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Sample records for joint disease osteoarthritis

  1. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertrophic osteoarthritis; Osteoarthrosis; Degenerative joint disease; DJD; OA; Arthritis - osteoarthritis ... rubbery tissue that cushions your bones at the joints. It allows bones to glide over one another. ...

  2. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  3. Mouse models of osteoarthritis and joint injury

    E-print Network

    Avedillo, Jose Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 21 million Americans are affected by osteoarthritis, a complex disease characterized by degenerative lesions to the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the joints. The complexity of the disease makes the use ...

  4. Osteoarthritis: The Peripheral Joints

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold S.

    1981-01-01

    Understanding of osteoarthritis has increased: the simplistic “wear and tear” concept no longer holds and this has positive clinical implications. A parallel development has taken place in treatment techniques: there is increasing expertise in the use of physical measures and in new orthopedic reconstructive surgical approaches to multiple joints. This gives the physician alternative approaches to the patient with painful and disabling osteoarthritis. The timing of these treatment options and some considerations which lead to orthopedic referral are considered in this general discussion. Imagesp285-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469342

  5. Role of viscosupplementation in osteo-arthritis of knee joint.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rajesh; Mahajan, Sumit

    2013-05-01

    Osteo-arthritis is the chronic degenerative disease associated with joint pain and loss of joint function. It is caused by 'wear and tear' on a joint. Knee is the most commonly Involved joint. Disease is so crippling that patient is unable to walk independently from bed to bathroom. The major causes of osteo-arthritis are age, gender, obesity, medical condition and hereditary. The signs and symptoms of osteo-arthritis are pain, joint stiffness, joint swelling, and loss of function. No blood tests are helpful in diagnosing osteo-arthritis. Management of osteo-arthritis includes non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical. A relatively new procedure is viscosupplementation, in which a preparation of hyaluronic acid is injected into the knee joint. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring substance found in the synovial fluid. It acts as a lubricant to enable bones to move smoothly over each other and a shock absorber for joint loads. The decrease in the elastic and viscous properties of synovial fluid in osteo-arthritis results from both a reduced molecular size and a reduced concentration of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluid. Viscosupplementation may be a therapeutic option for individuals with osteo-arthritis of the knee. Viscosupplementation has been shown to relieve pain in many patients who cannot get relief from non-medicinal measures or analgesic drugs. This article is to know the mechanism of action, patients' selection criteria, rationale and efficacy of viscosupplimentation in the management of osteo-arthritis of knee. PMID:24765695

  6. Surgical treatment of trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    TACCARDO, GIUSEPPE; DE VITIS, ROCCO; PARRONE, GIUSEPPE; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; FANFANI, FRANCESCO

    2013-01-01

    Trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis is a common cause of radial-sided wrist pain that prevalently affects women. It is diagnosed on the basis of a thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation. While radiographs are used to determine the stage of disease, treatment is dependent on the severity of the symptoms. Non-surgical treatment frequently consists of activity modification, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, splinting and corticosteroid injections. After failure of conservative treatment, various surgical options exist depending on the stage of the disease. These options range from ligament reconstruction or osteotomy, for early painful laxity, to trapeziectomy, arthrodesis and arthroplasty for more severe osteoarthritis. This article reviews the literature supporting the various surgical treatment options and analyzes the surgical techniques most frequently used in the different disease stages. PMID:25606524

  7. Osteoarthritis, a disease bridging development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lories, Rik J U; Luyten, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    The osteoarthritic diseases are common disorders characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage in the joints, and associated with remodeling of the subchondral bone, synovitis and the formation of bone outgrowths at the joint margins, osteophytes. From the clinical perspective, osteoarthritis leads to joint pain and loss of function. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of progressive disability. New data from genetic, translational and basic research have demonstrated that pathways with essential roles in joint and bone development also contribute to the postnatal homeostasis of the articular cartilage and are involved in osteoarthritis, making these potential therapeutic targets. Other systems of interest are the tissue-destructive enzymes that break down the extracellular matrix of the cartilage as well as mediators of inflammation that contribute to synovitis. However, the perspective of a durable treatment over years to decades highlights the need for a personalized medicine approach encompassing a global view on the disease and its management, thereby including nonpharmaceutical approaches such as physiotherapy and advanced surgical methods. Integration of novel strategies based on their efficacy and safety with the identification of individuals at risk and optimal individual rehabilitation management remains a major challenge for the medical community in particular, as the incidence of osteoarthritis is likely to further increase with the overall aging of the population. PMID:23951516

  8. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips ... spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ...

  9. The pisotriquetral joint: osteoarthritis and enthesopathy.

    PubMed

    Kofman, K E; Schuurman, A H; Mulder, M C; Verlinde, S A M W; Gierman, L M; van Diest, P J; Bleys, R L A W

    2014-06-01

    Pisotriquetral (PT) osteoarthritis (OA) and enthesopathy of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) are pathologies of the hypothenar eminence which both often remain undiagnosed, but can cause ulnar wrist pain. This study determined the prevalence of these pathologies in an older donor population. Twenty wrists were obtained from 10 cadavers with an age ranging from 65 to 94 years. Radiographs were taken of all wrists with the hand in pisotriquetral view and were assessed for osteoarthritic changes of the PT joint and signs of enthesopathy of the FCU. Ten wrists were grossly dissected and the other ten wrists were sagitally sectioned at a thickness of 10 ?m. The wrists were analyzed for type and grade of osteoarthritis and signs of enthesopathy. On radiology, 2 out of 20 wrists showed no signs of osteoarthritis, 5 wrists showed severe changes. One wrist showed signs of enthesopathy. On macroscopy, 9 out of 10 wrists showed osteoartritic changes; 5 of these were severely osteoarthritic. On microscopy, all wrists showed some degree of osteoarthritis of which five showed severe changes. Signs of enthesopathy were seen in seven wrists. Pisotriquetral osteoarthritis has a high prevalence in the older donor population and may therefore be a cause of ulnar sided wrist pain. It should therefore always be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulnar sided wrist pain. By performing clinical examination with these pathologies in mind, diagnosis could be a lot faster. Furthermore, based on our results, radiographs seem to be not accurate in diagnosing osteoarthritis of the PT joint and enthesopathy of the FCU. PMID:24876685

  10. Osteoarthritis pathogenesis – a complex process that involves the entire joint

    PubMed Central

    Man, GS; Mologhianu, G

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder and a major cause of disability with a major socio-economic impact. In these circumstances is very important to understand its pathogenesis. Although previous research focused primarily on changes in the articular cartilage, more recent studies have highlighted the importance of the subchondral bone, synovium, menisci, ligaments, periarticular muscles and nerves. Now osteoarthritis is viewed as a multifactorial disease affecting the whole joint. Abbreviations: TNF-? – tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1 – interleukin -1, IL-6 – interleukin-6, COMP- cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, BSP - bone sialoprotein, MRI - magnetic resonance imaging, NTx - cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, CTx – C-telopeptide-cross-linked collagen type I, TGF-? – transforming growth factor beta, MMPs- matrix metaloproteinases, VEGF-vascular endothelial growth factor, bFGF - basic fibroblast growth factor. PMID:24653755

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Saori; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Osteoarthritis, which is also called degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, is primarily a disease that results from the breakdown and loss of cartilage in joints. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance images for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Fifty patients (50 joints) with closed locking of the temporomandibular joint were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and then underwent arthroscopic surgery. The agreement of osteoarthritis between magnetic resonance images and arthroscopic findings was studied using the ? coefficient. Results The incidence of osteoarthritis on magnetic resonance images (38%) was significantly lower than that in arthroscopic findings (78%). There was no significant agreement between these two findings (p=.108). The ? coefficient was 0.154. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance images for osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint was low; early osteoarthritis could not be diagnosed from magnetic resonance images. Clinicians should understand that the diagnostic accuracy of osteoarthritis without arthroscopy is not always high. PMID:26393215

  12. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with the aging process. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease causing the deterioration of the cartilage within a ... is roughened and becomes worn down. As the disease progresses, the cartilage becomes completely worn down and ...

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of etodolac in aged patients affected by degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis) in its active phase.

    PubMed

    Todesco, S; Del Ross, T; Marigliano, V; Ariani, A

    1994-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-fifteen patients, aged 60 or more years, affected by degenerative joint disease (DJD) in the active stage, the majority with concomitant pathological conditions of various organs and systems and undergoing various combined drug treatments, were treated with 300 mg b.i.d. etodolac in order to assay its efficacy and safety profile in an aged population more exposed to the occurrence of adverse events. In a subset of these patients, the impact of etodolac treatment on cognitive function and mood was studied. All clinical assessments revealed highly significant improvement after etodolac treatment. Significant improvement was found also for what concerns mood, whereas only the less aged patients showed improvement in cognitive abilities after treatment with etodolac. Only 30 patients (9.5%) showed side-effects, resulting in suspension of treatment in 10 cases (3.17%). In all cases, adverse reactions subsided with no consequences. Laboratory tests performed at the end of the study yielded mean values comprised within the normal range and were not statistically different from the same examinations performed before starting treatment. Occult blood in stool turned positive after treatment with etodolac only in six patients (2%). In conclusion, etodolac proved to be effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of risk-aged patients with active DJD. PMID:7927957

  14. Altered Tibiofemoral Joint Contact Mechanics and Kinematics in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Episodic Complaints of Joint Instability

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Klatt, Brian A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Tashman, Scott; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. Methods Forty-three subjects, 11 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), 7 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), and 25 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a downhill gait task on a treadmill. Findings The medial compartment contact point excursions were longer in the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.046) and the control groups (p=0.016). The peak medial compartment contact point velocity was also greater for the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.047) and control groups (p=0.022). Additionally, the unstable group demonstrated a coupled movement pattern of knee extension and external rotation after heel contact which was different than the coupled motion of knee flexion and internal rotation demonstrated by stable and control groups. Interpretation Our findings suggest that knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics are altered during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. The observed longer medial compartment contact point excursions and higher velocities represent objective signs of mechanical instability that may place the arthritic knee joint at increased risk for disease progression. Further research is indicated to explore the clinical relevance of altered contact mechanics and kinematics during other common daily activities and to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation programs to improve altered joint biomechanics in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. PMID:24856791

  15. The incidence of osteo-arthritis of the temporomandibular joint in various cultures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C J; Powers, R; Kruszynski, R

    1979-04-01

    Three hundred and forty-eight cranial remains from Bronze and Iron Age British, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern Coast Australian aborigines, Medieval Christian Norse, Medieval Scarborough, 17--20th century British and German cultures, were examined for the presence of osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joints. Cultures exposed to more stringent living conditions and with well-worn teeth had about twice the incidence of osteo-arthritis as the more sophisticated cultures. In general, loss of either molar support or occlusal imbalance were potent aetiological factors in this disease. PMID:380538

  16. Spontaneously developed osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint in STR/ort mice

    PubMed Central

    KUMAGAI, KENICHI; SUZUKI, SATSUKI; KANRI, YORIAKI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; FUJII, KEISUKE; WAKE, MASAHIRO; SUZUKI, RYUJI; HAMADA, YOSHIKI

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is typically a slowly progressive asymmetric disease. Little is known regarding the natural destruction of TMJ articular tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate morphological changes in the TMJ of STR/ort mice, known to be the model for spontaneous osteoarthritis in the knee joint, and to evaluate STR/ort mice as a suitable animal model for TMJ osteoarthritis. TMJs from 32 STR/ort mice euthanized at 30, 40, 50 or 60 weeks of age, and from 6 CBA mice euthanized at 30, 40 or 60 weeks of age were examined. Toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining were used to assess histological changes in the articular cartilage. Morphological changes in the articular cartilage of the TMJ were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. At the age of 40–50 weeks, 17 (68%) of the 25 STR/ort mice had loss of articular cartilage on histology, with cavitation and erosion of the exposed bone and gradual changes in condylar shape. Furthermore, osteoarthritic morphological changes, and structural alterations were observed by microcomputed tomography. The STR/ort mouse strain appears to develop spontaneous osteoarthritis-like lesions in the TMJ with age, and would be a useful model to study the pathogenesis of TMJ osteoarthritis. PMID:26171147

  17. Role of Agnikarma in Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint)

    PubMed Central

    Jethava, Nilesh G.; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sandhigata Vata is one of Vata Vyadhi characterized by the symptoms such as Sandhishoola (joint pain) and Sandhishopha (swelling of joint). Osteoarthritis (OA) is degenerative joint disorder, represents failure of the diarthrodial (movable, synovial-lined) joint. OA of knee joint comes under the inflammatory group which is almost identical to Sandhigata Vata described in Ayurveda with respect to etiology, pathology, and clinical features. Agnikarma (therapeutic heat burn) is one which gives instant relief from pain by balancing local Vata and Kapha Dosha without any untoward effects. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Agnikarma with Rajata and Loha Dhatu Shalaka in the management of Janugata Sandhivata (OA of knee joint). Materials and Methods: A total of 28 diagnosed patients of Janugata Sandhivata were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A, Agnikarma was done with Rajata Shalaka while in Group-B Agnikarma was performed by Loha Shalaka in four sittings. Assessment in relief of signs and symptoms was done by weekly interval, and Student's t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Group-A provided 76.31% relief in pain while Group-B provided 83.77% relief. Relief from crepitus was observed in 57.13% of patients of Group-A, while 57.92% of patients of Group-B. There was statistically insignificant difference between both the groups. Loha Shalaka provided better result in pain relief than Rajata Shalaka. Conclusion: Agnikarma is effective nonpharmacological, parasurgical procedure for pain management in Sandhigata Vata (OA of knee joint).

  18. Closing the gap between bench and bedside research for early arthritis therapies (EARTH): report from the AOSSM/NIH U-13 Post-Joint Injury Osteoarthritis Conference II.

    PubMed

    Chu, Constance R; Beynnon, Bruce D; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Garrett, William E; Katz, Jeffrey N; Rodeo, Scott A; Spindler, Kurt P; Stanton, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the 2010 AOSSM/NIH (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine/National Institutes of Health) U13 Post-Joint Injury Osteoarthritis II Conference to include the discussion concerning potential study cohorts, assessment considerations, and research priorities. There was strong consensus and enthusiasm for approaching the development of disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis through study of "pre-osteoarthritic" cohorts, particularly human subjects under 30 years of age following acute anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clinical study of acute treatment strategies initiated within a few days after injury will need development of recruitment pathways and short-term proof-of-concept outcome measures that are specific to the intervention being studied. For example, measures of joint inflammation can be used in short-term prospective randomized controlled trials to determine whether an anti-inflammatory intervention was effective in decreasing early inflammation. These short-term clinical trials will need to be followed by longer-term evaluation of the clinical cohorts for joint and cartilage degeneration to determine if the acute intervention affected later development of osteoarthritis. Research priorities were identified in several disciplines, particularly regarding development and validation of quantitative imaging, biomechanics, and biomarker measures of joint structure, composition, and function that predict the accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Systematic study of posttraumatic osteoarthritis is anticipated to advance understanding and treatment of all forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:21730208

  19. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as dressing and putting on shoes a challenge. Spine Osteoarthritis of the spine may show up as stiffness and pain in ... In some cases, arthritis-related changes in the spine can cause pressure on the nerves where they ...

  20. Early osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint is not associated with joint instability during typical isometric loading.

