapes, historical climate change and contemporary human activities and thus enables evidence-based conservation decisions for endangered organisms. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered species distributing at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline, thus representing a good model to test the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a plateau edge species. We combined nine microsatellite loci and 551?bp of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA CR) to explore the genetic structure and demographic history of this species. A total of 123 individuals were sampled from 23 locations across five populations. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. Phylogeographic analyses indicated little geographic structure, suggesting historically wide gene flow. However, microsatellite-based Bayesian clustering clearly identified three groups (Qionglai-Liangshan, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong-Tibet). A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was detected only after removing Xiaoxiangling. For mtDNA data, there was no statistical support for a historical population expansion or contraction for the whole sample or any population except Xiaoxiangling where a signal of contraction was detected. However, Bayesian simulations of population history using microsatellite data did pinpoint population declines for Qionglai, Xiaoxiangling and Gaoligong, demonstrating significant influences of human activity on demography. The unique history of the Xiaoxiangling population plays a critical role in shaping the genetic structure of this species, and large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation is hampering gene flow among populations. The implications of our findings for the biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, subspecies classification and conservation of red pandas are discussed. PMID:21585580

Hu, Yibo; Guo, Yu; Qi, Dunwu; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Wu, Hua; Bruford, Michael W; Wei, Fuwen

2011-05-17

64

Demographic history of Diadema antillarum, a keystone herbivore on Caribbean reefs.  

PubMed Central

The sea urchin Diadema antillarum was the most important herbivore on Caribbean reefs until 1983, when mass mortality reduced its populations by more than 97%. Knowledge of its past demography is essential to reconstruct reef ecology as it was before human impact, which has been implicated as having caused high pre-mortality Diadema abundance. To determine the history of its population size, we sequenced the ATPase 6 and 8 region of mitochondrial DNA from populations in the Caribbean and in the eastern Atlantic (which was not affected by the mass mortality), as well as from the eastern Pacific D. mexicanum. The Caribbean population harbours an order of magnitude more molecular diversity than those of the eastern Pacific or the eastern Atlantic and, despite the recent mass mortality, its DNA sequences bear the genetic signature of a previous population expansion. By estimating mutation rates from divergence between D. antillarum and D. mexicanum, that were separated at a known time by the Isthmus of Panama, and by using estimates of effective population size derived from mismatch distributions and a maximum likelihood coalescence algorithm, we date the expansion as having occurred no more recently than 100 000 years before the present. Thus, Diadema was abundant in the Caribbean long before humans could have affected ecological processes; the genetic data contain no evidence of a recent, anthropogenically caused, population increase.

Lessios, H A; Garrido, M J; Kessing, B D

2001-01-01

65

Concordant phylogeographies of 2 malaria vectors attest to common spatial and demographic histories.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of South American lineages is a topic of heated debate. Although a single process is unlikely to describe entire ecosystems, related species, which incur similar habitat limitations, can inform the history for a subsection of assemblages. We compared the phylogeographic patterns of the cytochrome oxidase I marker from Anopheles triannulatus (N = 72) and previous results for A. darlingi (N = 126) in a broad portion of their South American distributions. Both species share similar population subdivisions, with aggregations northeast of the Amazon River, in southern coastal Brazil and 2 regions in central Brazil. The average capital EF, Cyrillic(ST) between these groups was 0.39 for A. triannulatus. Populations northeast of the Amazon and in southeastern Brazil are generally reciprocally monophyletic to the remaining groups. Based on these initial analyses, we constructed the a priori hypothesis that the Amazon and regions of high declivity pose geographic barriers to dispersal in these taxa. Mantel tests confirmed that these areas block gene flow for more than 1000 km for both species. The efficacy of these impediments was tested using landscape genetics, which could not reject our a priori hypothesis but did reject simpler scenarios. Results form summary statistics and phylogenetics suggest that both lineages originated in central Amazonia (south of the Amazon River) during the late Pleistocene (579 000 years ago) and that they followed the same paths of expansion into their contemporary distributions. These results may have implications for other species sharing similar ecological limitations but probably are not applicable as a general paradigm of Neotropical biogeography. PMID:20511380

Pedro, Pedro M; Uezu, Alexandre; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

2010-05-28

66

Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. METHODS: This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure

Lina A Gutiérrez; Nelson J Naranjo; Astrid V Cienfuegos; Carlos E Muskus; Shirley Luckhart; Jan E Conn; Margarita M Correa

2009-01-01

67

Gene flow and demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti: A case study from the western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most marine organisms are characterized by at least one planktonic phase during their life history, potentially allowing interconnection of populations separated by several hundred kilometers. For many years, the idea that marine species are genetically homogenous throughout their range of distribution, due to passive larval transport, has been a paradigm. Nowadays, a growing number of studies underline the existence of boundaries in the marine realm and highlight how larval dispersal is a complex process depending on biotic as well as abiotic factors. Marine fragmented habitats, such as atolls, mangroves and estuaries, are optimal systems for investigating the marine dispersion process under a metapopulation approach, since populations can be geographically defined a priori as opposed to those occupying open marine environments. Within this frame, the present paper investigates the population genetic structure and the demographic history of the mangrove crab Neosarmatium meinerti within the western Indian Ocean by partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. A total of 167 specimens were sampled from six mangrove sites distributed along the East African coast, from Kenya to South Africa, also including a mangrove forest located on Mahé Island, Seychelles. A sharp genetic break between the mainland and the Seychelles is recorded, revealing the existence of two historically distinct groups that can be defined as independent evolutionary units. Gene flow along the East African coast appears to be high enough to form a single metapopulation, probably by means of stepping stone populations. Otherwise, this mainland metapopulation is currently under expansion through a gradual moving front from the subtropical toward the equatorial populations.

Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano; Schubart, Christoph D.; Fratini, Sara

2010-01-01

68

Genetic structure and demographic history should inform conservation: Chinese cobras currently treated as homogenous show population divergence.  

PubMed

An understanding of population structure and genetic diversity is crucial for wildlife conservation and for determining the integrity of wildlife populations. The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) has a distribution from the mouth of the Yangtze River down to northern Vietnam and Laos, within which several large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence population structure. We combined 12 microsatellite loci and 1117 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to explore genetic structure and demographic history in this species, using 269 individuals from various localities in Mainland China and Vietnam. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. mtDNA data revealed two main (Vietnam + southern China + southwestern China; eastern + southeastern China) and one minor (comprising only two individuals from the westernmost site) clades. Microsatellite data divided the eastern + southeastern China clade further into two genetic clusters, which include individuals from the eastern and southeastern regions, respectively. The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains may be important barriers affecting the diversification of lineages. In the haplotype network of cytchrome b, many haplotypes were represented within a "star" cluster and this and other tests suggest recent expansion. However, microsatellite analyses did not yield strong evidence for a recent bottleneck for any population or genetic cluster. The three main clusters identified here should be considered as independent management units for conservation purposes. The release of Chinese cobras into the wild should cease unless their origin can be determined, and this will avoid problems arising from unnatural homogenization. PMID:22558439

Lin, Long-Hui; Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Ji, Xiang

2012-04-27

69

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

70

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-04-25

71

Joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hinge joints move only in one direction, ball-and-socket joints are free to rotate in all directions, and gliding joints are able to move forward, backward, and side to side, but do not rotate freely.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

72

WTCS Transfers to the University of Wisconsin System. Information on: Enrollment, Demographics, Outcomes, Conclusions. Joint Administrative Committee on Academic Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on enrollment, demographics, and outcomes for Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) transfers to the University of Wisconsin (UW) System. Enrollment Information presents findings on transfers within and into the UW System by year (1994-95 to 1997-98), illustrates the proportion of transfers within and into the UW System…

Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

73

The Impact of Demographic Changes on Social Programs. Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social policy implications of demographic trends are examined, to help policy makers anticipate future needs for services with greater accuracy. Crises such as energy needs and social security financing illustrate the need for greater recognition of the time dimension of public policy. Many of our most difficult problems, if they are to be…

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

74

Reconciling Deep Calibration and Demographic History: Bayesian Inference of Post Glacial Colonization Patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using Bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales.

Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

75

Reconciling deep calibration and demographic history: bayesian inference of post glacial colonization patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales. PMID:22164307

Marino, Ilaria A M; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo

2011-12-02

76

Reconstructing the Demographic History of the Human Lineage Using Whole-Genome Sequences from Human and Three Great Apes  

PubMed Central

The demographic history of human would provide helpful information for identifying the evolutionary events that shaped the humanity but remains controversial even in the genomic era. To settle the controversies, we inferred the speciation times (T) and ancestral population sizes (N) in the lineage leading to human and great apes based on whole-genome alignment. A coalescence simulation determined the sizes of alignment blocks and intervals between them required to obtain recombination-free blocks with a high frequency. This simulation revealed that the size of the block strongly affects the parameter inference, indicating that recombination is an important factor for achieving optimum parameter inference. From the whole genome alignments (1.9 giga-bases) of human (H), chimpanzee (C), gorilla (G), and orangutan, 100-bp alignment blocks separated by ?5-kb intervals were sampled and subjected to estimate ? = ?T and ? = 4?gN using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, where ? is the mutation rate and g is the generation time. Although the estimated ?HC differed across chromosomes, ?HC and ?HCG were strongly correlated across chromosomes, indicating that variation in ? is subject to variation in ?, rather than T, and thus, all chromosomes share a single speciation time. Subsequently, we estimated Ts of the human lineage from chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to be 6.0–7.6, 7.6–9.7, and 15–19 Ma, respectively, assuming variable ? across lineages and chromosomes. These speciation times were consistent with the fossil records. We conclude that the speciation times in our recombination-free analysis would be conclusive and the speciation between human and chimpanzee was a single event.

Hara, Yuichiro; Imanishi, Tadashi; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

77

Relation of demographic factors, menstrual history, reproduction and medication use to sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

In postmenopausal women, levels of estrogens, androgens, and perhaps prolactin have been related to risk of breast and other hormonal cancers in women. However, the determinants of these hormone concentrations have not been firmly established. Associations among various demographic, menstrual, and reproductive factors, medication use and endogenous sex hormone concentrations (estradiol, free estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), dihydrotestosterone, and prolactin) were evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis from a simple random sample of 274 postmenopausal women selected from the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. In multiple regression analyses on log-transformed hormones, the concentrations of DHEA, and DHEAS were negatively and statistically significantly associated with age (both beta=-0.03, P<0.001, respectively). Estradiol, estrone, DHEA, and free testosterone concentrations were higher in African-American than in non-Hispanic White women, but after multivariate adjustment the associations were statistically significant only for free testosterone (beta=0.38, P=0.01). Women who had a history of bilateral oophorectomy had a mean 35% lower testosterone concentration compared with women with at least one ovary remaining (beta=-0.43, P=0.002), and lower free testosterone (beta=-0.42, P=0.04) after multivariate adjustment. Women who reported regular use of NSAIDs had higher DHEA concentrations (beta=0.20, P=0.04) and lower prolactin concentrations (beta=-0.18, P=0.02) compared with non-users. These results suggest that while age, oophorectomy status, and NSAID use may be associated with selected sex hormone concentrations, few menstrual or reproductive factors affect endogenous sex hormones in the postmenopausal period. PMID:18297397

McTiernan, Anne; Wu, LieLing; Barnabei, Vanessa M; Chen, Chu; Hendrix, Susan; Modugno, Francesmary; Rohan, Thomas; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wang, C Y

2007-05-22

78

Patterns of nucleotide sequence variation in ICAM1 and TNF genes in twelve ethnic groups of India: roles of demographic history and natural selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied DNA sequence variation in and around the genes ICAM1 and TNF, which play functional and correlated roles in inflammatory processes and immune cell responses, in 12 diverse ethnic groups\\u000a of India, with a view to investigating the relative roles of demographic history and natural selection in shaping the observed\\u000a patterns of variation. The total numbers of single

Sanghamitra Sengupta; Shabana Farheen; Neelanjana Mukherjee; Partha P. Majumder

2007-01-01

79

Reading aloud: does previous trial history modulate the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency?  

PubMed

No one would argue with the proposition that how we process events in the world is strongly affected by our experience. Nonetheless, recent experience (e.g., from the previous trial) is typically not considered in the analysis of timed cognitive performance in the laboratory. Masson and Kliegl (2013) reported that, in the context of the lexical decision task, the nature of the previous trial strongly modulates the joint effects of word frequency and stimulus quality-a joint effect that is widely reported to be additive when averaged over trial history. In particular, their analysis suggests there may be no genuine additivity of these factors. Here we extended this line of investigation by reanalyzing data reported by O'Malley and Besner (2008) in which subjects read words and nonwords aloud, with word frequency and stimulus quality as manipulated factors. These factors are additive on reaction time in the standard analysis of variance. Contrary to Masson and Kliegl's finding for lexical decision, when previous trial history is taken into consideration, these 2 factors still do not interact. This suggests that, at least in the context of reading aloud, previous trial does not modulate how the effects of these 2 factors combine. Some implications are briefly noted. PMID:23855551

O'Malley, Shannon; Besner, Derek

2013-07-01

80

Understanding patterns of genetic diversity in the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida: demographic history or a Wolbachia selective sweep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endosymbiont Wolbachia can be responsible for selective sweeps on mitochondrial DNA variability within species. Similar signals can also result from demographic processes, although crucially the latter affect nuclear as well as mitochondrial loci. Here we present data on Wolbachia infection status and phylogeographic patterning for a widely distributed insect host, the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Two hundred

Antonis Rokas; Rachel J Atkinson; Gordon S Brown; Stuart A West; Graham N Stone

2001-01-01

81

Phylogenetic relationships and demographic histories of the Atherinidae in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea re-examined by Bayesian inference.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to examine the phylogenetic relationship, divergence times and demographic history of the five close-related Mediterranean and North-eastern Atlantic species/forms of Atherina using the full Bayesian framework for species tree estimation recently implemented in ?BEAST. The inference is made possible by multilocus data using three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, control region) and one nuclear gene (rhodopsin) from multiple individuals per species available in GenBank. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the complete gene dataset produced a tree with strong support for the monophyly of each species, as well as high support for higher level nodes. An old origin of the Atherina group was suggested (19.2 MY), with deep split events within the Atherinidae predating the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Regional genetic substructuring was observed among populations of A. boyeri, with AMOVA and MultiDimensional Scaling suggesting the existence of five groupings (Atlantic/West Mediterranean, Adriatic, Greece, Black Sea and Tunis). The level of subdivision found might be consequence of the hydrographic isolation within the Mediterranean Sea. Bayesian inference of past demographic histories showed a clear signature of demographic expansion for the European coast populations of A. presbyter, possibly linked to post-glacial colonizations, but not for the Azores/Canary Islands, which is expected in isolated populations because of the impossibility of finding new habitats. Within the Mediterranean, signatures of recent demographic expansion were only found for the Adriatic population of A. boyeri, which could be associated with the relatively recent emergence of the Adriatic Sea. PMID:22425706

Pujolar, J M; Zane, L; Congiu, L

2012-03-07

82

DEMOGRAPHIC AND COMORBID DISPARITIES BASED ON PAYER TYPE IN A TOTAL JOINT ARTHROPLASTY COHORT: IMPLICATIONS IN A CHANGING HEALTH CARE ARENA  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare differences in demographic, functional, access to care, and comorbidity data between a Medicaid and Iowa Care (state Medicaid) insured patient cohort and Medicare and a Commercial Payer patient cohort undergoing lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Material & Methods A retrospective review of 874 primary TKAs and THAs by a single surgeon at an academic institution between January, 2004 and June, 2008 was performed. Data on the primary insurance payer was used to stratify the cohort into two groups; Medicaid and Iowa Care (state Medicaid) insured and Medicare and commercial payer. Demographic, functional, access to care, and comorbidity data obtained from a standard preoperative survey were compared. Results Of 874 primary TKAs and THAs, 18.3 % of patients were Medicaid and Iowa Care insured, while 81.7 % were insured by Medicare and commercial payer. Average age was 53.7 and 62.3 respectively, while average BMI was 35.2 and 32.9 respectively. The Medicaid and Iowa Care group was found to be 3 times more likely to smoke tobacco (25.2% v. 8.3%). Preoperative WOMAC Function scores were 33.9 and 46.8, respectively. Self reported diabetes was used as a general surrogate for health comorbidities and occurred in 12.3 % and 11.5%, respectively. Distance traveled was used as a general surrogate for access to care with averages of 92.5 miles and 62.8 miles, respectively. Conclusion The Medicaid and Iowa Care (state Medicaid) group had significantly higher rates of smoking, were significantly younger, and had significantly lower WOMAC scores (p<0.05) preoperatively. BMI comparison showed a trend to greater obesity in the Medicaid and Iowa Care cohort (p=0.056). Diabetes rates were comparable between the two cohorts. Medicaid and Iowa Care patients traveled 29.7 miles farther, suggesting they had less access to local orthopaedic care. There are major differences in comorbidities and patient demographics between payer types.

Warth, Lucian C; Callaghan, John J; Wells, Christopher W; Liu, Steve S; Klaassen, Alison; Gao, Yubo; Johnston, Richard C

2011-01-01

83

Demographic implications of life-history stage characteristics in two African acacias at a Makeni savanna plot in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims In spite of the importance of African acacias in vegetation succession and provision of goods and services, little is known about life-history variations within and among species. Much of the work done on Af- rican acacias has focused on seed predation and germination and seedling establishment, especially of Acacia tortilis, Acacia nilotica and Acacia karroo. The primary aim of

Emmanuel Ngulube Chidumayo

2008-01-01

84

When competition eclipses cooperation: an event history analysisof joint venture failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do so many joint ventures fail? Despite the fact that their success is the exception rather than the rule, the literature on why joint venture performance has been so poor remains fragmentary. We address this issue, adopting a transaction-cost economics perspective and modeling joint ventures as governance structures that blend the advantages and drawbacks of both markets and hierarchies.

Seung Ho Park; Michael V. Russo

1996-01-01

85

Did glacial advances during the Pleistocene influence differently the demographic histories of benthic and pelagic Antarctic shelf fishes? - Inferences from intraspecific mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Circum-Antarctic waters harbour a rare example of a marine species flock – the Notothenioid fish, most species of which are restricted to the continental shelf. It remains an open question as to how they survived Pleistocene climatic fluctuations characterised by repeated advances of continental glaciers as far as the shelf break that probably resulted in a loss of habitat for benthic organisms. Pelagic ecosystems, on the other hand, might have flourished during glacial maxima due to the northward expansion of Antarctic polar waters. In order to better understand the role of ecological traits in Quaternary climatic fluctuations, we performed demographic analyses of populations of four fish species from the tribe Trematominae, including both fully benthic and pelagic species using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and an intron from the nuclear S7 gene. Results Nuclear and cytoplasmic markers showed differences in the rate and time of population expansions as well as the likely population structure. Neutrality tests suggest that such discordance comes from different coalescence dynamics of each marker, rather than from selective pressure. Demographic analyses based on intraspecific DNA diversity suggest a recent population expansion in both benthic species, dated by the cyt b locus to the last glacial cycle, whereas the population structure of pelagic feeders either did not deviate from a constant-size model or indicated that the onset of the major population expansion of these species by far predated those of the benthic species. Similar patterns were apparent even when comparing previously published data on other Southern Ocean organisms, but we observed considerable heterogeneity within both groups with regard to the onset of major demographic events and rates. Conclusion Our data suggest benthic and pelagic species reacted differently to the Pleistocene ice-sheet expansions that probably significantly reduced the suitable habitat for benthic species. However, the asynchronous timing of major demographic events observed in different species within both "ecological guilds", imply that the species examined here may have different population and evolutionary histories, and that more species should be analysed in order to more precisely assess the role of life history in the response of organisms to climatic changes.

Janko, Karel; Lecointre, Guillaume; DeVries, Arthur; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; Marshall, Craig

2007-01-01

86

Population genomics shed light on the demographic and adaptive histories of European invasion in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas  

PubMed Central

Crassostrea gigas originated from the Pacific coast of Asia, but was introduced into several European countries in the early 1970s. Natural populations have now spread across the length of the western seaboard of Europe. To elucidate the demographic and selective processes at play during this rapid expansion, genome-scan analysis was performed on different populations. High diversities and low differentiation were observed overall, but significant genetic differentiation was found among newly established populations and between the newly established northern group and a nearly panmictic group composed of southern European populations and a population from Japan. Loss of genetic diversity was also seen in the north, likely caused by founder events during colonization. The few strongly supported outlier loci revealed a genetic structure uncorrelated with the north/south differentiation, but grouping two samples from the Danish fjords (northern group) and one from the Dutch Scheldt estuary (southern group) with the one from Japan. These findings might reflect the following: (i) parallel adaptation to similar environmental pressures (fjord-like environment) within each of the two groups or (ii) a footprint of a secondary introduction of an alternative genomic background maintained by multifarious isolation factors. Our results call for a closer examination of adaptive genetic structure in the area of origin.

Rohfritsch, Audrey; Bierne, Nicolas; Boudry, Pierre; Heurtebise, Serge; Cornette, Florence; Lapegue, Sylvie

2013-01-01

87

Multilocus Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity, Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst  

PubMed Central

DNA polymorphism at 22 loci was studied in an average of 47 Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] haplotypes sampled in seven populations representative of the natural range. The overall nucleotide variation was limited, being lower than that observed in most plant species so far studied. Linkage disequilibrium was also restricted and did not extend beyond a few hundred base pairs. All populations, with the exception of the Romanian population, could be divided into two main domains, a Baltico–Nordic and an Alpine one. Mean Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H across loci were both negative, indicating the presence of an excess of both rare and high-frequency-derived variants compared to the expected frequency spectrum in a standard neutral model. Multilocus neutrality tests based on D and H led to the rejection of the standard neutral model and exponential growth in the whole population as well as in the two main domains. On the other hand, in all three cases the data are compatible with a severe bottleneck occurring some hundreds of thousands of years ago. Hence, demographic departures from equilibrium expectations and population structure will have to be accounted for when detecting selection at candidate genes and in association mapping studies, respectively.

Heuertz, Myriam; De Paoli, Emanuele; Kallman, Thomas; Larsson, Hanna; Jurman, Irena; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin; Gyllenstrand, Niclas

2006-01-01

88

Life history and demographic determinants of effective/census size ratios as exemplified by brown trout (Salmo trutta).  

PubMed

A number of demographic factors, many of which related to human-driven encroachments, are predicted to decrease the effective population size (N(e)) relative to the census population size (N), but these have been little investigated. Yet, it is necessary to know which factors most strongly impact N(e), and how to mitigate these effects through sound management actions. In this study, we use parentage analysis of a stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to quantify the effect of between-individual variance in reproductive success on the effective number of breeders (N(b)) relative to the census number of breeders (N(i)). Comprehensive estimates of the N(b)/N ratio were reduced to 0.16-0.28, almost entirely due to larger than binomial variance in family size. We used computer simulations, based on empirical estimates of age-specific survival and fecundity rates, to assess the effect of repeat spawning (iteroparity) on N(e) and found that the variance in lifetime reproductive success was substantially higher for repeat spawners. Random family-specific survival, on the other hand, acts to buffer these effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of small populations, where maintaining high and stable levels of N(e) is crucial to extenuate inbreeding and protect genetic variability. PMID:23028401

Serbezov, Dimitar; Jorde, Per Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Olsen, Esben Moland; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

2012-01-23

89

Phylogeography across a continent: the evolutionary and demographic history of the North American racer (Serpentes: Colubridae: Coluber constrictor).  

PubMed

Most phylogeographic studies examine organisms that do not have transcontinental distributions and therefore the genetic and temporal effects of barriers across an entire continent cannot be assessed with respect to a single species. We examined the phylogeographic structure, lineage age, and historical demography using sequences from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene of the widespread North American racer (Coluber constrictor), one of the few abundant transcontinental snakes that occurs throughout many diverse biomes. Our results indicate that this complex is comprised of six lineages differing greatly in geographic extent, with the largest (a central US clade) being approximately 26 times greater than the smallest (a lineage restricted to the Florida Panhandle and nearby portions of adjacent States). Most of the six lineages appear to be separated at previously identified genetic barriers for several vertebrates with similar ranges. Lineage diversification in this species began in the late Miocene, separating populations in the Florida Peninsula from the remainder of the US. Diversification of lineages continued throughout the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Four of the six lineages occur east of the Mississippi River, with only two distinctly young ( approximately 1.5 mya) lineages found west of the Mississippi River (one occurs west of Continental Divide). All methods of demographic inference, including the mismatch distribution, Fu and Li's D and Tajima's D , and Bayesian skyline plots revealed population expansion occurring in the mid-to-late Pleistocene for every lineage, regardless of size or proximity to formerly glaciated areas. Population expansion for lineages found east of the Mississippi River occurred earlier and was much greater than those found west of the River. PMID:18093846

Burbrink, Frank T; Fontanella, Frank; Alexander Pyron, R; Guiher, Timothy J; Jimenez, Cynthia

2007-11-09

90

Rabbit knee model of post-traumatic joint contractures: the long-term natural history of motion loss and myofibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to describe the natural history of motion loss with time and myofibroblast numbers in a rabbit knee model of post-traumatic joint contractures. Twenty-eight skeletally mature New Zealand White female rabbits had five-mm-squares of cortical bone removed from the medial and lateral femoral condyles of the right knee. A Kirschner wire (K-wire) was used to immobilize the knee

Kevin A. Hildebrand; Craig Sutherland; Mei Zhang

2004-01-01

91

Joint inversion of InSAR and teleseismic data for the slip history of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slip history of the Izmit earthquake is investigated by jointly inverting SAR and teleseismic data with a multi-segment, variable-slip, finite fault model. Surface offsets are used as an added constraint. The highest slip values (5 to 7 m of right-lateral displacement) are associated with a strong central asperity surrounding the hypocenter. The bilateral breaking of this main asperity, which

B. Delouis; P. Lundgren; J. Salichon; D. Giardini

2000-01-01

92

Inferring contemporary levels of gene flow and demographic history in a local population of the leaf beetle Gonioctena olivacea from mitochondrial DNA sequence variation.  

PubMed

We have studied mitochondrial DNA variation in a local population of the leaf beetle species Gonioctena olivacea, to check whether its apparent low dispersal behaviour affects its pattern of genetic variation at a small geographical scale. We have sampled 10 populations of G. olivacea within a rectangle of 5 x 2 km in the Belgian Ardennes, as well as five populations located approximately along a straight line of 30 km and separated by distances of 3-12 km. For each sampled individual (8-19 per population), a fragment of the mtDNA control region was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and sequenced. Sequence data were analysed to test whether significant genetic differentiation could be detected among populations separated by such relatively short distances. The reconstructed genealogy of the mitochondrial haplotypes was also used to investigate the demographic history of these populations. Computer simulations of the evolution of populations were conducted to assess the minimum amount of gene flow that is necessary to explain the observed pattern of variation in the samples. Results show that migration among populations included in the rectangle of 5 x 2 km is substantial, and probably involves the occurrence of dispersal flights. This appears difficult to reconcile with the results of a previous ecological field study that concluded that most of this species dispersal occurs by walking. While sufficient migration to homogenize genetic diversity occurs among populations separated by distances of a few hundred metres to a few kilometres, distances greater than 5 km results in contrast in strong differentiation among populations, suggesting that migration is drastically reduced on such distances. Finally, the results of coalescent simulations suggest that the star-like genealogy inferred from the mtDNA sequence data is fully compatible with a past demographic expansion. However, a metapopulation structure alone (without the need to invoke a population expansion event) cannot be dismissed as the cause of this star shape. PMID:15836639

Mardulyn, Patrick; Milinkovitch, Michel C

2005-05-01

93

Comparative genetic analyses of historical and contemporary collections highlight contrasting demographic histories for the bumble bees Bombus pensylvanicus and B. impatiens in Illinois.  