    PubMed

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C; Patel, Tarpit K; Ladd, Amy L; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Crisco, Joseph J

    2015-11-01

    The saddle-shaped trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint contributes importantly to the function of the human thumb. A balance between mobility and stability is essential in this joint, which experiences high loads and is prone to osteoarthritis (OA). Since instability is considered a risk factor for TMC OA, we assessed TMC joint instability during the execution of three isometric functional tasks (key pinch, jar grasp, and jar twist) in 76 patients with early TMC OA and 44 asymptomatic controls. Computed tomography images were acquired while subjects held their hands relaxed and while they applied 80% of their maximum effort for each task. Six degree-of-freedom rigid body kinematics of the metacarpal with respect to the trapezium from the unloaded to the loaded task positions were computed in terms of a TMC joint coordinate system. Joint instability was expressed as a function of the metacarpal translation and the applied force. We found that the TMC joint was more unstable during a key pinch task than during a jar grasp or a jar twist task. Sex, age, and early OA did not have an effect on TMC joint instability, suggesting that instability during these three tasks is not a predisposing factor in TMC OA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1639-1645, 2015. PMID:25941135

  1. Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Rosa, Michelino; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by “low-grade inflammation” in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder. PMID:25785564

  2. MMP protein and activity levels in synovial fluid from patients with joint injury, inflammatory arthritis, and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tchetverikov, I; Lohmander, L; Verzijl, N; Huizinga, T; TeKoppele, J; Hanemaaijer, R; DeGroot, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine protein and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 (MMP-1 and MMP-3) in synovial fluid of patients with knee joint injury, primary osteoarthritis, and acute pyrophosphate arthritis (pseudogout). Methods: Measurements were done on knee synovial fluid obtained in a cross sectional study of cases of injury (n = 283), osteoarthritis (n = 105), and pseudogout (n = 65), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Activity of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in ?2 macroglobulin complexes was measured using specific low molecular weight fluorogenic substrates. ProMMP-1, proMMP-3, and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) were quantified by immunoassay. Results: Mean levels of proMMP-1, proMMP-3, and TIMP-1 were increased in injury, osteoarthritis, and pseudogout compared with controls. MMP-1 activity was increased in pseudogout and injury groups over control levels, whereas MMP-3 activity was increased only in the pseudogout group. The increase in MMP-1 activity coincided with a decrease in TIMP-1 levels in the injury group. Conclusions: Patients with joint injury have a persistent increase in proMMP-1 and proMMP-3 in synovial fluid and an increase in activated MMPs, which are not inhibited by TIMP. The differences in activation and inhibition patterns between the study groups are consistent with disease specific patterns of MMP activation and/or inhibition in joint pathology. PMID:15834054

  3. Clarification on Mechanical Characteristic in State of Stress of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint Using Stress Freezing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezaki, Nobutaka; Ezumi, Tsutomu; Hachiya, Masashi

    In this research, the Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint was pick up, the 3-dimensional stress freezing method of photoelastic method was applied, and the state of the stress in the normality hip joint and the transformable hip joint was examined. The direction and the singular point of principal stress and stress distribution were experimentally examined. At result, The Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint touches by 2 points, Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint occurrence of the new singular point with flat of the femoral head, They change the direction of the principal stress line in an existing singular point is cause.

  4. Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index

    PubMed Central

    Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain. PMID:25431643

  5. Articular Joint Lubricants during Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Altered Levels and Molecular Species

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Zhang, Ruiyan; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Wilhelm, Jochen; Kaesser, Ulrich; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B.; Klein, Heiko; Ishaque, Bernd; Rickert, Markus; Schmitz, Gerd; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Steinmeyer, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyaluronic acid (HA), lubricin, and phospholipid species (PLs) contribute independently or together to the boundary lubrication of articular joints that is provided by synovial fluid (SF). Our study is the first reporting quantitative data about the molecular weight (MW) forms of HA, lubricin, and PLs in SF from cohorts of healthy donors, patients with early (eOA)- or late (lOA)-stage osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used human SF from unaffected controls, eOA, lOA, and RA. HA and lubricin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PLs was quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Fatty acids (FAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. The MW distribution of HA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results Compared with control SF, the concentrations of HA and lubricin were lower in OA and RA SF, whereas those of PLs were higher in OA and RA SF. Moreover, the MW distribution of HA shifted toward the lower ranges in OA and RA SF. We noted distinct alterations between cohorts in the relative distribution of PLs and the degree of FA saturation and chain lengths of FAs. Conclusions The levels, composition, and MW distribution of all currently known lubricants in SF—HA, lubricin, PLs—vary with joint disease and stage of OA. Our study is the first delivering a comprehensive view about all joint lubricants during health and widespread joint diseases. Thus, we provide the framework to develop new optimal compounded lubricants to reduce joint destruction. PMID:25933137

  6. cGMP levels in chronic cadmium disease and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Kagamimori, S.; Williams, W. R.; Watanabe, M.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cadmium on guanyl cyclase activity, urine levels of the nucleotide cGMP were measured in patients with bone and renal lesions resulting from chronic cadmium exposure, in patients with osteoarthritis and in a normal age-matched control population. The effects of cadmium, zinc and mercury salts on blood mononuclear cell cGMP production were also studied in vitro. The two patient groups exhibited clear differences in cGMP excretion. Lower urine cGMP (59%, P less than 0.01) and creatinine values (43%, P less than 0.01) were found in cadmium-exposed patients and higher cGMP values (56%, P less than 0.05) in patients with osteoarthritis, compared to the control group. Creatinine adjusted cGMP values were also lower in cadmium-exposed patients (28%, P less than 0.05) and higher in patients with osteoarthritis (130%, P less than 0.01). In vitro, a 10 h exposure of mononuclear cells to cadmium or mercury salts depressed guanyl cyclase activity in most experiments. At 10(-4) M, mercury was consistently more inhibitory in all cultures (95%, P less than 0.01). As cadmium has a potential for inhibiting guanyl cyclase activity in human tissue, the low urine cGMP values found in patients with cadmium disease may be attributable to chronic cadmium exposure. High guanyl cyclase activity in patients with osteoarthritis may be associated with inflammation. PMID:2874827

  7. Effects of joint capsule tissue on cartilage degradation in an in vitro joint injury model

    E-print Network

    Lin, Stephanie Norris, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the whole joint that affects an estimated 20.7 million Americans. Traumatic joint injury causes an increase in risk for the development of osteoarthritis. A previously developed ...

  8. Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Olivier A.; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Millett, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. PMID:22536514

  9. Post-Injury Response Could Be Key Step in Osteoarthritis Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Injury Response Could be Key Step in Osteoarthritis Development Scientists long considered osteoarthritis (OA) a disease of ... the innate immune system, is critical to the development of OA. Through analyses of joint tissue and ...

  10. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: state of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kelli D.; Golightly, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, incidence, and a broad array of potential risk factors at the person level and joint level. Recent findings Studies continue to illustrate the high impact of osteoarthritis worldwide, with increasing incidence. Person-level risk factors with strong evidence regarding osteoarthritis incidence and/or progression include age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history, and obesity. Joint-level risk factors with strong evidence for incident osteoarthritis risk include injury and occupational joint loading; the associations of injury and joint alignment with osteoarthritis progression are compelling. Moderate levels of physical activity have not been linked to increased osteoarthritis risk. Some topics of high recent interest or emerging evidence for association with osteoarthritis include metabolic pathways, vitamins, joint shape, bone density, limb length inequality, muscle strength and mass, and early structural damage. Summary Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease, and there is still much to learn regarding mechanisms underlying incidence and progression. However, there are several known modifiable and preventable risk factors, including obesity and joint injury; efforts to mitigate these risks can help to lessen the impact of osteoarthritis. PMID:25775186

  11. Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha R; Mehta, Charmi S; Shukla, Dipali J; Patel, Kalapi B; Patel, Manish V; Gupta, Shiv Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired't' test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study. PMID:24049405

  12. Effects of proprioceptive circuit exercise on knee joint pain and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck; Kim, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26357422

  13. Managing osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shirley P; Hunter, David J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Management of osteoarthritis should be based on a combination of non-drug and drug treatments targeted towards prevention, modifying risk and disease progression. Obesity is the most important modifiable risk factor, so losing weight in addition to land- and water-based exercise and strength training is important. While paracetamol can be tried, guidelines recommend non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as first-line treatment for osteoarthritis. If there are concerns about the adverse effects of oral treatment, particularly in older patients or those with comorbidities, topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be used. Glucosamine does not appear to be any better than placebo for pain. Its effect on the structural progression of disease when taken alone or in combination with chondroitin is uncertain. Fish oil has not been found to reduce the structural progression of knee arthritis. Surgical interventions should be avoided in the first instance, with arthroscopic procedures not showing benefit over sham procedures or optimised physical and medical therapy. Joint replacement surgery should be considered for severe osteoarthritis.

  14. Stem cell application for osteoarthritis in the knee joint: A minireview

    PubMed Central

    Uth, Kristin; Trifonov, Dimitar

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic, indolent disease that will affect an ever increasing number of patients, especially the elderly and the obese. It is characterized by degeneration of the cartilage substance inside the knee which leads to pain, stiffness and tenderness. By some estimations in 2030, only in the United States, this medical condition will burden 67 million people. While conventional treatments like physiotherapy or drugs offer temporary relief of clinical symptoms, restoration of normal cartilage function has been difficult to achieve. Moreover, in severe cases of knee osteoarthritis total knee replacement may be required. Total knee replacements come together with high effort and costs and are not always successful. The aim of this review is to outline the latest advances in stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis as well as highlight some of the advantages of stem cell therapy over traditional approaches aimed at restoration of cartilage function in the knee. In addition to the latest advances in the field, challenges associated with stem cell therapy regarding knee cartilage regeneration and chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo are also outlined and analyzed. Furthermore, based on their critical assessment of the present academic literature the authors of this review share their vision about the future of stem cell applications in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25426260

  15. Messenger RNA delivery of a cartilage-anabolic transcription factor as a disease-modifying strategy for osteoarthritis treatment.

    PubMed

    Aini, Hailati; Itaka, Keiji; Fujisawa, Ayano; Uchida, Hirokuni; Uchida, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shigeto; Kataoka, Kazunori; Saito, Taku; Chung, Ung-Il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease and a major health problem in the elderly population. No disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) has been made available for clinical use. Here we present a disease-modifying strategy for OA, focusing on messenger RNA (mRNA) delivery of a therapeutic transcription factor using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyamino acid block copolymer-based polyplex nanomicelles. When polyplex nanomicelles carrying the cartilage-anabolic, runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1?mRNA were injected into mouse OA knee joints, OA progression was significantly suppressed compared with the non-treatment control. Expressions of cartilage-anabolic markers and proliferation were augmented in articular chondrocytes of the RUNX1-injected knees. Thus, this study provides a proof of concept of the treatment of degenerative diseases such as OA by the in situ mRNA delivery of therapeutic transcription factors; the presented approach will directly connect basic findings on disease-protective or tissue-regenerating factors to disease treatment. PMID:26728350

  16. Osteoarthritis: understanding the pathophysiology, genetics, and treatments.

    PubMed Central

    Sinkov, Vladamir; Cymet, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    Risk factors for developing osteoarthritis include age, previous joint injury, obesity, and a genetic predisposition. An imbalance of joint functioning initiates the disease process, which is then worsened through biochemical changes in the collagen in the joint. Joint pain is the cardinal clinical presentation. Radiographic and lab testing do not correlate well with the disease; therefore, diagnosis is made by clinical findings. Treatment focuses on maintaining joint function through the use of directed activity, physical therapy, and medications. PMID:12856913

  17. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S.; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Hypothesis Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Study Design Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Results Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs ?0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: ?0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs ?0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs ?0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb than did the group without OA at 6 months (2.89 ± 0.52 body weight [nonOA] vs 2.10 ± 0.69 body weight [OA], P = .036). Conclusion Patients who had radiographic knee OA 5 years after ACL reconstruction walked with lower knee adduction moments and medial compartment joint contact forces than did those patients without OA early after injury and reconstruction. PMID:26493337

  18. Osteoarthritis: What is Osteoarthritis? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Basics: The Joint and Its Parts Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A Healthy Joint A Healthy Joint. Click for larger view. Illustration: ...

  19. Applications of Proteomics to Osteoarthritis, a Musculoskeletal Disease Characterized by Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of age-related musculoskeletal impairment is steadily rising throughout the world. Musculoskeletal conditions are closely linked with aging and inflammation. They are leading causes of morbidity and disability in man and beast. Aging is a major contributor to musculoskeletal degeneration and the development of osteoarthritis (OA). OA is a degenerative disease that involves structural changes to joint tissues including synovial inflammation, catabolic destruction of articular cartilage and alterations in subchondral bone. Cartilage degradation and structural changes in subchondral bone result in the production of fragments of extracellular matrix molecules. Some of these biochemical markers or “biomarkers” can be detected in blood, serum, synovial fluid, and urine and may be useful markers of disease progression. The ability to detect biomarkers of cartilage degradation in body fluids may enable clinicians to diagnose sub-clinical OA as well as determining the course of disease progression. New biomarkers that indicate early responses of the joint cartilage to degeneration will be useful in detecting early, pre-radiographic changes. Systems biology is increasingly applied in basic cartilage biology and OA research. Proteomic techniques have the potential to improve our understanding of OA physiopathology and its underlying mechanisms. Proteomics can also facilitate the discovery of disease-specific biomarkers and help identify new therapeutic targets. Proteomic studies of cartilage and other joint tissues may be particularly relevant in diagnostic orthopedics and therapeutic research. This perspective article discusses the relevance and potential of proteomics for studying age-related musculoskeletal diseases such as OA and reviews the contributions of key investigators in the field. PMID:22207853

  20. Recent advances and future directions in the management of knee osteoarthritis: Can biological joint reconstruction replace joint arthroplasty and when?

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a concise description of the recent advances in the field of osteoarthritis management is presented. The main focus is to highlight the most promising techniques that emerge in both biological joint replacement and artificial joint arthroplasty. A critical view of high quality evidence regarding outcome and safety profile of these techniques is presented. The potential role of kinematically aligned total knee replacement, navigation, and robotic-assisted surgery is outlined. A critical description of both primary and stem cell-based therapies, the cell homing theory, the use of biologic factors and recent advancements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is provided. Based on the current evidence, some thoughts on a realistic approach towards answering these questions are attempted. PMID:26495242

  1. Wrist osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Laulan, J; Marteau, E; Bacle, G

    2015-02-01

    Painful wrist osteoarthritis can result in major functional impairment. Most cases are related to posttraumatic sequel, metabolic arthropathies, or inflammatory joint disease, although wrist osteoarthritis occurs as an idiopathic condition in a small minority of cases. Surgery is indicated only when conservative treatment fails. The main objective is to ensure pain relief while restoring strength. Motion-preserving procedures are usually preferred, although residual wrist mobility is not crucial to good function. The vast array of available surgical techniques includes excisional arthroplasty, limited and total fusion, total wrist denervation, partial and total arthroplasty, and rib-cartilage graft implantation. Surgical decisions rest on the cause and extent of the degenerative wrist lesions, degree of residual mobility, and patient's wishes and functional demand. Proximal row carpectomy and four-corner fusion with scaphoid bone excision are the most widely used surgical procedures for stage II wrist osteoarthritis secondary to scapho-lunate advanced collapse (SLAC) or scaphoid non-union advanced collapse (SNAC) wrist. Proximal row carpectomy is not indicated in patients with stage III disease. Total wrist denervation is a satisfactory treatment option in patients of any age who have good range of motion and low functional demands; furthermore, the low morbidity associated with this procedure makes it a good option for elderly patients regardless of their range of motion. Total wrist fusion can be used not only as a revision procedure, but also as the primary surgical treatment in heavy manual labourers with wrist stiffness or generalised wrist-joint involvement. The role for pyrocarbon implants, rib-cartilage graft implantation, and total wrist arthroplasty remains to be determined, given the short follow-ups in available studies. PMID:25596986

  2. Operative Treatment for Osteoarthritis of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Arthrodesis Versus Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Voskuijl, Timothy; Onstenk, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Controversy remains whether hemiarthroplasty or arthrodesis results in better postoperative outcomes for patients who request surgery for advanced osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Therefore, we tested the primary null hypothesis that the 2 treatment groups would not differ in the postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal scale scores after a follow-up period of ?1 year. Secondary analyses addressed the satisfaction rates, percentage of patients who would recommend the procedure, and unplanned repeat operation rates. A total of 58 primary arthrodeses and 36 hemiarthroplasties performed from January 2005 to December 2010 were evaluated at ?1 year postoperatively. At a mean average of 4 (range 1 to 7) years after surgery, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal scale score was 77.5 ± 18.5 in the arthrodesis group and 77.8 ± 12.0 in the arthroplasty group (p = .93). The number of repeat operations did not differ between these 2 groups, and patients treated with hemiarthroplasty reported greater mean satisfaction (p = .04). These results showed that the symptom intensity and magnitude of disability were similar at ?1 year after arthrodesis or hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, although the patients were subjectively more pleased with the results after hemiarthroplasty. PMID:26277243

  3. First assessment of three-dimensional quantitative photoacoustic tomography for in vivo detection of osteoarthritis in the finger joints

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this pilot clinical study is to assess three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative photoacoustic tomography (qPAT) for in vivo detection of osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints.Methods: All subject data were handled in compliance with the rules and regulations concerning the privacy and security of protected health information under HIPAA. Seven female subjects (two OA patients and five healthy controls) entered the study and their distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints were examined by a 3-D photoacoustic scanner. 3-D optical absorption coefficient images of all the photoacoustically examined joints were recovered using a 3-D qPAT reconstruction algorithm.Results: The recovered quantitative photoacoustic images revealed obvious difference in the optical absorption coefficient of the joint cavity (cartilage and synovial fluid) between the OA and healthy joints. Quantitative analysis of the joints also indicated an apparent difference in the recovered joint spacing between the OA and healthy subjects.Conclusion: This initial clinical evaluation suggests that it is feasible to detect osteoarthritis in the finger joints with our 3-D qPAT approach, which has paved the way to further statistically evaluate the diagnostic performance of the 3-D qPAT approach in comparison with radiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a sample of hand osteoarthritis. PMID:21858998

  4. Effect of risedronate on joint structure and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: results of the BRISK randomized, controlled trial [ISRCTN01928173

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Tim D; Conaghan, Philip G; Buckland-Wright, J Christopher; Garnero, Patrick; Cline, Gary A; Beary, John F; Valent, David J; Meyer, Joan M

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of risedronate in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the British study of risedronate in structure and symptoms of knee OA (BRISK), a 1-year prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients (40–80 years of age) with mild to moderate OA of the medial compartment of the knee. The primary aims were to detect differences in symptoms and function. Patients were randomized to once-daily risedronate (5 mg or 15 mg) or placebo. Radiographs were taken at baseline and 1 year for assessment of joint-space width using a standardized radiographic method with fluoroscopic positioning of the joint. Pain, function, and stiffness were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) OA index. The patient global assessment and use of walking aids were measured and bone and cartilage markers were assessed. The intention-to-treat population consisted of 284 patients. Those receiving risedronate at 15 mg showed improvement of the WOMAC index, particularly of physical function, significant improvement of the patient global assessment (P < 0.001), and decreased use of walking aids relative to patients receiving the placebo (P = 0.009). A trend towards attenuation of joint-space narrowing was observed in the group receiving 15 mg risedronate. Eight percent (n = 7) of patients receiving placebo and 4% (n = 4) of patients receiving 5 mg risedronate exhibited detectable progression of disease (joint-space width ? 25% or ? 0.75 mm) versus 1% (n = 1) of patients receiving 15 mg risedronate (P = 0.067). Risedronate (15 mg) significantly reduced markers of cartilage degradation and bone resorption. Both doses of risedronate were well tolerated. In this study, clear trends towards improvement were observed in both joint structure and symptoms in patients with primary knee OA treated with risedronate. PMID:15899049

  5. Experience with Transtrapezium Approach for Transverse Carpal Ligament Release in Patients with Coexisted Trapeziometacarpal Joint Osteoarthritis and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    An experience with transtrapezium approach for carpal tunnel release is reported. This technique seems to be successful in cases when carpal tunnel syndrome and first carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis coexist and surgical treatment is indicated for both conditions. The transtrapezium approach to carpal tunnel release allows for complete carpal tunnel release without increasing the risk of surgical complications. PMID:18780077

  6. Diacerein protects against iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in the femorotibial joints of rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Achint; Singh, Royana; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of diacerein on the histopathology of articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the femorotibial joint in rats. Osteoarthritis was induced in rats after single intra-articular injection of sodium iodoacetate. Rats were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post intra-articular injection to evaluate the progression of histopathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Diacerein was orally administered (15 mg/kg) once daily post 1 and 2 weeks of iodoacetate injection in two groups, respectively, for up to 12 weeks. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the rats of both groups were examined after 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histological analyses were performed by scoring these sections as per the OARSI system. Chondroitin sulfate was also estimated in articular cartilage by decrease in absorbance of methylene blue on complexation with chondroitin sulfate using a spectrophotometer. Intra-articular injection of iodoacetate induced loss of articular cartilage with progressive subchondral bone sclerosis and degeneration. Based on histopathological and biochemical findings, diacerein treatment showed chondroprotective effect. Furthermore, the chondroprotective effect of diacerein was found to be more pronounced after 12 weeks as compared to 8 weeks in both cases (i.e., post 1 and 2 weeks of iodoacetate injection). Similar results were observed by investigation of chondroitin sulfate during biochemical study, showing the chondroprotective effect. In conclusion, diacerein exhibits chondroprotective effect in rats with late onset of action. PMID:26442595

  7. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  8. Developing osteoarthritis treatments through cartilage tissue engineering and molecular imaging

    E-print Network

    Casasnovas Ortega, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering can be applied to develop therapeutic techniques for osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease caused by the progressive deterioration of cartilage in joints. An inherent goal in developing cartilage-replacement ...

  9. Tibial coverage, meniscus position, size and damage in knees discordant for joint space narrowing – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Guermazi, A.; Wirth, W.; Benichou, O.; Kwoh, C.K.; Hunter, D.J.; Englund, M.; Resch, H.; Eckstein, F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Meniscal extrusion is thought to be associated with less meniscus coverage of the tibial surface, but the association of radiographic disease stage with quantitative measures of tibial plateau coverage is unknown. We therefore compared quantitative and semi-quantitative measures of meniscus position and morphology in individuals with bilateral painful knees discordant on medial joint space narrowing (mJSN). Methods A sample of 60 participants from the first half (2,678 cases) of the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort fulfilled the inclusion criteria: bilateral frequent pain, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) mJSN grades 1–3 in one, no-JSN in the contra-lateral (CL), and no lateral JSN in either knee (43 unilateral mJSN1; 17 mJSN2/3; 22 men, 38 women, body mass index (BMI) 31.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Segmentation and three-dimensional quantitative analysis of the tibial plateau and meniscus, and semi-quantitative evaluation of meniscus damage (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) osteoarthritis knee score – MOAKS) was performed using coronal 3T MR images (MPR DESSwe and intermediate-weighted turbo spin echo (IW-TSE) images). CL knees were compared using paired t-tests (between-knee, within-person design). Results Medial tibial plateau coverage was 36 ± 9% in mJSN1 vs 45 ± 8% in CL no-JSN knees, and was 31 ± 9% in mJSN2/3 vs 46 ± 6% in no-JSN knees (both P < 0.001). mJSN knees showed greater meniscus extrusion and damage (MOAKS), but no significant difference in meniscus volume. No significant differences in lateral tibial coverage, lateral meniscus morphology or position were observed. Conclusions Knees with medial JSN showed substantially less medial tibial plateau coverage by the meniscus. We suggest that the less meniscal coverage, i.e., less mechanical protection may be a reason for greater rates of cartilage loss observed in JSN knees. PMID:23220556

  10. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260?g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3?mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1?mg/50?µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100?µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15?g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  11. Self-perceived weather sensitivity and joint pain in older people with osteoarthritis in six European countries: results from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with osteoarthritis (OA) frequently report that their joint pain is influenced by weather conditions. This study aimed to examine whether there are differences in perceived joint pain between older people with OA who reported to be weather-sensitive versus those who did not in six European countries with different climates and to identify characteristics of older persons with OA that are most predictive of perceived weather sensitivity. Methods Baseline data from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) were used. ACR classification criteria were used to determine OA. Participants with OA were asked about their perception of weather as influencing their pain. Using a two-week follow-up pain calendar, average self-reported joint pain was assessed (range: 0 (no pain)-10 (greatest pain intensity)). Linear regression analyses, logistic regression analyses and an independent t-test were used. Analyses were adjusted for several confounders. Results The majority of participants with OA (67.2%) perceived the weather as affecting their pain. Weather-sensitive participants reported more pain than non-weather-sensitive participants (M?=?4.1, SD?=?2.4 versus M?=?3.1, SD?=?2.4; p?joint pain remained present (B?=?0.37, p?=?0.03). Logistic regression analyses revealed that women and more anxious people were more likely to report weather sensitivity. Older people with OA from Southern Europe were more likely to indicate themselves as weather-sensitive persons than those from Northern Europe. Conclusions Weather (in)stability may have a greater impact on joint structures and pain perception in people from Southern Europe. The results emphasize the importance of considering weather sensitivity in daily life of older people with OA and may help to identify weather-sensitive older people with OA. PMID:24597710

  12. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Pin; Bai, Mingfeng; King, Emma; Brailsford, Louis; Turner, Jenna M.; Hathway, Gareth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Walsh, David A.; Kendall, David A.; Lichtman, Aron; Chapman, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the joint is a prevalent disease accompanied by chronic, debilitating pain. Recent clinical evidence has demonstrated that central sensitization contributes to OA pain. An improved understanding of how OA joint pathology impacts upon the central processing of pain is crucial for the identification of novel analgesic targets/new therapeutic strategies. Inhibitory cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors attenuate peripheral immune cell function and modulate central neuro-immune responses in models of neurodegeneration. Systemic administration of the CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 attenuated OA-induced pain behaviour, and the changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines exhibited in this model. Electrophysiological studies revealed that spinal administration of JWH133 inhibited noxious-evoked responses of spinal neurones in the model of OA pain, but not in control rats, indicating a novel spinal role of this target. We further demonstrate dynamic changes in spinal CB2 receptor mRNA and protein expression in an OA pain model. The expression of CB2 receptor protein by both neurones and microglia in the spinal cord was significantly increased in the model of OA. Hallmarks of central sensitization, significant spinal astrogliosis and increases in activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the spinal cord were evident in the model of OA pain. Systemic administration of JWH133 attenuated these markers of central sensitization, providing a neurobiological basis for analgesic effects of the CB2 receptor in this model of OA pain. Analysis of human spinal cord revealed a negative correlation between spinal cord CB2 receptor mRNA and macroscopic knee chondropathy. These data provide new clinically relevant evidence that joint damage and spinal CB2 receptor expression are correlated combined with converging pre-clinical evidence that activation of CB2 receptors inhibits central sensitization and its contribution to the manifestation of chronic OA pain. These findings suggest that targeting CB2 receptors may have therapeutic potential for treating OA pain. PMID:24282543

  13. Safe pharmacologic treatment strategies for osteoarthritis pain in African Americans with hypertension, and renal and cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jerry; Weinryb, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a degenerative joint disease affecting both whites and African Americans similarly. African Americans have a high incidence rate of comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and diabetes. Treatment of osteoarthritic pain in patients with comorbidities is often complicated by potential safety concerns. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) specific NSAIDs have been shown to increase blood pressure in hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medications. Patients with CVD risk factors taking low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention may be at increased risk for gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs. Diabetics face an increased risk of renal complications. Because NSAIDs are associated with adverse renal effects, they should be used cautiously in patients with advanced renal disease. Acetaminophen is the most appropriate initial analgesic for African Americans with chronic osteoarthritic pain and concurrent hypertension, CVD risk factors or diabetes, and is recommended by the American College of Rheumatology as first-line treatment. Many of the adverse effects commonly associated with NSAIDs are not associated with acetaminophen. Safety concerns surrounding pharmacologic treatment of osteoarthritis in African Americans are reviewed. PMID:16895283

  14. 1,25(OH)2D deficiency induces temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis via secretion of senescence-associated inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming; Luo, Yuqian; Niu, Yuming; Chen, Lulu; Yuan, Xiaoqin; Goltzman, David; Chen, Ning; Miao, Dengshun

    2013-08-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] insufficiency appears to be associated with several age-related diseases. Insufficient levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D has been shown to lead to the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) while underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether 1,25(OH)(2)D deficiency has a direct effect on the process of murine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA in 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1?-hydroxylase knockout [1?(OH)ase(-/-)] mice that had been fed a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) from weaning until 6 or 18 months of age. Our results showed that the bone mineral density and subchondral bone volume were reduced in mandibular condyles, articular surfaces were collapsed, the thickness of articular cartilage and cartilage matrix protein abundance were progressively decreased and eventually led to an erosion of articular cartilage of mandibular condyles. We also found that DNA damage, cellular senescence and the production of senescence-associated inflammatory cytokines were increased significantly in 1?(OH)ase(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that 1,25(OH)(2)D deficiency causes an erosive TMJ OA phenotype by inducing DNA damage, cellular senescence and the production of senescence-associated inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D plays an important role in preventing the development and progression of OA. PMID:23624390

  15. Fenoprofen therapy in large-joint osteoarthritis: double-blind comparison with aspirin and longterm experience.

    PubMed

    Brooke, J W

    1976-01-01

    This study, designed to evaluate fenoprofen in patients with osteoarthritis, consisted of two phases: I. A double-blind crossover comparison of fenoprofen, 200 to 600 mg every six hours, to aspirin, 325 to 975 mg every six hours; II. Longterm use of fenoprofen in an open study design. During the first part of the study, both fenoprofen and aspirin were significantly better than placebo in relieving the severity and duration of pain, and in reducing stiffness. In most of the variables fenoprofen was also slightly better than aspirin. The most frequently observed side effects were abdominal discomfort, headache, pruritus, nervousness, and tinnitus. Longterm administration demonstrated the safety of fenoprofen or periods exceeding two years. Fenoprofen did not precipitate or aggravate chronic disorders, nor did it mask the symptoms of any developing disease. No interaction with concomitant drug therapy was observed. PMID:781234

  16. Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Junko; Hashimoto, Miyuki; Hosokawa, Yu; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), which is one of the popular ingredients of so-called health foods in Japan, is expected to relieve inflammation in arthritis and allergies. However, there is no scientific evidence to confirm the efficacy and safety of MSM in detail. In this study, we examined the effects of MSM on cartilage formation in growing rats (G) and cartilage degradation in STR/Ort mice (A), an accepted human osteoarthritis (OA) model. For cartilage formation study, 6-week-old growing male Wister rats were assigned to four groups to receive a control or MSM-containing diet. To examine the efficacy of MSM on the cartilage of OA model mouse, 10-week-old male STR/OrtCrlj mice were assigned to three groups to receive a control or MSM-containing diet. The dosages used were amounts equal to the recommended supplements for humans [0.06 g/kg body weight (BW)/day: MSM1G and MSM1A], 10 fold higher (0.6 g/kg BW/day: MSM10G and MSM10A), and 100 fold higher (6 g/kg BW/day: MSM100G). Intake of MSM for 4 weeks did not affect cartilage formation in the knee joint in growing rats. Body, liver, and spleen weight in the MSM100G group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Intake of MSM for 13 weeks decreased degeneration of the cartilage at the joint surface in the knee joints in STR/Ort mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that appropriate intake of MSM is possibly effective in OA model mice; however, intake of large amounts of MSM induced atrophy of several organs. PMID:23011466

  17. Targets, models and challenges in osteoarthritis research.

    PubMed

    Thysen, Sarah; Luyten, Frank P; Lories, Rik J U

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disorder of the joint and represents one of the most common diseases worldwide. Its prevalence and severity are increasing owing to aging of the population, but treatment options remain largely limited to painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, which only provide symptomatic relief. In the late stages of the disease, surgical interventions are often necessary to partially restore joint function. Although the focus of osteoarthritis research has been originally on the articular cartilage, novel findings are now pointing to osteoarthritis as a disease of the whole joint, in which failure of different joint components can occur. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field, including data from novel 'omics' technologies and from a number of preclinical and clinical trials. We describe different in vitro and in vivo systems that can be used to study molecules, pathways and cells that are involved in osteoarthritis. We illustrate that a comprehensive and multisystem approach is necessary to understand the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease and to better guide the development of novel therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis. PMID:25561745

  18. Targets, models and challenges in osteoarthritis research

    PubMed Central

    Thysen, Sarah; Luyten, Frank P.; Lories, Rik J. U.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disorder of the joint and represents one of the most common diseases worldwide. Its prevalence and severity are increasing owing to aging of the population, but treatment options remain largely limited to painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, which only provide symptomatic relief. In the late stages of the disease, surgical interventions are often necessary to partially restore joint function. Although the focus of osteoarthritis research has been originally on the articular cartilage, novel findings are now pointing to osteoarthritis as a disease of the whole joint, in which failure of different joint components can occur. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field, including data from novel ‘omics’ technologies and from a number of preclinical and clinical trials. We describe different in vitro and in vivo systems that can be used to study molecules, pathways and cells that are involved in osteoarthritis. We illustrate that a comprehensive and multisystem approach is necessary to understand the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease and to better guide the development of novel therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis. PMID:25561745

  19. Injecting vascular endothelial growth factor into the temporomandibular joint induces osteoarthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei; Jiao, ZiXian; Zheng, Ji Si; Xu, Wei Feng; Zhang, Shang Yong; Qin, An; Yang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can initiate osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-articular injection of exogenous VEGF in the TMJ in mice on the early stage. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley mice were equally divided into 3 groups. In the vegf group, the mice received an injection of VEGF solution (50??L) in the TMJ once a week over a period of 4 weeks. In the sham group, the mice received an injection of saline (50??L). The control group did not receive any injection. Four mice from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Gradual prominent cartilage degeneration was observed in the vegf group. Additionally, this group showed higher expressions of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-13, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and a higher number of apoptotic chondrocytes and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-positive chondrocytes. Micro-computed tomography (CT) revealed prominent subchondral bone resorption in the vegf group, with a high number of osteoclasts in the subchondral bone. In vitro study demonstrated that VEGF can promote osteoclast differentiation. In conclusion, our study found that VEGF can initiate TMJ OA by destroying cartilage and subchondral bone. PMID:26531672

  20. Use of dimensionality reduction for structural mapping of hip joint osteoarthritis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theoharatos, C.; Boniatis, I.; Panagiotopoulos, E.; Panayiotakis, G.; Fotopoulos, S.