PubMed

Direct comparison of genetic patterns between museum specimens and contemporary collections can be a powerful approach for detecting recent demographic changes. Using microsatellite markers, we examined historical and contemporary genetic variation from an apparently declining bumble bee species, Bombus pensylvanicus, and from a stable species, Bombus impatiens, in central Illinois. For each species, we genotyped specimens from the Illinois Natural History Survey collected from three populations between 1969-1972 and from a resurvey of the same areas conducted in 2008. Population structure in B. pensylvanicus increased markedly over the last four decades (from theta(ST) = 0.001 to 0.027) while no structure was detected in B. impatiens for either time period (theta(ST) = -0.006 to -0.003). Changes in genetic diversity were not significant for either species, although small reductions were observed for B. pensylvanicus in all three populations. Coalescent simulations incorporating both contemporary and historical samples suggest that this small change is not surprising for recent population declines, as large reductions in genetic diversity were only apparent under the most severe bottleneck scenarios. These results demonstrate how comparisons of genetic patterns between temporal periods and species can help elucidate potential threats to population health and suggest several strategies that might be useful in the conservation of B. pensylvanicus in the Midwestern USA. PMID:19344350

Lozier, Jeffrey D; Cameron, Sydney A

2009-05-01

94

Population structure analyses and demographic history of the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles albimanus is an important malaria vector in some areas throughout its distribution in the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia, covering three biogeographic zones of the neotropical region, Maracaibo, Magdalena and Chocó. Methods This study was conducted to estimate intra-population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of An. albimanus populations because knowledge of vector population structure is a useful tool to guide malaria control programmes. Analyses were based on mtDNA COI gene sequences and four microsatellite loci of individuals collected in eight populations from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Colombia. Results Two distinctive groups were consistently detected corresponding to COI haplotypes from each region. A star-shaped statistical parsimony network, significant and unimodal mismatch distribution, and significant negative neutrality tests together suggest a past demographic expansion or a selective sweep in An. albimanus from the Caribbean coast approximately 21,994 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Overall moderate to low genetic differentiation was observed between populations within each region. However, a significant level of differentiation among the populations closer to Buenaventura in the Pacific region was observed. The isolation by distance model best explained genetic differentiation among the Caribbean region localities: Los Achiotes, Santa Rosa de Lima and Moñitos, but it could not explain the genetic differentiation observed between Turbo (Magdalena providence), and the Pacific region localities (Nuquí, Buenaventura, Tumaco). The patterns of differentiation in the populations from the different biogeographic provinces could not be entirely attributed to isolation by distance. Conclusion The data provide evidence for limited past gene flow between the Caribbean and the Pacific regions, as estimated by mtDNA sequences and current gene flow patterns among An. albimanus populations as measured by MS loci which may be mainly influenced by semi-permeable natural barriers in each biogeographical region that lead to the genetic differences and effective population sizes detected. The relatively high genetic differentiation in the port city of Buenaventura may be the result of specific ecological conditions, human migration and activities and/or differences in effective population sizes. This knowledge could serve to evaluate and coordinate vector control strategies in these regions of Colombia.

2009-01-01

95

Joint Cockpit Office: history and role in defense-wide issues regarding avionics displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charter of the Joint Cockpit Office (JCO) is to plan, coordinate and accelerate the transition of advanced development cockpit\\/crew station technologies critical to crew effectiveness in current and future air vehicles. The JCO helps assure a single, coordinated, and highly integrated cockpit\\/crew station Science and Technology (S&T) program within and between the Air Force, the Army, and the Navy.

John C. O'Connor; William A. Kraemer

2000-01-01

96

Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects.

Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

2013-01-01

97

Demographic Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

98

Early traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Bulgaria: A joint analysis of marital and non-marital union formation, 1960–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore trends in first-union formation in Bulgaria from 1960, using data from the national Gender and Generations Survey of 2004. We analyse jointly the transition into cohabitation and directly into marriage. The standardized marriage rate falls dramatically from the early 1980s; the corresponding rate of entry into cohabitation has already increased from the early 1960s but (surprisingly) falls moderately

Jan M. Hoem; Dora Kostova

2008-01-01

99

Conservation genetics of a rare Gerbil species: a comparison of the population genetic structures and demographic histories of the locally rare Pygmy Gerbil and the common Anderson's Gerbil  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is identifying rare species and devising management plans to protect them while also sustaining their genetic diversity. However, in attempting a broad understanding of rarity, single-species studies provide limited insights because they do not reveal whether the factors that affect rare species differ from those that affect more common species. To illustrate this important concept and to arrive at a better understanding of the form of rarity characterizing the rare Gerbillus henleyi, we explored its population genetic structure alongside that of the locally common Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi. We trapped gerbils in several locations in Israel's western and inner Negev sand dunes. We then extracted DNA from ear samples, and amplified two mitochondrial sequences: the control region (CR) and the cytochrome oxidase 2 gene (CO2). Results Nucleotide diversity was low for all sequences, especially for the CR of G. a. allenbyi, which showed no diversity. We could not detect any significant population genetic structure in G. henleyi. In contrast, G. a. allenbyi's CO2 sequence showed significant population genetic structure. Pairwise PhiPT comparisons showed low values for G. henleyi but high values for G. a. allenbyi. Analysis of the species' demographic history indicated that G. henleyi's population size has not changed recently, and is under the influence of an ongoing bottleneck. The same analysis for G. a. allenbyi showed that this species has undergone a recent population expansion. Conclusions Comparing the two species, the populations of G. a. allenbyi are more isolated from each other, likely due to the high habitat specificity characterizing this species. The bottleneck pattern found in G. henleyi may be the result of competition with larger gerbil species. This result, together with the broad habitat use and high turnover rate characterizing G. henleyi, may explain the low level of differentiation among its populations. The evidence for a recent population expansion of G. a. allenbyi fits well with known geomorphological data about the formation of the Negev sand dunes and paleontological data about this species' expansion throughout the Levant. In conclusion, we suggest that adopting a comparative approach as presented here can markedly improve our understanding of the causes and effects of rarity, which in turn can allow us to better protect biodiversity patterns.

2010-01-01

100

Joint Inference of Microsatellite Mutation Models, Population History and Genealogies Using Transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

PubMed Central

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of ? estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example.

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J.

2011-01-01

101

Joint inference of microsatellite mutation models, population history and genealogies using transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo.  

PubMed

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example. PMID:21385725

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J

2011-03-08

102

Demographic transition and demographic imbalance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming decades, there will be growing demographic disparity in India and, like economic disparity, this should be a matter of serious concern for our planners and policy-makers. This demographic disparity leading to demographic imbalance may cause considerable social turbulence and may even pose a threat to political stability. Demographers must look far beyond demographic statistics and anticipate the

Ashish Bose

103

The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: joint measurements of the expansion and growth history at z < 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a joint determination of the distance-redshift relation and cosmic expansion rate at redshifts z = 0.44, 0.6 and 0.73 by combining measurements of the baryon acoustic peak and Alcock-Paczynski distortion from galaxy clustering in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, using a large ensemble of mock catalogues to calculate the covariance between the measurements. We find that DA(z) = (1205 ± 114, 1380 ± 95, 1534 ± 107) Mpc and H(z) = (82.6 ± 7.8, 87.9 ± 6.1, 97.3 ± 7.0) km s-1 Mpc-1 at these three redshifts. Further combining our results with other baryon acoustic oscillation and distant supernovae data sets, we use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain technique to determine the evolution of the Hubble parameter H(z) as a stepwise function in nine redshift bins of width ?z = 0.1, also marginalizing over the spatial curvature. Our measurements of H(z), which have precision better than 7 per cent in most redshift bins, are consistent with the expansion history predicted by a cosmological constant dark energy model, in which the expansion rate accelerates at redshift z < 0.7.

Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J.; Li, I.-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D. Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K.; Yee, H. K. C.

2012-09-01

104

Evaluating the demographic history of the Seychelles kestrel ( Falco araea): Genetic evidence for recovery from a population bottleneck following minimal conservation management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important requirement for biologists conserving vulnerable species of wildlife and managing genetic problems associated with small population size is to evaluate existing evidence regarding what is known of a species’ recent population history. For endemic island species in particular, current genetic impoverishment could be due to either a recent population crash or a consequence of an evolutionary history of

Jim J. Groombridge; Deborah A. Dawson; Terry Burke; Robert Prys-Jones; M. de L. Brooke; Nirmal Shah

2009-01-01

105

Antitumor necrosis factor therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a history of deep prosthetic joint infection: a report of four cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four rheumatoid arthritis patients (three women and one man) who had a history of prosthetic joint infection were treated\\u000a with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents after treatment of the infection. The anti-TNF therapy was subsequently discontinued\\u000a in three patients. The reason for discontinuation was not the reactivation of infection, but disseminated tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, and interstitial pneumonia, respectively. These

Yuji Hirano; Toshihisa Kojima; Yasuhide Kanayama; Tomone Shioura; Masatoshi Hayashi; Seiji Tsuboi; Naoki Ishiguro

106

Phylogeography and Demographic History of Chinese Black-Spotted Frog Populations (Pelophylax nigromaculata): Evidence for Independent Refugia Expansion and Secondary Contact  

PubMed Central

Background Pleistocene glaciations had considerable impact on phylogeographic patterns within and among closely related species of many vertebrates. Compared to Europe and North America, research on the phylogeography of vertebrates in East Asia, particularly in China, remains limited. The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) is a widespread species in East Asia. The wide distribution of this species in China makes it an ideal model for the study of palaeoclimatic effects on vertebrates in East Asia. Our previous studies of P. nigromaculata revealed significant subdivisions between the northeast China populations and populations in other regions of the mainland. In the present study, we aim to see whether the deepest splits among lineages and perhaps subsequent genealogical divisions are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene origin and whether clade geographic distributions, with insight into expansion patterns, are similarly spatially consistent with this model. Results Using 1143 nucleotides of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 262 individuals sampled from 28 localities, two main clades (clade A and clade B) differing by c. 7.72% sequence divergence were defined from parsimony analyses. The corresponding timing of lineage divergence, 0.92 Mya, indicates a most likely Pleistocene split. The A clade is further subdivided into two sub-clades, A1 and A2 with 1.22% sequence divergence. Nested clade phylogeographical and population demographic analyses suggested that the current distribution of this frog species was the result of range expansion from two independent refugia during the last interglacial period. We discovered a population within which haplotype lineages A and B of P. nigromaculata coexist in the Dongliao area of China by nucleotide sequences, PCR-RFLP and ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) patterns. The ISSR result in particular supported divergence between the mitochondrial clades A and B and implied introgressive gene flow between the two divergent lineages. Conclusion Nested clade phylogeographical and population demographic analyses indicate that the current distribution of P. nigromaculata is the result of range expansion from two independent refugia during the last interglacial period in late Pleistocene. One refugium was in east China and the lower elevations of south-western plateau. The distribution of the other mitochondrial clade is consistent with the presence of a refugium in the Korean Peninsula. The gene flow as detected by ISSR markers suggests a range expansion of the two refugia and a secondary contact between the two highly divergent lineages in the Dongliao (DL) area of northeast China.

2008-01-01

107

Demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar: a 15-year perspective.  

PubMed

Over 15 field seasons (1987-2001), we collected census and life-history data on a population of individually identified ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. No significant difference was found in population size over the study period, though a marked decline in the population occurred following a 2-year drought. The population rebounded rapidly after the immediate postdrought period. There was nearly a complete replacement of individuals over the study period. Average group size is 11.5 animals, and adult male to female sex ratio is 0.92. Most females reproduce annually, and the average fecundity rate is 84.3%. The greatest variability in fecundity is found among old females. We suggest that ring-tailed lemur females follow an "income breeding" strategy, i.e., females use maximum resources during reproduction rather than relying on fat stores, as do "capital breeders." Infant mortality to 1 year of age in a nondrought year is 52%, higher than infant mortality in small to medium-sized anthropoids. The oldest known female was 18 years old in 2001. We suggest that 18-20 years may represent the maximum life-span for wild ring-tailed lemurs. Because males regularly emigrate from the population, we have no data regarding male life-span; however, there is some indication that males do not survive as long as females. Group fission has occurred three times: twice from one parent group living in the driest area of the reserve, with the most dispersed food resources. We suggest that the reproductive strategy that has evolved in this species, wherein females reproduce early in life and annually until old age, is a response to the unusual climate and environmental conditions under which Lemur catta has evolved. PMID:12541335

Gould, Lisa; Sussman, R W; Sauther, Michelle L

2003-02-01

108

Is it possible to make an accurate diagnosis based only on a medical history? A pilot study on women's knee joints.  

PubMed

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if an accurate diagnosis could be made concerning the knee joint using only the patients' medical history information. Only women were chosen for this study because of existing unpublished data on a cohort of 100 women with normal knees to act as a control (group I). From the 2,266 knee surgical procedures in the database of one surgeon, two other groups were selected. Group II was those women with only a torn medial meniscus. Group III were those women with only a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The medical history data of one half of the database were statistically analyzed to determine the questions that were the best predictors of each group. The medical history questions discovered to be best predictors were different from what might be expected from an individual surgeon's experience, expert opinion, or a medical consensus opinion panel, but the predictors did have a foundation in fact and are substantiated by statistical analyses. Using these predictors, a validation was performed on the other half of the database. When the top 142 predicting questions were used, the diagnostic accuracy was 98%; 98 of 100 of the "normal" group, 57 of 59 cases classified as having a torn meniscus, whereas 128 of 129 cases classified as having a torn ACL were correctly identified. When the only the 30 strongest predictors were used, the diagnostic accuracy was 85%: 100 of 100 cases were correctly classified as normal, 45 of 59 cases were correctly classified as having a torn meniscus, and 101 of 129 cases were correctly classified as having a torn ACL. This study demonstrated that statistical methods applied to medical historical data can make a differential clinical diagnosis of an unknown knee joint problem with high degree of accuracy and with statistical significance. In the future, computerized medical diagnostic instruments can be constructed using these statistical methods. PMID:9115560

Johnson, L L; Johnson, A L; Colquitt, J A; Simmering, M J; Pittsley, A W

1996-12-01

109

Rupture history of the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake by joint inversion of teleseismic data and InSAR measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied a joint inversion of teleseismic data and InSAR measurements, aiming at obtaining a robust rupture process and slip distribution of the 2010 Yushu earthquake, through reducing the trade-off between slip timing and location. With the condition of the final static deformation of InSAR measurements, the rupture history can be achieved with more confidence. Surface offset constraint is also applied to our inversion. Through synthetic data inversion we find that InSAR data can resolve better fault slip at near surface depth range of 0-15 km than teleseismic data; yet it has much poorer resolution at near hypocenter area, where teleseismic data has a relatively better resolution. Our final joint inversion results show that the 2010 Yushu earthquake has an essential rupture time around 20 s, during which 90% of the seismic moment has been released. Two peak energy releasing moments occur at 8 and 12 s after the earthquake initiation, respectively. The fault slip breaks the surface at most segments of the total 76 km fault model and the maximum slip reaches 2.2 m. We also find two peak-slip asperities, one at near hypocentral area, mainly distributed at depth around 10-15 km; the other distributed in a large area at the eastern segments at near surface. Our most robust estimation of the seismic moment reaches 2.30 × 1019 N.m, equivalent to a moment magnitude of Mw 6.9.

Zhang, Guohong; Shan, Xinjian; Delouis, Bertrand; Qu, Chunyan; Balestra, Julien; Li, Zhenhong; Liu, Yunhua; Zhang, Guifang

2013-01-01

110

The Rupture History of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake by non-linear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) occurred in the Central Apennines (Italy) on April 6th at the 01:32 UTC and caused nearly 300 fatalities and heavy damages in the L’Aquila town and in several villages nearby. The main shock ruptured a normal fault striking along the Apennine axis and dipping at nearly 50° to the SW. Most of the aftershocks are also associated with normal faulting, which is consistent with the present-day tectonic setting of this sector of the Apennines. The identification of the fault geometry of the L’Aquila main shock relies on the aftershock pattern, the SAR interferometric data, the GPS displacements as well as the induced surface breakages. The earthquake allowed for the collection of an excellent data set for normal faulting events. In this study, we have imaged the rupture history of the L’Aquila earthquake using a nonlinear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data. Our results show that slip distribution on the fault is quite heterogeneous and characterized by a small shallow slip patch located up-dip the hypocenter and a large and deeper patch located southeastward. The rupture velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. This difference can be partially accounted by the local crustal structure, which is characterized by a high velocity layer above the hypocenter (9.46 km) and a lower velocity below. The latter velocity seems to have affected the along strike propagation since the largest slip patch is located at depths between 9 and 14 km. The imaged slip distribution correlates well with the on-fault aftershock pattern as well as with mapped surface breakages. The rupture history is also consistent with the large PGA values recorded at L’Aquila that is located right above the hypocenter.

Piatanesi, A.; Cirella, A.; Cocco, M.; Tinti, E.; Scognamiglio, L.; Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.

2009-12-01

111

A Brief Demographic Portrait  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief demographic portrait, with particular emphasis on school-related issues, that points to the dire situation of Latino/a education. According to the 2010 Census, the number of Hispanics (the term used in government data) currently was 50,477,594 million, an increase of 43 percent since 2000, making this group the…

Nieto, Sonia

2012-01-01

112

Changing Hispanic Demographics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides a demographic overview of Hispanics in the United States. Information was drawn largely from recent census figures. The following highlights are reported: (1) Hispanic Americans are the youngest and fastest growing minority group, but they are also more likely than non-Hispanics to drop out of school, be unemployed or…

McKay, Emily Gantz

113

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

114

India: Demographics for Publishers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential demographic data and related information for India is provided specifically for the publishing industry. The\\u000a focus has been placed on the economics, education and computer industry in relation to the complex cultural factors of different\\u000a languages and religions. The role of India in relation to the other three BRIC countries or Brazil, China and Russia is explored.

Robert E. Baensch

2007-01-01

115

China's demographic dilemmas.  

PubMed

China's demographic dilemmas are discussed as the demographic surge during the 20th century, the demographic transition, the struggle to regulate fertility, population and development, and prospects for the future. Brief accounts are given of China's household registration system and the efforts in entry into the global economy. There are references, suggested readings, and discussion questions. Ample figures and tables express population growth, birth and death rates, fertility, sex ratios, population projections for these older than 65 and total population, contraception (IUDs, sterilizations, and abortions), abortion ratios, ethnic minority groups, provincial population data for 1990, schools and enrollment, health care resources, selected economic indicators, and availability of selected consumer items (sewing machines, watches, bicycles, electric fans, washers, refrigerators, televisions, radios, and cameras). Population planning has been successful in reducing the birth rate from 35/1000 in the 1950s to 20/1000 in the 1990s. 17 million persons are added annually. The projection for 2000 is 1.3 billion persons. The emphasis of the discussion is on the development and consequences of strict population planning control measures instituted in the 1970s and strengthened in the 1980s. In addition to curbing numbers, the measures have also led to a rapid aging of the population, a marriage squeeze, charges of female infanticide, and international censure. Population pressure is felt in urban areas, and in the labor force, education, and health systems. Industrialization has led to serious deterioration of natural resources. The gap between rural and urban population has widened. PMID:12286597

Tien, H Y; Zhang, T; Ping, Y; Li, J; Liang, Z

1992-06-01

116

Asians in New York City: A Demographic Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This demographic survey provides the following information on Asian Americans: (1) states with the highest Asian American population; (2) ethnic breakdown among Asians; (3) Asian immigration history and legislation affecting it; (4) individual immigration histories of Asian Americans in New York City (New York), including the Chinese, Japanese,…

Steingasser, Jean; And Others

117

Building demographic literacy.  

PubMed

Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school. PMID:12286890

Crews, K

118

Genetics & Family History  

Cancer.gov

In 2001 we conducted the Family History Validation Study, a telephone survey of 1,380 Connecticut residents, which assessed self-reported information about family history of cancer. The study also explored demographic, psychosocial, and medical factors associated with such reports.

119

Remarriages: A Demographic Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents descriptive statistics for remarriages, examining marital histories of brides and grooms. Notes that in 1988, 745,000 divorced men and 748,000 divorced women remarried; for each sex, 61 percent married divorced, 35 percent married single, and 4 percent married widowed partners. Concludes that marrying young was stronger determinant of…

Wilson, Barbara Foley; Clarke, Sally Cunningham

1992-01-01

120

[Contemporary medical-demographic processes in Russia].  

PubMed

Present-day trends in medicodemographic processes in Russia are discussed. Changes in population number, sex and age composition, share of capable and incapable populations, birth rate and death rate, and natural increment are analyzed. Local differences in the levels of natural changes in population numbers and in the structure of death causes are substantiated from a demographic approach viewpoint. The causes of present-day status of medicodemographic characteristics of public health are analyzed with consideration for remote effects of war loss, correlations with similar events in world history are traced. PMID:9235251

Tishuk, E A

121

Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

2010-01-01

122

PROSTHETIC JOINT INFECTION DUE TO HAEMOPHILUS APHROPHILUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of prosthetic joint infection due to Haemophilus aphrophilus is presented. A 76-year-old woman, with a long history of pain in her left hip and raised inflammatory markers, underwent prosthetic joint excision. Six samples of pus and tissue were taken from the joint and Haemophilus aphrophilus was cultured from 3 of these specimens. We review the clinical and microbiological

123

India's Demographic Change: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome

K. S. James

2011-01-01

124

Non-homogeneous infinite sites model under demographic change: mathematical description and asymptotic behavior of pairwise distributions.  

PubMed

We developed a mathematical model, which makes possible to predict joint distributions of numbers of mismatches in two or more linked regions of the genome, based on the Infinite Sites Models, under mutation-drift equilibrium as well as under various patterns of population growth. With mutation rates varying in the region, one of the predictions is different correlation between numbers of mismatches in the two regions, depending on the pattern of the past population growth (constant, slowly growing, or rapidly growing). Also, for slower growth patterns of population sizes, the coalescence tree is not necessarily 'starlike'. Thus, the joint distribution of mismatches, predicted by the model, provides additional insights into the demographic history of the populations. We also developed expectations and variances of sample statistics under different growth scenarios. As an application we used a sample of mitochondrial sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HV1 and HV2), representing major world populations (Europeans, Asians and Africans). The patterns of joint distributions of numbers of mismatches differ markedly from one population to another. In addition, there is a considerable variability in the proportion of numbers of mismatches between HV1 and HV2 sequences. The patterns of bivariate distributions from the HV1 and HV2 data in these data are consistent with those generated by the model involving a stepwise change in population size. PMID:11825592

Bobrowski, Adam; Wang, Ning; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Kimmel, Marek

2002-02-01

125

Social Demographic Change and Autism  

PubMed Central

Parental age at child’s birth—which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992–2000 birth cohorts—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents’ DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

LIU, KAYUET; ZERUBAVEL, NOAM; BEARMAN, PETER

2010-01-01

126

Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

Ulvestad, James S.

2011-05-01

127

Ceramic joints  

DOEpatents

Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

Miller, Bradley J. (Worcester, MA); Patten, Jr., Donald O. (Sterling, MA)

1991-01-01

128

Recent developments in the tribology of artificial joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of the tribological development of artificial joints compares how these are lubricated with the mechanisms involved in human joints. It is concluded that while healthy human joints are lubricated by fluid film action, all current artificial joints at best are lubricated by mixed lubrication and hence wear is taking place throughout the life of the prosthesis. A new

A. Unsworth

1995-01-01

129

Microsatellite Diversity and the Demographic History of Modern Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined differences in diversity at 60 microsatellite loci among human population samples from three major continental groups to evaluate the hypothesis of greater African diversity in this rapidly evolving class of loci. Application of a statistical test that assumes equal mutation rates at all loci fails to demonstrate differences in microsatellite diversity, while a randomization test that does

Lynn B. Jorde; Alan R. Rogers; Michael Bamshad; W. Scott Watkins; Patrycja Krakowiak; Sandy Sung; Juha Kere; Henry C. Harpending

1997-01-01

130

Enrollment Management: Demographic Changes. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Institutional Development and Technology and the Public Information Office created this report that identifies several topics of research in order to inform marketing efforts associated with enrollment management. The report is based upon demographic studies done at the College of Canyons to measure things such as changes in the size…

Gribbons, Barry C.; Meuschke, Daylene M.

131

Lurker demographics: Counting the silent  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online groups grow in number and type, understanding lurking is becoming increasingly important. Recent reports indicate that lurkers make up over 90% of online groups, yet little is known about them. This paper presents a demographic study of lurking in email-based discussion lists (DLs) with an emphasis on health and software-support DLs. Four primary questions are examined. One, how

Blair Nonneeke; Jenny Preeee

2000-01-01

132

The Demographics of American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the current demographics of American families and households and how today's families differ from those of the past. Of special interest to educators are those tables providing data concerning children under age 18, i.e., school age children. Specific data from the years 1950, 1970, and 1990 include: (1) the numbers of U.S.…

Outtz, Janice Hamilton

133

Privacy-preserving demographic filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of recommender systems in e-commerce to guide cus- tomer choices presents a privacy protection problem that is two- fold. We seek to protect the privacy interests of customers by trying to keep private their identity and demographic characteristics, and possibly also their buying preferences and behaviour. This can be desirable even if anonymity is used. Furthermore, we want

Esma Aïmeur; Gilles Brassard; José Manuel Fernandez; Flavien Serge Mani Onana

2006-01-01

134

Demographic Challenges in America's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document examines trends in the United States population since World War II, and projects a scenario of how demographic and economic phenomena may evolve over the next several decades. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1 introduces the volume and discusses generally some of the effects of the nation's transition to zero…

Butz, William P.; And Others

135

Hypermobile joints  

MedlinePLUS

... include: Cleidocranial dysostosis Down syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Marfan syndrome Morquio syndrome ... condition. A diagnosis is based on a family history, medical history, and a complete physical exam. The ...

136

Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)  

MedlinePLUS

... mean to have a “joint replacement” or an “artificial joint”? The abnormal bone and lining structures of ... When should joint replacement surgery NOT be done? Artificial joints should not be done when: There is ...

137

The California Latino Demographic Databook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the University of California-Berkeley's principal archive for social science statistics, this Website features selected data from The California Policy Research Center's publication, The California Latino Demographic Databook. The data are presented in the form of figures, tables, and demographic maps and cover such topics as the racial/ ethnic composition of California's population; percentages of Hispanics in California, county by county; Immigrants Admitted as Permanent California Residents from Selected Countries; Size of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Households by Nativity, Period of Entry, and Citizenship; Percent of Californians in Selected Occupations by Detailed Origin; and much more. The entire databook can be ordered from the California Policy Research Center through a link on the Website.

138

Explaining the Neolithic Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main questions are raised in this chapter.\\u000a \\u000a 1. The part of the signal of the NDT which is demographically identifiable, based on the proportion of the immature skeletons\\u000a in cemeteries, shows that a baby-boom occurred and, beyond that, with the onset of the change in the economic system, a fertility\\u000a transition towards high values also occurred. What was the

Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel

139

Lurker demographics: counting the silent  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online groups grow in number and type, understanding lurking is becoming increasingly important. Recent reports indicate that lurkers make up over 90% of online groups, yet little is known about them.This paper presents a demographic study of lurking in email-based discussion lists (DLs) with an emphasis on health and software-support DLs. Four primary questions are examined. One, how prevalent

Blair Nonnecke; Jennifer Preece

2000-01-01

140

Demographic models of the northern spotted owl ( Strix occidentalis caurina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Calassical demographic methods applied to life history data on the northern spotted owl yield and estimate of the annual geometric\\u000a rate of increase for the population of ?=0.960.03, which is not significantly different from that for a stable population\\u000a (?=1.00). Sensitivity analysis indicates that adult annual survivorship has by far the largest influence on ?, followed by\\u000a the probability that

R. Lande

1988-01-01

141

Septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acromioclavicular joint is rarely the site of septic arthritis. We conducted a retrospective review at our rheumatology department, which identified five cases within the last 6years. All five patients were males, and their mean age was 63years. Risk factors were consistently identified and included intravenous substance abuse, prior joint disease, a recent history of intraarticular injections, and a remote

Marie Bossert; Clément Prati; Ewa Bertolini; Éric Toussirot; Daniel Wendling

2010-01-01

142

Joint Operations in the Civil War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the earliest example of jointness in American military history may be the subject of an open debate, two campaigns conducted during the Civil War display characteristics attributed to joint operations today. The capture in 1862 of Fort Henry and For...

S. W. Stucky

1995-01-01

143

Demographic consequences of defeating aging.  

PubMed

A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations. PMID:20426616

Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

144

[Turning points in demographic trends].  

PubMed

A method for estimating demographic turning points using spline functions is described. It involves using a nonlinear least squares method to estimate the points in time at which such turning points occur. "The method is employed for assessing turning points in the trends of the numbers of live births, deaths, marriages, immigrants, emigrants and internal migrants after the Second World War in the Netherlands. In general the trends can be described adequately by specifying three turning points after 1950." (summary in ENG) PMID:12314081

De Beer, J A

1986-02-01

145

The Natural History of Osteoarthritis and Potential Causes of ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 1 The Natural History of Osteoarthritis and Potential Causes of Joint Destruction ... Page 4. 4 Potential Causes of Joint Destruction ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

146

RemarriagesA Demographic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents descriptive statistics for remarriages according to the combined marital histories of brides and grooms. In 1988, 745,000 divorced men and 748,000 divorced women remarried. For each sex, 61% married divorced, 35% married single, and 4% married widowed partners. On average, the grooms were 39 and the brides were 35 years of age, but those who married single

BARBARA FOLEY WILSON; SALLY CUNINGHAM CLARKE

1992-01-01

147

The history of AIDS exceptionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of public health, HIV\\/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond \\

Julia H Smith; Alan Whiteside

2010-01-01

148

Temporomandibular joint disorders in children.  

PubMed

A child's difficulty in verbalizing the precise location and nature of facial pain and jaw dysfunction often results in a nondefinitive history, increasing the importance of the dentist's awareness of the early signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). A focused examination of the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joints, and associated capsular and ligamentous structures can reveal if a patient's symptoms are TMD in origin. An accurate differential diagnosis enables timely referral to appropriate health care providers and minimizes the use of diagnostic imaging. PMID:23174613

Howard, James A

2013-01-01

149

Average depth of tarsometatarsal joint for trephine arthrodesis.  

PubMed

The trephine arthrodesis technique has been shown to be an effective method for various foot and ankle fusion procedures, with acceptable rates of fusion reported. The tarsometatarsal joints are an excellent example for this procedure because of the joint shape and soft tissue stability. The success of this procedure depends on many factors, but a large consideration is adequate joint resection. A cadaveric study to examine the joint depth of the Lisfranc complex was undertaken, allowing for improved understanding of the resection needed to maintain a stable plantar cortex while removing all apposing joint surfaces. A statistical analysis was then performed to determine the significance of the joint depth to available demographic data. A total of 51 limbs were evaluated for the depth of the first, second, and third metatarsal-cuneiform joints. The average joint depth for the first through third metatarsal-cuneiform joints was 32.3, 26.9, and 23.6 mm, respectively. The plantar cortex depth was less than 2 mm for the first through third metatarsal-cuneiform joints. The correlation between the length of the foot and the joint depth was statistically significant. Subgroups stratified by shoe size were analyzed for differences in joint size and were also statistically significant. A better understanding of the tarsometatarsal joint anatomy would benefit the trephine technique for Lisfranc arthrodesis. PMID:22192856

Ryan, Jay D; Timpano, Eugene D; Brosky, Thomas A

2011-12-21

150

Demographic manipulation in the Caucasus (with special reference to Georgia).  

PubMed

The author discusses political developments in the Caucasus region since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The focus is on the events in Georgia that led to the war in South Ossetia (particularly in Abkhazia), and the author suggests that this development is the latest in a 200-year history of demographic manipulation of minority peoples by the region's two major powers, Russia and Georgia. Parallels are drawn between the Georgian war in Abkhazia and Russia's war in Chechenia. The author questions the value of the principle of territorial integrity, and suggests that alternative principles safeguarding the rights of ethnic minorities would be more appropriate in these circumstances. PMID:12292909

Hewitt, B G

1995-01-01

151

Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhi?a district  

PubMed Central

Background In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. Methods Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. Results The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% <15 years in Manhiça and 42% in Maputo); with reduced adult males when compared to females (all ages sex ratio of 78.7 in Manhiça and 89 in Maputo). Fertility in Manhiça is at a similar level as in Maputo province and has remained around 5 children per woman, during the eight years of surveillance in Manhiça. Although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Mozambique has decreased during the last two decades (from 148 deaths per 1000 live births in 1980 to 101 in 2003), it has remained stable around 80 in Manhiça during the surveillance period. Adult mortality has increased both in Manhiça (probability of dying from ages 15 to 60 increased from 0.4 in 1998 to 0.6 in 2005 in Manhiça, from 0.3 in 1992 to 0.4 in 1997 in Maputo province and from 0.1 in 1980 to 0.6 in 2000 in Mozambique). Consequently, the life expectancy decreased from 53 to 46 in Manhiça and from 42 years in 1997 to 38 in 2004 in Mozambique. Migration is high in Manhiça but tends to stabilise after the movements of resettlement that followed the end of the civil war in 1992. Conclusion The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique.

Nhacolo, Ariel Q; Nhalungo, Delino A; Sacoor, Charfudin N; Aponte, John J; Thompson, Ricardo; Alonso, Pedro

2006-01-01

152

Evolutionary Demographic Models for Mortality Plateaus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plateaus in the age pattern of hazard functions at extreme ages have been discovered in large population of medflies, Drosophila, nematodes, and people. Mueller and Rose [(1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 15249-15253] have proposed several age-structured demographic models to represent effects of mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy on randomly evolving schedules of demographic rates. They assert that \\

Kenneth W. Wachter

1999-01-01

153

Attention, Demographics, and the Stock Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do investors pay enough attention to long-term fundamentals? We consider the case of demographic information. Cohort size fluctuations produce forecastable demand changes for age-sensitive sectors, such as toys, bicycles, beer, life insurance, and nursing homes. These demand changes are predictable once a specific cohort is born. We use lagged consumption and demographic data to forecast future consumption demand growth induced

Stefano DellaVigna; Joshua M. Pollet

2005-01-01

154

Inferring Demographic Attributes of Anonymous Internet Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today it is quite common for web page content to include an advertisement. Since advertisers often want to target their message to people with certain demographic attributes, the anonymity of Internet users poses a special problem for them. The purpose of the present research is to find an effective way to infer demographic information (e.g. gender, age or income) about

Dan Murray; Kevan Durrell

2000-01-01

155

Demographic challenges, fiscal sustainability and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates over the economic effects of demographic change have been raging for over 200 years. Since Thomas Malthus hypothesised in 1798 that rapid population growth would stretch the earth’s resources beyond the breaking point, leading to mass starvation and death, demographers and economists have argued: first, about whether this would come to pass, and then, about why it did not.

David E. Bloom; David Canning

2006-01-01

156

Lifelong Learning and Demographics: A Japanese Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising…

Ogawa, Seiko

2005-01-01

157

Rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world,

Alex de Sherbinin; Leah K. VanWey; Kendra McSweeney; Rimjhim Aggarwal; Alisson Barbieri; Sabine Henry; Lori M. Hunter; Wayne Twine; Robert Walker

2008-01-01

158

Demographic Faultlines and Creativity in Diverse Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the oft made argument that demographic diversity should enhance creativity, little is known about this relationship. We propose that group diversity, measured in terms of demographic faultlines, affects creativity through its effects on group members’ felt psychological safety to express their diverse ideas and the quality of information sharing that takes place across subgroup boundaries. Further, we propose that

Lisa Hisae Nishii; Jack A. Goncalo

2008-01-01

159

Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic

Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

2013-01-01

160

Lifelong learning and demographics: a Japanese perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the social dimension of lifelong learning from the perspective of demographics, with particular focus on the issue of the birth of fewer children, which has become one of the most important current social issues in Japanese society. When considering the relationship between lifelong learning and demographics, the issues arising from an ageing population are usually the focus

Seiko Ogawa

2005-01-01

161

Darwinian and demographic forces affecting human protein coding genes.  

PubMed

Past demographic changes can produce distortions in patterns of genetic variation that can mimic the appearance of natural selection unless the demographic effects are explicitly removed. Here we fit a detailed model of human demography that incorporates divergence, migration, admixture, and changes in population size to directly sequenced data from 13,400 protein coding genes from 20 European-American and 19 African-American individuals. Based on this demographic model, we use several new and established statistical methods for identifying genes with extreme patterns of polymorphism likely to be caused by Darwinian selection, providing the first genome-wide analysis of allele frequency distributions in humans based on directly sequenced data. The tests are based on observations of excesses of high frequency-derived alleles, excesses of low frequency-derived alleles, and excesses of differences in allele frequencies between populations. We detect numerous new genes with strong evidence of selection, including a number of genes related to psychiatric and other diseases. We also show that microRNA controlled genes evolve under extremely high constraints and are more likely to undergo negative selection than other genes. Furthermore, we show that genes involved in muscle development have been subject to positive selection during recent human history. In accordance with previous studies, we find evidence for negative selection against mutations in genes associated with Mendelian disease and positive selection acting on genes associated with several complex diseases. PMID:19279335

Nielsen, Rasmus; Hubisz, Melissa J; Hellmann, Ines; Torgerson, Dara; Andrés, Aida M; Albrechtsen, Anders; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Adams, Mark D; Cargill, Michele; Boyko, Adam; Indap, Amit; Bustamante, Carlos D; Clark, Andrew G

2009-03-11

162

Demographic diversity and sustainable fisheries.  

PubMed

Fish species are diverse. For example, some exhibit early maturation while others delay maturation, some adopt semelparous reproductive strategies while others are iteroparous, and some are long-lived and others short-lived. The diversity is likely to have profound effects on fish population dynamics, which in turn has implications for fisheries management. In this study, a simple density-dependent stage-structured population model was used to investigate the effect of life history traits on sustainable yield, population resilience, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the adult abundance. The study showed that semelparous fish can produce very high sustainable yields, near or above 50% of the carrying capacity, whereas long-lived iteroparous fish can produce very low sustainable yields, which are often much less than 10% of the carrying capacity. The difference is not because of different levels of sustainable fishing mortality rate, but because of difference in the sensitivity of the equilibrium abundance to fishing mortality. On the other hand, the resilience of fish stocks increases from delayed maturation to early maturation strategies but remains almost unchanged from semelparous to long-lived iteroparous. The CV of the adult abundance increases with increased fishing mortality, not because more individuals are recruited into the adult stage (as previous speculated), but because the mean abundance is more sensitive to fishing mortality than its standard deviation. The magnitudes of these effects vary depending on the life history strategies of the fish species involved. It is evident that any past high yield of long-lived iteroparous fish is a transient yield level, and future commercial fisheries should focus more on fish that are short-lived (including semelparous species) with high compensatory capacity. PMID:22563455

Fujiwara, Masami

2012-05-01

163

Demographic Diversity and Sustainable Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Fish species are diverse. For example, some exhibit early maturation while others delay maturation, some adopt semelparous reproductive strategies while others are iteroparous, and some are long-lived and others short-lived. The diversity is likely to have profound effects on fish population dynamics, which in turn has implications for fisheries management. In this study, a simple density-dependent stage-structured population model was used to investigate the effect of life history traits on sustainable yield, population resilience, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the adult abundance. The study showed that semelparous fish can produce very high sustainable yields, near or above 50% of the carrying capacity, whereas long-lived iteroparous fish can produce very low sustainable yields, which are often much less than 10% of the carrying capacity. The difference is not because of different levels of sustainable fishing mortality rate, but because of difference in the sensitivity of the equilibrium abundance to fishing mortality. On the other hand, the resilience of fish stocks increases from delayed maturation to early maturation strategies but remains almost unchanged from semelparous to long-lived iteroparous. The CV of the adult abundance increases with increased fishing mortality, not because more individuals are recruited into the adult stage (as previous speculated), but because the mean abundance is more sensitive to fishing mortality than its standard deviation. The magnitudes of these effects vary depending on the life history strategies of the fish species involved. It is evident that any past high yield of long-lived iteroparous fish is a transient yield level, and future commercial fisheries should focus more on fish that are short-lived (including semelparous species) with high compensatory capacity.

Fujiwara, Masami

2012-01-01

164

The Effects of Joint Legal Custody on Mothers, Fathers, and Children Controlling for Factors That Predispose a Sole Maternal versus Joint Legal Award  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254

Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe; Sanford L. Braver

2001-01-01

165

Jointness: A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

JDEIS is the Joint Doctrine, Education and Training Community Electronic Information System. It encompasses a searchable Joint Doctrine Database, a Joint Education section that includes the JPME Prospective Research Topics Database, as well as award-winni...

L. Garder

2010-01-01

166

Germ banks affect the inference of past demographic events.  

PubMed

Continuous progress in empirical population genetics based on the whole-genome polymorphism data requires the theoretical analysis of refined models in order to interpret the evolutionary history of populations with adequate accuracy. Recent studies focus prevalently on the aspects of demography and adaptation, whereas age structure (for example, in plants via the maintenance of seed banks) has attracted less attention. Germ banking, that is, seed or egg dormancy, is a prevalent and important life-history trait in plants and invertebrates, which buffers against environmental variability and modulates species extinction in fragmented habitats. Within this study, we investigate the combined effect of germ banking and time-varying population size on the neutral coalescent and particularly derive the allele frequency spectrum under some simplifying assumptions. We then perform an ABC analysis using two simple demographic scenarios-a population expansion and an instantaneous decline. We demonstrate the appreciable influence of seed banks on the estimation of demographic parameters depending on the germination rate with biases scaled by the square of the germination rate. In the more complex case of a population bottleneck, which comprises an instantaneous decline and an expansion phase, ignoring information on the germination rate denies reliable estimates of the bottleneck parameters via the allelic spectrum. In particular, when seeds remain in the bank over several generations, recent expansions may remain invisible in the frequency spectrum, whereas ancient declines leave signatures much longer than in the absence of seed bank. PMID:23050602

Živkovi?, Daniel; Tellier, Aurélien

2012-10-11

167

Using Demographic Models to Determine Intrinsic Rate of Increase and Sustainable Fishing for Elasmobranchs: Pitfalls, Advances, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leslie matrices and life tables are demographic models commonly used to evaluate the ability of specific elasmobranch life history strategies to sustain given levels and patterns of fishing pressure. These models are generally density independent and provide an instantaneous rate of population growth for a specified set of life history traits that correspond to a specific population size. Many investigators

Todd Gedamke; John M. Hoenig; John A. Musick; William D. DuPaul; Samuel H. Gruber

2007-01-01

168

Differentiate or Die: Colleges Need a Clear Niche to Thrive in the Coming Demographic Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New England higher education is about to experience a decade-long demographic crisis unlike anything in its history. While the crisis will significantly affect all six New England States, it will be most acute in the three northern states, as the competition for qualified high school graduates begins to intensify. The New England states,…

Handy, Ty J.

2008-01-01

169

Demographic Processes Underlying Subtle Patterns of Population Structure in the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity (?), effective population size (Ne), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination

Holly A. Nance; Peter Klimley; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Jimmy Martínez-Ortíz; Peter B. Marko

2011-01-01

170

Demographic analysis as an aid in shark stock assessment and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of demographic analyses incorporating life history information on validated age and growth, reproduction, and natural mortality is proposed to gain insight into the population dynamics of sharks under a variety of scenarios and to assess their vulnerability to varying exploitation rates. This approach provides a useful framework for comparison with other currently used methods of assessment, especially those

Enric Cortés

1998-01-01

171

A Study of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Individuals Evaluated for Insanity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and demographic characteristics were com pared for 115 clinically evaluated and legally adjudicated on the issue of sanity. Prior history of schizophrenia, previous treat ment with psychoactive medication, absence of alcoholism, and completion of high school were all associated with individuals being clinically evaluated and legally adjudged insane. These and other findings were discussed with respect to the current

Richard Rogers; William Seman; Jan Stampley

1984-01-01

172

Economic, Demographic, and Anthropometric Correlates of First Marriage in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of marriage for the economic and demographic history of the nineteenth-century United States, there are few published estimates of the timing and incidence of marriage and no published studies of its correlates before 1890, when the Census Office first tabulated marital status by age, sex, and nativity. In this article I rely on the 1860 Integrated Public

J. David Hacker

2008-01-01

173

Temporomandibular joint involvement in ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Frequency of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has varied from 4% to 35%. It is more common in men and produces generalised stiffness in involved joints. Clinician should be suspicious of AS when a patient reports with painful restricted movements of joint, neck or back and with no trauma history. Conventional radiographic methods have allowed the demonstration of TMJ abnormalities in patients with AS, but CT is necessary to establish joint space relations and bony morphology. We describe a case of severe AS with TMJ involvement in a 40-year-old female patient and demonstrated TMJ changes on CT. A CT was able to demonstrate articular cartilage changes, disc- and joint abnormalities. Thus, if conventional radiographs in a symptomatic patient with rheumatic diseases are unable to demonstrate changes, CT can provide valuable additional information of the changes in the TMJ. PMID:23645650

Arora, Pallak; Amarnath, Janardhan; Ravindra, Setru Veerabhadrappa; Rallan, Mandeep

2013-05-02

174

[Syringomyelia and associated bone and joint diseases].  

PubMed

Syringomyelia can occur in patients presenting bone and joint diseases of various origins. When joint destruction of the shoulder or elbow produces little pain, a neurological cause might be involved. In this case, the disease history can be of utmost importance because an initial diagnosis of rheumatoid polyarthritis, polyosteoarthritis, or destructive joint disease can be misleading before the syringomyelic origin of the bone and joint disease becomes patent. We report two cases illustrating this association and the diagnostic pitfalls which can delay recognition of the syringomyelia. Better awareness of the prevalence of this condition should be helpful in establishing the diagnosis and in selecting patients who can benefit from neurosurgical treatment. The two cases presented here suggest that syringomyelia could be underdiagnosed in certain patients with an initially atypical presentation. A review of the current knowledge of syringomyelia suggests that arthroplasty is generally not advisable for destroyed dislocated syringomyelic joints. PMID:17534210

Alnot, J-Y; Rossarie, R; Welby, F

2007-05-01

175

Urban History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the development of urban history since the 1870s and describes the present variety of urban history studies. Current studies seem to focus on either macromodels and urban systems or on internal networks and densities. (Author/AV)|

Sharpless, John B.; Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.

1977-01-01

176

REAP Economic Demographic Model: Technical Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the structure and data base of a computerized model for projecting localized economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of new energy developments. The model provides baseline and single or multiple-project impact projections for a 15-...

T. Hertsgaard S. Murdock N. Toman M. Henry R. Ludtke

1978-01-01

177

Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

Calvin, Allen D.

1981-01-01

178

Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch (DBSB).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch (DBSB) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals, families, and populations by adding to knowledge about human population dynamics and their causes and consequences. The Branch's portfolio of ...

2007-01-01

179

Spatial Regression Models for Demographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While spatial data analysis has received increasing attention in demographic studies, it remains a difficult subject to learn\\u000a for practitioners due to its complexity and various unresolved issues. Here we give a practical guide to spatial demographic\\u000a analysis, with a focus on the use of spatial regression models. We first summarize spatially explicit and implicit theories\\u000a of population dynamics. We

Guangqing Chi; Jun Zhu

2008-01-01

180

Validity of summing painful joint sites to assess joint-pain comorbidity in hip or knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) have advocated the relevance of assessing the number of painful joint sites, other than the primary affected joint, in both research and clinical practice. However, it is unclear whether joint-pain comorbidities can simply be summed up. Methods A total of 401 patients with hip or knee OA completed questionnaires on demographic variables and joint-pain comorbidities. Rasch analysis was performed to evaluate whether a sum score of joint-pain comorbidities can be calculated. Results Self-reported joint-pain comorbidities showed a good fit to the Rasch model and were not biased by gender, age, disease duration, BMI, or patient group. As a group, joint-pain comorbidities covered a reasonable range of severity levels, although the sum score had rather low reliability levels suggesting it cannot discriminate well among patients. Conclusions Joint-pain comorbidities, in other than the primary affected joints, can be summed into a joint pain comorbidity score. Nevertheless, its use is discouraged for individual decision making purposes since its lacks discriminative power in patients with minimal or extreme joint pain.

2013-01-01

181

The joint allele-frequency spectrum in closely related species.  

PubMed

We develop the theory for computing the joint frequency spectra of alleles in two closely related species. We allow for arbitrary population growth in both species after they had a common ancestor. We focus on the case in which a single chromosome is sequenced from one of the species. We use classical diffusion theory to show that, if the ancestral species was at equilibrium under mutation and drift and a chromosome from one of the descendant species carries the derived allele, the frequency spectrum in the other species is uniform, independently of the demographic history of both species. We also predict the expected densities of segregating and fixed sites when the chromosome from the other species carries the ancestral allele. We compare the predictions of our model with the site-frequency spectra of SNPs in the four HapMap populations of humans when the nucleotide present in the Neanderthal DNA sequence is ancestral or derived, using the chimp genome as the outgroup. PMID:17603120

Chen, Hua; Green, Richard E; Pääbo, Svante; Slatkin, Montgomery

2007-07-01

182

The Joint Impact of Smoking and Exercise Capacity on Clinical Outcomes among Women with Suspected Myocardial Ischemia: The WISE Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Although extensive research has been conducted on both smoking and low exercise capacity alone, few studies have examined the joint impact or interaction of these two risk factors. We examined the joint and interactive effects of smoking and self-reported exercise capacity on subsequent clinical events (heart failure, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, and cardiovascular-related mortality) among women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Methods At baseline (1996–1999), 789 women completed angiographic testing of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and provided self-report information about their smoking history and exercise capacity as well as demographic and other risk factor data. Incidence of clinical events among the women was tracked for a median of 5.9 years; this analysis was conducted in 2008. Results In an adjusted survival analysis, women with a positive smoking history and self-reported low exercise capacity had the greatest risk of experiencing a clinical event (HR?=?7.7, 95% CI 2.3, 25.5), followed by women with a positive smoking history and self-reported high exercise capacity (HR?=?6.9, 95% CI 2.0, 24.6) and those with a negative smoking history and self-reported low exercise capacity (HR?=?4.9, 95% CI 1.5, 15.8), relative to women with a negative smoking history and self-reported high exercise capacity. Additional analyses revealed a significant interaction between smoking history and exercise capacity, such that (1) women with a positive smoking history did not experience an additional significantly greater risk due to low exercise capacity, unlike those with a negative smoking history, and (2) all women experienced a significantly greater risk due to a positive smoking history regardless of their exercise capacity. Conclusions Among women with suspected myocardial ischemia, the combined protective health effects of self-reported high exercise capacity and a negative smoking history remained significant after controlling for preexisting CAD severity and other established risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of studying behavioral risk factors in combination.

Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Olson, Marian B.; Bittner, Vera; Cornell, Carol E.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Eteiba, Wafia; Parashar, Susmita; Sheps, David S.; Vido, Diane A.; Mulukutla, Suresh; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

2009-01-01

183

The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.  

PubMed

Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. PMID:23623548

Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

2013-04-25

184

Demographic estimates from Y chromosome microsatellite polymorphisms: Analysis of a worldwide sample  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in microsatellites on the human Y chromosome have been used to estimate important demographic parameters of human history. We compare two coalescent-based statistical methods that give estimates for a number of demographic parameters using the seven Y chromosome polymorphisms in the HGDP-CEPH Cell Line Panel, a collection of samples from 52 worldwide populations. The estimates for the time to the most recent common ancestor vary according to the method used and the assumptions about the prior distributions of model parameters, but are generally consistent with other global Y chromosome studies. We explore the sensitivity of these results to assumptions about the prior distributions and the evolutionary models themselves.

2004-01-01

185

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-10

186

Chemical kinetic model of interfacial degradation of adhesive joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties of adhesive joints are degraded in the presence of water. The progressive decrease in strength has been attributed to propagation of interfacial crack. Water diffusion and stress distribution within the adhesive joint as a function of time has been modeled using finite elements in this study. The stress history at the interface displayed spatially invariant characteristics similar to

David C. C. Lam; Fan Yang; Pin Tong

1999-01-01

187

Low cycle fatigue strength assessment of cruciform welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the low cycle fatigue strength of cruciform welded joints. Tests were performed on 22 specimens of three different categories, namely full-penetration, partial-penetration and fillet welded cruciform joints. These tests consisted basically of imposing on each specimen a constant amplitude cyclic displacement history in the plastic range of the material behaviour.

João Ferreira; Carlo A Castiglioni; Luis Calado; M Rosaria Agatino

1998-01-01

188

History of the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program for the joint USAF/NASA CRRES mission. Part 1. From the origins through the launch, 1981-1990. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The history narrates the Space Radiation Effects (SPACERAD) Program from its origins in 1981 through the launch of the SPACERAD experiments on the USAF/NASA Combined Release/Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) on July 25, 1990 and the initial data results in October 1990. The SPACERAD Program comprised a coordinated schedule of space-and-ground testing of state-of-the-art microelectronics, together with new satellite measurements of the Earth's radiation belts. The goals for the program were to produce improved standards and procedures for ground-testing future space microelectronics and new dynamic models of the radiation belts. The history discusses programmatic, management and funding issues that arose in the course of its realization.

Liebowitz, R.P.