    2009-10-01

    A visualization-based, computer-oriented, classification scheme is proposed for assessing the severity of hip osteoarthritis (OA) using dimensionality reduction techniques. The introduced methodology tries to cope with the confined ability of physicians to structurally organize the entire available set of medical data into semantically similar categories and provide the capability to make visual observations among the ensemble of data using low-dimensional biplots. In this work, 18 pelvic radiographs of patients with verified unilateral hip OA are evaluated by experienced physicians and assessed into Normal, Mild and Severe following the Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Two regions of interest corresponding to radiographic hip joint spaces are determined and representative features are extracted using a typical texture analysis technique. The structural organization of all hip OA data is accomplished using distance and topology preservation-based dimensionality reduction techniques. The resulting map is a low-dimensional biplot that reflects the intrinsic organization of the ensemble of available data and which can be directly accessed by the physician. The conceivable visualization scheme can potentially reveal critical data similarities and help the operator to visually estimate their initial diagnosis. In addition, it can be used to detect putative clustering tendencies, examine the presence of data similarities and indicate the existence of possible false alarms in the initial perceptual evaluation.

  1. Alterations in walking knee joint stiffness in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported knee instability.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Jonathan A; Gorman, Shannon; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Increased walking knee joint stiffness has been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a compensatory strategy to improve knee joint stability. However, presence of episodic self-reported knee instability in a large subgroup of patients with knee OA may be a sign of inadequate walking knee joint stiffness. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in walking knee joint stiffness in patients with knee OA with and without self-reported instability and examine the relationship between walking knee joint stiffness with quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity, and varus knee malalignment. Overground biomechanical data at a self-selected gait velocity was collected for 35 individuals with knee OA without self-reported instability (stable group) and 17 individuals with knee OA and episodic self-reported instability (unstable group). Knee joint stiffness was calculated during the weight-acceptance phase of gait as the change in the external knee joint moment divided by the change in the knee flexion angle. The unstable group walked with lower knee joint stiffness (p=0.01), mainly due to smaller heel-contact knee flexion angles (p<0.01) and greater knee flexion excursions (p<0.01) compared to their knee stable counterparts. No significant relationships were observed between walking knee joint stiffness and quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity or varus knee malalignment. Reduced walking knee joint stiffness appears to be associated with episodic knee instability and independent of quadriceps muscle weakness, knee joint laxity or varus malalignment. Further investigations of the temporal relationship between self-reported knee joint instability and walking knee joint stiffness are warranted. PMID:26481256

  2. Idiopathic osteoarthritis and contracture: causal implications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P; Alexander, C; Stewart, J; Lynskey, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To use the known association of idiopathic osteoarthritis with contracture as a means of searching for its cause. There are currently two theories concerning this association, one assuming that the contracture is a consequence of the osteoarthritis and the other that it precedes and causes the osteoarthritis. This study tested both theories. Methods: Flexion ranges in the 12 finger joints were obtained by goniometric measurement in two samples of normal female subjects, one group with a mean age of 22 years (25 subjects) and one with a mean age of 45 years (50 subjects). The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of osteoarthritis in the finger joints of women. Results: The older group showed evidence of reduced flexion range consistent with development of contracture in the extensor mechanism of the fingers. The distribution of the contracture showed a strong negative correlation with the regional prevalence of osteoarthritis. Conclusions: An early dorsal contracture develops in the fingers of normal subjects, but it is neither a consequence of nor the cause of digital osteoarthritis. The most parsimonious explanation for the association is that both contracture and idiopathic osteoarthritis are independent consequences of failure to use the full movement range. If this hypothesis is correct, the disease could be preventable. PMID:15647431

  3. Dietary fatty acid content regulates wound repair and the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis following joint injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lung; Jain, Deeptee; McNeill, Jenna N.; Little, Dianne; Anderson, John A.; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; Guilak, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms linking obesity and osteoarthritis (OA) are not fully understood and have been generally attributed to increased weight, rather than metabolic or inflammatory factors. Here, we examined the influence of dietary fatty acids, adipokines, and body weight following joint injury in mouse model of OA. Methods Mice were fed high-fat diets rich in various fatty acids (FAs) including saturated FAs (SFAs), ?-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), and ?-3 PUFAs. OA was induced by destabilizing the medial meniscus. Wound healing was evaluated using an ear punch. OA, synovitis and wound healing were determined histologically, while bone changes were measured using microCT. Activity levels and serum cytokines were measured at various time-points. Multivariate models were performed to elucidate the associations of dietary, metabolic, and mechanical factors with OA and wound healing. Results Using weight-matched mice and multivariate models, we found that OA was significantly associated with dietary fatty acid content and serum adipokine levels, but not with body weight. Furthermore, spontaneous activity of the mice was independent of OA development. Small amounts of ?-3 PUFAs (8% by kcal) in a high-fat diet were sufficient to mitigate injury-induced OA, decreasing leptin and resistin levels. ?-3 PUFAs significantly enhanced wound repair, SFAs or ?-6 PUFAs independently increased OA severity, heterotopic ossification, and scar tissue formation. Conclusions Our results indicate that dietary FA content is a primary regulator of OA severity and wound regeneration with obesity, supporting the need for further studies of dietary FA supplements as a potential therapeutic approach for OA. PMID:25015373

  4. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

  5. Osteoarthritis. A continuing challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Sack, K E

    1995-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a disorder of cartilage that affects almost 85% of the population by age 75. A lack of rigorous clinical and radiographic criteria for defining the disorder makes precise determination of its prevalence impossible. The process of wear and tear explains many manifestations of osteoarthritis, but it does not account for some of the clinical findings or the biochemical changes in osteoarthritic cartilage. Thus, other factors such as heredity, hormones, and diet may play a role. Treatment consists of teaching patients about their disease, alleviating pain, and preserving joint function. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be no more effective than simple analgesics in relieving the pain of this disorder. Moreover, some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can adversely affect cartilage metabolism, and most are possibly dangerous in elderly patients. Drugs that inhibit the production or activity of chondrolytic enzymes can slow the degeneration of cartilage in some animals, but their effects on humans with osteoarthritis are unproved. The surgical repair of severely damaged joints can have gratifying results. Images Figure 2. PMID:8553653

  6. Comparative study of the synovial histology in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, and osteoarthritis: influence of disease duration and activity

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, D; Demetter, P; Cuvelier, C; Van den Bosch, F; Kruithof, E; Van Damme, N; Verbruggen, G; Mielants, H; Veys, E; De Keyser, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To compare the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathy (SpA), and osteoarthritis (OA) after exclusion of possible biases induced by disease duration or activity, or both.?METHODS—Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained by needle arthroscopy in patients with early RA (n=16), late RA (n=14), early SpA (n=23), and OA (n=12). Macroscopic and microscopic features were scored on a four point scale and analysed as a function of disease duration (early versus late RA), local and systemic disease activity, and diagnosis.?RESULTS—Except for the maximal synovial lining thickness, no significant differences were seen between early and late RA. For disease activity, synovial histology was only weakly correlated with C reactive protein in RA, but seemed to be strongly dependent on effusion of the biopsied joint in all disease groups. After stratification for local disease activity, no disease related differences were found in patients without joint effusion. In contrast, important differences were found between patients with RA and SpA with active joint effusion. Synovial vascularity was macroscopically increased in SpA versus RA (p=0.017). A straight vessel pattern was only seen in RA, while tortuous vessels were preferentially seen in SpA. Vascularity was also microscopically increased in SpA compared with RA (p=0.031), and correlated with the macroscopic vascularity (rs=0.36, p=0.036). CD3+ (p=0.008), CD4+ (p=0.008), and CD20+ (p=0.024) lymphocytes were overrepresented in RA compared with SpA. The integrin expression in RA was characterised by a decrease of ?V?3 in the synovial lining (p=0.006) and an increase of ?V?5 in the sublining (p<0.001).?CONCLUSIONS—The immune architecture of the synovial membrane is more dependent on local disease activity than on disease duration. Synovium obtained from clinically affected joints shows important histological differences between RA and SpA.?? PMID:11087697

  7. Indian Hedgehog signaling pathway members are associated with magnetic resonance imaging manifestations and pathological scores in lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-05-01

    Indian Hedgehog (HH) has been shown to be involved in osteoarthritis (OA) in articular joints, where there is evidence that Indian HH blockade could ameliorate OA. It seems to play a prominent role in development of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and in postnatal maintenance. There is little work on IHH in the IVD. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of Indian Hedgehog in the pathology of facet joint (FJ) OA. 24 patients diagnosed with lumbar intervertebral disk herniation or degenerative spinal stenosis were included. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histopathology grading system was correlated to the mRNA levels of GLI1, PTCH1, and HHIP in the FJs. The Weishaupt grading and OARSI scores showed high positive correlation (r?=?0.894) (P?

  8. X-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography: in vivo study of osteoarthritis in the finger joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2007-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by the damage of the articular cartilage, is the most common joint problem worldwide. In the effort of developing new clinical tools with the potential to alter the natural history of OA, near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has received much attention due to its unique advantages. For optical imaging in highly heterogeneous media such as the finger joints, prior information could improve the quality of optical imaging. We report a hybrid imaging system for early detection of OA in the finger joints by imposing the geometry information obtained by X-ray on three-dimensional near-infrared DOT. X-ray tomosynthesis was employed to recover the three-dimensional structure of the two bones based on 16 X-ray projections generated with a mini C-arm system at different directions within a range of 180 degrees. The interface was carefully designed to guarantee an accurate co-registration of the optical and x-ray modalities. The prior structural information of bones was incorporated into our multi-modality imaging reconstruction algorithm to enhance the recovery of the optical properties of joint tissues. Several healthy and OA finger joints were examined. The initial clinical results showed that this hybrid imaging system had the ability to provide much enhanced image resolution and contrast than DOT alone for OA detection.

  9. Development of an Experimental Animal Model for Lower Back Pain by Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Li, Xin; Hamilton, John L; Andrews, Steven; Haralampus, Chris A; Xiao, Guozhi; Sohn, Hong-Moon; You, Jae-Won; Seo, Yo-Seob; Stein, Gary S; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    We report generation and characterization of pain-related behavior in a minimally invasive facet joint degeneration (FJD) animal model in rats. FJD was produced by a non-open percutaneous puncture-induced injury on the right lumbar FJs at three consecutive levels. Pressure hyperalgesia in the lower back was assessed by measuring the vocalization response to pressure from a force transducer. After hyperalgesia was established, pathological changes in lumbar FJs and alterations of intervertebral foramen size were assessed by histological and imaging analyses. To investigate treatment options for lumber FJ osteoarthritis-induced pain, animals with established hyperalgesia were administered with analgesic drugs, such as morphine, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (ketorolac), or pregabalin. Effects were assessed by behavioral pain responses. One week after percutaneous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs, ipsilateral primary pressure hyperalgesia developed and was maintained for at least 12 weeks without foraminal stenosis. Animals showed decreased spontaneous activity, but no secondary hyperalgesia in the hind paws. Histopathological and microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses demonstrated that the percutaneous puncture injury resulted in osteoarthritis-like structural changes in the FJs cartilage and subchondral bone. Pressure hyperalgesia was completely reversed by morphine. The administration of celecoxib produced moderate pain reduction with no statistical significance while the administration of ketorolac and pregabalin produced no analgesic effect on FJ osteoarthritis-induced back pain. Our animal model of non-open percutanous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs in rats shows similar characteristics of low back pain produced by human facet arthropathy. PMID:25858171

  10. Osteoarthritis-like pathologic changes in the knee joint induced by environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is potentiated by a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Summa, Keith C.; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Tryniszewska, Beata; Keshavarzian, Ali; Turek, Fred W.; Meng, Qing-Jun; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors contribute to progressive development of osteoarthritis (OA). Environmental factors that upset circadian rhythms have been linked to various diseases. Our recent work establishes chronic environmental circadian disruption - analogous to rotating shiftwork-associated disruption of circadian rhythms in humans - as a novel risk factor for the development of OA. Evidence suggests shift workers are prone to obesity and also show altered eating habits (i.e., increased preference for high-fat containing food). In the present study, we investigated the impact of chronic circadian rhythm disruption in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) on progression of OA in a mouse model. Our study demonstrates that when mice with chronically circadian rhythms were fed a HFD, there was a significant proteoglycan (PG) loss and fibrillation in knee joint as well as increased activation of the expression of the catabolic mediators involved in cartilage homeostasis. Our results, for the first time, provide the evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms plus HFD potentiate OA-like pathological changes in the mouse joints. Thus, our findings may open new perspectives on the interactions of chronic circadian rhythms disruption with diet in the development of OA and may have potential clinical implications. PMID:26584570

  11. Osteoarthritis-like pathologic changes in the knee joint induced by environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is potentiated by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Summa, Keith C; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Tryniszewska, Beata; Keshavarzian, Ali; Turek, Fred W; Meng, Qing-Jun; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors contribute to progressive development of osteoarthritis (OA). Environmental factors that upset circadian rhythms have been linked to various diseases. Our recent work establishes chronic environmental circadian disruption - analogous to rotating shiftwork-associated disruption of circadian rhythms in humans - as a novel risk factor for the development of OA. Evidence suggests shift workers are prone to obesity and also show altered eating habits (i.e., increased preference for high-fat containing food). In the present study, we investigated the impact of chronic circadian rhythm disruption in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) on progression of OA in a mouse model. Our study demonstrates that when mice with chronically circadian rhythms were fed a HFD, there was a significant proteoglycan (PG) loss and fibrillation in knee joint as well as increased activation of the expression of the catabolic mediators involved in cartilage homeostasis. Our results, for the first time, provide the evidence that environmental disruption of circadian rhythms plus HFD potentiate OA-like pathological changes in the mouse joints. Thus, our findings may open new perspectives on the interactions of chronic circadian rhythms disruption with diet in the development of OA and may have potential clinical implications. PMID:26584570

  12. Towards Joint Disease Mapping Leonhard Held

    E-print Network

    Rue, Håvard

    Towards Joint Disease Mapping Leonhard Held #3; Department of Statistics, University of Munich the spatial variation of rates of several diseases with common risk factors. We start with a review of methods for separate analyses of diseases, then move to ecological regression approaches, where the rates from one

  13. Exercise and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

  14. Handout on Health: Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and regular exercise help reduce weight. Rest and Relief from Stress on Joints Treatment plans include regularly ... you get a properly fitted one. Nondrug Pain Relief and Alternative Therapies People with osteoarthritis may find ...