1992-03-16

189

Rural vs. urban utilization of total joint arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between patient demographics and hospital demographics on utilization of total joint arthroplasty in rural and urban populations from the National Inpatient Sample database. Any patient that was discharged after a primary total hip or primary total knee arthroplasty was included in this study. Results showed that rural patients living in a Northeastern hospital region compared to West, less than 65 years of age, females, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to undergo total joint arthroplasty compared to their urban counterparts. Rural patient were more likely to undergo total joint arthroplasty compared to their urban counterparts if they were in the Midwest and had Medicare as their primary payer provider. PMID:23541869

Banerjee, Devraj; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Novicoff, Wendy M; Scaife, Steven L; Jones, Braden K; Saleh, Khaled J

2013-03-27

190

Population momentum across vertebrate life histories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Koons, D. N.; Grand, J. B.; Arnold, J. M.

2006-01-01

191

Estimating demographic parameters using hidden process dynamic models.  

PubMed

Structured population models are widely used in plant and animal demographic studies to assess population dynamics. In matrix population models, populations are described with discrete classes of individuals (age, life history stage or size). To calibrate these models, longitudinal data are collected at the individual level to estimate demographic parameters. However, several sources of uncertainty can complicate parameter estimation, such as imperfect detection of individuals inherent to monitoring in the wild and uncertainty in assigning a state to an individual. Here, we show how recent statistical models can help overcome these issues. We focus on hidden process models that run two time series in parallel, one capturing the dynamics of the true states and the other consisting of observations arising from these underlying possibly unknown states. In a first case study, we illustrate hidden Markov models with an example of how to accommodate state uncertainty using Frequentist theory and maximum likelihood estimation. In a second case study, we illustrate state-space models with an example of how to estimate lifetime reproductive success despite imperfect detection, using a Bayesian framework and Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. Hidden process models are a promising tool as they allow population biologists to cope with process variation while simultaneously accounting for observation error. PMID:22373775

Gimenez, Olivier; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Choquet, Rémi; Pradel, Roger

2012-02-18

192

Demographic analysis from summaries of an age-structured population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.

Link, W.A.; Royle, J.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

2003-01-01

193

Canadian History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

School Libraries in Canada, 2003

2003-01-01

194

History Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to explore the various facets of history, and some of the world's leading museums have come up with a host of online multimedia tools to bring people into this subject that is sometimes erroneously perceived to be dry and uninteresting. The inventive people at the National Museum of American History have recently developed the History Explorer which allows those surfing the Web to browse through an interactive timeline of American history. The interface is composed of items from the Museum's various online collections, exhibitions and programs, such as Plymouth Rock and a world map from 1511. Visitors can zoom in and out through the timeline and its objects and also elect to toggle on or off various themes, such as "Arts and Culture", "Peopling America", and "Politics and Reform". Overall, this is a very well-thought-out tool for learning about American history and one that will engage a wide range of persons.

195

Demographic impact of vaccination: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination is one of the most powerful means to save lives and to increase the level of health of mankind. However, the impact of immunization against the most threatening infectious agents on life expectancy has been the object of a still open debate. The main issues are: the relative influence of nutrition and infectious diseases on demographic patterns of populations;

Paolo Bonanni

1999-01-01

196

Demographic and social correlates of psychogeriatric hospitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 100 psychogeriatric admissions to three Toronto hospitals was studied and compared demographically to the population aged 65 and over in the catchment area from which the patients were drawn. The aim of the epidemiological investigation was the definition of social groups at high risk for admission to hospital as psychogeriatric patients. Results showed that these high risk

H. E. Ross; H. B. Kedward

1976-01-01

197

Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

2010-01-01

198

State Differences: The Key to Demographics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This companion piece to a 1997 article examines United States demographic trends, such as diversity by age, "race" and U.S. Census racial classifications, wealth, transiency, suburbanization and sprawl, and immigration, focusing on differences among states and metro regions. Nothing, including achievement scores, social services, and financial…

Hodgkinson, Harold

1999-01-01

199

Safety Belt Use in 2003: Demographic Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results on the demographics of safety belt use from the 2003 National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), with particular emphasis on results that evaluate aspects of the 2003 Click It or Ticket campaign to raise safety belt use n...

D. Glassbrenner

2004-01-01

200

Religious Involvement, Audience Demographics, and Media Bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to investigate the influence of religious involvement (religious partisanship, religiosity, and religious service attendance) as well as demographic factors (sex, ethnicity, and age) on the perception of media coverage of a controversial religious issue. Contrary to expectation none of the religious involvement measures were significant. However a significant effect for ethnicity on participants' perceptions of media bias

Jack Glascock; Curtis B. Livesay; Thomas E. Ruggiero

2008-01-01

201

Demographic and lifestyle variables associated with obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg\\/m 2).Methods: Personal Information Worksheets were completed by 125 bariatric

Sheri L Worthy; Kristine Lokken; Kenneth Pilcher; Abbe Boeka

2010-01-01

202

Higher Education and the New Demographic Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Substantial changes in the current and future demographics of American society are examined, and implications for higher education are discussed, focusing on the economic benefits of higher education to different population groups and mixed results in the progress of minorities in educational attainment. (MSE)|

Outtz, Janice Hamilton

1995-01-01

203

Female sex offenders: Clinical and demographic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides clinical and demographic data on 12 female child sex offenders in the correctional system in Victoria. Information was obtained through clinical assessments completed whilst women were incarcerated or in the community setting and from sentencing comments. An analysis of this information revealed that the characteristics of these women and their offences generally fitted the profile of female

Pamela Nathan; Tony Ward

2002-01-01

204

Psychological and Demographic Correlates of Career Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent years have witnessed a growing diversity of career patterns, resulting from the relative decline of stable employment. In the present study of 1368 employed and self-employed German adults career pattern diversity was assessed using nine pictograms. The goal was to identify psychological and demographic correlates of these patterns and to…

Reitzle, Matthias; Korner, Astrid; Vondracek, Fred W.

2009-01-01

205

Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

2010-01-01

206

Prescription Drug Expenditures and Population Demographics  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide detailed demographic profiles of prescription drug utilization and expenditures in order to isolate the impact of demographic change from other factors that affect drug expenditure trends. Data Sources/Study Setting Demographic information and drug utilization data were extracted for virtually the entire British Columbia (BC) population of 1996 and 2002. All residents had public medical and hospital insurance; however their drug coverage resembled the mix of private and public insurance in the United States. Study Design A series of research variables were constructed to illustrate profiles of drug expenditures and drug utilization across 96 age/sex strata. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Drug use and expenditure information was extracted from the BC PharmaNet, a computer network connecting all pharmacies in the province. Principal Findings Per capita drug expenditures increased at an average annual rate of 10.8 percent between 1996 and 2002. Population aging explained 1.0 points of this annual rate of expenditure growth; the balance was attributable to rising age/sex-specific drug expenditures. Conclusions Relatively little of the observed increase in drug expenditures in BC could be attributed to demographic change. Most of the expenditure increase stemmed from the age/sex-specific quantity and type of drugs purchased. The sustainability of drug spending therefore depends not on outside forces but on decisions made by policy makers, prescribers, and patients.

Morgan, Steven G

2006-01-01

207

Arizona Indian Demographic Data: Needs and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this report on Arizona Indian demographic data are "an evaluation of several recent studies of Indian populations" and "an extensive analysis of methods for obtaining and maintaining accurate data in the future." Recommended methods by which accurate population data for the smaller reservations should be maintained are included in the…

Taylor, Benjamin J.; Helmkamp, John

208

Biosocial Models: Can Demographers Ignore Them?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accumulating empirical evidence documents the significant contribution of biological variables to the determination of social behaviors. More appropriate biosocial models may need to allow for causal relationships between biological and social determinants and for effects that are interactive, nonlinear, and discontinuous. Demographic surveys…

Casterline, John B.

1995-01-01

209

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

210

Demographics and The Behaviour of Interest Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we relate the very persistent component of interest rates to a specific demographic variable, MYt, the proportion of middle-aged to young population. We first reconsider the results in Fama (2006) to document how MYt captures the long run component identified by Fama in his analysis of the one-year spot rate. Using MYt to model this low frequency

Carlo A. Favero; Arie E. Gozluklu; Haoxi Yang

2011-01-01

211

Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view

Stefan Malmqvist; Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde

2008-01-01

212

THE DEMOGRAPHIC FORCES IN SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an exposition of the demographic forces in action in South Africa and their outcome in the form of the size, age and sex and ethnic composition, spatial distribution, growth and growth prospects of the population. Having found that inaccurate and incomplete information had been proffered in census enumerations and in registrations of births and deaths while vital statistics

J. L. Sadie

1978-01-01

213

Demographic Survey, Valley Forge 1777-1777,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study assembles data about soldiers in several states to inquire how the demographic profile of the troops evolved over a long and complex war. The report is a first attempt at creating a dynamic portrait of service in the Revolution. The study began ...

H. E. Selesky

1987-01-01

214

Demographics and leadership philosophy: exploring gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadership philosophy is explored through gender and other demographic characteristics in the Australian Public Service (APS), at the federal government level. Leadership philosophy is conceptualised as the leader’s attitudes, values and behaviour. Gender differences in characteristics of leaders (executives and middle managers) are examined in terms of strategic behaviour, management style, work-related values, adoption of information technology, perceived organisational morale,

Andrew Korac-Kakabadse; Nada Korac-Kakabadse; Andrew Myers

1998-01-01

215

Demographic and Health Survey 2001: Nepal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2001 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 8,726 women age 15-49 and 2,261 men age 15-59. This survey is the sixth in a series of national-level population and health surveys and the second comprehensive s...

2002-01-01

216

Demographic Covariates of Residential Recycling Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain information on recycling behavior for selected populations, demographic data and measurements of materials in trash containers and recycling bins were collected from a random sample of 87 residences in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia. The recycling efficiency (RE) for each household had a mean of 45% and exhibited a bimodal distribution characterized by 1 group of households with near-zero RE

Julie Owens; Sharyn Dickerson; David L. Macintosh

2000-01-01

217

A Model for External Demographic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A data-collection model is presented for the gathering of timely information on population demographic characteristics, as well as economic, educational, environmental, and social trends. First, the paper discusses the importance of anticipating internal and external changes and establishing priorities for resource allocation in the design of a…

Hall, Barbara Ann

218

Demographics of Household Attitudes towards Food Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature examining demographics of consumers most concerned about acts of agro terrorism or terrorism in general is limited due to inadequate data. A first effort to fill this information gap was made possible by a 2005 survey conducted by the University of Minnesota. The “National Survey of Attitudes of U.S. Residents about Terrorism.” surveyed 4,260 Americans. Results showed 31 percent

Rachael L. Dettmann; Thomas F. Stinson

2006-01-01

219

Joint Injection/Aspiration  

MedlinePLUS

... osteoarthritis. What usually is injected into the joint space? Corticosteroids (such as methylprednisolone and triamcinolone formulated to ... for producing inflammation and pain within the joint space. Although corticosteroids may also be successfully used in ...

220

Arthritis: Metacarpophalangeal (MP) Joint  

MedlinePLUS

... activities. Arthritis is the wearing away of the cartilage at a joint. Cartilage is the coating layer of tissue on the ... that acts as a shock-absorber. Loss of cartilage can lead to joint destruction and a shift ...

221

Large displacement spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

222

Endemic paracoccidioidomycosis: relationship between clinical presentation and patients' demographic features.  

PubMed

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic fungal disease endemic to Latin America and characterized by two clinical presentations, i.e., patients develop either acute/subacute or chronic clinical manifestations. The differences in clinical presentations are mainly dependent on the host immune response, but may also be related to demographic characteristics of some patients. In this retrospective study, 1,219 PCM cases treated between 1970 and 2009 in a university medical center, located in southeastern Brazil, were analyzed according to their clinical and demographic features. The most affected anatomical sites were lungs (63.8%) and oral mucosa (50.0%), with increasing involvement of these sites in accord with the age of the patients. Generalized lymphadenopathy (28.1%) and skin lesions (29.6%) were more frequent on the first decades of life. Involvement of the larynx (16.1%), gut (7.5%), spleen (4.7%), central nervous system (3.4%), bones and joints (2.2%), and adrenal (2.1%) were also variable according to the age of the host. The acute/subacute form of the disease accounted for 26.4% of PCM cases and, on a multivariate analysis, was inversely associated with aging (OR = 0.8 per year, P < 0.001), and directly associated with female sex (OR = 7.2, P < 0.001), mixed black and white racial background (OR = 2.3, P < 0.001) or black skin color (OR = 4.6, P < 0.001). Based on these findings, we have shown that host immune response, as well as age, gender and ethnicity may influence the clinical presentation of PCM. PMID:22928923

Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes; Martinez, Roberto

2012-08-28

223

LCAS/LSAS: A Brief History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief history of the Law School Admission Council and its work outlines its early role in aptitude testing, early organizational considerations, modern testing effort, and other services. A chart lists some law school applicant and student demographics from 1947 to the present. (MSE)|

White, Thomas O.

1984-01-01

224

LCAS/LSAS: A Brief History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history of the Law School Admission Council and its work outlines its early role in aptitude testing, early organizational considerations, modern testing effort, and other services. A chart lists some law school applicant and student demographics from 1947 to the present. (MSE)

White, Thomas O.

1984-01-01

225

PBS History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS has a "neighborhood" for history, to go along with its other subject and news based areas. PBS History is basically PBS web content related to broadcast series like Frontline, The American Experience, NOVA, and POV. There are also sections devoted to independent series such as The West, (discussed in the September 20, 1996 Scout Report), Thomas Jefferson, and The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century, among others. PBS History is divided into geographical, biographical, and teaching aids sections. It has a section on the Presidents series, and sections on Ken Burns' Lewis and Clark documentary and an American Revolution documentary.

1997-01-01

226

Collapsible mechanical joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanical joint that can be configured to be either flexible or rigid is presented. The mechanical joint comprises three members which are flexibly attached to each other with a cable. When the cable is tightened, the three members come together to form a rigid joint capable of withstanding structural loads.

Robertson, Glen A.

1993-11-01

227

Bolted Hybrid Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an analytical study of hybrid steel butt joints of A36, A440 and A514 steel. The joints were fastened by either A325 or A490 bolts. The studies were designed to determine the effect of various variables on the joint stre...

R. Kormanik J. W. Fisher

1966-01-01

228

Radioulnar joint fusion for distal radioulnar joint instability.  

PubMed

Each one of this small group of patients illustrates a rare indication for the radioulnar joint fusion procedure in distal radioulnar joint instability. The case histories tell of a last ditch effort to salvage function in an extremity crippled by painful radioulnar instability after excision of the distal ulna. The fusions healed slowly and two required repeat surgery to achieve union. Today we would routinely add iliac bone graft to the fusion area to hasten healing. Rarely indicated, this is a salvage procedure that is done after failure of other procedures geared to preserve the rotation of the forearm. These patients all had successful salvage of their extremities for activities of daily living, but only one returned to his labor job. All were worker's compensation cases in physical jobs. Two patients had had prior radiocarpal fusions, making them even more restricted in function. This procedure should be kept in mind to be used in the rare cases of painful instability of the distal radioulnar joint when traditional motion-preserving procedures have failed. PMID:1880172

Schneider, L H; Imbriglia, J E

1991-05-01

229

Climate History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This climate history website of the PALEOMAP project provides information on climates during past geological eras using maps and animations. Also included is a discussion of the methods used to evaluate historical climate conditions.

Scotese, Christopher R.

230

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... found at http://www.usa.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics About Us Weekly Update Genomics and Health Family Health History Genomic Testing EGAPP Implementation Reports and Publications Blog Podcasts ...

231

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

232

Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth.  

PubMed

Demographic heterogeneity--variation among individuals in survival and reproduction--is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research has elucidated the role of demographic heterogeneity in changing the magnitude of demographic stochasticity in small populations. Here we demonstrate a previously unrecognized effect: heterogeneous survival in long-lived species can increase the long-term growth rate in populations of any size. We illustrate this result using simple models in which each individual's annual survival rate is independent of age but survival may differ among individuals within a cohort. Similar models, but with nonoverlapping generations, have been extensively studied by demographers, who showed that, because the more "frail" individuals are more likely to die at a young age, the average survival rate of the cohort increases with age. Within ecology and evolution, this phenomenon of "cohort selection" is increasingly appreciated as a confounding factor in studies of senescence. We show that, when placed in a population model with overlapping generations, this heterogeneity also causes the asymptotic population growth rate lambda to increase, relative to a homogeneous population with the same mean survival rate at birth. The increase occurs because, even integrating over all the cohorts in the population, the population becomes increasingly dominated by the more robust individuals. The growth rate increases monotonically with the variance in survival rates, and the effect can be substantial, easily doubling the growth rate of slow-growing populations. Correlations between parent and offspring phenotype change the magnitude of the increase in lambda, but the increase occurs even for negative parent-offspring correlations. The effect of heterogeneity in reproductive rate on lambda is quite different: growth rate increases with reproductive heterogeneity for positive parent-offspring correlation but decreases for negative parent-offspring correlation. These effects of demographic heterogeneity on lambda have important implications for population dynamics, population viability analysis, and evolution. PMID:22073789

Kendall, Bruce E; Fox, Gordon A; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M

2011-10-01

233

Strength prediction of adhesive joints after cyclic moisture conditioning using a cohesive zone model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology to predict the strength of adhesive joints under variable moisture conditions. The moisture uptake in adhesive joints was determined using a history dependent moisture prediction methodology where diffusion coefficients were based on experimental cyclic moisture uptake of bulk adhesive samples. The predicted moisture concentrations and moisture diffusion history were used in a structural analysis with

A. Mubashar; I. A. Ashcroft; G. W. Critchlow; A. D. Crocombe

2011-01-01

234

Demographic impacts on landscape change – a conceptual view of global demographic trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic changes will not only impose new challenges on developing regions, developed countries, and countries in transition\\u000a alike but also will face changes in population without precedence during the next decades. In the latter the population will\\u000a age and in some cases even decline by number. Related to the ongoing demographic change more and more rural and especially\\u000a remote areas

Frank Swiaczny

235

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

2010-01-01

236

Avian Life Histories: Is Extended Parental Care the Southern Secret?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Most theories of life history evolution have been based on demographic studies from cool temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, where many birds either migrate to avoid severe winters or suffer high mortality if they stay. Life histories of species living in tropical and southern tem- perate regions are typified by smaller clutches, multiple nesting attempts, high levels of

Eleanor M. Russell

237

India: Opportunities and Challenges of Demographic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India is in the middle of its demographic transition. The 60-plus age group (elderly population) is projected to quadruple\\u000a by 2050, while the 0–14 age group (child population) remains stagnant. India’s population structure and distribution would\\u000a then closely resemble that of nations currently with a high aging index. The high index, as seen now in nations like Russia\\u000a and the

Suresh Paul Antony; P. C. Purwar; Neelam Kinra; Janakiraman Moorthy

238

Star Cluster Demographics. I. A General Framework and Application to the Antennae Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for understanding the demographics of star cluster\\u000asystems, and develop a toy model which incorporates a universal initial power\\u000alaw mass function, selected formation histories, selected disruption laws, and\\u000aa convolution with common artifacts and selection effects found in\\u000aobservational data. The model confirms that the observed correlation between\\u000athe brightest young cluster in a galaxy

Bradley C. Whitmore; Rupali Chandar; S. Michael Fall

2006-01-01

239

Demographic, Clinical, and Serologic Features and Survival in Forty-Eight Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and natural history of patients with systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc), and to compare them with those of patients with SSc and limited cutaneous involvement (lcSSc). Methods. The University of Pittsburgh Sclero- derma Databank served as the data source. Patients were divided into those who had no skin thickening (ssSSc) and

HADI POORMOGHIM; MARY LUCAS; NOREEN FERTIG; THOMAS A. MEDSGER

240

Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

2008-01-01

241

Digital History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Digital History website is a project of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, designed to educate scholars and the public about the new and fast-growing academic discipline that is digital history. The home page features a semi-globe with links to the different sections atop the globe. The goal of the site is to provide access to presentations of scholars, interviews with scholars, relevant current events and news items, as well as a bibliography of digital history resources. In the "Tool Reviews" link, a visitor can read a thorough review of two tools, a timeline, and an exhibit tool from MIT's SIMILE project on open source tools. In the "Public Lectures" link, accessible from the homepage, the visitor can view portions of ten different presentations by digital history scholars, with subject matter ranging from Malcolm X to the Civil War to the Humanities and the Digital Age. Clicking on the presenter's name will lead the visitor to the portions of the presentation available for viewing, as well as a biography of the presenter, and a "live-blogged entry" about the presentation. The "Project Reviews" link, accessible on the homepage, contains reviews written by graduate students about digital history projects. Academics with projects they'd like to see reviewed, are given a contact e-mail at University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

242

The influence of demographic stochasticity on evolutionary dynamics and stability.  

PubMed

We derive the frequency-dependent selection coefficient caused by "demographic" stochasticity resulting from the random sampling of opponents an individual faces during behavioral "contests" with other individuals. The mean, variance, and higher moments of fitness all influence the direction and strength of selection. A frequency-dependent trait can be stable when an individual's fitness depends upon an infinite number of contests with other individuals and unstable when it depends upon a finite number of contests. Conversely, unstable equilibria for an infinite number of contests can be stable when there is a finite number of contests. At stable equilibria for a finite number of contests, higher moments of fitness can outweigh the joint influence of the first two moments so that natural selection favors "within-generation" or developmental-trait variation (also known as phenotypic plasticity) contrary to the claim that natural selection always acts against such variation. We use second-moment estimates of the fitness functions in a diffusion approximation to compute fixation probabilities of competing strategies. These estimates are shown to be qualitatively consistent with those derived from simulations when population sizes are sufficiently large to ignore the contribution of higher-moment terms. We also show that explicit solutions to the diffusion approximation only exist for pair-wise interactions that lead to positive frequency-dependent selection. PMID:23810907

Shpak, Max; Orzack, Steven Hecht; Barany, Ernest

2013-06-25

243

Introducing Labor History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)|

Whitmer, John Dale

1997-01-01

244

History Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weider History Group publishes a wide range of military history magazines, including "America's Civil War" and "Civil War Times". They've also been generous enough to create this website, which offers a wide range of articles from their different publications. First-time visitors to the homepage may want to start out by taking a shot at the "Daily Quiz", which offers up a range of questions on everything from steamship battles to military operations in the South Pacific. Next, visitors may wish to click on over to the "Features" area, which includes articles culled from the magazines on Marine POWs, the Battle of New Orleans, as well as noted gunfighter Ben Thompson and his brother Billy. Moving on, visitors can also take part in the online forums where they can ask questions about battle tactics, the history of ground warfare, and the USS Ironsides.

245

Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations  

PubMed Central

Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli). Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears to be a typical characteristic of the population histories of African great apes, including gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos.

2011-01-01

246

Infant Joint Attention, Temperament, and Social Competence in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Infant joint attention has been observed to be related to social-emotional outcomes in at-risk children. To address whether this relation is also evident in typically developing children, 52 children were tested at 12, 15, 24, and 30 months to examine associations between infant joint attention and social outcomes. Twelve-month initiating and responding to joint attention were related to 30-month social competence and externalizing behavior, even when accounting for 15-month temperament ratings, 24-month cognition and language, and demographic variables. These results suggest that, in addition to associations with language and cognition, infant joint attention reflects robust aspects of development that are related to individual differences in the emergence of social and behavioral competence in childhood.

Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter C.; Acra, C. Francoise; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Neal, A. Rebecca; Meyer, Jessica A.; Pomares, Yuly B.

2009-01-01

247

History Repeating …  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans have had a long and varied history with beverage alcohol. Literature and images from the Temperance and Prohibition Movements survive today, although organized collections are few. The authors present an overview of web sites, research centers and collections, and printed guides to historical resources on American alcohol use.

Penny Booth Page; Meagan E. Toohey

2000-01-01

248

Oral history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home

Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds

2004-01-01

249

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

250

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Substance Abuse Disorders in a Medicaid Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N = 9,484) were explored…

Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

2010-01-01

251

Demographic challenges across the European Union Member States.  

PubMed

The Member States of the European Union are undergoing major demographic changes; these changes are slow but significant. The demographic picture in the EU-27 is clearer: population growth is mainly the result of immigration, fertility is far below the replacement ratio, and the population is growing older, which will be a key demographic challenge in many Member States. All the actual demographic trends will have consequences for health care systems. PMID:22767463

Megyesiová, Silvia; Hajduová, Zuzana

2012-07-01

252

Modeling and predicting community responses to events using cultural demographics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel capability for modeling and predicting community responses to events (specifically military operations) related to demographics. Demographics in the form of words and/or numbers are used. As an example, State of Alabama annual demographic data for retail sales, auto registration, wholesale trade, shopping goods, and population were used; from which we determined a ranked estimate of the sensitivity of the demographic parameters on the cultural group response. Our algorithm and results are summarized in this paper.

Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Hicklen, Michael L.

2007-05-01

253

An Assessment of the Demographic Transition in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Chinese scholars hold the view that demographic transition in China has been completed. Some even argue that the country has already entered a “post-demographic transition period.” Inspired by John R. Week’s reformulated perspective on demographic transition, this study examines China’s demographic transition with regard to five aspects: epidemiological transition, fertility transition, age transition, family transition, and urban transition. The

Jianjun Ji

2003-01-01

254

Patterns of demographic change in the Americas.  

PubMed

Considerable scholarly debate has focused on the nature of demographic change in the Americas before and after 1492. Recent research on human skeletal samples and related archeological materials suggests that morbidity and mortality were increasing throughout much of the Western Hemisphere before 1492 in response to increased population density, increased sedentism, and changing subsistence. The evidence suggests that after 1492 population reduction was caused not by continental pandemics but by localized or regional epidemics augmented by social and economic disruption. The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable Native American population recovery, fueled both by improvements in health care and changing definitions of "being Indian." PMID:1607184

Ubelaker, D H

1992-06-01

255

Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

Harper, Sarah

2012-03-01

256

Green decisions: demographics and consumer understanding of environmental labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis research examined the demographic profiles of Australian green consumers in relation to their satisfaction of environmental labelling. It examined consumers’ understanding of labelling and empirically investigated the association of demographic profile of consumers with their attitudes towards such labels. The results indicated that some of the demographic variables were significant, which is largely consistent with earlier findings by other

Clare D’Souza; Mehdi Taghian; Peter Lamb; Roman Peretiatko

2007-01-01

257

Demographic spatial genetic structure of the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used genotypes from six microsatellite loci and demographic data from a large mapped forest plot to study changes in spatial genetic structure across demographic stages, from seed rain to seedlings, juveniles, and adult diameter classes in the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia . In pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation among demographic classes, only seedlings were significantly differentiated from the other

F. A. J ONES; S. P. HUBBELL

2006-01-01

258

Demographic Dividends, Dependencies and Economic Growth in China and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's two population giants have undergone significant, and significantly different, demographic transitions since the 1950s. The demographic dividends associated with these transitions during the first three decades of this century are examined using a global economic model that incorporates full demographic behavior and measures of dependency that reflect the actual number of workers to non-workers, rather than the number

Jane Golley; Rod Tyers

2012-01-01

259

Indian Business Demographics: Some Elementary Lessons for Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing a very rapid demographic transition in the recent times. This process is likely to gain further momentum in the coming years. The impact of demographic transition on various socioeconomic and cultural variables has been extensively debated by the researchers. However, the implication of demographic transition on business environment is one of the least debated areas of

J Retnakumar

2009-01-01

260

Demographic Complementarities and Outsourcing : Implications and Challenges for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the implications of differing global demographic trends for Indias competitiveness in outsourcing and offshoring. It also briefly notes the implications of differing demographic trends among the Indian states. The paper argues that demographic complementarities with high-income countries provide India with one-time opportunity to sustain its growth rate and occupy all segments of global outsourcing and offshoring activities.