  15. Self management, joint protection and exercises in hand osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of occupational therapy (OT) approaches in the management of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Joint protection and hand exercises have been proposed by European guidelines, however the clinical and cost effectiveness of each intervention is unknown. This multicentre two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial aims to address the following questions: • Is joint protection delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no joint protection in people with hand OA in primary care? • Are hand exercises delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no hand exercises in people with hand OA in primary care? • Which of the four management approaches explored within the study (leaflet and advice, joint protection, hand exercise, or joint protection and hand exercise combined) provides the most cost-effective use of health care resources Methods/Design Participants aged 50 years and over registered at three general practices in North Staffordshire and Cheshire will be mailed a health survey questionnaire (estimated mailing sample n = 9,500). Those fulfilling the eligibility criteria on the health survey questionnaire will be invited to attend a clinical assessment to assess for the presence of hand or thumb base OA using the ACR criteria. Eligible participants will be randomised to one of four groups: leaflet and advice; joint protection (looking after your joints); hand exercises; or joint protection and hand exercises combined (estimated n = 252). The primary outcome measure will be the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria combining hand pain and disability (measured using the AUSCAN) and global improvement, 6 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes will also be collected for example pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. The main analysis will be on an intention to treat basis and will assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of joint protection and hand exercises for managing hand OA. Discussion The findings will improve the cost-effective evidence based management of hand OA. Trial registration identifier: ISRCTN33870549 PMID:21745357

  16. The epidemiology of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria L; Hunter, David J

    2014-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability and its incidence is rising due to increasing obesity and an ageing population. Risk factors can be divided into person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, genetics, race/ethnicity and diet, and joint-level factors including injury, malalignment and abnormal loading of the joints. The interaction of these risk factors is complex and provides a challenge to the managing physician. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how each of these factors interact together to instigate incident OA as well as to outline the need for ongoing epidemiologic studies for the future prevention of both incident and progressive OA. It is only by understanding the impact of this disease and the modifiable risk factors that we will be able to truly target public health prevention interventions appropriately. PMID:24792942

  17. Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Tomasz; Niciejewski, Krzysztof; Kozielski, Marek; Szybowicz, Miros?aw; Siatkowski, Marcin; Krauss, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was used to examine the biochemical composition and molecular structure of extracellular matrix in spongy and subchondral bone collected from patients with clinical and radiological evidence of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip and from patients who underwent a femoral neck fracture, as a result of trauma, without previous clinical and radiological evidence of osteoarthritis. The objectives of the study were to determine the levels of mineralization, carbonate accumulation and collagen quality in bone tissue. The subchondral bone from osteoarthritis patients in comparison with control subject is less mineralized due to a decrease in the hydroxyapatite concentration. However, the extent of carbonate accumulation in the apatite crystal lattice increases, most likely due to deficient mineralization. The alpha helix to random coil band area ratio reveals that collagen matrix in subchondral bone is more ordered in osteoarthritis disease. The hydroxyapatite to collagen, carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite and alpha helix to random coil band area ratios are not significantly changed in the differently loaded sites of femoral head. The significant differences also are not visible in mineral and organic constituents' content in spongy bone beneath the subchondral bone in osteoarthritis disease.

  18. P38 MAP kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutics for the treatment of joint degeneration and pain associated with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kimberly K; Heitmeyer, Sandra A; Hookfin, Erin B; Hsieh, Lily; Buchalova, Maria; Taiwo, Yetunde O; Janusz, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluate the potential role of p38 inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis using an animal model of joint degeneration (iodoacetate-induced arthritis) and a pain model (Hargraeves assay). Methods P38 kinase activity was evaluated in a kinase assay by measuring the amount of phosphorylated substrate ATF2 using a phosphoATF2 (Thr71) specific primary antibody and an alkaline phosphate coupled secondary antibody and measuring the OD at 405 nm. TNF? and IL-1? secretion from LPS stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by ELISA. Rats treated with vehicle or p38 inhibitor were injected intra-articularly in one knee with iodoacetate and damage to the tibial plateau was assessed from digitized images captured using an image analyzer. The effect of p38 inhibitors on hyperalgesia was evaluated in rats given an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and 4 h later the paw withdrawal time to a radiant heat source was measured. Results SB-203580 and VX-745 are both potent inhibitors of p38 with IC50s of 136 ± 64 nM and 35 ± 14 nM (mean ± S.D.), respectively. Similarly, SB-203580 and VX-745 potently inhibited TNF release from LPS stimulated human THP-1 cells with IC50s of 72 ± 15 nM; and 29 ± 14 nM (mean ± S.D.) respectively. TNF release from LPS stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was inhibited with IC50s 16 ± 6 nM and 14 ± 8 nM, (mean ± S.D.) for SB-203580 and VX-745 and IL-1 was inhibited with IC50s of 20 ± 8 nM and 15 ± 4 nM (mean ± S.D.), respectively. SB-203580 and VX-745 administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg resulted in the significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of joint degeneration in the rat iodoacetate model of 45% and 31%, respectively. SB-203580 demonstrated a dose related inhibition of joint degeneration of 30, 25, 12 and 8% at 50, 25, 10 and 5 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. in the rat iodoacetate model. Similarly, both p38 inhibitors significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the pain response (paw withdrawal time) in the Hargraeves hyperalgesia assay when administered orally at 30, 10 and 3 mg/kg. Conclusion SB203580 and VX-745 demonstrated attenuation of both cartilage degeneration and pain in animal models and suggest that p38 inhibitors may be a useful approach for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:19055838

  19. High-resolution x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of joint tissues in hand osteoarthritis: Morphological and functional assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhen; Zhang Qizhi; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang Huabei

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of multimodality functional imaging techniques to identify the quantitative optical findings that can be used to distinguish between osteoarthritic and normal finger joints. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, the distal interphalangeal finger joints from 40 female subjects including 22 patients and 18 healthy controls were examined clinically and scanned by a hybrid imaging system. This system integrated x-ray tomosynthetic setup with a diffuse optical imaging system. Optical absorption and scattering images were recovered based on a regularization-based hybrid reconstruction algorithm. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the statistical significance of specific optical features obtained from osteoarthritic and healthy joints groups. Results: The three-dimensional optical and x-ray images captured made it possible to quantify optical properties and joint space width of finger joints. Based on the recovered optical absorption and scattering parameters, the authors observed statistically significant differences between healthy and osteoarthritis finger joints. Conclusions: The statistical results revealed that sensitivity and specificity values up to 92% and 100%, respectively, can be achieved when optical properties of joint tissues were used as classifiers. This suggests that these optical imaging parameters are possible indicators for diagnosing osteoarthritis and monitoring its progression.

  20. Low-level laser therapy of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, Levon V.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the given research is the comparison of efficiency of conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee joints and therapy with additional application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) under dynamic control of clinical picture, rheovasographic, electromyographic examinations, and parameters of peroxide lipid oxidation. The investigation was made on 143 patients with OA of hip and knee joints. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: basic group included 91 patients, receiving conventional therapy with a course of LLLT, control group included 52 patients, receiving conventional treatment only. Transcutaneous ((lambda) equals 890 nm, output peak power 5 W, frequency 80 - 3000 Hz) and intravenous ((lambda) equals 633 nm, output 2 mW in the vein) laser irradiation were used for LLLT. Studied showed, that clinical efficiency of LLLT in the complex with conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes at the patients with OA is connected with attenuation of pain syndrome, normalization of parameters of myofascial syndrome, normalization of the vascular tension and parameters of rheographic curves, as well as with activation of antioxidant protection system.

  1. ?2-adrenergic signal transduction plays a detrimental role in subchondral bone loss of temporomandibular joint in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Li, Qi-hong; Ren, Gao-tong; Zhao, Chang-ming; Liu, Yun-dong; Tay, Franklin R.; Wang, Mei-qing

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested whether activation of the sympathetic tone by aberrant joint loading elicits abnormal subchondral bone remodeling in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Abnormal dental occlusion was created in experimental rats, which were then intraperitoneally injected by saline, propranolol or isoproterenol. The norepinephrine contents, distribution of sympathetic nerve fibers, expression of ?-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs) and remodeling parameters in the condylar subchondral bone were investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from condylar subchondral bones were harvested for comparison of their ?-ARs, pro-osteoclastic gene expressions and pro-osteoclastic function. Increases in norepinephrine level, sympathetic nerve fiber distribution and ?2-AR expression were observed in the condylar subchondral bone of experimental rats, together with subchondral bone loss and increased osteoclast activity. ?-antagonist (propranolol) suppressed subchondral bone loss and osteoclast hyperfunction while ?-agonist (isoproterenol) exacerbated those responses. MSCs from experimental condylar subchondral bone expressed higher levels of ?2-AR and RANKL; norepinephrine stimulation further increased their RANKL expression and pro-osteoclastic function. These effects were blocked by inhibition of ?2-AR or the PKA pathway. RANKL expression by MSCs decreased after propranolol administration and increased after isoproterenol administration. It is concluded that ?2-AR signal-mediated subchondral bone loss in TMJ osteoarthritisis associated with increased RANKL secretion by MSCs. PMID:26219508

  2. Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.

  3. Knee Power Is an Important Parameter in Understanding Medial Knee Joint Load in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Calder, Kristina M; Acker, Stacey M; Arora, Neha; Beattie, Karen A; Callaghan, Jack P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Maly, Monica R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which knee extensor strength and power explain variance in knee adduction moment (KAM) peak and impulse in clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fifty-three adults (mean ± SD age 61.6 ± 6.3 years, 11 men) with clinical knee OA participated. The KAM waveform was calculated from motion and force data and ensemble averaged from 5 walking trials. The KAM peak was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). The mean KAM impulse reflected the mean total medial knee load during stride (Nm × seconds). For strength, the maximum knee extensor moment attained from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). For power, the maximum knee extensor power during isotonic contractions, with the resistance set at 25% of MVIC, was normalized to body mass (W/kg). Covariates included age, sex, knee pain on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, gait speed, and body mass index (BMI). Relationships of the KAM peak and impulse with strength and power were examined using sequential stepwise forward linear regressions. Results Covariates did not explain variance in the KAM peak. While extensor strength did not, peak knee extensor power explained 8% of the variance in the KAM peak (P = 0.02). Sex and BMI explained 24% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P < 0.05). Sex, BMI, and knee extensor power explained 31% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P = 0.02), with power contributing 7% (P < 0.05). Conclusion Knee extensor power was more important than isometric knee strength in understanding medial knee loads during gait. PMID:24920175

  4. The Web-Based Osteoarthritis Management Resource My Joint Pain Improves Quality of Care: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Umapathy, Hema; Bennell, Kim; Dickson, Chris; Dobson, Fiona; Fransen, Marlene; Jones, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for conservative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), management is often confined to the use of analgesics and waiting for eventual total joint replacement. This suggests a gap in knowledge for persons with OA regarding the many different treatments available to them. Objective Our objective was to evaluate outcomes after usage of a Web-based resource called My Joint Pain that contains tailored, evidence-based information and tools aimed to improve self-management of OA on self-management and change in knowledge. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the My Joint Pain website intervention over a 12-month period. The intervention provided participants with general and user-specific information, monthly assessments with validated instruments, and progress-tracking tools. A nationwide convenience sample of 195 participants with self-assessed hip and/or knee OA completed both baseline and 12-month questionnaires (users: n=104; nonusers: n=91). The primary outcome measure was the Health Evaluation Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) to evaluate 8 different domains (health-directed activity, positive and active engagement in life, emotional distress, self-monitoring and insight, constructive attitudes and approaches, skill and technique acquisition, social integration and support, health service navigation) and the secondary outcome measure was the 17-item Osteoarthritis Quality Indicator (OAQI) questionnaire to evaluate the change in appropriateness of care received by participants. Independent t tests were used to compare changes between groups for the heiQ and chi-square tests to identify changes within and between groups from baseline to 12 months for each OAQI item. Results Baseline demographics between groups were similar for gender (152/195, 77.9% female), age (mean 60, SD 9 years) and body mass index (mean 31.1, SD 6.8 kg/m2). With the exception of health service navigation, mean effect sizes from all other heiQ domains showed a positive trend for My Joint Pain users compared to the nonusers, although the differences between groups did not reach statistical significance. Within-group changes also showed improvements among the users of the My Joint Pain website for self-management (absolute change score=15%, P=.03), lifestyle (absolute change score=16%, P=.02), and physical activity (absolute change score=11%, P=.04), with no significant improvements for the nonusers. Following 12 months of exposure to the website, there were significant improvements for users compared to nonusers in self-management (absolute change score 15% vs 2%, P=.001) and weight reduction (absolute change scores 3% vs –6%, P=.03) measured on the OAQI. Conclusions The My Joint Pain Web resource does not significantly improve overall heiQ, but does improve other important aspects of quality of care in people with hip and/or knee OA. Further work is required to improve engagement with the website and the quality of information delivered in order to provide a greater impact. PMID:26154022

  5. Osteogenic protein 1 in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis: relationship with disease and levels of hyaluronan and antigenic keratan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chubinskaya, Susan; Frank, Benjamin S; Michalska, Margaret; Kumar, Bhavna; Merrihew, Charis A; Thonar, Eugene J-M A; Lenz, Mary Ellen; Otten, Lori; Rueger, David C; Block, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of body fluid levels of biochemical markers in joint tissues has begun to provide clinically useful information. Synovial fluid (SF) plays an important role in articular joint lubrication, nutrition, and metabolism of cartilage and other connective tissues within the joint. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) in SF from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or with osteoarthritis (OA) and to correlate levels of OP-1 with those of hyaluronan (HA) and antigenic keratan sulfate (AgKS). SF was aspirated from the knees of patients with either RA or OA and from the knees of asymptomatic organ donors with no documented history of joint disease. The presence of detectable OP-1 in SF was demonstrated by western blots with specific anti-pro-OP-1 and anti-mature OP-1 antibodies. Measurement of levels of OP-1, HA and AgKS was performed using ELISAs. OP-1 was identified in human SF in two forms, pro-OP-1 and active (mature) OP-1--mature OP-1 being detected only in SF from OA patients and RA patients. Levels of OP-1 and HA were higher in RA patients than in OA patients and asymptomatic donors, while the level of AgKS was highest in SF from asymptomatic donors. Statistically significant differences were found between SF levels of OP-1 in RA and OA patients and between SF levels of AgKS among the three groups tested. The SF content of OP-1 tended to correlate positively with HA levels, but negatively with AgKS concentrations. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that measurement of OP-1 in joint fluid may have value in the clinical evaluation of joint disease processes. PMID:16646979

  6. Osteoarthritis of the Distal Interphalangeal and First Carpometacarpal Joints is Associated with High Bone Mass in Women and Small Bone Size and Low Lean Mass in Men

    PubMed Central

    von Schewelov, Thord; Magnusson, Håkan; Cöster, Maria; Karlsson, Caroline; Rosengren, Björn E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if primary hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with abnormal bone and anthropometric traits. Methods: We used DXA to measure total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck width (bone size) and total body lean and fat mass in 39 subjects with hand OA (primary DIP and/or CMC I) and 164 controls. Data are presented as mean Z-scores or Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Women with hand OA had (compared to controls) higher BMD (0.5(0.1,0.9)) but similar bone size (-0.3(-0.8,0.2)), lean mass (0.3(-0.3,0.9)), fat mass (-0.1(-0.6,0.5)) and BMI (0.0(-0.6,0.6)). Men with hand OA had (compared to controls) similar BMD (-0.1(-0.7,0.6)), smaller bone size (-0.5(-1.1,-0.01)), lower lean mass (-0.6(-1.1,-0.04)), and similar fat mass (-0.2(-0.7,0.4)) and BMI -0.1(-0.6,0.6). In women, each SD higher BMD was associated with an OR of 1.8 (1.03, 3.3) for having hand OA. In men each SD smaller bone size was associated with an OR of 1.8 (1.02, 3.1) and each SD lower proportion of lean body mass with an OR of 1.9 (1.1, 3.3) for having hand OA. Conclusion: Women with primary DIP finger joint and/or CMC I joint OA have a phenotype with higher BMD while men with the disease have a smaller bone size and lower lean body mass. PMID:26401163

  7. Charge-based transport and drug delivery into cartilage for localized treatment of degenerative joint diseases

    E-print Network

    Bajpayee, Ambika Goel

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic joint injuries significantly increase synovial fluid levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can initiate cartilage degeneration leading to osteoarthritis (OA). Articular cartilage is a highly negatively charged, ...

  8. An indicator of subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with primary osteoarthritis: epicardial fat thickness

    PubMed Central

    Belen, Erdal; Karaman, Ozgur; Caliskan, Gurkan; Atamaner, Oya; Aslan, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases seen in the elderly, and it is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The cause of this association is not fully known. We aimed to investigate the relationship between epicardial fat and the presence and the grade of primary knee OA for analyzing the relationship between visceral adiposity and primary OA, thereby revealing the increased subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in OA patients. In this cross-sectional study, subjects with primary knee osteoarthritis and a control group were compared with regard to epicardial fat thickness through transthoracic echocardiography. In addition, OA was divided into four stages and the relationship between the grade of OA and epicardial fat thickness was analyzed. Eighty subjects with primary knee OA and 50 controls were analyzed. There was no difference between groups with regard to age, gender and BMI. Epicardial fat thickness was greater in patients in the primary OA group compared to the control group (3.73±1.08 vs 3.30±0.61, respectively, P=0.005). In-group comparison of OA patients revealed that epicardial fat thickness was detected to increase as the grade of OA increased (P=0.001). A relationship was detected between the presence of OA and epicardial fat thickness and CRP levels in multivariate logistic analysis (P=0.017, P=0.047, respectively). There is a significant relationship between primary OA and epicardial fat thickness, which is a part of visceral adipose tissue. These results may indicate the relationship between OA and visceral fat tissue and, consequently, cardiovascular risk, so body weight alone may not be an identifying co-factor. PMID:26309613

  9. Efficacy of leech therapy in the management of osteoarthritis (Sandhivata)

    PubMed Central

    Rai, P. K.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, O. P.; Rai, N. P.; Dwivedi, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) is the most common joint disorder. It mostly affects cartilage. The top layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. Osteoarthritis is of two types, primary (idiopathic) and secondary. In idiopathic osteoarthritis, the most common form of the disease, no predisposing factor is apparent. Secondary OA is pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic OA but is attributable to an underlying cause. In Ayurveda the disease Sandhivata resembles with osteoarthritis which is described under Vatavyadhi. The NSAIDs are the main drugs of choice in modern medicine which have lots of side effects and therefore are not safe for long-term therapy. Raktamokshan, i.e., blood letting is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedures described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. Of them, Jalaukavacharana or leech therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which have antiinflammatory as well as anesthetic properties. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results. PMID:22408305

  10. Efficacy of Direct Injection of Etanercept into Knee Joints for Pain in Moderate and Severe Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteoarthritic (OA) pain is largely considered to be inflammatory pain. However, during the last stage of knee OA, sensory nerve fibers in the knee are shown to be significantly damaged when the subchondral bone junction is destroyed, and this can induce neuropathic pain. Several authors have reported that tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) in a knee joint plays a crucial role in pain modulation. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of etanercept, a TNF? inhibitor, for pain in knee OA. Materials and Methods Thirty-nine patients with knee OA and a 2-4 Kellgren-Lawrence grading were evaluated in this prospective study. Patients were divided into two groups; hyaluronic acid (HA) and etanercept injection. All patients received a single injection into the knee. Pain scores were evaluated before and 4 weeks after injection using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and they were compared between the groups. Results Before injection, VAS and WOMAC scores were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Significant pain relief was found in the etanercept group at 1 and 2 weeks by VAS, and at 4 weeks by WOMAC score, compared with the HA group (p<0.05). No adverse events were observed in either group. Conclusion Direct injection of etanercept into OA knee joints was an effective treatment for pain in moderate and severe OA patients. Furthermore, this finding suggests that TNF? is one factor that induces OA pain. PMID:26256983

  11. Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782

  12. Joint Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  13. Regenerative injection therapy with whole bone marrow aspirate for degenerative joint disease: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ross A; Orlofsky, Amos

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct injection of unfractionated whole bone marrow (WBM) into osteoarthritic joints in combination with hyperosmotic dextrose. Seven patients with hip, knee or ankle osteoarthritis (OA) received two to seven treatments over a period of two to twelve months. Patient-reported assessments were collected in interviews and by questionnaire. All patients reported improvements with respect to pain, as well as gains in functionality and quality of life. Three patients, including two whose progress under other therapy had plateaued or reversed, achieved complete or near-complete symptomatic relief, and two additional patients achieved resumption of vigorous exercise. These preliminary findings suggest that OA treatment with WBM injection merits further investigation. PMID:24046512

  14. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuiyan; Lei, Ronghui; Tiainen, Mika; Wu, Shixun; Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Fuxing; Guo, Xiong

    2014-08-15

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC-PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-? expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. PMID:24792129

  15. Disordered glycometabolism involved in pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease, an endemic osteoarthritis in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cuiyan; Lei, Ronghui; Tiainen, Mika; Wu, Shixun; Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Fuxing; Guo, Xiong

    2014-08-15

    Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic endemic osteoarthritis in China. Previous studies have suggested a role of metabolic dysfunction in causation of this disease. In this investigation, the metabolomics approach and cell experiments were used to discover the metabolic changes and their effects on KBD chondrocytes. Nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy was used to examine serum samples from both the KBD patients and normal controls. The pattern recognition multivariate analysis (OSC–PLS) and quantitative analysis (QMTLS iterator) revealed altered glycometabolism in KBD, with increased glucose and decreased lactate and citrate levels. IPA biological analysis showed the centric location of glucose in the metabolic network. Massive glycogen deposits in chondrocytes and increased uptake of glucose by chondrocytes further confirmed disordered glycometabolism in KBD. An in vitro study showed the effects of disordered glycometabolism in chondrocytes. When chondrocytes were treated with high glucose, expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were decreased, while TNF-? expression, the level of cellular reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis rates all were increased. Therefore, our results demonstrated that disordered glycometabolism in patients with KBD was linked to the damage of chondrocytes. This may provide a new basis for understanding the pathogenesis of KBD. - Highlights: • Disordered glycometabolism in KBD was demonstrated by combining serum metabolomics and chondrocyte studies. • Glucose and TNF-? were key molecules linked to altered metabolism and inflammation in the pathophysiology of KBD. • The glycometabolism disorder was linked to expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, ROS and apoptosis of KBD chondrocytes.

  16. PA01.70. A clinical study on the efficacy of Jalaukawacharana in the management of janu sandhigata vata w.s.r. To osteoarthritis of knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Vardhan, S Ashok; Balakrishnan, T. V.; Rao, S Dattatreya; Rao, M Bhaskar; Kumar, K Srinivasa; Bhaskara Reddy, K. V. V. Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The sandhigata vata described in Ayurveda causes the symptomatology such as shula, sotha, stambhana, sparsha asahyata, sputana, akunchana prasarana vedana etc. whereas the osteoarthritis described in modern science can be correlated with sandhigata vata because it also produces the features such as inflammation, pain, stiffness, limited movements and deformity in severe cases. Osteoarthritis is the 2nd most common illness with 22 29% of prevalence in global population. Presently available modern medication is causing many side and toxic effects which sometimes may need hospitalization also. Hence it requires the need to find such a therapy which gives better relief without any side or toxic effects and also natural, cost effective and easily available. Hence the non surgical biological therapeutic means such jalaukawacharana was selected. Method: Total of 20 patients were selected on the basis of selection criteria (inclusion and exclusion criteria) and then they are grouped into two i.e. 10 each in Jalukawacharana and Yogaraja guggulu group. The jalukawacharana was done with 7 day interval for about 6 sittings in 1st group where as in 2nd group yogaraja guggulu 125mg thrice a day was given for 6 weeks. For assessment, the Koos was taken as subjective and range of motion was taken as objective parameter for proper assessment and they are subjected for statistical validity. Result: After analyzing, the jalukawacharana shown significant and remarkable result in comparison with Yogaraja guguulu. The symptomatology was reduced to great extent and range of motion is also improved a lot by jalukawacharana than with yogaraja guggulu. Conclusion: The janu sandhi gata vata can correlate or compared with osteoarthritis of knee joint. The non surgical, biological therapeutic means i.e. jalukawacharana shown good result in treating with janu sandhigata vata i.e. osteoarthritis of knee joint in comparison with standard group i.e. yogaraja guggulu.

  17. Knee osteoarthritis image registration: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2015-03-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a very common disease, in early stages, changes in joint structures are shown, some of the most common symptoms are; formation of osteophytes, cartilage degradation and joint space reduction, among others. Based on a joint space reduction measurement, Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale, is a very extensive used tool to asses radiological OA knee x-ray images, based on information obtained from these assessments, the objective of this work is to correlate the Kellgren-Lawrence score to the bilateral asymmetry between knees. Using public data from the Osteoarthritis initiative (OAI), a set of images with different Kellgren-Lawrencescores were used to determine a relationship of Kellgren-Lawrence score and the bilateral asymmetry, in order to measure the asymmetry between the knees, the right knee was registered to match the left knee, then a series of similarity metrics, mutual information, correlation, and mean squared error where computed to correlate the deformation (mismatch) of the knees to the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Radiological information was evaluated and scored by OAI radiologist groups. The results of the study suggest an association between Radiological Kellgren-Lawrence score and image registration metrics, mutual information and correlation is higher in the early stages, and mean squared error is higher in advanced stages. This association can be helpful to develop a computer aided grading tool.

  18. Rocker-sole footwear versus prefabricated foot orthoses for the treatment of pain associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot is a common condition which results in pain, stiffness and impaired ambulation. Footwear modifications and foot orthoses are widely used in clinical practice to treat this condition, but their effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. This article describes the design of a randomised trial comparing the effectiveness of rocker-sole footwear and individualised prefabricated foot orthoses in reducing pain associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis. Methods Eighty people with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis will be randomly allocated to receive either a pair of rocker-sole shoes (MBT® Matwa, Masai Barefoot Technology, Switzerland) or a pair of individualised, prefabricated foot orthoses (Vasyli Customs, Vasyli Medical™, Queensland, Australia). At baseline, the biomechanical effects of the interventions will be examined using a wireless wearable sensor motion analysis system (LEGSys™, BioSensics, Boston, MA, USA) and an in-shoe plantar pressure system (Pedar®, Novel GmbH, Munich, Germany). The primary outcome measure will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), measured at baseline and 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures will include the function, footwear and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ, severity of pain and stiffness at the first metatarsophalangeal joint (measured using 100 mm visual analog scales), global change in symptoms (using a 15-point Likert scale), health status (using the Short-Form-12® Version 2.0 questionnaire), use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain, the frequency and type of self-reported adverse events and physical activity levels (using the Incidental and Planned Activity Questionnaire). Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Discussion This study is the first randomised trial to compare the effectiveness of rocker-sole footwear and individualised prefabricated foot orthoses in reducing pain associated with osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and only the third randomised trial ever conducted for this condition. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the findings can be implemented into clinical practice if the interventions are found to be effective, and the baseline biomechanical analysis will provide useful insights into their mechanism of action. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613001245785 PMID:24629181

  19. Different thresholds for detecting osteophytes and joint space narrowing exist between the site investigators and the centralized reader in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis study—data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Guermazi, Ali; Hunter, David J.; Li, Ling; Benichou, Olivier; Eckstein, Felix; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate how the reading of knee radiographs by site investigators differs from that by an expert musculoskeletal radiologist who trained and validated them in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis (OA) study. Materials and methods A subset of participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative progression cohort was studied. Osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were evaluated using Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grading. Radiographs were read by site investigators, who received training and validation of their competence by an expert musculoskeletal radiologist. Radiographs were re-read by this radiologist, who acted as a central reader. For KL and OARSI grading of osteophytes, discrepancies between two readings were adjudicated by another expert reader. Results Radiographs from 96 subjects (49 women) and 192 knees (138 KL grade?2) were included. The site reading showed moderate agreement for KL grading overall (kappa=0.52) and for KL?2 (i.e., radiographic diagnosis of “definite OA”; kappa=0.41). For OARSI grading, the site reading showed substantial agreement for lateral and medial JSN (kappa=0.65 and 0.71), but only fair agreement for osteophytes (kappa=0.37). For KL grading, the adjudicator’s reading showed substantial agreement with the centralized reading (kappa=0.62), but only slight agreement with the site reading (kappa=0.10). Conclusion Site investigators over-graded osteophytes compared to the central reader and the adjudicator. Different thresholds for scoring of JSN exist even between experts. Our results suggest that research studies using radiographic grading of OA should use a centralized reader for all grading. PMID:21479521

  20. Role of Vitamin D in Osteoarthritis: Molecular, Cellular, and Clinical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mabey, Thomas; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a debilitating and degenerative disease which affects millions of people worldwide. The causes and mechanisms of osteoarthritis remain to be fully understood. Vitamin D has been hypothesised to play essential roles in a number of diseases including osteoarthritis. Many cell types within osteoarthritic joints appear to experience negative effects often at increased sensitivity to vitamin D. These findings contrast clinical research which has identified vitamin D deficiency to have a worryingly high prevalence among osteoarthritis patients. Randomised-controlled trial is considered to be the most rigorous way of determining the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the development of osteoarthritis. Studies into the effects of low vitamin D levels on pain and joint function have to date yielded controversial results. Due to the apparent conflicting effects of vitamin D in knee osteoarthritis, further research is required to fully elucidate its role in the development and progression of the disease as well as assess the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26229532

  1. Role of inflammatory factors and adipose tissue in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Part II: Inflammatory background of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hrycaj, Pawe?; Prohorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatoid disease. It may develop as a primary disease of the motor organ or as a secondary one in the course of other inflammatory joint diseases. Similarly to the majority of rheumatoid conditions, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis has not been fully explained. The fact that its development is determined by adipocytokines, which are inflammatory mediators produced in the adipose tissue, has been known for several years. Additionally, inflammatory processes taking place in the adipose tissue that lead to degenerative changes are the main subject of studies conducted by various immunological laboratories. Degenerative changes in patients with osteoarthritis are frequently accompanied by secondary inflammation with cellular infiltrations in the synovial membrane. In numerous cases, the intensification of inflammatory lesions resembles changes seen in arthritis, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis, which inhibits the differential diagnosis by means of imaging examinations. This may have significant clinical implications, e.g. with respect to sonography, which is the basic imaging examination in diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis, monitoring the efficacy of implemented treatment or confirming remission. This article discusses the pathogenesis of three elements of osteoarthritis, i.e. synovitis (due to the difficulties in differentiation of synovitis in the course of osteoarthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis) as well as osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis (due to the significance of the inflammatory factor in their development).

  2. Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Leipold, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of {sup 35}S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate.

  3. Taping for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Taping can be used to reduce pain in knee osteoarthritis. There are different methods of taping, but the common effect is to exert a medially directed force on the patella to increase the patellofemoral contact area, thereby decreasing joint stress and reducing pain. Taping can be performed by a physiotherapist, but self taping can be taught, which enhances self management. Taping for knee osteoarthritis has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy for pain relief and is associated with negligible adverse effects that generally include minor skin irritation. PMID:24130976

  4. The Pathophysiology and Progression of Hip Osteoarthritis Accompanied with Joint Pain are Potentially Due to Bone Alterations - Follow-up Study of Hip OA Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Mikio; Nakamura, Yukio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : This study examined hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients with joint pain and accompanying signal changes detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods : A total of 19 hip OA patients with suddenly occurring or worsening pain regardless of Kellgren-Lawrence grading were enrolled. The patients were monitored using MRI, plain radiographs, and the Denis pain scale for a minimum of 6 months. The patients were classified into 2 groups: those whose pain improved during conservative treatment (Group A) and those whose pain persisted (Group B). Results : Joint pain disappeared or was markedly improved in all 10 cases in Group A. Radiographic OA progression occurred in 7 of 8 cases with available radiographs. Hip MRI was performed on 7 of 10 patients, among whom bone signal changes disappeared in 6 patients. One patient exhibited persisting bone signal alterations although joint pain had completely disappeared. In Group B, joint pain remained in all 9 cases. Radiographic OA progression occurred in 8 of 9 cases, and local (4 cases) or broad (5 cases) bone signal alterations were present in end-point MRI examinations. Two patients exhibited different regional MRI bone signal changes (local or broad) at the end of follow-up. The mean age of Group B was significantly higher than that of Group A. Conclusion : This study uncovered the following observations: 1) hip OA with joint pain had bone alterations that were detectable by MRI, 2) these bone alterations disappeared when joint pain improved, 3) bone alterations remained when joint pain continued, and 4) radiographic OA progressed to a more advanced stage over a short time period. These findings indicate that the pathophysiology of OA, joint pain, and OA progression may primarily be due to bone changes. PMID:25317214

  5. Recognition of Immune Response for the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kandahari, Adrese M.; Yang, Xinlin; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Pan, Dongfeng; Cui, Quanjun

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common and debilitating joint disease that affects up to 30 million Americans, leading to significant disability, reduction in quality of life, and costing the United States tens of billions of dollars annually. Classically, osteoarthritis has been characterized as a degenerative, wear-and-tear disease, but recent research has identified it as an immunopathological disease on a spectrum between healthy condition and rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic literature review demonstrates that the disease pathogenesis is driven by an early innate immune response which progressively catalyzes degenerative changes that ultimately lead to an altered joint microenvironment. It is feasible to detect this infiltration of cells in the early, and presumably asymptomatic, phase of the disease through noninvasive imaging techniques. This screening can serve to aid clinicians in potentially identifying high-risk patients, hopefully leading to early effective management, vast improvements in quality of life, and significant reductions in disability, morbidity, and cost related to osteoarthritis. Although the diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis routinely utilize both invasive and non-invasive strategies, imaging techniques specific to inflammatory cells are not commonly employed for these purposes. This review discusses this paradigm and aims to shift the focus of future osteoarthritis-related research towards early diagnosis of the disease process. PMID:26064995