Mukul G. Asher; Amarendu Nandy

2006-01-01

261

Mortality decline and reproductive change during the Dutch demographic transition: revisiting a traditional debate with new data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\u000aAccording to classic demographic transition theory, mortality change is the key factor that triggers a decline in fertility. Research on this topic has mostly relied on aggregate or time series data. Since fertility is based on the joint decisions of couples when confronted with specific fertility-childhood mortality outcomes, a focus on the experiences of individual couples is needed. Recently,

Poppel van F. W. A; D. S. Reher; A. Sanz-Gimeno; M. Sanchez-Dominguez; E. Beekink

2012-01-01

262

Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 46th state, Oklahoma, presents its unusual history with the online version of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. The Encyclopedia was prepared by over 500 "university-based scholars and independent historians and scholars," and was a joint effort by The Oklahoma Historical Society and Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center. Visitors can click on the "Table of Contents" link near the bottom of the homepage to "Browse Entries Alphabetically", "Browse Entries Chronologically", or "Browse Entries by Subject". Browsing via chronology introduces visitors to Oklahoma starting with the "Precontact Era", through the "Westward Expansion" and on to "Twentieth Century to Present". Subject categories include "African Americans", "Farming", "Military", and "Petroleum". When searching, visitors will be taken to the Electronic Publishing Center Search Page, so they will need to choose the specific collection, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, from the drop down box, to confine the search to the Encyclopedia.

263

The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the Western Reserve Historical Society, this excellent online text offers hundreds of articles on the history of Cleveland. There are two categories of articles in the Encyclopedia, general entries -- short articles of 200 to 500 words -- and interpretive essays -- "longer articles of 500 to 4000 words that explore major topics in local history." Both feature numerous hypertext links to related entries as well as photographic images that can be expanded to full screen. (These images may also be examined in a separate gallery on-site.) The encyclopedia features an alphabetical as well as a subject index and can be searched by title, text, and subject. A Reader's Guide and a bicentennial timeline of Cleveland history are also offered as supplementary text. New articles are added on a regular basis.

1998-01-01

264

The History of the Christensen Mandibular and TMJ Alloplastic Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To inform the reader of the history of the Christensen mandibular and temporomandibular joint devices and the usefulness of the more recent generation of devices in the typical and atypical temporomandibular joint patient. Methods. The larger amount of data will involve the younger female patient who represents some 88% to 90% of patients with early to late TMJ disease

Robert W. Christensen

265

The Evolution of Transfers and Life Histories  

PubMed Central

Much of life history theory analyzes life histories of independent, isolated individuals, who grow, forage, reproduce, and die. However, in many species social interactions such as food sharing are a key part of the life history strategy, altering the energetic budget constraint. Transfers and sharing raise reproductive success and also alter the fitness impact of other aspects of the life history. We discuss a variety of traits and behaviors for which transfers are important, synthesizing results from a number of earlier papers. Topics include the U-shaped mortality curve, post reproductive survival, causes of early life mortality decline, why intergenerational transfers evolve and co-evolve with longevity, time preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual differences in transfers, menopause, demographic advantages of social sharing, and consequences of social sharing for life history evolution.

Cyrus, C. Y.

2012-01-01

266

Organ History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by Professor James H. Cook at Birmingham - Southern College, this site is an online tutorial that offers an interesting and interactive perspective of that king of all instruments, the organ. The site is divided into three main sections: The Organ and How it Works, Organ History, and Geographical Tour. In the first section, visitors are taken through a basic description of an organ, which then continues into a discussion of the various parts of an organ, such as the keyboards, consoles, pipes, chests, cases, and chambers. The history section begins with the invention of what is commonly understood to be the first organ, the ktseibios, built by a Greek engineer working in the third century BCE. The final section takes visitors on a chronological tour of the organ and its development throughout a number of countries, including England, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States.

Cook, James H.

267

Smart History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the headline "Art. History. Conversation.", Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker started the Smarthistory site in 2005 as a weblog that featured free audio guides. Since that time, the site as grown into a multimedia web-book "designed as a dynamic enhancement (or even substitute) for the traditional and static art history textbook." Visitors to the site will find several hundred artworks (along with videos and podcasts) organized thematically and by time period. Additionally, visitors can also use the drop down menus on the homepage to look for certain styles, artists, and themes that include "Image and Power", "The Artist as Professional", and "Bronze Casting". The videos are a real treat, and they include offerings like "Magritte's treacherous pipe" and "Mies's corporate classicism". Finally, visitors can also learn about making a donation to their group.

268

Lisp History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Graham, who identifies himself as "an essayist, programmer, and programming language designer" has posted on his website a collection of articles on the history of Lisp, a programming language designed by John McCarthy in the late 1950s. The articles discuss the Roots of Lisp, What Made Lisp Different (in particular, different from Fortran) and the Evolution of Lisp, along with related articles on other aspects of Lisp's history. Other sections of his website include articles on spam filters and essays on a variety of issues written from the perspective of a programmer, including one entitled "What You'll Wish You'd Known," which he wrote for a high school talk that never happened.

269

Naval History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of naval history is quite vast, especially considering that it is linked to the earliest days of warfare and stretches back thousands of years. Designed by Gordon Smith, this particular site details the history of various national navies during the twentieth century, with a particular focus on the World Wars and other military actions. Not surprisingly, visitors to the site will want to take a look at the areas dedicated to the World Wars, as the coverage of the role of various navies is quite good here. In these sections, visitors can learn about the various ships used during each period and also look at the campaigns and battles by year and by month. There is also a rather touching section dedicated to Gordon Smith's father, George Smith, who was lost in the sinking of the HMS Charybdis off the Brittany coast on October 23rd, 1943.

270

Demographic and health surveys: a profile.  

PubMed

Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are comparable nationally representative household surveys that have been conducted in more than 85 countries worldwide since 1984. The DHS were initially designed to expand on demographic, fertility and family planning data collected in the World Fertility Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, and continue to provide an important resource for the monitoring of vital statistics and population health indicators in low- and middle-income countries. The DHS collect a wide range of objective and self-reported data with a strong focus on indicators of fertility, reproductive health, maternal and child health, mortality, nutrition and self-reported health behaviours among adults. Key advantages of the DHS include high response rates, national coverage, high quality interviewer training, standardized data collection procedures across countries and consistent content over time, allowing comparability across populations cross-sectionally and over time. Data from DHS facilitate epidemiological research focused on monitoring of prevalence, trends and inequalities. A variety of robust observational data analysis methods have been used, including cross-sectional designs, repeated cross-sectional designs, spatial and multilevel analyses, intra-household designs and cross-comparative analyses. In this profile, we present an overview of the DHS along with an introduction to the potential scope for these data in contributing to the field of micro- and macro-epidemiology. DHS datasets are available for researchers through MEASURE DHS at www.measuredhs.com. PMID:23148108

Corsi, Daniel J; Neuman, Melissa; Finlay, Jocelyn E; Subramanian, S V

2012-11-12

271

Prospective demographic study of cosmetic surgery patients.  

PubMed

Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA (neurotoxins), fillers, and laser hair removal users were studied. The data show that the average private practice cosmetic surgery patient in this study is a married (67.5%), college-educated or greater (66.9%), employed (74.3%), mother (74.5%). In the fillers category, 50 percent of women were older than their partners, as opposed to 14.8 percent in 2008 Census data. Additionally, women were more educated and employed to a higher percentage than similar women in 2008 Census data. Data on motivations were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Data from this study show potential correlations with Census data norms in marital status and motherhood status categories, but not in the age in relation to partner, education, and employment level categories. Motivations of individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery will need further analysis in future studies. PMID:21103314

Schlessinger, Joel; Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

2010-11-01

272

Economic History  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The history of a region or people encompasses a multitude of aspects of social life: culture, religion, political institutions,\\u000a social movements, environmental change, technology, population—and the circumstances and processes of economic change that\\u000a the region undergoes. One does not need to be a reductionist in order to observe that the economic circumstances a society\\u000a experiences, and the processes of change

Daniel Little

273

River history.  

PubMed

During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

Vita-Finzi, Claudio

2012-05-13

274

Joint warfare system (JWARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.

A. Simlote

2003-01-01

275

Joint Seal Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three major experimental field installations of approximately 7 types of joint sealing materials were used to compare and evaluate the products of numerous sealant manufacturers. The sealants were placed in contraction joints (3/8 in. x 2 in.) which were ...

J. G. F. Hiss J. R. Lambert W. M. McCarty

1968-01-01

276

Joint remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second

Ba An Nguyen; Jaewan Kim

2008-01-01

277

Study methods, recruitment, socio-demographic findings and demographic representativeness in the OPPERA study  

PubMed Central

This paper describes methods used in the project “Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment” (OPPERA) and evaluates socio-demographic characteristics associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the OPPERA case-control study. Representativeness was investigated by comparing socio-demographic profiles of OPPERA participants with population census profiles of counties near study sites and by comparing age- and gender-associations with TMD in OPPERA and the 2007-09 US National Health Interview Survey. Volunteers aged 18-44 years were recruited at four US study sites: 3,263 people without TMD were enrolled into the prospective cohort study; 1,633 of them were selected as controls for the baseline case-control study. Cases were 185 volunteers with examiner-classified TMD. Distributions of some demographic characteristics among OPPERA participants differed from census profiles, although there was less difference in socio-economic profiles. Odds of TMD was associated with greater age in this 18-44 year range; females had three times the odds of TMD as males; and relative to non-Hispanic-Whites, other racial groups had one-fifth the odds of TMD. Age- and gender-associations with chronic TMD were strikingly similar to associations observed in the US population. Assessments of representativeness in this demographically diverse group of community volunteers suggest that OPPERA case-control findings have good internal validity.

Slade, Gary D.; Bair, Eric; By, Kunthel; Mulkey, Flora; Baraian, Cristina; Rothwell, Rebecca; Reynolds, Maria; Miller, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Lim, Pei Feng; Greenspan, Joel D; Dubner, Ron; Fillingim, Roger B; Diatchenko, Luda; Maixner, William; Dampier, Dawn; Knott, Charles; Ohrbach, Richard

2011-01-01

278

Handbook on dynamics of jointed structures.  

SciTech Connect

The problem of understanding and modeling the complicated physics underlying the action and response of the interfaces in typical structures under dynamic loading conditions has occupied researchers for many decades. This handbook presents an integrated approach to the goal of dynamic modeling of typical jointed structures, beginning with a mathematical assessment of experimental or simulation data, development of constitutive models to account for load histories to deformation, establishment of kinematic models coupling to the continuum models, and application of finite element analysis leading to dynamic structural simulation. In addition, formulations are discussed to mitigate the very short simulation time steps that appear to be required in numerical simulation for problems such as this. This handbook satisfies the commitment to DOE that Sandia will develop the technical content and write a Joints Handbook. The content will include: (1) Methods for characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation for typical joints used in mechanical systems and components. (2) The methodology will include practical guidance on experiments, and reduced order models that can be used to characterize joint behavior. (3) Examples for typical bolted and screw joints will be provided.

Ames, Nicoli M.; Lauffer, James P.; Jew, Michael D.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Gregory, Danny Lynn; Starr, Michael James; Resor, Brian Ray

2009-07-01

279

Transforming Logistics: Joint Theater Logistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective and efficient management of joint theater logistics is a challenge for theater commanders. Current doctrine for joint theater logistics management provides broad non-directive guidance for developing a joint theater logistics system that can opt...

S. W. Pate

2006-01-01

280

Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.  

PubMed

In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

2010-04-01

281

Economics in History and the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers presented by social scientists at a 1974 Joint Council seminar designed to assist authors and publishers in improving existing materials or developing new texts in social studies are reproduced in this volume. The seven papers focus on how to integrate economics into elementary and secondary social studies and history courses. The first…

Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

282

Demographic factors and playing variables in online computer gaming.  

PubMed

Despite the growing popularity of online game playing, there has been no primary survey of its players. Therefore, an online questionnaire survey was used to examine basic demographic factors of online computer game players who played the popular online game Everquest (i.e., gender, age, marital status, nationality, education level, occupation). The survey also examined playing frequency (i.e., amount of time spent playing the game a week), playing history (i.e., how long they had been playing the game, who they played the game with, whether they had ever gender swapped their game character), the favorite and least favorite aspects of playing the game, and what they sacrifice (if anything) to play the game. Results showed that 81% of online game players were male, and that the mean age of players was 27.9 years of age. For many players, the social aspects of the game were the most important factor in playing. A small minority of players appear to play excessively (over 80 h a week), and results suggest that a small minority sacrifice important activities in order to play (e.g., sleep, time with family and/or partner, work, or schooling). PMID:15331036

Griffiths, Mark D; Davies, Mark N O; Chappell, Darren

2004-08-01

283

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans. PMID:23274039

Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

2012-12-27

284

The Demographics of Women in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the status of women in astronomy we need data. How many women are astronomers? How does this percentage change with professional level? Do women have an advantage over men in hiring or other professional opportunities, or do men have the advantage, or is the playing field level? Using recent STScI and AAS surveys, I report the gender demographics in U.S. astronomy departments in 1999. Roughly 1/4 of astronomy graduate students are women, and this percentage decreases with rank, to 6% at the full professor level. Comparing to similar data from 1992, it appears that women fall behind men at the first transition, from graduate student to postdoc, but then keep pace with men in moving to faculty positions. (There is no sign that women advance more easily than men.) Interestingly, the percentage of women is slighly higher in the larger, better known institutions than in the profession as a whole.

Urry, M.; Marvel, K. B.; Blacker, B.

1999-12-01

285

The demographic transition theory. A teleologic reconceptualization.  

PubMed

The author attempts to demonstrate 2 points: 1) because people are self-concious and physical systems are not, conceptualization theories about people cannot be the same as those involving physical systems, and 2) misconceptions of the critics are responsible for criticism of the demographic transition theory (DTT). Developing countries are seen to be different from developed countries in 1) rearing of children, 2) religious class and ruling elites and 3) inheritance system. Kaplan's definitions and explanations of a theory dealing with the DTT and the differences between developing and developed countries are described. It is suggested that the DTT is supposed to be teleologic but has been viewed as mechanistic. The theory can only work in countries where the conditions included in the assumptions of the theory prevail. It was concluded that the DTT is valid and can be applied to developing countries if it is conceived in terms of teleologic ideology. PMID:12257744

El-attar, M E

1973-06-01

286

Demographic Trends in the 20th Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. population more than tripled from 76 million people in 1900 to 281 million people in 2000. The growth of 32.7 million people in the 1990s represented the largest numerical increase of any decade in U.S. history. The U.S. population grew increasin...

2002-01-01

287

Clinical and Parenting Skills Outcomes Following Joint Mother–Baby Psychiatric Admission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine maternal clinical and parenting outcomes as a function of diagnosis following joint mother–baby admission; to identify the associations of poor outcome.Method: Demographic and clinical information was collected on 1081 joint mother–baby admissions, including 224 women with schizophrenia, 155 with bipolar disorder and 409 with non-psychotic depression. Information was based on clinical judgements of senior staff in participating

Margaret Salmon; Kathryn Abel; Lis Cordingley; Trevor Friedman; Louis Appleby

2003-01-01

288

Life Histories and the Strengths of Species Interactions: Combining Mortality, Growth, and Fecundity Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive effects of one species on another may simultaneously influence mortality, growth, and fecundity. To quantify the strength of an interaction between two species, we must therefore use techniques that integrate these various responses into es- timates of overall effect. Demographic models of populations provide such a framework. Here we develop a demographic model describing the life history of a

Mark A. McPeek; Barbara L. Peckarsky

1998-01-01

289

The value of age and medical history for predicting colorectal cancer and adenomas in people referred for colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Colonoscopy is an invasive and costly procedure with a risk of serious complications. It would therefore be useful to prioritise colonoscopies by identifying people at higher risk of either cancer or premalignant adenomas. The aim of this study is to assess a model that identifies people with colorectal cancer, advanced, large and small adenomas. Methods Patients seen by gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons between April 2004 and December 2006 completed a validated, structured self-administered questionnaire prior to colonoscopy. Information was collected on symptoms, demographics and medical history. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously assess factors associated with findings on colonoscopy of cancer, advanced adenomas and adenomas sized 6 -9 mm, and ? 5 mm. The area under the curve of ROC curve was used to assess the incremental gain of adding demographic variables, medical history and symptoms (in that order) to a base model that included only age. Results Sociodemographic variables, medical history and symptoms (from 8,204 patients) jointly provide good discrimination between colorectal cancer and no abnormality (AUC 0.83), but discriminate less well between adenomas and no abnormality (AUC advanced adenoma 0.70; other adenomas 0.67). Age is the dominant risk factor for cancer and adenomas of all sizes. Having a colonoscopy within the last 10 years confers protection for cancers and advanced adenomas. Conclusions Our models provide guidance about which factors can assist in identifying people at higher risk of disease using easily elicited information. This would allow colonoscopy to be prioritised for those for whom it would be of most benefit.

2011-01-01

290

Demographic, Maltreatment, and Neurobiological Correlates of PTSD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the relationships of demographic, maltreatment, neurostructural and neuropsychological measures with total posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.?Methods?Participants included 216 children with maltreatment histories (N = 49), maltreatment and PTSD (N = 49), or no maltreatment (N = 118). Participants received diagnostic interviews, brain imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations.?Results?We examined a hierarchical regression model comprised of independent variables including demographics, trauma and maltreatment-related variables, and hippocampal volumes and neuropsychological measures to model PTSD symptoms. Important independent contributors to this model were SES, and General Maltreatment and Sexual Abuse Factors. Although hippocampal volumes were not significant, Visual Memory was a significant contributor to this model.?Conclusions?Similar to adult PTSD, pediatric PTSD symptoms are associated with lower Visual Memory performance. It is an important correlate of PTSD beyond established predictors of PTSD symptoms. These results support models of developmental traumatology and suggest that treatments which enhance visual memory may decrease symptoms of PTSD.

Hooper, Stephen R.; Woolley, Donald P.; Shenk, Chad E.

2010-01-01

291

Demographic change and marriage choices in one Carib family.  

PubMed

The demographic adaptation of a family of Topside Caribs along the Barama River in Guyana was studied. The family history included two grandfather and granddaughter marriages. Jack Raymond's father, who was born in 1870, left Bottomside after the death of his wife in the 1920s and settled above the falls of the Barama River (Topside in Sawari) with the hope of subsistence living off the rain forest. Information on the grandfather generation was made difficult by name changes, general references to all men in the second generation as grandfathers, and the focus on father's and mother's generation. The typical pattern was for brothers to live close by, and intermarry with a family of sisters. Female children married mother's brothers' sons or father's sisters sons. Their children formed their own cluster settlements. The early history indicated economic hardship, loss of wives, and difficulties in remarrying. The Baird chronicles of the reintroduction of gold mining and the ethnography of Gillin indicated that malaria and round worm were diseases affecting the indigenous population during the 1920s and 1930s. The Topside population was supported by the local gold-mining economy, while the Bottomside population suffered economic hardship and high infant mortality. In the Jack Raymond family, remarriage resulted in children marrying cross cousins. The younger daughter married in the 1940s, when subsistence production of cassava and hunting and gold-mining income provided the family's livelihood. The daughter had 10 surviving children, compared to her adoptive mother's two. For the daughter's generation, the first pregnancy occurred between the ages of 18 and 22 years, and birth spacing was 20-30 months for 25 years. Neither polygyny nor monogamy affected the potential for 12 children. In this Baramita Air Strip population in 1971, there were 62 mothers; reproductive histories were available for 59. The changes in reproductive patterns after 1940 were apparent: for example, a mean of 9.1 surviving children for women aged 40-54 years compared to a mean of 4.3 for women aged 55 years and older. The grandfather-granddaughter marriages were recognized as not the ideal, but were important to survival and society building, and later as part of population stabilization. PMID:12319067

Adams, K

1994-03-01

292

ASCO/FDA JOINT  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. ASCO/FDA JOINT LUNG CANCER PANEL 2002-2003 Paul Bunn, MD (NCE-Chair) University of Colorado Cancer Center Denver, CO ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess

293

Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doppler radar data acquired during the 1981 Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment are presented. Pulse-pair processed reflectivity factor and Doppler spectrum mean data collected during volume scan periods are displayed over constant height surfaces at aircr...

A. R. Bohne

1983-01-01

294

Joint fluid Gram stain  

MedlinePLUS

... and shape of the cells help identify the bacteria. ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a joint infection, for example, gonococcal arthritis or arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus.

295

Joint aspiration and injection.  

PubMed

Joint aspiration/injection is an invaluable procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. The knee is the commonest site to require aspiration although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining synovial fluid. Septic arthritis and crystal arthritis can be readily diagnosed by aspirating synovial fluid. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids produces rapid resolution of inflammation in most injected joints and is a well established procedure in rheumatological practice. The technique involves only a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used it is a safe procedure. This chapter addresses the indications, technical principals, expected benefits and risks of intra-articular corticosteroid injection. The use of other intra-articular injections including osmic acid, radioisotopes and hyaluronic acid, which are less universally utilised than intra-articular corticosteroid, will also be addressed. PMID:15939363

Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

2005-06-01

296

Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Standard is to ensure that the peacetime staffing requirements of the Military Health Services System (MHSS) provide quality medical care in a productive environment. The Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards (JHMS) provide the Department...

V. Melidosian

1989-01-01

297

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham

1991-01-01

298

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham

1987-01-01

299

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronic Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomenon is presented. Results of the research to date are summari...

M. Tinkham

1985-01-01

300

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in Electromagnetics, Quantum Electronics, Solid State Electronics, Materials and Devices and Information System is presented. In addition, results of the research to date are summarized and...

W. G. Oldham

1986-01-01

301

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronic Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics control and optimization and electromagnetic phenomenon is presented. Results of the research to date are summarized ...

M. Tinkham

1985-01-01

302

Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham

1986-01-01

303

Prosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status.

Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

2012-01-01

304

Joint remote state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second one uses a pair of EPR states as the quantum channel whose entanglement is not necessarily maximal.

Nguyen, Ba An; Kim, Jaewan

2008-05-01

305

Moving History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While it took many decades for some skeptics to realize the importance of maintaining archives devoted to preserving film and television programs, the movement has certainly gained a critical mass of interested organizations in recent years. One particularly nice online resource for such matters is the Moving History website, which serves as a research guide to the United KingdomÂs twelve public sector film archives. With support from BritainÂs Arts and Humanities Research Council, the site includes sections that describe each of the collections, along with a lovely selection of 100 film clips. The clips can be browsed by theme and host archive, and they include depictions of British Âholiday-making trips and segments from the popular British television series, ÂSteptoe and SonÂ. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of a set of links to related organizations, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists and the British Pathé Film Archive.

306

History Cooperative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the American Historical Association (AHA), the Organization of American Historians (OAH), the University of Illinois Press, and the National Academy Press, this site currently offers index and abstract access to issues of the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History. Full text access is restricted to members of the AHA and OAH, and to institutions that subscribe to the print versions. The site also hosts special features that will remain free to all. One example of this material is the multimedia essay, "Los Angeles and the Problem of Urban Historical Knowledge," which employs animated maps, photos, and other visual materials. Another example of this content is a searchable online version of the fourteen-volume Booker T. Washington Papers originally published by the University of Illinois Press. The volumes are presented in an adapted version of the National Academy Press's Open Book framework and may be easily browsed, printed, and searched down to the page level.

307

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOEpatents

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01

308

Extinction of populations due to inbreeding depression with demographic disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of population extinction due to inbreeding depression with constant demographic disturbances every generation\\u000a is analysed using a population genetic and demographic model. The demographic disturbances introduced into the model represent\\u000a loss of population size that is induced by any kind of human activities, e.g. through hunting and destruction of habitats.\\u000a The genetic heterozygosity among recessive deleterious genes and

Yoshinari Tanaka

1997-01-01

309

Case histories of successfully sealed expansion joints with polysulfide sealants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1930s, a polysulfide based sealant was used to seal the fuel tanks for Pan American World Airways` China Clipper. This was the first use of an elastomeric sealant based on a synthetic polymer and is the first in a long list of installations for sealants based on the polysulfide polymer. The good resistance of polysulfide based sealants

Fiorillo

1994-01-01

310

Case histories of successfully sealed expansion joints with polysulfide sealants  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1930s, a polysulfide based sealant was used to seal the fuel tanks for Pan American World Airways` China Clipper. This was the first use of an elastomeric sealant based on a synthetic polymer and is the first in a long list of installations for sealants based on the polysulfide polymer. The good resistance of polysulfide based sealants to petroleum products made them a natural to become the standard for virtually all aircraft sealants. Because of their good weathering resistance and elastomeric properties the construction market seemed to offer the next greatest opportunity. This paper will discuss applications and will show the versatility of these sealants to perform well in various environments.

Fiorillo, A.R. [Morton International, Woodstock, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

311

A safe joint with a joint torque sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a safe joint with a joint torque sensor is presented. The safe joint, named “Spring-Clutch”, is a simple passive mechanism that consists of a spring, a cam, and a joint torque sensor. When the torque applied is less than a pre-set threshold, the Spring-Clutch acts as a rigid joint between the input and output. However, if the

Dong-Eun Choi; Gi-Hun Yang; Junho Choi; Woosub Lee; Changhyun Cho; Sungchul Kang

2011-01-01

312

New plastic joints for plastic orthoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic joints for orthoses have more advantages than metal joints. They are lightweight, noiseless comfortable to use, rust proof, corrosion free, and radiolucent. Two types of plastic joints were developed by the authors, one for the ankle joint and the other for the knee joint, elbow joint or hip joint. Polypropylene was chosen as the joint material because of its

H. WATANABE; T. KUTSUNA; H. MORINAGA; T. OKABE

313

Demographic and childhood environmental predictors of resilience in a community sample.  