  6. Coxofemoral joint kinematics using video fluoroscopic images of treadmill-walking cats: development of a technique to assess osteoarthritis-associated disability.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Martin; Gravel, Pierre; Gauthier, Marie-Lou; Leblond, Hugues; Tremblay, Maurice; Rossignol, Serge; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; de Guise, Jacques A; Troncy, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a video fluoroscopy kinematics method for the assessment of the coxofemoral joint in cats with and without osteoarthritis (OA)-associated disability. Two non-OA cats and four cats affected by coxofemoral OA were evaluated by video fluoroscopy. Video fluoroscopic images of the coxofemoral joints were captured at 120 frames/s using a customized C-arm X-ray system while cats walked freely on a treadmill at 0.4 m/s. The angle patterns over time of the coxofemoral joints were extracted using a graphic user interface following four steps: (i) correction for image distortion; (ii) image denoising and contrast enhancement; (iii) frame-to-frame anatomical marker identification; and (iv) statistical gait analysis. Reliability analysis was performed. The cats with OA presented greater intra-subject stride and gait cycle variability. Three cats with OA presented a left-right asymmetry in the range of movement of the coxofemoral joint angle in the sagittal plane (two with no overlap of the 95% confidence interval, and one with only a slight overlap) consistent with their painful OA joint, and a longer gait cycle duration. Reliability analysis revealed an absolute variation in the coxofemoral joint angle of 2º-6º, indicating that the two-dimensional video fluoroscopy technique provided reliable data. Improvement of this method is recommended: variability would likely be reduced if a larger field of view could be recorded, allowing the identification and tracking of each femoral axis, rather than the trochanter landmarks. The range of movement of the coxofemoral joint has the potential to be an objective marker of OA-associated disability. PMID:24907140

  7. Physical activity at leisure and risk of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, N E

    1996-01-01

    A summary of the evidence linking exercise and osteoarthritis is given in the table. In summary, normal joints appear to tolerate prolonged vigorous low impact exercise without accelerated development of osteoarthritis. The risk of developing osteoarthritis appears to be increased in sporting activities that continually expose normal joints to high levels of impact or torsional loading and in individuals who continue sporting activities after they have injured supporting structures in the joint (like ligaments, tendons, and menisci). The hypothesis that high impact loads to joints over time will accelerate the development of osteoarthritis in exposed joints must now be examined in a longitudinal study. PMID:8882151

  8. Cyst-like lesions of the knee joint and their relation to incident knee pain and development of radiographic osteoarthritis: The MOST study

    PubMed Central

    Guermazi, Ali; Hayashi, Daichi; Roemer, Frank W; Niu, Jingbo; Yang, Mei; Lynch, John A; Torner, James C; Lewis, Cora E; Sack, Burton; Felson, David T; Nevitt, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions of the knee are associated with incident knee pain and incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. Using a nested case-control study design, we investigated the associations of cyst-like lesions (Baker’s, meniscal and proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) cysts, and prepatellar and anserine bursitides) with (a) incident pain at 15- or 30-month follow-up and (b) incident radiographic OA at 30-month follow-up. Baseline cyst-like lesions were scored semiquantitatively using the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between these lesions and the outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors (i.e. cartilage loss, meniscal damage, bone marrow lesions, synovitis and joint effusion, which were also scored using WORMS). Results Incident knee pain study included 157 cases and 336 controls. Prevalence of meniscal and PTFJ cysts in the case group was twice that in the control group (9 (6%) vs. 9 (3%) and 9 (6%) vs. 10 (3%), respectively). Incident radiographic OA study included 149 cases and 298 controls. Prevalence of grade 2 Baker’s cysts and PTFJ cysts in the case group was approximately 4 times that in the control group (16 [11%] vs. 9 [3%] and 6 [4%] vs. 3 [1%], respectively). However, none of the cyst-like lesions was associated with incident pain or radiographic OA after fully adjusted logistic regression analyses and correction of p-values for multiple comparisons. Conclusion None of the analyzed lesions was an independent predictor of incident knee pain or radiographic OA. Intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions are likely to be a secondary phenomenon seen in painful or OA-affected knees, rather than a primary trigger for incident knee pain or radiographic OA. PMID:20816978

  9. Resistance Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kevin R.; Vincent, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    The initiation, progression, and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been associated with decreased muscular strength and alterations in joint biomechanics. Chronic OA pain may lead to anxiety, depression, fear of movement, and poor psychological outlook. The fear of movement may prevent participation in exercise and social events which could lead to further physical and social isolation. Resistance exercise (RX) has been shown to be an effective intervention both for decreasing pain and for improving physical function and self-efficacy. RX may restore muscle strength and joint mechanics while improving physical function. RX may also normalize muscle firing patterns and joint biomechanics leading to reductions in joint pain and cartilage degradation. These physical adaptations could lead to improved self-efficacy and decreased anxiety and depression. RX can be prescribed and performed by patients across the OA severity spectrum. When designing and implementing an RX program for a patient with knee OA, it is important to consider both the degree of OA severity as well as the level of pain. RX, either in the home or at a fitness facility, is an important component of a comprehensive regimen designed to offset the physical and psychological limitations associated with knee OA. Unique considerations for this population include: 1) monitoring pain during and after exercise, 2) providing days of rest when disease flares occur, and 3) infusing variety into the exercise regimen to encourage adherence. PMID:22632702

  10. Nutraceutical therapies for degenerative joint diseases: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Goggs, Robert; Vaughan-Thomas, Anne; Clegg, Peter D; Carter, Stuart D; Innes, John F; Mobasheri, Ali; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schwab, Wolfgang; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2005-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of nutritional factors in the maintenance of bone and joint health, and that nutritional imbalance combined with endocrine abnormalities may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Despite this, dietary programs have played a secondary role in the management of these connective tissue disorders. Articular cartilage is critically dependent upon the regular provision of nutrients (glucose and amino acids), vitamins (particularly vitamin C), and essential trace elements (zinc, magnesium, and copper). Therefore, dietary supplementation programs and nutraceuticals used in conjunction with non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer significant benefits to patients with joint disorders, such as OA and OCD. This article examines the available clinical evidence for the efficacy of nutraceuticals, antioxidant vitamin C, polyphenols, essential fatty acids, and mineral cofactors in the treatment of OA and related joint disorders in humans and veterinary species. This article also attempts to clarify the current state of knowledge. It also highlights the need for additional targeted research to elucidate the changes in nutritional status and potential alterations to the expression of plasma membrane transport systems in synovial structures in pathophysiological states, so that current therapy and future treatments may be better focused. PMID:16048146

  11. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26625235

  12. Sacroiliac joint pain: burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    Cher, Daniel; Polly, David; Berven, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an important and significant cause of low back pain. We sought to quantify the burden of disease attributable to the SIJ. Methods The authors compared EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and Short Form (SF)-36-based health state utility values derived from the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic SIJ pain participating in two prospective clinical trials of minimally invasive SIJ fusion versus patients participating in a nationally representative USA cross-sectional survey (National Health Measurement Study [NHMS]). Comparative analyses controlled for age, sex, and oversampling in NHMS. A utility percentile for each SIJ subject was calculated using NHMS as a reference cohort. Finally, SIJ health state utilities were compared with utilities for common medical conditions that were published in a national utility registry. Results SIJ patients (number [n]=198) had mean SF-6D and EQ-5D utility scores of 0.51 and 0.44, respectively. Values were significantly depressed (0.28 points for the SF-6D utility score and 0.43 points for EQ-5D; both P<0.0001) compared to NHMS controls. SIJ patients were in the lowest deciles for utility compared to the NHMS controls. The SIJ utility values were worse than those of many common, major medical conditions, and similar to those of other common preoperative orthopedic conditions. Conclusion Patients with SIJ pain presenting for minimally invasive surgical care have marked impairment in quality of life that is worse than in many chronic health conditions, and this is similar to other orthopedic conditions that are commonly treated surgically. SIJ utility values are in the lowest two deciles when compared to control populations. PMID:24748825

  13. The Content of the 14 Metals in Cancellous and Cortical Bone of the Hip Joint Affected by Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zio?a-Frankowska, Anetta; Kubaszewski, ?ukasz; D?browski, Miko?aj; Kowalski, Artur; Rogala, Piotr; Strzy?ewski, Wojciech; ?ab?d?, Wojciech; Uklejewski, Ryszard; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of particular elements Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Ba, Sr, and Pb in the proximal femur bone tissue (cancellous and cortical bone) of 96 patients undergoing total hip replacement for osteoarthritis using ICP-AES and FAAS analytical techniques. The interdependencies among these elements and their correlations depended on factors including age, gender, place of residence, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental pollution, physical activity, and type of degenerative change which were examined by statistical and chemometric methods. The factors that exerted the greatest influence on the elements in the femoral head and neck were tobacco smoking (higher Cr and Ni content in smokers), alcohol consumption (higher concentrations of Ni, Cu in people who consume alcohol), and gender (higher Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in men). The factors influencing Pb accumulation in bone tissue were tobacco, alcohol, gender, and age. In primary and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, the content and interactions of elements are different (mainly those of Fe and Pb). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of elements in the femoral head and neck that could be attributed to residence or physical activity. PMID:26357659

  14. Arthritis at the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Sankaye, Prashant; Ostlere, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The shoulder is a complex joint with numerous structures contributing to mobility and stability. Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint that may be due to a wide spectrum of disorders including rotator cuff disease, instability, and arthropathy. Primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is uncommon because it is a non-weight-bearing joint. Significant osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is unusual in the absence of trauma, and the detection of advanced degenerative changes in patients without a known history of trauma should alert the clinician to search for other disorders. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and key imaging findings of the common categories of the arthritis affecting the glenohumeral joint. PMID:26021591

  15. A Combination of Scutellaria Baicalensis and Acacia Catechu Extracts for Short-Term Symptomatic Relief of Joint Discomfort Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Ormsbee, Lauren T.; Elam, Marcus L.; Campbell, Sara C.; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E.; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446—a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)—decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40–90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500?mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440?mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1? and 6, tumor necrosis factor-?, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA. PMID:24611484

  16. Treatment of Nongout Joint Deposition Diseases: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Richette, Pascal; Flipo, René-Marc

    2014-01-01

    This update develops the actual therapeutic options in the management of the joint involvement of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD), basic calcium phosphate (BCP) deposition disease, hemochromatosis (HH), ochronosis, oxalosis, and Wilson's disease. Conventional pharmaceutical treatment provides benefits for most diseases. Anti-interleukine-1 (IL-1) treatment could provide similar results in CPPD than in gout flares. There is only limited evidence about the efficacy of preventive long-term colchicine intake, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine in chronic CPPD. Needle aspiration and lavage have satisfactory short and midterm results in BCP. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy has also proved its efficacy for high-doses regimes. Phlebotomy does not seem to have shown real efficacy on joint involvement in HH so far. Iron chelators' effects have not been assessed on joint involvement either, while IL-1 blockade may prove useful. NSAIDs have limited efficacy on joint involvement of oxalosis, while colchicine and steroids have not been assessed either. The use of nitisinone for ochronotic arthropathy is still much debated, but it could provide beneficial effects on joint involvement. The effects of copper chelators have not been assessed either in the joint involvement of Wilson's disease. NSAIDs should be avoided because of the liver affection they may worsen. PMID:24895535

  17. Human synovial mast cell involvement in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Relationship to disease type, clinical activity, and antirheumatic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J; Malone, D G; Jicinsky, J; Chen, M; Ory, P; Engber, W; Graziano, F M

    1991-09-01

    Mast cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion of synovium obtained from 48 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 42 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). A significantly lower percentage of stainable synovial mast cells was obtained by tissue digestion from patients with clinically active RA compared with those with less active disease. The 54 patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs had a significantly lower percentage of stainable synovial mast cells in cell suspension than did the other 36 patients. When anti-IgE antibody was used as a secretagogue in vitro, significantly greater histamine release was observed from synovial mast cells of RA patients compared with OA patients. Greater histamine release in response to anti-IgE was observed in the RA patients with more clinically active disease and those who were treated with prednisone, compared with RA patients without these features. Synovial mast cells of RA patients treated with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug had a significantly lower mean histamine content than did cells from patients not receiving such treatment. Our data suggest that there are differences between synovial mast cells from tissues of patients with RA and OA and suggest that synovial mast cells may be activated in clinically active RA. In addition, the data indicate an effect of systemic antirheumatic therapy on mast cells isolated from synovium of patients with arthritis. PMID:1930330

  18. Update on biological therapies for knee injuries: osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pintan, Guilherme Figueiredo; de Oliveira, Adilson Sanches; Lenza, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Ferretti, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease that causes functional impairment of the joints. Chronic forms of knee OA have been increasing worldwide, limiting patients' quality of life. Recent studies have sought to increase effectiveness and quality in the development of new therapies, such as platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, stem cells, and nuclear factor ?B, aimed principally at reducing proinflammatory activity, pain, and degeneration of the knee joints. The goal of this review is to present an update on biological therapies for knee OA and to provide guidance for future OA studies. PMID:24986668

  19. Knee osteoarthritis related pain: a narrative review of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a common progressive joint disease, involving not only the joint lining but also cartilage, ligaments, and bone. For the last ten years, majority of published review articles were not specific to osteoarthritis of the knee, and strength of evidence and clinical guidelines were not appropriately summarized. Objectives To appraise the literature by summarizing the findings of current evidence and clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain. Methodology English journal articles that focused on knee osteoarthritis related pain were searched via PubMed (1 January 2002 – 26 August 2012) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, using the terms ‘knee’, ‘osteoarthritis’ and ‘pain’. In addition, reference lists from identified articles and related book chapters were included as comprehensive overviews. Results For knee osteoarthritis, the highest diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by presence of pain and five or more clinical or laboratory criteria plus osteophytes. Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. Generally, paracetamol, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, corticosteroid injections and physical therapy techniques, such as therapeutic exercises, joint manual therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, can help reduce pain and improve function. Patient education programs and weight reduction for overweight patients are important to be considered. Conclusions Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. However, it is likely that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments is most effective in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24899883

  20. New insight in the relationship between regional patterns of knee cartilage thickness, osteoarthritis disease severity, and gait mechanics.

    PubMed

    Erhart-Hledik, Jennifer C; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    To test if the relationship between knee kinetics during walking and regional patterns of cartilage thickness is influenced by disease severity we tested the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) subjects: (1) the peak knee flexion (KFM) and adduction moments (KAM) during walking are associated with regional cartilage thickness and medial-to-lateral cartilage thickness ratios, and (2) the associations between knee moments and cartilage thickness data are dependent on disease severity. Seventy individuals with medial compartment knee OA were studied. Gait analysis was used to determine the knee moments and cartilage thickness was measured from magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple linear regression analyses tested for associations between cartilage thickness and knee kinetics. Medial cartilage thickness and medial-to-lateral cartilage thickness ratios were lower in subjects with greater KAM for specific regions of the femoral condyle and tibial plateau with no associations for KFM in patients of all disease severities. When separated by severity, the association between KAM and cartilage thickness was found only in patients with more severe OA, and KFM was significantly associated with cartilage thickness only for the less severe OA subjects for specific tibial plateau regions. The results support the idea that the KAM is larger in patients with more severe disease and the KFM has greater influence early in the disease process, which may lessen as pain increases with disease severity. Each component influences different regions of cartilage. Thus the relative contributions of both KAM and KFM should be considered when evaluating gait mechanics and the influence of any intervention for knee OA. PMID:26475218

  1. Pathways involved in the resolution of inflammatory joint disease.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Oliver; Buckley, Christopher D

    2015-05-01

    A common feature of seasonal colds and other infections is painful joints. This is due to an acute reactive inflammatory arthritis which almost always resolves. Unfortunately, for some people the inflammation never completely resolves but rather precedes progression to chronic inflammatory arthritis. The existing dogma that accounts for why chronic inflammatory joint disease persists is that it is due to an excess of pro-inflammatory signals and that resolution occurs by pro-inflammatory mediator catabolism. Recent discoveries have supported a new paradigm which proposes that the resolution of inflammation is an active process with genetic, molecular and cellular programs that promote catabasis. By seeking to understand the mechanisms behind the spontaneous resolution of inflammation, we can gain insight into why inflammation sometimes fails to resolve. This review seeks to highlight the mechanisms behind the resolution of joint inflammation and how endogenous pro-resolving mediators could be used to treat chronic persistent inflammatory joint disease. PMID:25944272

  2. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin) on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA) created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish) and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish) and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C) group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA)-only group (H group); two qniumucin-only groups (M groups); and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups). One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA. PMID:19995451

  3. Femoral neck erosions: sign of hip joint synovial disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Weissman, B.N.; Naimark, A.