PubMed

Scientific investigation of resilient responses to stress and trauma has the potential to inform models of the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related psychiatric disorders (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder). Despite building interest in and investigation of resilience, many basic questions regarding this construct remain unstudied. This study contributes to the empirical literature on resilience by providing novel information on the distribution and correlates of stress resilience in the general community. A well-validated self-report measure of resilience was completed by a large sample (N=764) of respondents to a telephone-based community survey that also included questions about demographics and history of childhood maltreatment. Multiple regression analyses showed that several demographic characteristics (sex, education level, and income level) uniquely predicted subjects' resilience to stress and that, taken together, these factors explained approximately 11% of the variance in resilience. Reported history of childhood maltreatment independently contributed to prediction of resilience and explained an additional 2% of the variance in this trait. While females, individuals with lower levels of education and income, and individuals with histories of childhood maltreatment reported diminished resilience overall, the majority of variance in the resilience measure was left unexplained leaving much room for other variables to influence a person's resilience to stress. Relationships of the present results to other research on resilient and pathological stress responses are discussed, as well as implications of these findings for future investigations of resilience. PMID:19264325

Campbell-Sills, Laura; Forde, David R; Stein, Murray B

2009-03-04

314

INDICATIONS FOR SACROILIAC JOINT FUSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacroiliac joint fusion remains a useful piece of the surgical armamentarium. Newer percutaneous techniques for fusion supplement the older established procedures. The sacroiliac joint functions in the transmission of forces from the spine to the lower extremities and vice versa. It is a diarthrodial synovial joint that connects the sacrum to the ilium. The sacroiliac joint is unusual in that

Christopher A. Iobst; John A. Glaser

315

Joint impingement syndrome: clinical features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint impingement is a painful syndrome caused by the friction of joint tissues, which is both the cause and the effect of altered joint biomechanics. From the anatomical and clinical viewpoints, these syndromes are classified as bone impingement, soft tissue impingement and entrapment neuropathy, depending on what joint portion impinges on the others. We considered the most important impingement syndromes

Andrea Billi; Alessia Catalucci; Antonio Barile; Carlo Masciocchi

1998-01-01

316

Textual analysis of retired nurses' oral histories.  

PubMed

This paper considers the use of textual analysis of oral histories as a method for historians of nursing. Fifty-three oral histories of retired nurses in midwestern USA were analyzed for the purpose of historical reconstruction of past education experiences in nursing. Textual analysis was used to determine how nurses made sense of their educational experiences, and it involved gathering data, analyzing the information, and using a different method of interpreting the data. Although the participants responded to specific questions, the oral histories in this study are more than mere answers to the researchers' queries. The participants' memories are narratives that are the joint product of both the historian and the participant. As such, the oral history becomes a text to be stored along with other primary sources for future historians' use. The research also suggests decentering oral histories from an exclusively academic agenda and focusing more on what the participants choose to remember and why they make those choices. PMID:18028148

Wall, Barbra Mann; Edwards, Nancy E; Porter, Marjorie L; Edwards, Nancy; Wall, Barbra

2007-12-01

317

The shifting demographic landscape of influenza.  

PubMed

Background: As Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates. Methods & Findings: Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way. Conclusions: Our results provide a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and a prediction that this bias will shift in coming months. These results also have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources including vaccine distribution policies. PMID:20029616

Bansal, Shweta; Pourbohloul, Babak; Hupert, Nathaniel; Grenfell, Bryan; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2009-10-01

318

Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.  

PubMed

The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot. PMID:12290867

Woodgate, G; Sage, C

1994-01-01

319

Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.  

PubMed

Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program. PMID:22817535

Mitteldorf, J J

2012-07-01

320

Characterizing the Demographics of Exoplanet Bulk Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Mission has discovered thousands of sub-Saturn-sized transiting planet candidates. Using planet interior structure models, we constrain the bulk compositions of the more than 50 known sub-Saturn-sized transiting planets with measured masses. Our model considers fully differentiated planets comprised of up to four layers: an iron core, a silicate mantle, a water mantle, and a gas envelope. We calculate the planet interior structure by integrating the coupled differential equations describing an evolving self-gravitating body, employing modern equations of state for the iron, silicates, water, and gas. For any individual planet, a wide range of compositions is consistent with the measured mass and radius. We consider the planets as an ensemble, and discuss how thermal evolution, mass loss, and observational biases sculpt the observed planet mass-radius-insolation distribution. Understanding these effects is crucial for constraining the demographics of small planet bulk compositions and for extracting signatures of the planet formation process from the accumulating census of transiting planets with dynamical confirmation.

Rogers, Leslie

2013-10-01

321

Ras history  

PubMed Central

Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years.

2010-01-01

322

Profiles of academic, government, and private sector demographers.  

PubMed

Demographers traditionally have been employed in academic settings, but in the past 10 years, greater numbers have moved into government and the private sector. This change in employment patterns has sparked interest in the comparative working conditions, professional activities, and sociodemographic characteristics of demographers employed in academic, government and private sector settings. A 1986 survey by the Population Association of America (yield: 288 responses) has found that the typical academic demographer is a male, age 43, with a Ph.D. in sociology and a median salary of $39,825. The typical government demographer is a male, age 43, with a terminal degree in sociology and a median salary of $40,000. The private sector demographer is more likely to be both female and younger than either academic or government demographers. Over half have a Ph.D. while 30% report a terminal M.A. More than 50% also have terminal degrees in sociology. Among all 3 types of employment, those in the private sector have the highest median 1985 salary from their primary employment, $43,500. This is substantially higher than medians for academic and government demographers; however, very few private sector demographers reported secondary employment of a demographic nature for pay in 1985. The top 10 areas in which to obtain training are generally within the capability of existing demographic programs, which tend to be located in or associated with sociology departments. For many programs, however, adequate training in applied demography will result only with changes in emphasis; for example, by providing an entire course on population forecasting instead of just a 3-day module within a general demographic methods course. PMID:12143677

Kintner, H J; Swanson, D A

1987-07-01

323

Gene flow and demographic history of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the central Indian highlands.  

PubMed

Gene flow is a critical ecological process that must be maintained in order to counteract the detrimental effects of genetic drift in subdivided populations, with conservation benefits ranging from promoting the persistence of small populations to spreading adaptive traits in changing environments. We evaluated historical and contemporary gene flow and effective population sizes of leopards in a landscape in central India using noninvasive sampling. Despite the dramatic changes in land-use patterns in this landscape through recent times, we did not detect any signs that the leopard populations have been through a genetic bottleneck, and they appear to have maintained migration-drift equilibrium. We found that historical levels of gene flow (mean m h = 0.07) were significantly higher than contemporary levels (mean m c = 0.03), and populations with large effective population sizes (Satpura and Kanha Tiger Reserves) are the larger exporters of migrants at both timescales. The greatest decline in historical versus contemporary gene flow is between pairs of reserves that are currently not connected by forest corridors (i.e., Melghat-Pench m h - m c = 0.063; and Kanha-Satpura m h - m c = 0.054). We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries, and suggest protection of forest corridors to maintain gene flow in this landscape. PMID:24062803

Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra S; Seidensticker, John

2013-06-06

324

Stock structure and demographic history of the Indo-West Pacific mud crab Scylla serrata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing exploitation of mangrove forests, without any sustainable planning, has been seriously compromising the survival of this ecosystem and of its exclusive resources. Scylla serrata is one of the most commercially exploited crabs inhabiting mangroves and estuaries of the Indo-Pacific region. This species is extensively harvested, mainly for selling to the tourist market, and, as a consequence, its populations are in constant decline. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of genetic exchange of S. serrata within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), using a population genetic structure approach. To achieve this goal, we reconstructed the intra-specific geographic pattern of genetic variation by partial sequencing the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I, in samples from seven mangrove sites of the WIO. Our data set then encompassed all the sequences for the same genetic marker deposited in Genbank and corresponding to samples from South East Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands: this allowed us to estimate the level of connectivity among S. serrata populations within its distribution area. Our results show that an unique Scylla serrata metapopulation exists within the WIO; while throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region at least three distinct genetic stocks occur, corresponding to well-defined geographic regions (WIO, Eastern Australia and Pacific Ocean, North-Western Australia). South East China appears as the depositary of the most ancient haplotype and at the present time shares a haplotype with the Red Sea. The WIO populations show the signature of recent population bottlenecks, as expected for populations deeply exploited in a recent past. On the basis of our results, we can conclude that both the S. serrata populations and their habitats, i.e. mangrove forests and estuaries, of the WIO require future management and conservation regulations to avoiding overexploitation of this important key predator and marketable resource.

Fratini, Sara; Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano

2010-01-01

325

Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genetic diversity of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) from four Caribbean islands and five African countries was compared by analyzing the sequences of three gene fragments, two mitochondrial (12SrDNA and D-Loop-DL), and one nuclear (intergenic transcribed spacer 2 [ITS2]). Genetic variability of the ITS2 DNA fragment consisted of only uninformative single nucleotide mutations, and therefore this gene was excluded from further analyses. Mitochondrial gene divergences among African populations and between Caribbean and African populations were very low. Nevertheless, the data suggest that A. variegatum is divided into distinct East and West African groups, the western group including all Caribbean samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the 12SrDNA and DL gene sequences showed that the West African A. variegatum clustered in a well-supported monophyletic clade, distinct from eastern paraphyletic lineages. Sequences of A. variegatum from the Caribbean were embedded in the West African clade, which supports the known West African historical origin for these ticks.

Patel, Jaymin; Lucas-Williams, Helene; Adakal, Hassane; Kanduma, Esther G.; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Krecek, Rosina; Mertins, James W.; Alfred, Jeffery T.; Kelly, Susyn; Kelly, Patrick

2012-01-01

326

Phylogeography and Demographic History of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in Southwestern China  

PubMed Central

Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64–0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053–0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of “refugia within refugia”.

Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

2012-01-01

327

Adolescent Sexual OffendersDemographics, Criminal and Sexual Histories, and Recommendations for Reducing Future Offenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual aggression is a serious and widespread problem in our society. Over the past 15 years considerable effort has been directed toward educating society about the problem and addressing the needs of victims of sexual crimes. Research efforts have focused on both adult and child victims and to a lesser extent on adult sexual offenders. Only recently have any research

JUDITH V. BECKER; JERRY CUNNINGHAM-RATHNER; MEG S. KAPLAN

1986-01-01

328

The Effect of Ancient DNA Damage on Inferences of Demographic Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) is casting new light on many evolutionary questions. However, problems associated with the postmortem instability of DNA may complicate the interpretation of aDNA data. For example, in population genetic studies, the inclusion of damaged DNA may inflate estimates of diversity. In this paper, we examine the effect of DNA damage on population genetic estimates

Erik Axelsson; Eske Willerslev; M. T. P. Gilbert; R. Nielsen

2008-01-01

329

Low worldwide genetic diversity in the killer whale (Orcinus orca): implications for demographic history  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low level of genetic variation in mammalian populations where the census population size is relatively large has been attributed to various factors, such as a naturally small effective population size, historical bottlenecks and social behaviour. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) is an abundant, highly social species with reduced genetic variation. We find no consistent geographical pattern of global diversity

A. Rus Hoelzel; Ada Natoli; Marilyn E. Dahlheim; Carlos Olavarria; Robin W. Baird; Nancy A. Black

2009-01-01

330

Demographic and phylogeographic histories of two venomous North American snakes of the genus Agkistrodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have revealed that lineages currently inhabiting formerly glaciated areas were pushed into southern glacial refugia and have expanded into their modern range since the last glacial maximum. There have been few studies that compare the effects of glacial cycles on lineage diversification and historical demography in closely related species with overlapping ranges. In this study we compare phylogeographic

Timothy J. Guiher; Frank T. Burbrink

2008-01-01

331

Low worldwide genetic diversity in the killer whale (Orcinus orca): implications for demographic history.  

PubMed Central

A low level of genetic variation in mammalian populations where the census population size is relatively large has been attributed to various factors, such as a naturally small effective population size, historical bottlenecks and social behaviour. The killer whale (Orcinus orca) is an abundant, highly social species with reduced genetic variation. We find no consistent geographical pattern of global diversity and no mtDNA variation within some regional populations. The regional lack of variation is likely to be due to the strict matrilineal expansion of local populations. The worldwide pattern and paucity of diversity may indicate a historical bottleneck as an additional factor.

Hoelzel, A Rus; Natoli, Ada; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Olavarria, Carlos; Baird, Robin W; Black, Nancy A

2002-01-01

332

Impact Of Selfing On The Inference Of Demographic History From Whole Genomes In Theobroma cacao L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao L (cacao: Malvaceae) is a small tree found naturally in the Amazonian rain forest. An interesting feature of cacao is that it persists in populations of naturally outcrossing and inbreeding plants, as it is a species with a complex system of self-incompatibility, where a fraction of...

333

An Econometric and Demographic Analysis of San Diego. Volume I. History, Comparative Characteristics and Industrial Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three primary areas of investigation constitute the focus of this study of the San Diego region. The first is the identification of those important factors and local policy determining migration, local income, and labor market conditions. The second is th...

R. Emmerson R. Ramanathan W. Ramm

1974-01-01

334

Species-Wide Genetic Variation and Demographic History of Drosophila sechellia, a Species Lacking Population Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term persistence of species characterized by a reduced effective population size is still a matter of debate that would benefit from the description of new relevant biological models. The island endemic specialist Drosophila sechellia has received considerable attention in evolutionary genetic studies. On the basis of the analysis of a limited number of strains, a handful of studies have reported

Delphine Legrand; Maud Tenaillon; Pat Matyot; Justin Gerlach; Daniel Lachaise; Marie-Louise Cariou

2009-01-01

335

Gene flow and demographic history of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the central Indian highlands  

PubMed Central

Gene flow is a critical ecological process that must be maintained in order to counteract the detrimental effects of genetic drift in subdivided populations, with conservation benefits ranging from promoting the persistence of small populations to spreading adaptive traits in changing environments. We evaluated historical and contemporary gene flow and effective population sizes of leopards in a landscape in central India using noninvasive sampling. Despite the dramatic changes in land-use patterns in this landscape through recent times, we did not detect any signs that the leopard populations have been through a genetic bottleneck, and they appear to have maintained migration–drift equilibrium. We found that historical levels of gene flow (mean mh = 0.07) were significantly higher than contemporary levels (mean mc = 0.03), and populations with large effective population sizes (Satpura and Kanha Tiger Reserves) are the larger exporters of migrants at both timescales. The greatest decline in historical versus contemporary gene flow is between pairs of reserves that are currently not connected by forest corridors (i.e., Melghat-Pench mh ? mc = 0.063; and Kanha-Satpura mh ? mc = 0.054). We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries, and suggest protection of forest corridors to maintain gene flow in this landscape.

Dutta, Trishna; Sharma, Sandeep; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra S; Seidensticker, John

2013-01-01

336

Distal radioulnar joint injuries.  

PubMed

Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

2012-09-01

337

Distal radioulnar joint injuries  

PubMed Central

Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

2012-01-01

338

Periprosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.

2013-01-01

339

Berechnungen von Eigenspannungen in Keramik/Metall-Loetverbunden (Calculations of Residual Stresses in Ceramic Soldered Joints).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Residual stress fields in ceramic metal soldered joints were calculated using the finite element method with elastoplastic materials models. The global cooling history during the production process was taken into account. The comparison with measured stre...

O. Iancu D. Munz

1990-01-01

340

Demographic transition and population aging with Caribbean nation states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the role which the demographic parameters of fertility, mortality and migration will play on the pace and concentration of aging within the context of a developing region. This paper examines the demographic transition and analyzes historic and projected data for the development patterns of the anglophone nation states of the Caribbean. Trends in fertility, mortality, and migration

William J. Serow; Marie E. Cowart

1998-01-01

341

The Demographics of Recycling and the Structure of Environmental Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of socioeconomic and demographic variables on environmentally responsible behaviors is examined. Analysis of data compiled by Statistics Canada from 43,000 households indicates that socioeconomic and demographic variables play an important role as antecedents to such behaviors. The results show that size of residential area, type of dwelling, education, and income are significant determinants of whether recycling facilities are

Ida E. Berger

1997-01-01

342

Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs

Enik? Kubinyi; Borbála Turcsán; Ádám Miklósi

2009-01-01

343

A Classroom Activity to Illustrate the Demographic Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the Demographic Transition is included in many Environmental Biology or Environmental Science classes. The Demographic Transition occurs as a nation becomes more urban and wealthy, and was widely observed in the twentieth century. The phenomenon includes decreasing family size (fewer children) across generations. In this classroom…

Weihe, Paul

2006-01-01

344

Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

Aggarwal, Raj

2011-01-01

345

Economic development, demographics, and renewable resources: a dynamical systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing economies are faced with growing populations and deteriorating natural resources. It is often argued that economic growth will arrest these trends via cleaner technology and social change accompanied by reduced birth rates. Two questions arise: (1) What general economic, demographic, and ecological conditions favor this scenario? and (2) What adjustments, technological, demographic, or ecological, are more important in

John M. Anderies

2003-01-01

346

Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demographic transition a change from high to low rates of mortality and fertility has been more dramatic in East Asia during this century than in any other region or historical period. By introducing demographic variables into an empirical model of economic growth, this essay shows that this transition has contributed substantially to East Asia's so-called economic miracle. The 'miracle'

David E. Bloom; Jeffrey G. Williamson

1997-01-01

347

Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors on Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level.

Matthew A. Cole; Eric Neumayer

2004-01-01

348

The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

2013-01-01

349

[Knee joint cyst].  

PubMed

Ninety cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically. This included 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 patients with degenerative-deforming changes, ten children with true cysts, and eight ones with post-traumatic cysts. Double-contrast X-ray examination with Lipiodol Ultra-fluid and air is of the best diagnostic value. All cases of knee joint cysts were treated surgically with a careful plastic closure of cyst gate. For this purpose the authors used the arcus tendon of the semi-membranous muscle. In cases of rheumatoid arthritis and degenerative changes cyst removal was preceded by synovectomy of the knee joint. Early and remote were good, no recurrence was observed. PMID:1299044

Noczy?ski, L; Benarz, W; Wojczys, R

1992-11-01

350

Percutaneous arthrodesis of sacro-iliac joint: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Aim: Between 15-30% of patients presenting with low back pain have some SI joint involvement. The diagnosis of SI joint involvement in low back pain is quite difficult and depends on a detailed combination of clinical manoeuvres and injection tests. In 5% of patients with SI joint pain, the joint is physically unstable (termed disruption) resulting in ineffective medical and conservative therapeutic options. In this study we present the results of the first 12 cases of SI joint disruption treated using a minimally invasive SI joint arthrodesis system in order to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of this system. Methods: Medical charts at a single center were reviewed for demographics, perioperative metrics, patient reported outcomes for pain, function and quality of life (NRS, ODI and RDQ respectively), as well as satisfaction with surgery (yes/no) and results of postoperative CT scan. Results: Mean age was 53 years (range 36-71) and all patients were female. Patient reported outcomes at follow up (range 8-18 months) improved clinically as well as statistically as evidenced by a mean improvement in pain on NRS of 4 points, back related function on ODI by 19.4 points, and in quality of life measured using RDQ of 13.6 points (all P=0.01). Local hematoma requiring drainage was apparent in 2 patients. Patient satisfaction was 100%. All 3 month CT scans showed initial fusion. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that MIS SI joint fusion using the iFuse Implant System is safe and effective method of treating patients with SI joint disruption. PMID:24091432

Gaetani, P; Miotti, D; Risso, A; Bettaglio, R; Bongetta, D; Custodi, V; Silvani, V

2013-12-01

351

Multiple lines of evidence for demographic and range expansion of a temperate species (Hyla sarda) during the last glaciation.  

PubMed

Many temperate species experienced demographic and range contractions in response to climatic changes during Pleistocene glaciations. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary history of the Tyrrhenian tree frog Hyla sarda, a species inhabiting the Corsica-Sardinia island system (Western Mediterranean basin). We used sequence analysis of two mitochondrial (overall 1229 bp) and three nuclear (overall 1692 bp) gene fragments to assess the phylogeography and demographic history of this species, and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict its range variation over time. Phylogeographic, historical demographic and SDM analyses consistently indicate that H. sarda does not conform to the scenario generally expected for temperate species but rather underwent demographic and range expansion mostly during the last glacial phase. Palaeogeographic data and SDM analyses suggest that such expansion was driven by the glaciation-induced increase in lowland areas during marine regression. This unusual scenario suggests that at least some temperate species may not have suffered the adverse effects of glacial climate on their population size and range extent, owing to the mitigating effects of other glaciations-induced palaeoenvironmental changes. We discuss previous clues for the occurrence of such a scenario in other species and some possible challenges with its identification. Early phylogeographic literature suggested that responses to the Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles were expected to vary among species and regions. Our results point out that such variation may have been greater than previously thought. PMID:22097966

Bisconti, Roberta; Canestrelli, Daniele; Colangelo, Paolo; Nascetti, Giuseppe

2011-11-21

352

Demographic Changes: The Impact for Safe Blood Supply  

PubMed Central

Summary The population structure in most European countries is currently changing, with a shift from younger to older age groups. Only sparse data exist on the impact of these demographic changes on future blood demand and supply. Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The first part of this review summarizes studies on the effect of the demographic change on blood supply and demand. With respect to studies in North America and Europe on the impact of demographic changes on future blood supply, the demographic trends will affect many regions in the Western world similarly. These effects are most pronounced in the new member states of the European Union where birth rates declined abruptly after 1989. Coordinated efforts will be required to prevent blood shortages based upon these demographic trends in Western societies. The second part of this review is an overview of methodological approaches to obtain data on the sociodemographic background of the blood donor population.

Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

353

Joint polar satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a joint NOAA/NASA mission comprised of a series of polar orbiting weather and climate monitoring satellites which will fly in a sun-synchronous orbit, with a 1330 equatorial crossing time. JPSS resulted from the decision to reconstitute the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) into two separate programs, one to be run by the Department of Defense (DOD) and the other by NOAA. This decision was reached in early 2010, after numerous development issues caused a series of unacceptable delays in launching the NPOESS system.

Trenkle, Timothy; Driggers, Phillip

2011-10-01

354

Clinical features of symptomatic patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA) is common and leads to pain and disability. However, current classification criteria do not distinguish between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint OA. The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence of the clinical features of patellofemoral joint OA (PFJOA) and to explore the potential for making a confident clinical diagnosis in the community setting. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 745 adults aged ?50 years with knee pain. Information on risk factors and clinical signs and symptoms was gathered by a self-complete questionnaire, and standardised clinical interview and examination. Three radiographic views of the knee were obtained (weight-bearing semi-flexed posteroanterior, supine skyline and lateral) and individuals were classified into four subsets (no radiographic OA, isolated PFJOA, isolated tibiofemoral joint OA, combined patellofemoral/tibiofemoral joint OA) according to two different cut-offs: 'any OA' and 'moderate to severe OA'. A series of binary logistic and multinomial regression functions were performed to compare the clinical features of each subset and their ability in combination to discriminate PFJOA from other subsets. Results Distinctive clinical features of moderate to severe isolated PFJOA included a history of dramatic swelling, valgus deformity, markedly reduced quadriceps strength, and pain on patellofemoral joint compression. Mild isolated PFJOA was barely distinguished from no radiographic OA (AUC 0.71, 95% CI 0.66, 0.76) with only difficulty descending stairs and coarse crepitus marginally informative over age, sex and body mass index. Other cardinal signs of knee OA - the presence of effusion, bony enlargement, reduced flexion range of movement, mediolateral instability and varus deformity - were indicators of tibiofemoral joint OA. Conclusions Early isolated PFJOA is clinically manifest in symptoms and self-reported functional limitation but has fewer clear clinical signs. More advanced disease is indicated by a small number of simple-to-assess signs and the relative absence of classic signs of knee OA, which are predominantly manifestations of tibiofemoral joint OA. Confident diagnosis of even more advanced PFJOA may be limited in the community setting.

2012-01-01

355

Due Diligence for Students - Geoscience Skills and Demographic Data for Career Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major focus of the American Geological Institute's Human Resources program has been providing demographic and employment data so that students and mentors can better understand the dynamics of a career in the geosciences. AGI has a long history of collecting these data for the geoscience community, including 46 years of geoscience enrollments, periodic comprehensive surveys of employment in the discipline, and working closely with other organizations that collect these data. AGI has launched a new suite of surveys to examine the skills desired by employers and the skills provided through a geoscience education. Historical demographic and enrollment data allow a number of the major trends to be examined. These trends include the dominance of industry as employer in the geosciences and how the cyclicity of geoscience employment has become more complex with the development of the environmental sector over the last 30 years. Additionally, demographics are changing rapidly, with a geoscience workforce that is changing rapidly in age, gender, and background. The discipline may also be facing a change in the nature of geoscience employment, with chronic shortages of skilled geoscientists, but will job opportunities actually increase. This may not be as paradoxical as it appears. The geoindustries are attempting to adjust their strategies to dampen business cycles, which then may lead to more stable employment levels for geoscientists, but they are also broadening their vision of who can become competent geoscientists.

Keane, C. M.

2001-05-01

356

Two Decades of Huntington Disease Testing: Patient's Demographics and Reproductive Choices.  

PubMed

Predictive testing for Huntington disease (HD) has been available in the United States (US) since 1987, and the Indiana University Predictive Testing Program has been providing this testing since 1990. To date there has been no published description of those who present for such testing in the US. Here we describe demographics of 141 individuals and reproductive decision making of a subset of 16 of those individuals who underwent predictive HD testing between 1990 and 2010 at one site in the US. This study is a retrospective chart review of the "Personal History Questionnaire" participants completed prior to testing. As seen in other studies, most participants were female (64.5 %), in their mid-30s (mean?=?34), and had at least one child prior to testing (54 %). Multiple demographic datum points are described, and the reproductive decision making of these at-risk individuals was analyzed using Fisher's Exact Tests. Of those women who had children before learning of their risk to inherit HD, those who attended church more frequently, had three or more children total, or whose mother was affected with HD were more likely to be comfortable with their choice to have children. We conclude that these demographic factors influence the reproductive decision-making of individuals at risk for HD. Psychologists, clinical geneticists, and genetic counselors may be able to use this information to help counsel at-risk patients regarding current or past reproductive decision making. PMID:23709094

Krukenberg, Rebekah C; Koller, Daniel L; Weaver, David D; Dickerson, Jennifer N; Quaid, Kimberly A

2013-05-25

357

Conservation biology for suites of species: Demographic modeling for Pacific island kingfishers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation practitioners frequently extrapolate data from single-species investigations when managing critically endangered populations. However, few researchers initiate work with the intent of making findings useful to conservation efforts for other species. We presented and explored the concept of conducting conservation-oriented research for suites of geographically separated populations with similar natural histories, resource needs, and extinction threats. An example was provided in the form of an investigation into the population demography of endangered Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus). We provided the first demographic parameter estimates for any of the 12 endangered Pacific Todiramphus species, and used results to develop a population projection matrix model for management throughout the insular Pacific. Further, we used the model for elasticity and simulation analyses with demographic values that randomly varied across ranges that might characterize congener populations. Results from elasticity and simulation analyses indicated that changes in breeding adult survival exerted the greatest magnitude of influence on population dynamics. However, changes in nestling survival were more consistently correlated with population dynamics as demographic rates were randomly altered. We concluded that conservation practitioners working with endangered Pacific kingfishers should primarily focus efforts on factors affecting nestling and breeder survival, and secondarily address fledgling juveniles and helpers. Further, we described how the generalized base model might be changed to focus on individual populations and discussed the potential application of multi-species models to other conservation situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kesler, D. C.; Haig, S. M.

2007-01-01

358

Demographic situation and development in Nepal.  

PubMed

In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population programs, 5) to introduce population education into the school curriculum, 6) to promote economic development research, and 7) to coordinate the work of the numerous family planning agencies and organizations which are operating in the country. Many voluntary, international, foreign, and government agencies are involved in Nepal's economic and population endeavors. These organizations are listed. PMID:12339820

Pradhanang, A L

359

New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

360

The Complex Evolutionary History of Gorillas: Insights from Genomic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is knownaboutthe evolutionary anddemographichistoriesofgorillas, oneofourclosest livingrelatives. In this study, we used samples from both western (Gorilla gorilla) and eastern (Gorilla beringei) gorillas to infer the timing of the split between these geographically disjunct populations and to elaborate the demographic history of gorillas. Here we present DNA sequences from 16 noncoding autosomal loci from 15 western gorillas and 3

O. Thalmann; A. Fischer; F. Lankester; S. Paabo; L. Vigilant

2006-01-01

361

Joint Fires Training Guide for a Corps Joint Task Force.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed analysis of responsibilities, inputs, processes, outputs, and interactions was conducted for the staff elements and cells involved in joint fires at the Corps Joint Task Force level. This research product documents that analysis. The purpose of...

J. F. Love

1998-01-01

362

Position domain joint tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that the Vector Delay Lock Loop (VDLL) enhances the robustness of a GNSS receiver by exploiting the spatial correlation of the received signals. But due to the periodicity of the carrier, the VDLL only operates on the codephase and the carrier-frequency. In contrast to the VDLL, the Joint Tracking receiver manages to sustain the carrier-phase lock even

Kaspar Giger; C. Gu?nther

2010-01-01

363

First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis.  

PubMed

First MTP joint arthrodesis continues to be a time-honored, effective, and valuable procedure as a primary or secondary surgery for various pathologies afflicting the first ray segment. Though commonly thought of as a salvage procedure, it has proven beneficial in the management of primary hallux limitus and rigidus, geriatric hallux valgus deformity, severe arthritis of any etiology, and conditions in which joint instability or deformity are not readily correctable by more traditional approaches. Since its initial description in the 1800s, the procedure has continued to be popular among orthopedic and podiatric surgeons. Success of the procedure is highly dependent on the position of fusion. Though surgeons are often fascinated and at times obsessed with a particular fixation technique, it cannot be over-emphasized that this takes a back seat to the importance of achieving proper position to meet the needs of an individual patient. Unlike joint resection or implant arthroplasty procedures, which commonly leave the hallux lacking stability and propulsion, first MPJ fusion has been shown to be effective during weight bearing and propulsion. The success enjoyed by the senior author continues to reinforce that motion is not necessary at the first MTP joint for good, pain-free function. PMID:15012033

Yu, Gerard V; Gorby, Paul O

2004-01-01

364

Clad metal joint closure  

SciTech Connect

A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

Siebert, O.W.

1985-04-09

365

Dolphin Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;)

2007-07-14

366

Joint Criminal Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE) doctrine has made an impressive appearance on the stage of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. However, the initial enthusiasm has faded somewhat recently as doubts about the doctrine's broad applicability have started to dominate the discussion. In this article, the author argues that we should not deplore the partial demise of the

Harmen van der Wilt

2007-01-01

367

Imaging the temporomandibular joint  

SciTech Connect

This book encompasses all imaging modalities as they apply to the Temporomandibular Joint and its disorders. The volume employs correlative line drawings to elaborate on diagnostic images. It helps teach methods of TMJ imaging and describes findings identified by different imaging modalities to both radiologists and dental clinicians.

Katzberg, R.W.; Manzione, J.V.; Westesson, P.L.

1988-01-01

368

BETTER BRAZED JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazing is presented as a technique for making high quality joints for ; use in corrosive environments and at elevated temperatures. The characteristics ; of an ideal, as well as commercially available brazing alloys based on silver, ; nickel, palladium, and gold are discussed. The conditions and equipment required ; for this type of brazing are described, as are the

1963-01-01

369

Evolving flexible joint morphologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferring virtual robotic designs into physical robots has become possible with the development of 3D printers. Accurately simulating the performance of real robots in a virtual environment requires modeling a variety of conditions, including the physical composition of the robots themselves. In this paper, we investigate how modeling material flexibility through the use of a passive joint affects the resulting

Jared M. Moore; Philip K. McKinley

2012-01-01

370

Bladder Operated Robotic Joint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension ...

G. A. Robertson

1992-01-01

371

Dislocation of temporomandibular joint: complication of sagittal split ramus osteotomy.  

PubMed

Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) has wide-ranging indications and results in simultaneous improvements in occlusion and facial appearance. Thus, it is the most frequently used osteotomy for jaw deformities. Its main intraoperative and postoperative complications are massive bleeding, atypical fractures, inferior alveolar nerve paralysis, and relapse. This report describes a case of temporomandibular joint dislocation, a rare complication of SSRO. The patient was a 23-year-old man with mandibular prognathism which was treated by bilateral SSRO. Postoperative x-ray showed that the left temporomandibular joint was dislocated anteriorly. Thus, the patient underwent reoperation, including reduction and re-fixation. Subsequently, it was discovered that the patient had a previous history of recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint. This case illustrates the need for practitioners to be mindful of temporomandibular joint dislocation as a rare complication of SSRO. PMID:24036714

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Morishita, Tadashi; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Omori, Naoko; Akita, Shinsuke; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-09-01

372

History Channel: This Day in History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those looking to find out about a variety of important historical events on a particular day, this site provided by the History Channel will be both entertaining and informative. This Day in History collects information about historical events organized around a number of topical sections, such as Cold War History, Literary History, Old West History, Technology History, Wall Street History, and Civil War History. Along with brief essays describing the events of a particular day, some of the more recent events also have short video clips that users can watch. On one recent day (January 28th), events covered included the tragic explosion of the Challenger space shuttle in 1986 and the United States' failure to capture Pancho Villa, the Mexican revolutionary. Visitors can also type in their birthdays to find out about events that occurred on that day, as well as for a list of well-known persons who share their birthday.

373

History of Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

Greene, Mott T.

1985-01-01

374

Racial, Socioeconomic, and Demographic Disparities in Access to Fertility Preservation in Young Women Diagnosed with Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background This study seeks to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the utilization of fertility preservation services in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer. Methods 1041 women diagnosed with cancer between age 18 and 40 responded to our retrospective survey on demographic information and reproductive health history. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease (HD), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer (GI). 918 women reported treatment with potential to affect fertility (chemotherapy, pelvic radiation, pelvic surgery, or bone marrow transplant). Student’s t-test, linear regression, and multivariate logistic regression were used where appropriate to determine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of utilizing fertility preservation services. Results 61% of women were counseled on the risk of cancer treatment to fertility by the oncology team. Overall, 4% of women pursued fertility preservation. In multivariate analysis, women who had not attained a bachelor’s degree (OR 0.7, 95%CI 0.5 – 0.9) were less likely to be counseled. Trends also suggested possible disparities in access to fertility preservation with age greater than 35 years old (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0 – 1.4) or previous children (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 – 1.1) at diagnosis. Disparities in access to fertility preservation based on ethnicity and sexual orientation were also observed. Conclusion Socio-demographic health disparities likely affect access to fertility preservation services. Although awareness of fertility preservation has improved in the last decade, an unmet need remains for reproductive health counseling and fertility preservation in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer.

Letourneau, Joseph M; Smith, James F; Ebbel, Erin E; Craig, Amaranta; Katz, Patricia P; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

2011-01-01

375

Recent range-wide demographic expansion in a Taiwan endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii)  

PubMed Central

Background The subtropical island of Taiwan is an area of high endemism and a complex topographic environment. Phylogeographic studies indicate that vicariance caused by Taiwan's mountains has subdivided many taxa into genetic phylogroups. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the evolutionary history of an endemic montane bird, Steere's Liocichla (Liocichla steerii), fit the general vicariant paradigm for a montane organism. Results We found that while mountains appear to channel gene flow they are not a significant barrier for Steere's Liocichla. Recent demographic expansion was evident, and genetic diversity was relatively high across the island, suggesting expansion from multiple areas rather than a few isolated refugia. Ecological niche modeling corroborated the molecular results and suggested that populations of Steere's Liocichla are connected by climatically suitable habitat and that there was less suitable habitat during the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusions Genetic and ecological niche modeling data corroborate a single history--Steere's Liocichla was at lower density during the Last Glacial Maximum and has subsequently expanded in population density. We suggest that such a range-wide density expansion might be an overlooked cause for the genetic patterns of demographic expansion that are regularly reported. We find significant differences among some populations in FST indices and an admixture analysis. Though both of these results are often used to suggest conservation action, we affirm that statistically significant results are not necessarily biologically meaningful and we urge caution when interpreting highly polymorphic data such as microsatellites.

2010-01-01

376

Joint Laser Designation Procedures (JLASER).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides joint procedures for employing laser designators with target acquisition systems and laser-guided weapons to enhance the combat effectiveness of joint US forces. Application Procedures established in this publication apply to the...

1991-01-01

377

Smoking by blacks and whites: socioeconomic and demographic differences.  

PubMed Central

Using data from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey for persons aged 25-64 years, we controlled simultaneously for socioeconomic status (SES), demographic factors, and race in multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that the odds of ever smoking are not higher for Blacks compared with Whites, when the other variables are controlled. By contrast, the odds of heavy smoking for Blacks are far less than for Whites, while Blacks are significantly less likely than Whites to quit smoking regardless of SES or demographic factors. Smoking cessation and prevention programs must be planned with these behavioral, SES, and demographic differences in mind.

Novotny, T E; Warner, K E; Kendrick, J S; Remington, P L

1988-01-01

378

Phylogeography of an Atlantic forest passerine reveals demographic stability through the last glacial maximum.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of an endemic Atlantic forest (AF) bird, Basileuterus leucoblepharus, and test the influence of the last glacial maximum (LGM) on its population effective size using coalescent simulations. We address two main questions: (i) Does B. leucoblepharus present population genetic structure congruent with the patterns observed for other AF organisms? (ii) How did the LGM affect the effective population size of B. leucoblepharus? We sequenced 914 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and 512 bp of the nuclear intron 5 of beta-fibrinogen of 62 individuals from 15 localities along the AF. Both molecular markers revealed no genetic structure in B. leucoblepharus. Neutrality tests based on both loci showed significant demographic expansion. The extended Bayesian skyline plot showed that the species seems to have experienced demographic expansion starting around 300,000 years ago, during the late Pleistocene. This date does not coincide with the LGM and the dynamics of population size showed stability during the LGM. To further test the effect of the LGM on this species, we simulated seven demographic scenarios to explore whether populations suffered specific bottlenecks. The scenarios most congruent with our data were population stability during the LGM with bottlenecks older than this period. This is the first example of an AF organism that does not show phylogeographic breaks caused by vicariant events associated to climate change and geotectonic activities in the Quaternary. Differential ecological, environmental tolerances and habitat requirements are possibly influencing the different evolutionary histories of these organisms. Our results show that the history of organism diversification in this megadiverse Neotropical forest is complex. PMID:22940152

Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Cabanne, Gustavo Sebastián; Miyaki, Cristina Yumi

2012-08-24

379

Inflammatory sacroiliac joint pathology: evaluation of radiologic assessment techniques.  

PubMed

Recognition of sacroiliac disease has been integral to arthritis diagnostic approaches. However, intra- and inter-observer variation have been recognized as limiting factors in radiologic assessment of the sacroiliac joint. The assumption that such irregularly shaped joints can be radiologically assessed of the sacroiliac joint. The assumption that such irregularly shaped joints can be radiologically assessed has not actually been rigorously evaluated. Direct arthroscopic visualization of the joints was therefore used as a standard against which to assess the validity of routine radiologic views, stereo-radiology, tomography and computed tomography, in the analysis of a group of sacroiliac joints drawn from the Todd Collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History). The most sensitive techniques for the recognition of erosions or fusion are 15 degree angulation and stereo, but the frequency of false positives makes the technique of questionable clinical utility. While sensitivity for joint space narrowing is high with several techniques (30 degree anterior-posterior or posterior-anterior projections and tomograms), specificity is still poor, with a high rate of false positives. Fulfillment of the New York Criteria for sacroiliac disease is especially insensitive and non-specific. Radiologic techniques therefore have major limitations for the assessment of sacroiliac disease and greater reliance on clinical acumen is required for patient categorization. PMID:8070159

Rothschild, B M; Poteat, G B; Williams, E; Crawford, W L

380

ISHKS joint registry: A preliminary report  

PubMed Central

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are the most widely practiced surgical options for arthritis all over the world and its application is rising in India. Indian Society of Hip and Knee Surgeons (ISHKS) has established a joints registry and has been collecting data for last 6 years. Materials & Methods: All members of ISHKS are encouraged to actively participate in the registry. A simple two page knee and hip form can be downloaded from the website www.ishks.com. The information collected includes patient demographics, indication for surgery, implant details and in case of revision arthroplasty: the details of implants removed and the cause of failure of primary arthroplasty. These forms are mailed to the central registry office and the data is fed in computerized registry. Data collection started in October 2006. Results: Joint registry is a very important initiative of ISHKS and till date, have data of 34,478 TKAs and 3604 THAs, contributed by 42 surgeons across India. Some important observations have emerged. Data of 34,478 TKAs was assessed: These included 8612 males (25%) and 25,866 females (75%). Average age was 64.4 years (Osteoarthritis range: 45 to 88 years; Rheumatoid arthritis range: 22 to 74 years). Average body mass index was 29.1 (Range: 18.1 to 42.9). The indication for TKA was osteoarthritis in 33,444 (97%) and rheumatoid arthritis in 759 (2.2%). Total of 3604 THA procedures were recorded. These included 2162 (60%) male patients and 1442 (40%) female patients. Average age was 52 years (Range 17 to 85 years) and average BMI was 25.8 (Range: 17.3 to 38.5). The indications for THA was AVN in 49%. Conclusion: The registry will become more meaningful in years to come. Active participation of all arthroplasty surgeons across India is vital for the success of the joints registry.

Pachore, Jawahir A; Vaidya, Shrinand V; Thakkar, Chandrasekhar J; Bhalodia, Haresh Kumar P; Wakankar, Hemant M

2013-01-01

381

Engineering alloplastic temporomandibular joint replacements.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are part of a heterogeneous group of pathologies that manifest with a constellation of signs and symptoms. They are the most frequent cause of chronic orofacial pain and are prevalent in 12% of the general population. Despite the debilitating nature of these disorders, there is no standardization for treatment of the diseased temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this review, we present an overview of the functional anatomy of the TMJ and the engineering concepts that must be understood to better understand the indications for surgical management, the types of available treatments and the requirements for reconstruction. A comparison is made of the clinical outcomes with autogenous versus alloplastic reconstruction, including a history of alloplastic materials and the design features of currently available implants. Emphasis is made on material selection, modulus, stiffness, notch sensitivity and modularity. For the treatment of TMD, engineered TMJ alloplastic replacements have had considerable promise with additional room for improvement using new materials and recent design concepts. PMID:22363183

Sinno, Hani; Tahiri, Youssef; Gilardino, Mirko; Bobyn, Dennis

2011-06-01

382

Stud Reinforcement in Beam-Column Joints under Seismic Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current codes recommend large amounts of shear reinforcement for reinforced concrete beam-column joints causing significant congestion. This research aims at investigating experimentally and numerically the efficiency of using studs with a head at each end in lieu of conventional closed hoops in reinforced concrete beam-column joints. The proposed reinforcement reduces congestion and ensures easier assembly of the reinforcing cage, saving labour cost and enhancing performance of the joint. Based on this research, a recommended arrangement and detailing of headed studs and their design for exterior beam-column joint are presented. The experimental investigation consisted of testing ten full-scale beam-column joint specimens under quasi-static cyclic loading. The specimens represented an exterior beam-column joint subassembly isolated at the points of contra-flexure from a typical multi-storey, multi-bay reinforced concrete frame. A test setup was developed to simulate the lateral inter-storey drift. The test parameters included: the type, arrangement and amount of shear reinforcement, the load history and rate of loading, and the amount of reinforcement for out-of-plane confinement of the joint. Envelopes of the hysteretic behaviour of the specimens and the joint deformation under shear stress are presented. The stiffness degradation, the strain levels in the joint reinforcement, the contribution of joint, beam, and column to the inter-storey drift, and the energy dissipation were compared. All the test specimens reinforced with headed studs in the joint achieved considerable enhancement in their behaviour under cyclic loads and exhibited a performance close to that of a joint reinforced with closed hoops and cross ties according to the code. All the specimens with adequate out-of-plane confinement had an equivalent behaviour compared with the code-based specimen and achieved a desirable mode of failure. Use of double-headed studs proved to be a viable option for reinforcing exterior beam-column joints. A three dimensional finite element model was developed. The concrete material model used combines constitutive models for cracking and plasticity. The model was verified against the experimental results. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical hysteretic behaviour. The strengths and weaknesses of the model were identified. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the joint behaviour including: concrete strength, column load and out-of-plane confinement.

Ibrahim, Hatem Hassan Ali

383

Sacroiliac joint abnormalities in paraplegics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly

M A Khan; I Kushner; A A Freehafer

1979-01-01

384

Joint Experimentation: A Systems Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Secretary of Defense charged the United States Atlantic Command (USACOM) on I October 1998 to conduct Joint Experimentation (JE) in support of the Defense of Department (DoD) Joint Vision 2010 concept. Since a common definition of joint experimentatio...

K. T. Royar

2000-01-01

385

Double slotted socket spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints is disclosed. These spherical joints are capable of extremely large angular displacements (full cone angles in excess of 270.degree.), while exhibiting no singularities or dead spots in their range of motion. These joints can improve or simplify a wide range of mechanical devices.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-05-22

386

The Challenges of Joint Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the concept of joint at- tention and the dierent skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simul- taneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the dierent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation

Frederic Kaplan; Verena V. Hafner

2004-01-01

387

Demographic, agricultural products, and food consumption data for a collective farm in Oranoe District, Ivankov District, Kiev Region, Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

This report provides some demographic, agricultural and food consumption data for the collective farms ( Kybisheva,'' composed of three villages) in the Oranoe Department, District of Ivankov, Kiev Region. This area is situated approximately 15 km south of the Chernobyl 30-km Exclusion Zone. The levels of {sup 137}Cs are approximately 5--10 curies/km{sup 2}. This data was collected by the Integrated Radioecological Expedition to Chernobyl of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the co-operative studies on environmental radiation dose assessment conducted under the US/USSR Joint Co-operative Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) established in 1989.

Ryabov, I N [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Animal Evolutionary, Morphology and Ecology ECOPOLIS, Kiev (Ukraine); Davidenko, G M [ECOPOLIS, Kiev (Ukraine); Templeton, W L [Pacific Northwest Lab, Richland, WA (United States); ,

1992-07-01

388

Natural history of interstitial cystitis in 274 patients receiving sulfated polysaccharide therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the natural history of interstitial cystitis in the presence of sulfated polysaccharide treatment.Methods. This was a longitudinal study of 274 patients. Questionnaires were administered at first visit to obtain information on demographic characteristics, medical history, other risk factors, and type and severity of symptoms. Follow-up questionnaires were administered at subsequent visits to measure symptom progress. Patient status

Ngoc J Ho; James A Koziol; C. Lowell Parsons; William Barlow; Noel S Weiss

1999-01-01

389

Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

Kitchen, Andrew

2008-01-01

390

Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

Kitchen, Andrew

2008-01-01

391

Demographics and the social reckoning in the Arab region.  

PubMed

Demographic transitions in the Arab countries, due to declining birth rates and mortality rates since the 1980s, are reflected in a low proportion of children, a relatively stable proportion of elderly and a high proportion of people of working age. This "youth bulge" of young, active, working-age individuals in the current population may open a demographic window for countries to benefit from increased savings and investment. This paper reviews the demographic situation in the Arab region and the impact of education, employment, migration, health status and participation in society on the further development of the region, including the impact of these factors on ageing and gender issues. The intent is to draw attention to the importance of these demographic changes and highlight the need for action to maximize the potential benefit to the population in this region. PMID:23882965

Kronfol, N M

2013-04-01

392

The Relation of Sample Demographic Characteristics to Job Satisfaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to examine the effects of such demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, occupational, company and job tenure and management level on job satisfaction, the responses of 1139 exempt employees in six companies to 28 satisfaction scales we...

P. A. Jury W. Weitzel R. V. Dawis P. R. Pinto

1971-01-01

393

A phylogeographic, demographic and historical analysis of the short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus): evidence for early divergence and late expansion during the Pleistocene.  

PubMed

The impact of quaternary glaciation in eastern China on local fanua and flora has been a topic of considerable interest. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and coalescent simulations to test two general biogeographic hypothesis related to the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations for a widespread ophidian species (Gloydius brevicaudus) in eastern China and Korean Peninsula. The phylogenetic analysis revealed three major lineages, the southeast Coastal, Yangtze and North Lineages. The latter two are closely related and jointly form a continental lineage. Divergence dating and coalescent simulations indicate a Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene divergence between lineages from the southeast coast and continental interior, followed by a mid-to-late Pleistocene divergence between lineages from the north and the middle-lower Yangtze Valley across East China, suggesting that all these lineages predated the last glacial maximum. An overlapping range between the two lineages within the continental lineage and a secondary contact associated with ecological transition zones on the margins of the North China Plain were also observed. These results show that vicariance patterns dominated the history of G. brevicaudus. Though the climatic events of the Pleistocene have had a marked effect on the historical distribution and intra-specific divergence of reptiles in China, coalescent and non-coalescent demographic analyses indicate that all lineages of G. brevicaudus seem not to have been adversely affected by glacial cycles during the Late Pleistocene, presumably because of an increase in the amount of climatically mild habitat in East Asia due to a decline in elevation and the development of monsoons since the Mid-End Pleistocene. PMID:21438932

Ding, Li; Gan, Xiao-Ni; He, Shun-Ping; Zhao, Er-Mi

2011-03-25

394

[Integration of demographic variables into development plans in the Sahel].  

PubMed

A founding principle of the Program of Action of N'Djamena is the interdependence of population and development and the need for development strategies to take demographic factors into account. The concept of integration of population variables into development has evolved since its introduction in the 1974 World Population Plan of Action from a simple description of population size, growth rates, and distribution to a stress on harmonizing population policies and development policies with macroeconomic variables. The essence of the concept is the consideration given by development policies and programs to the interrelations between population, resources, the environment, and development factors. Population variables and goals should ideally be treated as endogenous variables in development planning, but in practice the extreme complexity of such a systematic approach limits its ability to be made operational. Usually the most crucial problems only are included. Integrated planning is composed of explicit or implicit population policies intended to influence demographic variables and of socioeconomic policies intended to adapt to demographic change. In the Sahel, only Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Mali have formal population policies, but around 1980 several countries of the region began to show interest in influencing demographic variables as they did economic variables. Fundamental principles for developing an integration strategy can be applied regardless or whether the plan is based on projections, analysis of interaction of a demographic variable with factors specific to a sector, or a monosectorial or multisectorial demoeconomic planning model. Demographic data is used more frequently in diagnosing problems than in developing projections or formulating objectives. The level of disaggregation of demographic projections and estimates tends to be low, despite the great potential utility of demographic projections in planning. Demographic projections can be useful in analyses of the extent of changes and the implications of alternative scenarios of development planning. The most frequently used demographic variables in development planning have been spatial distribution of the population and mortality. An examination of past development plans in Mali relating to population and nutrition and population and health reveals several inconsistencies between stated goals and strategies intended to achieve them. The incoherence can be explained in part by the absence of a coherent national population policy, the failure to translate the population policy into programs that take into account reciprocal effects of demographic trends and economic perspectives and their social effects, and the absence of disaggregated population projections. An example from Senegal demonstrates the constraints imposed by structural adjustment programs on the entire planning process. PMID:12344768

Wane, H R

1992-07-01

395

Formation of tough composite joints  

SciTech Connect

Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coated fibers had a 0/90{degree} architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses.

Brun, M.K. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01

396

Demographic transition and economic growth in China, India and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper adopt a Solow–Swan model extended to include demographic variables to analyze the overall effect of demographic transition on economic growth. The results, based on data from seventy countries over the period 1961–2003, reveal that GDP per capita growth is positively related to the growth differential between the working-age population and the total population, and negatively

Misbah T. Choudhry; J. Paul Elhorst

2010-01-01

397

The phoenix population: Demographic crisis and rebound in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility\\u000a changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey\\u000a and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which\\u000a 25% of the Cambodian population died.

Patrick. Heuveline; Bunnak. Poch

2007-01-01

398

DEMOGRAPHIC AND GENETIC EVALUATION OF AN AMERICAN MARTEN REINTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reintroduced populations are generally smaller and more isolated than native populations; thus even when reintroduced populations are demographically stable, a lack of genetic variation may present a threat to long-term persistence. We examined the demographic structure and genetic variation of the marten reintroduction into the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Male:female and juvenile:adult female ratios indicate that the Michigan population is

Bradley J. Swanson; L. Robert Peters; Christopher J. Kyle

2006-01-01

399

Metalceramic joint assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range

Jian

2002-01-01

400

Charcot joint of shoulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathic arthropathy involving the shoulder is a relatively rare chronic disorder characterized by the destruction of the\\u000a joint which is also associated with decreased sensory innervation (Lequesne et al. in Rev Rhum Mal Osteoartic 49(6):427–437,\\u000a 1982; Yan?k et al. in Rheumatol Int 24(4):238–241, 2004). Here, we report a case of neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder (charcot shoulder), secondary to syringomyelia

Korhan Ozkan; Umut Yavuz; Budak Akman; Namik Kemal Ozkan; Levent Eralp

2008-01-01

401

Joint Venture Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint venture marketing links a for profit organization with a non-profit organization for their mutual benefit. Since American Express launched its 1981 Statue of Liberty\\/Ellis Island campaign, the strategy has proliferated among all types of health care organizations, manufacturers and even financial and educational institutions. With the successes have come concerns about non-profits having to compromise their integrity, the elimination

Nora Ganin Barnes

1991-01-01

402

Jointly Sponsored Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting

Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

2009-01-01

403

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vertebrae, are considered groups of minor joints, ratable on a parity with major joints. The lumbosacral articulation and both sacroiliac joints are considered to be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2009-07-01

404

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2012-10-01

405

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2011-10-01

406

Metacarpophalangeal joint arthritis.  

PubMed

Arthritis of the metacarpophalangeal joint can result in considerable disability and pain. Inflammatory, posttraumatic, crystalline, and osteoarthritis are common etiologies of joint disease. A variety of nonsurgical treatment options have been shown to be effective, including activity modification, anti-inflammatory medications, splinting, and cortisone injections. In addition, newer generation disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs geared toward the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis have shown promise in retarding the inflammatory process. Another, relatively newer, conservative treatment option includes topical anti-inflammatories such as diclofenac sodium that are now approved by the Federal Drug Administration. Surgical treatment options most commonly include arthroplasty and arthrodesis. In the treatment of thumb metacarpophalangeal arthritis, arthrodesis is a popular and generally reliable surgical solution. In the fingers, arthroplasty remains the most common treatment option. Traditional constrained silicone joint replacements remain the most commonly used. Newer generation, unconstrained, surface replacement arthroplasties have shown promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis and select cases of inflammatory arthritis in which there is good bone stock, no or minimal deformity, adequate supporting soft tissues, and good disease control. PMID:21276901

Rizzo, Marco

2011-02-01

407

Dynamic glenohumeral joint stability.  

PubMed

Stability of the glenohumeral joint with an anterior, posterior, and inferior displacement force of 50 N was measured in a dynamic shoulder model. Controlled hydrodynamic actuator forces were applied to the deltoid muscle and to the rotator cuff in seven anatomic specimens. During elevation of the arm the position of the humerus was measured with a six-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic sensor device. The rotational center of the humeral head was used as a reference point for translation. A displacement force of 50 N led to significant humeral head displacement anteriorly and posteriorly but not inferiorly. A 50% reduction of rotator cuff forces increased anterior displacement by 46% and posterior displacement by 31%. Venting of the glenohumeral joint space and of the subacromial bursa resulted in a 50% increase of anterior displacement, a 19% increase of posterior displacement, and significant inferior displacement. This study demonstrates that in addition to passive stabilizers and negative intraarticular pressure, rotator cuff force significantly contributes to stabilization of the glenohumeral joint during arm motion. Muscle strength and coordination should gain more emphasis in the diagnosis and treatment of shoulder instability. PMID:9524340

Wuelker, N; Korell, M; Thren, K

408

Habitat and scale shape the demographic fate of the keystone sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Mediterranean macrophyte communities.  

PubMed

Demographic processes exert different degrees of control as individuals grow, and in species that span several habitats and spatial scales, this can influence our ability to predict their population at a particular life-history stage given the previous life stage. In particular, when keystone species are involved, this relative coupling between demographic stages can have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems. We examined benthic and pelagic abundances of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in order to: 1) understand the main life-history bottlenecks by observing the degree of coupling between demographic stages; and 2) explore the processes driving these linkages. P. lividus is the dominant invertebrate herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea, and has been repeatedly observed to overgraze shallow beds of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and rocky macroalgal communities. We used a hierarchical sampling design at different spatial scales (100 s, 10 s and <1 km) and habitats (seagrass and rocky macroalgae) to describe the spatial patterns in the abundance of different demographic stages (larvae, settlers, recruits and adults). Our results indicate that large-scale factors (potentially currents, nutrients, temperature, etc.) determine larval availability and settlement in the pelagic stages of urchin life history. In rocky macroalgal habitats, benthic processes (like predation) acting at large or medium scales drive adult abundances. In contrast, adult numbers in seagrass meadows are most likely influenced by factors like local migration (from adjoining rocky habitats) functioning at much smaller scales. The complexity of spatial and habitat-dependent processes shaping urchin populations demands a multiplicity of approaches when addressing habitat conservation actions, yet such actions are currently mostly aimed at managing predation processes and fish numbers. We argue that a more holistic ecosystem management also needs to incorporate the landscape and habitat-quality level processes (eutrophication, fragmentation, etc.) that together regulate the populations of this keystone herbivore. PMID:22536355

Prado, Patricia; Tomas, Fiona; Pinna, Stefania; Farina, Simone; Roca, Guillem; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

2012-04-20

409

Impact of temperature cycle profile on fatigue life of solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the influence of the temperature cycle time history profile on the fatigue life of ball grid array (BGA) solder joints is studied. Temperature time history in a Pentium processor laptop computer was measured for a three-month period by means of thermocouples placed inside the computer. In addition, Pentium BGA packages were subjected to industry standard temperature cycles

Terry Dishongh; Cemal Basaran; Alexander N. Cartwright; Ying Zhao; Heng Liu

2002-01-01

410

Laboratory characterization of rock joints  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

1994-05-01

411

Evaluation of the Hip: History and Physical Examination  

PubMed Central

Examination of a painful hip is fairly concise and reliable at detecting the presence of a hip joint problem. Hip joint disorders often go undetected, leading to the development of secondary disorders. Using a thoughtful approach and methodical examination techniques, most hip joint problems can be detected and a proper treatment strategy can then be implemented based on an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a systematic examination process that outlines important components in each of the evaluation areas of history and physical examination (including inspection, measurements, symptom localization, muscle strength, and special tests).

2007-01-01

412

The history of AIDS exceptionalism.  

PubMed

In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism--the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions--began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding.This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197

Smith, Julia H; Whiteside, Alan

2010-12-03

413

Joint slip in steel electric transmission towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint slip is the relative displacement of a bolted joint under shear. It is greater in transmission towers as bolt diameters are small, members joined are thin, bearing type joints with a lower clamping force are used, and coefficient of friction of galvanized faying surfaces is low. This study on behaviour of such joints, incorporated 36 joint tests, generated joint

N Ungkurapinan; S. R. De S Chandrakeerthy; R. K. N. D Rajapakse; S. B Yue

2003-01-01

414

eHistory at OSU: Multimedia Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the power and abilities of the Internet, the eHistory website from Ohio State University offers multimedia portraits on topics that include immigration in the United States and the Louisiana Purchase. On the homepage, visitors can take a look at the "What is a 'Multimedia History'?" area to learn more about these features, and then move on over to the "Featured Multimedia History". The histories include interactive maps and images, along with narrative essays. Visitors can scan over the complete histories and also view one of their three video presentations. If they are interested, visitors can also sign up to receive Twitter updates or their RSS feed. Additionally, the site also contains links to the other areas of the eHistory site, such as their online books, timelines, and primary sources.

415

Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution  

PubMed Central

In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees.

Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

2008-01-01

416

Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolution.  

PubMed

In this review we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of hominin life history from extant and fossil evidence. We utilize demographic life history theory and distinguish life history variables, traits such as weaning, age at sexual maturity, and life span, from life history-related variables such as body mass, brain growth, and dental development. The latter are either linked with, or can be used to make inferences about, life history, thus providing an opportunity for estimating life history parameters in fossil taxa. We compare the life history variables of modern great apes and identify traits that are likely to be shared by the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and those likely to be derived in hominins. All great apes exhibit slow life histories and we infer this to be true of the last common ancestor of Pan-Homo and the stem hominin. Modern human life histories are even slower, exhibiting distinctively long post-menopausal life spans and later ages at maturity, pointing to a reduction in adult mortality since the Pan-Homo split. We suggest that lower adult mortality, distinctively short interbirth intervals, and early weaning characteristic of modern humans are derived features resulting from cooperative breeding. We evaluate the fidelity of three life history-related variables, body mass, brain growth and dental development, with the life history parameters of living great apes. We found that body mass is the best predictor of great ape life history events. Brain growth trajectories and dental development and eruption are weakly related proxies and inferences from them should be made with caution. We evaluate the evidence of life history-related variables available for extinct species and find that prior to the transitional hominins there is no evidence of any hominin taxon possessing a body size, brain size or aspects of dental development much different from what we assume to be the primitive life history pattern for the Pan-Homo clade. Data for life history-related variables among the transitional hominin grade are consistent and none agrees with a modern human pattern. Aside from mean body mass, adult brain size, crown and root formation times, and the timing and sequence of dental eruption of Homo erectus are inconsistent with that of modern humans. Homo antecessor fossil material suggests a brain size similar to that of Homo erectus s. s., and crown formation times that are not yet modern, though there is some evidence of modern human-like timing of tooth formation and eruption. The body sizes, brain sizes, and dental development of Homo heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis are consistent with a modern human life history but samples are too small to be certain that they have life histories within the modern human range. As more life history-related variable information for hominin species accumulates we are discovering that they can also have distinctive life histories that do not conform to any living model. At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees. PMID:18380863

Robson, Shannen L; Wood, Bernard

2008-04-01

417

The History Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Canada's History Education Network "is a collaborative network across the diverse fields of history, history education and school history teaching in Canada...to bring together people from across Canada and internationally to inform, carry out, critique, and implement research into history education." This website is loaded with resources for Canadian history teachers, but also for history teachers from any country, as there are valuable tools on the site that aid in the teaching of history in general, and at all grade levels. The "Practice" link, near the top of any page, has assessment tools to evaluate the most effective ways to teach history. Visitors should take a look at the "Best Practices in History Education", which includes "Instructional Plans", "Instructional Resources", and "Database of Articles of Practice Awards". The "Assessment Tools" includes "Critical Challenges from the Critical Thinking Consortium (TC2)". The "Make Your Voice Heard" section links to such features as "Forums", "Videos and Podcasts" and "Polls".

418

Implications of ecological energetics and biophysical and developmental constraints for life history variation in dinosaurs  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent speculation concerning the nature of life history variation in dinosaurs (Case, 1978; Bakker, 1986; Horner, 1982, 1984a). The purpose of this paper is to review the data on dinosaur life histories and to examine the nature and magnitude of the demographic and physiological factors that must have constrained life history variation in this group. 145 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Dunham, A.E.; Overall, K.L.; Forster, C.A.; Porter, W.P.

1988-01-01

419

Joint hypermobility syndrome.  

PubMed

Although perceived as a rare condition, joint hypermobility syndrome is common. Its prevalence in rheumatology clinics is extremely high. Early estimates suggest that it may be the most common of all rheumatologic conditions. The problem lies in the general lack of awareness of the syndrome, its means of recognition, and the resultant failure to diagnose it correctly when present. It is a worldwide problem. This article provides an overview of hypermobility and hypermobility syndrome, stressing its multisystemic nature and the negative impact that it may have on quality of life, with particular reference to gastrointestinal involvement. PMID:23597972

Fikree, Asma; Aziz, Qasim; Grahame, Rodney

2013-05-01

420

Joint Robotics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sun Tzu wrote first about the importance of logistics over two thousand years ago, followed by Von Clauswitz 150 years ago. Much like human transportation history evolution -- beginning first with people walking or running from point a to point b, followe...

J. Brown P. Varian

2008-01-01

421

On representations for joint moments using a joint coordinate system.  

PubMed

In studies of the biomechanics of joints, the representation of moments using the joint coordinate system has been discussed by several authors. The primary purpose of this technical brief is to emphasize that there are two distinct, albeit related, representations for moment vectors using the joint coordinate system. These distinct representations are illuminated by exploring connections between the Euler and dual Euler bases, the "nonorthogonal projections" presented in a recent paper by Desroches et al. (2010, "Expression of Joint Moment in the Joint Coordinate System," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 132(11), p. 11450) and seminal works by Grood and Suntay (Grood and Suntay, 1983, "A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105(2), pp. 136-144) and Fujie et al. (1996, "Forces and Moment in Six-DOF at the Human Knee Joint: Mathematical Description for Control," Journal of Biomechanics, 29(12), pp. 1577-1585) on the knee joint. It is also shown how the representation using the dual Euler basis leads to straightforward definition of joint stiffnesses. PMID:24008987

O'Reilly, Oliver M; Sena, Mark P; Feeley, Brian T; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2013-11-01

422

Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.  

PubMed

We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines. PMID:21688882

Thatcher, Sherry M B; Patel, Pankaj C

2011-06-20

423

Metal to ceramic sealed joint  

DOEpatents

A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

1991-08-27

424

Radiograph utilization and demographics in a chiropractic college teaching clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to present radiograph utilization at a chiropractic college teaching clinic, the associated patient demographics, and the utilization rates by body region. Methods Data for outpatient services over a 3-year period were extracted from a college clinic administrative software program. Radiographic data were matched with patient demographic information providing the age, sex, and financial class for all patients. Results The overall radiograph utilization rate was 8%, with the highest frequency occurring in the spine in the order of lumbar, cervical, and then thoracic regions. Spinal radiographs made up 66% of the total radiographs taken. The utilization rate increased as the age of the patients increased. The average patient age was 46, and 48% were female. Conclusion The radiograph utilization rate at this teaching clinic was lower than previous studies. This study provides new information regarding overall and regional radiography rates and associated patient demographics from an American chiropractic college.

Lew, Makani; Snow, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

425

History of the internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

The study of engineering history by the practioners of engineering is not well-developed. This is unfortunate, because if nothing else, it is the culture of our profession, but even more importantly, it provides us with a proper understanding of current and future engineering. Without an adequate historical background the engineer could, for example, respond incorrectly to problems that might arise in some device or make inappropriate changes in the design. History can also suggest the path that might be followed by a new product, and thereby guide the development and marketing. Because of the fuller appreciation of the art and science of engineering that is provided by an awareness of engineering history, it seems appropriate for the ASME to recognize the role in our profession. The papers in this volume, which deal and various aspects of the history of the internal combustion engine, were presented in a session at the Fall Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division held in Dearborn, Michigan on October 17, 1989. The session was jointly sponsored and arranged by the Internal Combustion Engine Division and by the History and Heritage Committee of ASME. It is the first in what the latter hopes will be a regular series of sessions at various Society meetings jointly sponsored with the different divisions of the Society. It is hoped in this way to raise the consciousness of the engineering community to its history and to encourage in particular the preparation of historical papers by engineer-historians, who are involved in the practice of engineering. An approximate chronological order has been chosen for the arrangement of the papers, with the first, by H.O. Hardenberg, being on the gunpowder engines, which were experimented with from the sixteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century.

Somerscales, E.F.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)); Zagotta, A.A. (Sealed Power Corp., Muskegon, MI (US))

1989-01-01

426

Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect of these new, rapid demographic changes.

Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

1992-09-01

427

Best of History Websites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An anthology of online history resources, this site was crafted and designed for history students, teachers, and enthusiasts. Established by Thomas Daccord, history teacher and instructional technology consultant at the Noble and Greenough School in Dedham, Massachusetts, this site not only provides links to online resources, but also rates them on a one to five star scale. The site features ten different historical categories -- Prehistory, Ancient/ Biblical, Medieval, US History, Early Modern European, 20th Century, World War II, Art History, General Resources, and Maps -- and contains links to over 700 history-related Web sites that have been reviewed for "quality, accuracy, and usefulness."

428

Lumbar spine radiographic features and demographic, clinical, and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine individual radiographic features (IRF) of disc space narrowing (DSN), osteophytes (OST) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FOA). 2) To describe the frequencies of demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis (OA) across lumbar spine IRF. 3) To determine factors associated with lumbar spine IRF. Methods A cross-sectional study of 840 participants enrolled in the Johnston County OA Project (2003-4). Sample-based prevalence estimates were generated for each lumbar spine IRF. Associations between lumbar spine IRF and demographic, clinical and peripheral joint OA were determined with logistic regression models. Results Sample-based prevalence estimates were similar for DSN (57.6%) and FOA (57.9%) but higher for OST (88.1%) with significant differences across race and gender. Hand and knee OA frequencies increased across IRF whereas the effect was absent for hip OA. African Americans had lower odds of FOA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.45 (95% CI 0.32, 0.62)) while there was no racial association with DSN and OST. Low back symptoms were associated with DSN (aOR=1.37 (95% CI 1.04, 1.80)) but not OST or FOA. Knee OA was associated with OST (aOR=1.62 (95% CI 1.16, 2.27)) and FOA (aOR=1.69 (95% CI 1.15, 2.49)) but not DSN. Hand OA was associated with FOA (aOR=1.67 (95% CI 1.20, 2.28)) but not with DSN or OST. No associations were found with hip OA. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of analyzing lumbar spine IRF separately as the associations with demographic, clinic and radiographic knee, hip and hand OA differ widely.

Goode, Adam P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Renner, Jordan B.; Carey, Timothy S.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Irwin, Debra E.; Sturmer, Til; Jordan, Joanne M.

2012-01-01

429

Demographic, employment and development trends: the need for integrated planning.  

PubMed

"The authors contend that problems associated with rapid demographic growth in developing countries have to be tackled through comprehensive population and human resource planning. Linkages between population and development are especially close in the area of labour markets. Following a discussion of the impacts of demographic factors on labour supply, labour demand and migration, the article proposes a practical framework in which population and human resource development plans may be operationalised. The concluding section briefly discusses the emerging area of population policy formulation and implementation." PMID:12283282

Farooq, G M; Mackellar, F L

1990-01-01

430

Demographic determinants for cesarean delivery in Pattani Hospital.  

PubMed

We investigated demographic determinants for cesarean delivery based on a database of 25,829 singleton births at Pattani Hospital from October 1, 1996 to September 30, 2005. This database includes demographic information about the mother and delivery type outcomes. Using logistic regression analysis to adjust each factor for possible confounding effects of other factors, we found that Islamic women were less likely to give birth by cesarean section and older mothers were more likely to give birth by cesarean section. There was also an association between higher education and cesarian section. PMID:19842449

Rachatapantanakorn, Orasa; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan

2009-05-01

431

Family Health History and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Health History and Diabetes Family Health History and Diabetes En español Family health history is an important ... Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history ...

432

Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2008-01-01

433

Serious suicidal behaviors: Socio-demographic and clinical features in a multinational, multicenter sample.  

PubMed

Background: Declared suicidal intent and physical danger are both considered important components in defining suicidal behaviors (SB). Aims: 1) To investigate characteristics of serious suicidal behaviors (SSB), defined by either suicidal intent or lethality; 2) To determine any difference in terms of socio-demographic, clinical and/or service usage variables between SSB and non-serious suicidal behaviors (NSSB). Methods: A total of 2631 contacts for SB were registered in the context of the MONSUE (Monitoring Suicidal Behavior in Europe) study project. Demographic and clinical information were registered. ICD-10 was used for classifying data about psychiatric diagnoses, methods used for SB and injuries reported. Clear intentionality, high-case fatality methods and serious injuries all defined SSB (n = 1169; 44.4%) Results: SSB were more often preceded by a contact with an inpatient (either psychiatric or somatic) rather than an outpatient service. Among those having a previous history of SB, SSB subjects had fewer contacts with health services before the previous attempt. The strongest predictors for SSB appeared to be older age and not professing a religion. Conclusion: Many of the known factors contributing to the risk of completed suicide were also present for SSB. Our findings on service usage by suicide attempters show which aspects of mental health services should be strengthened in order to improve suicide prevention. PMID:23421730

Carli, Vladimir; Mandelli, Laura; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Iosue, Miriam; Hadlaczky, Gergo; Wasserman, Danuta; Hegerl, Ulrich; Värnik, Airi; Reisch, Thomas; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Maloney, Julia; Schmidtke, Armin; Serretti, Alessandro; Sarchiapone, Marco

2013-02-19

434

Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters.  

PubMed

Reliable information on historical and current population dynamics is central to understanding patterns of growth and decline in animal populations. We developed a maximum likelihood-based analysis to estimate spatial and temporal trends in age/sex-specific survival rates for the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis), using annual population censuses and the age structure of salvaged carcass collections. We evaluated a wide range of possible spatial and temporal effects and used model averaging to incorporate model uncertainty into the resulting estimates of key vital rates and their variances. We compared these results to current demographic parameters estimated in a telemetry-based study conducted between 2001 and 2004. These results show that survival has decreased substantially from the early 1990s to the present and is generally lowest in the north-central portion of the population's range. The greatest temporal decrease in survival was for adult females, and variation in the survival of this age/sex class is primarily responsible for regulating population growth and driving population trends. Our results can be used to focus future research on southern sea otters by highlighting the life history stages and mortality factors most relevant to conservation. More broadly, we have illustrated how the powerful and relatively straightforward tools of information-theoretic-based model fitting can be used to sort through and parameterize quite complex demographic modeling frameworks. PMID:17205905

Tinker, M Tim; Doak, Daniel F; Estes, James A; Hatfield, Brian B; Staedler, Michelle M; Bodkin, James L

2006-12-01

435

Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of university students referred to an eating disorders service.  

PubMed

This study describes the socio-demographic characteristics and eating disorders symptomatology of university students assessed by a specialised NHS eating disorders service in the UK over a 4-year period. Information was gathered on past treatment history, source of referral, details of university and course of study, whether the patient was still open to the service or discharged, and if the patient had dropped out of contact from services. The study also describes the diagnosis of the assessed patients as well as the results of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Revised Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90-R) questionnaires. The study shows that the university students attending an eating disorder service often suffer from severe conditions, which are generally well-established before they start their university studies. The study discusses the implication of those results in service delivery and future service development. PMID:17676683

Arcelus, Jon; Button, Eric

2007-03-01

436

Nonmarital childbearing in Russia: second demographic transition or pattern of disadvantage?  

PubMed

Using retrospective union, birth, and education histories that span 1980-2003, this study investigates nonmarital childbearing in contemporary Russia. We employ a combination of methods to decompose fertility rates by union status and analyze the processes that lead to a nonmarital birth. We find that the increase in the percentage of nonmarital births was driven mainly by the growing proportion of women who cohabit before conception, not changing fertility behavior of cohabitors or changes in union behavior after conception. The relationship between education and nonmarital childbearing has remained stable: the least-educated women have the highest birth rates within cohabitation and as single mothers, primarily because of their lower probability of legitimating a nonmarital conception. These findings suggest that nonmarital childbearing Russia has more in common with the pattern of disadvantage in the United States than with the second demographic transition. We also find several aspects of nonmarital childbearing that neither of these perspectives anticipates. PMID:21264652

Perelli-Harris, Brienna; Gerber, Theodore P

2011-02-01

437

Mental health weapons prohibition: demographic and psychiatric factors in petitions for relief.  

PubMed

Federal law and most states prohibit possession of firearms by individuals with a history of certain psychiatric diagnoses and/or treatment. In California, an involuntary 72-h hold can trigger a 5-year ban on firearm possession. Individuals so prohibited may petition for early termination of the ban. We report on the demographic and psychiatric characteristics of a sample of individuals petitioning for early relief in Los Angeles County, and on the results of their petitions. The majority of petitioners were Caucasian men over age 40. Sixteen percent of petitioners were employed in law enforcement or armed security, and all of their petitions were granted. Individuals for whom there was greater evidence of mental disorder were significantly less likely to petition successfully. The results are discussed in terms of the benefits of involving a forensic expert in the petition process, which is not presently required under California law. PMID:18503522

Simpson, Joseph R; Sharma, Kaushal K

2008-07-01

438

CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT  

DOEpatents

An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

Thorp, A.G. II

1962-08-01

439

Smart material joint band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention relates to an improved connector for joining two tubular members together. The connector is formed by a plurality of longitudinally extending fingers extending from an end of one of the tubular members and at least one locking groove in the other of the tubular members for receiving the fingers. The connector further includes a circumferentially extending wire member which is received in a notch in a head portion of each of the plurality of fingers. The wire member is preferably formed from a shape memory alloy and has an original circumference less than the circumference of a circle formed by the notches in the head portions of the fingers. The connector includes apertures through which electric wires may be connected to the shape memory alloy ring member so as to cause the shape memory alloy ring member to return to its original shape and allow release of the joint connection.

Tucchio, Michael A.; Stoodt, Robert A.; Livsey, Robert A.

1993-12-01

440

History, Stories and Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who take avid pleasure in history told as a good story more often than not forsake it as adults. History has too often ceased to be a good story and become simply analytical, arid, tedious. (Author)|

Bucholz, Arden

1971-01-01

441

Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity (?), effective population size (N(e)), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of ? are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral ?, indicating large decreases in N(e) (? = 4N(e)?), where ? is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM) model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7), with divergence times (t) among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow) fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs) for the onset of the decline in N(e) predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present. PMID:21789171

Nance, Holly A; Klimley, Peter; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Martínez-Ortíz, Jimmy; Marko, Peter B

2011-07-14

442

Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30 years of mark-recapture data.  

PubMed

1. Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2. We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30 years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3. We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4. Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life-history evolution in stochastic environments and provides useful information for predicting population responses to future environmental change. Our results for an Antarctic apex predator also provide useful baselines from a marine ecosystem when its top- and middle-trophic levels were not substantially impacted by human activity. PMID:21939440

Rotella, Jay J; Link, William A; Chambert, Thierry; Stauffer, Glenn E; Garrott, Robert A

2011-09-21

443

Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life-history evolution in stochastic environments and provides useful information for predicting population responses to future environmental change. Our results for an Antarctic apex predator also provide useful baselines from a marine ecosystem when its top- and middle-trophic levels were not substantially impacted by human activity. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

Rotella, J. J.; Link, W. A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G. E.; Garrott, R. A.

2012-01-01

444

History and design considerations for arthroplasty around the wrist.  

PubMed

The history and evolution of both soft tissue and implant arthroplasty about the wrist are discussed, including carpometacarpal, radiocarpal, and distal radioulnar joints. Technical considerations for arthroplasty are reviewed, including factors affecting implant osseointegration, implant articulation/constraint, and management of complications. PMID:23168024

Rosenfeld, Jonathan F; Nicholson, James J

2012-10-15

445

Post-traumatic disorders of the jaw joint.  

PubMed Central

A group of 165 patients with surgical diseases of the temporomandibular joint treated in 3 Australian university hospitals is reviewed. A facial trauma is relatively common patients have been included in the post-traumatic group only if there was an undisputed history of injury requiring medical or dental treatment or admission to hospital. In 38.3% of patients with histologically proven osteoarthritis there was an undisputed history of trauma. In a further group with recurrent mandibular dislocation 62.6% were post-traumatic. Trauma was the cause of 62.5% of cases of mandibular ankylosis. There is a general tendency to underdiagnose degenerative joint disease and to perpetuate conservative treatment when it is crystal clear that these measures are not being successful. It is probable that intracapsular fractures of the jaw joint are frequently undiagnosed and a higher index of suspicion is required. Mandibular ankylosis continues to pose some difficulty of management and a critical review confirms that wide surgical exposure of the joint is essential; the importance of long-term review is stressed. The outcome of the surgical treatment of recurrent luxation is excellent and an operation of commendable simplicity is advocated. Images fig. 5 p34-a

Norman, J. E.

1982-01-01

446

Joint Targeting Planning Training Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide resulted from an effort to develop a new approach to assessment and diagnostic training feedback in joint training. The guide resulted from a front-end analysis of joint targeting for an air campaign planning simulation. The analysis generated ...

J. F. Love

1998-01-01

447

Managing International Joint Venture Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to describe and analyze the formation and development of international joint venture processes and relationships between the partners over time. Moreover, the study analyzes how far foreign partners have been successful in developing new contacts and in expanding their activities in local markets. We have carried out two case studies on joint ventures between

Akmal S. Hyder; Pervez N. Ghauri

2000-01-01

448

Articulated Joint for Deployable Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link ...

N. D. Craighead R. J. Preliasco T. D. Hult

1983-01-01

449

International retail joint venture learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where retail entry mode decision-making is examined in the literature, it has almost exclusively focused upon international store acquisitions and franchising growth and expansion. In contrast, international joint venture decision-making processes are visibly absent in the international retail literature. This article explores three retail multinationals' international retail joint venturing experiences, extracting some of the salient lessons learned at each stage

Mark Palmer

2006-01-01

450

Industrial robots with seven joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a physical 3-dimensional free space at most six degrees of freedom can be independent, i.e. three for position and three for orientation. Intuitively robots with six joints are adequate to execute any tasks. However, in reality, constraints often exist under the complex environment so that six joints are not quite enough for the robots. An insertion of an additional

J. Y. S. Luh; Y. L. Gu

1985-01-01

451

Joint attention and language evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development

Johan Kwisthout; Paul Vogt; Pim Haselager; Ton Dijkstra

2008-01-01

452