    1983-07-01

    Pathologic synovial processes in the hip joint can cause characteristic extrinsic erosions of the femoral neck, which in extreme cases produce an ''apple core'' appearance. Nine such cases of synovial diseases, including synovial osteochondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and amyloidosis, that demonstrate this radiographic finding are presented. The anatomic relations of the hip joint that result in theis appearance, differential diagnosis, and radiographic techniques useful in diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Progressive Change in Joint Degeneration in Patients with Knee or Hip Osteoarthritis Treated with Fentanyl in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Takana, Koshi; Orita, Sumihisa; Inoue, Gen; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Toyone, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Junichi; Kishida, Shunji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Opioids improve pain from knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) and decrease the functional impairment of patients. However, there is a possibility that opioids induce analgesia and suppress the physiological pain of OA in patients, thereby inducing the progression of OA changes in these patients. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possibility of progressive changes in OA among patients using opioids. Materials and Methods Two hundred knee or hip OA patients were evaluated in the current prospective, randomized, active-controlled study. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 into three parallel treatment groups: loxoprofen, tramadol/acetaminophen, and transdermal fentanyl groups. Medication was administered for 12 weeks. Pain scores and progressive OA changes on X-ray films were evaluated. Results Overall, pain relief was obtained by all three groups. Most patients did not show progressive OA changes; however, 3 patients in the transdermal fentanyl group showed progressive OA changes during the 12 weeks of treatment. These 3 patients used significantly higher doses than others in the transdermal fentanyl group. Additionally, the average pain score for these 3 patients was significantly lower than the average pain score for the other patients in the transdermal fentanyl group. Conclusion Fentanyl may induce progressive changes in knee or hip OA during a relatively short period, compared with oral Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs or tramadol. PMID:25048500

  5. The Articular Morphology of the First Carpometacarpal Joint Does Not Differ between Men and Women, but Changes with Aging and Early Stage Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C.; Laidlaw, David H.; Got, Christopher J.; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C.; Ladd, Amy L.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in women has been previously linked to the articular morphology of the trapezium. However, studies report conflicting results on how the articular shapes of male and female trapezia compare to one another, mainly because their findings are based on data from older cadaver specimens. The purpose of this in vivo study was to dissociate the effect of sex from that of aging and early OA by using cohorts of healthy young and healthy older subjects, as well as patients with early stage OA. Computed tomography scans from 68 healthy subjects and 87 arthritic subjects were used to obtain 3-D bone models. The trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were manually delineated on scaled bone models, to remove the effect of size, and then were compared between sex, age, and health groups by using polar histograms of curvature and average curvature values. We found no sex differences, but significant age-group and health-group differences, in the articular surfaces of both bones. The older healthy subjects had higher curvature in the concave and lower curvature in the convex directions of both the trapezial and metacarpal saddles than the healthy young subjects. Subjects with early OA had significantly different metacarpal and trapezial articular shapes from healthy subjects. These findings suggest that aging and OA affect the articular shape of the CMC joint, but that, in contrast to previously held beliefs, inherent sex differences are not responsible for the higher incidence of CMC OA in women. PMID:24909332

  6. Mild Joint Symptoms Are Associated with Lower Risk of Falls than Asymptomatic Individuals with Radiological Evidence of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chin Teck; Fadzli, Farhana; Rozalli, Faizatul I.; Khoo, Ee Ming; Hill, Keith D.; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) exacerbates skeletal muscle functioning, leading to postural instability and increased falls risk. However, the link between impaired physical function, OA and falls have not been elucidated. We investigated the role of impaired physical function as a potential mediator in the association between OA and falls. This study included 389 participants [229 fallers (?2 falls or one injurious fall in the past 12 months), 160 non-fallers (no history of falls)], age (?65 years) from a randomized controlled trial, the Malaysian Falls Assessment and Intervention Trial (MyFAIT). Physical function was assessed using Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Functional Reach (FR) tests. Knee and hip OA were diagnosed using three methods: Clinical, Radiological and Self-report. OA symptom severity was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). The total WOMAC score was categorized to asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe symptoms. Individuals with radiological OA and ‘mild’ overall symptoms on the WOMAC score had reduced risk of falls compared to asymptomatic OA [OR: 0.402(0.172–0.940), p = 0.042]. Individuals with clinical OA and ‘severe’ overall symptoms had increased risk of falls compared to those with ‘mild’ OA [OR: 4.487(1.883–10.693), p = 0.005]. In individuals with radiological OA, mild symptoms appear protective of falls while those with clinical OA and severe symptoms have increased falls risk compared to those with mild symptoms. Both relationships between OA and falls were not mediated by physical limitations. Larger prospective studies are needed for further evaluation. PMID:26491868

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

  8. Biplanar Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy in the Medial Compartment Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint: Comparison between the Aescula and TomoFix Plate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-Joo; Kim, Joon-Woo; Yoon, Seong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the results of Aescula and TomoFix plates used for biplanar open wedge high tibial osteotomy in medial osteoarthritis of the knee joint with varus deformity. Methods A consecutive series of 50 cases of biplanar open wedge high tibial osteotomy were evaluated retrospectively. Group A contained 25 cases treated by using the Aescula plate, and group T contained 25 cases treated by using the TomoFix plate. Full weight-bearing was permitted at 6 weeks after surgery in group A and at 2 weeks in group T. Clinical evaluations were performed at the final follow-up by using postoperative knee scores and functional scores. Radiographic analysis included postoperative mechanical femur-tibia angle, change in posterior tibial slope angle, and complications related to implants. The mean follow-up periods were 30 months in group A and 26 months in group T. Results The knee and functional scores were improved at the final follow-up in both groups (p < 0.05), but no differences were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). An acceptable correction angle was obtained in 52% of group A and in 84% of group T (p = 0.015). Change in posterior tibial slope angle was larger in group A than in group T (p < 0.001), showing better maintenance of posterior tibial slope in group T. In group A, there were 3 cases of screw loosening and 4 cases of delayed union. In addition, there were residual varus deformities in 7 cases (6 in group A and 1 in group T). Conclusions This study shows that firm fixation using a TomoFix plate for open wedge high tibial osteotomy produces better radiologic results and a low complication rate than those of the Aescula spacer plate. PMID:26217464

  9. Treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Elena V; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2005-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is a most common health problem in population over age 40 and a leading cause of pain and disability in the United States. Treatments of osteoarthritis incorporate combination of nonpharmacologic modalities, pharmacologic agents and surgical procedures. Unfortunately nonpharmacological modalities are underutilized in the management algorithm. In addition to physical and occupational therapy, diet and exercise play an extremely important role, thus patient education in the above areas is of great importance. Pharmacological measures should be examined carefully by physician and the patient weighting its existing risks and benefits. Surgical procedures are generally reserved for patients with severe arthritis who have persistent aim and significantly reduced function. Presently, there are no proven structure/disease-modifying interventions and therefore current therapy is aimed to symptom relief and rehabilitation. PMID:15759951

  10. A Qualitative Study of Factors Underlying Decision Making for Joint Replacement among African Americans and Latinos with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Michael L.; Hebert-Beirne, Jennifer; Rojas, Mary; Tuzzio, Leah; Nelson, Charles L.; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2015-01-01

    To support patients in making decisions that align with their unique cultural beliefs, an understanding of factors underlying patient preferences is needed. We sought to identify psychosocial factors that influenced decision making among African-American and Hispanic patients referred for knee or hip arthroplasty. Thirty-six participants deciding on surgery were interviewed. Responses were audio-taped, transcribed, and read. Codes were assigned to the raw data and then clustered into categories that were analyzed to yield overarching themes. This process was repeated independently by two corroborators. Six categories described the mental calculations made in patients' decision-making processes: 1) self-assessment of ft for surgery based on age and comorbidity, 2) research and development of mental report cards of their surgeons, 3) reliving of social network experiences, 4) reliance on faith and spirituality for guidance, 5) acknowledgment of fear and anxiety, and 6) setting expectations for recovery. This study advanced the understanding of how decisions about joint replacement are constructed and identified cultural levers that can be targeted for intervention. Developing culturally tailored health information that addresses some of our findings and disseminating messages through social networks may reduce the underutilization of joint replacement among racial and ethnic minority populations. PMID:25272219

  11. Dance between biology, mechanics, and structure: A systems-based approach to developing osteoarthritis prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chu, Constance R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of human suffering and disability for which disease-modifying treatments are lacking. OA occurs through complex and dynamic interplays between diverse factors over long periods of time. The traditional research and clinical focus on OA, the end stage disease, obscured understanding pathogenesis prior to reaching a common pathway defined by pain and functional deficits, joint deformity, and radiographic changes. To emphasize disease modification and prevention, we describe a multi-disciplinary systems-based approach encompassing biology, mechanics, and structure to define pre-osteoarthritic disease processes. Central to application of this model is the concept of "pre-osteoarthritis," conditions where clinical OA has not yet developed. Rather, joint homeostasis has been compromised and there are potentially reversible markers for heightened OA risk. Key messages from this perspective are (i) to focus research onto defining pre-OA through identifying and validating biological, mechanical, and imaging markers of OA risk, (ii) to emphasize multi-disciplinary approaches, and (iii) to propose that developing personalized interventions to address reversible markers of OA risk in healthy joints may be the key to prevention. Ultimately, a systems-based analysis of OA pathogenesis shows potential to transform clinical practice by facilitating development and testing of new strategies to prevent or delay the onset of osteoarthritis. PMID:25639920

  12. Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

  13. Complementary and Alternative Exercises for Management of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; von Bergen, Vera; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Yan; Yeh, James K.; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint. With no cure currently available, the goals of treating OA are to alleviate pain, maintain, or improve joint mobility, increase the muscle strength of the joints, and minimize the disabling effects of the disease. Recent research has suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exercises may improve OA symptoms. This paper covers CAM mind-body exercises—Tai Chi, qigong, and yoga—for OA management and evaluates their benefits in pain reduction, muscle strength, physical function, stiffness, balance, fear of falling, self-efficacy, quality of life, and psychological outcomes in patients with OA, based on randomized controlled trials published. Findings from the literature suggest that CAM exercises demonstrate considerable promise in the management of OA. Future studies require rigorous randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes. PMID:22046516

  14. Complementary and alternative exercises for management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; von Bergen, Vera; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Yan; Yeh, James K; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint. With no cure currently available, the goals of treating OA are to alleviate pain, maintain, or improve joint mobility, increase the muscle strength of the joints, and minimize the disabling effects of the disease. Recent research has suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exercises may improve OA symptoms. This paper covers CAM mind-body exercises-Tai Chi, qigong, and yoga-for OA management and evaluates their benefits in pain reduction, muscle strength, physical function, stiffness, balance, fear of falling, self-efficacy, quality of life, and psychological outcomes in patients with OA, based on randomized controlled trials published. Findings from the literature suggest that CAM exercises demonstrate considerable promise in the management of OA. Future studies require rigorous randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes. PMID:22046516

  15. Joint position sense is impaired by Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zia, S; Cody, F; O'Boyle, D

    2000-02-01

    The abilities of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, taking routine medication, and of control subjects, to discriminate bilateral differences in the static angular positions of the two elbow joints were studied during passive (subject relaxed) and active (subject contracting to hold position) conditions. On each trial, one of the subject's elbows served as the reference joint (angle 60 degrees) and the other as the test joint (angular range, 54 degrees to 69 degrees, at 3 degree intervals). Subjects, with eyes closed, were required to discriminate the relative angles of the two elbows. In Experiments 1 (passive condition) and 2 (active condition), parkinsonians (n = 12) gave significantly fewer correct responses, pooled across sides, than did controls (n = 12), both in total scores across all angles and at individual test angles of 57 degrees and 63 degrees. In Experiment 3 (passive condition), derivation of conventional psychophysical variables indicated that both the difference limen (DL; threshold) and Weber ratio (WR; discriminatory sensitivity, independent of absolute stimulus values; same as DL/PSE) values of patients (n = 6) were significantly larger than those of controls (n = 6), in the absence of a significant difference between groups in the point of subjective equality (PSE). Our results provide clear evidence of a quantitative impairment of joint position sense in PD patients. PMID:10665493

  16. Osteoarthritis associated with estrogen deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects all articular tissues and finally leads to joint failure. Although articular tissues have long been considered unresponsive to estrogens or their deficiency, there is now increasing evidence that estrogens influence the activity of joint tissues through complex molecular pathways that act at multiple levels. Indeed, we are only just beginning to understand the effects of estrogen deficiency on articular tissues during OA development and progression, as well as on the association between OA and osteoporosis. Estrogen replacement therapy and current selective estrogen receptor modulators have mixed effectiveness in preserving and/or restoring joint tissue in OA. Thus, a better understanding of how estrogen acts on joints and other tissues in OA will aid the development of specific and safe estrogen ligands as novel therapeutic agents targeting the OA joint as a whole organ. PMID:19804619

  17. The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: pyrocarbon interposition implants

    PubMed Central

    ODELLA, SIMONA; QUERENGHI, AMOS M.; SARTORE, ROBERTA; DE FELICE, AGOSTINO; DACATRA, UGO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interposition arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint with pyrolitic carbon implants for the treatment of TMC osteoarthritis. Methods we evaluated two groups of patients surgically treated for TMC osteoarthritis: group 1 (34 patients - 36 TMC joints) treated with PyroDisk implantation and group 2 (25 patients - 25 TMC joints) treated with the Pyrocardan implant. All these patients were clinically evaluated at follow-up using the DASH score, Mayo Wrist score and VAS pain score. Results the mean follow-up was 42 months in group 1 and 12 months in group 2. Both groups showed good clinical outcomes in terms of pain relief, range of motion, and pinch and grasp strength. Revision surgery was needed in only one case in group 1 (2.8%) and in three cases (12%) in group 2. Conclusions prosthetic replacement of the TMC joint was found to be a good solution for low-demand patients. However, the PyroDisk could be a good solution in selected patients (Eaton stage I–III, non-subluxated joint): it provides good pain relief, good range of motion, good pinch and grasp strength, and stable results at more than three-years of follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25750903

  19. Abnormal cancellous bone collagen metabolism in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, J P; Bailey, A J

    1998-01-01

    Biochemical investigations into the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis have, for the last two decades, concentrated on the mechanisms involved in the destruction of the articular cartilage. Although bone changes are known to occur, the biochemistry of the collagenous matrix within osteoarthritic bone has received scant attention. We report that bone collagen metabolism is increased within osteoarthritic femoral heads, with the greatest changes occurring within the subchondral zone. Collagen synthesis and its potential to mineralize were determined by the carboxy-terminal propeptide content and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively. These data supported elevated new matrix formation. Our finding of a three- to fourfold increase in TGF-beta in osteoarthritic bone indicates that this might represent a stimulus for the increased collagen synthesis observed. Of additional significance is the hypomineralization of deposited collagen in the subchondral zone of osteoarthritic femoral heads, supporting a greater proportion of osteoid in the diseased tissue. The cross-linking of collagen was similar to that observed for controls. In addition, the degradative potential of osteoarthritic bone was considerably higher as demonstrated by increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity, and again the greater activity was associated with the subchondral bone tissue. The polarization exhibited in the metabolism of bone collagen from osteoarthritic hips might exacerbate the processes involved in joint deterioration by altering joint morphology. This in turn may alter the distribution of mechanical forces to the various tissues, to which bone is a sensitive responder. Bone collagen metabolism is clearly an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and certainly warrants further biochemical study. PMID:9541489

  20. Non-invasive mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, B A; Guilak, F; Lockwood, K A; Olson, S A; Pitsillides, A A; Sandell, L J; Silva, M J; van der Meulen, M C H; Haudenschild, D R

    2015-10-01

    Animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) are essential tools for investigating the development of the disease on a more rapid timeline than human OA. Mice are particularly useful due to the plethora of genetically modified or inbred mouse strains available. The majority of available mouse models of OA use a joint injury or other acute insult to initiate joint degeneration, representing post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). However, no consensus exists on which injury methods are most translatable to human OA. Currently, surgical injury methods are most commonly used for studies of OA in mice; however, these methods may have confounding effects due to the surgical/invasive injury procedure itself, rather than the targeted joint injury. Non-invasive injury methods avoid this complication by mechanically inducing a joint injury externally, without breaking the skin or disrupting the joint. In this regard, non-invasive injury models may be crucial for investigating early adaptive processes initiated at the time of injury, and may be more representative of human OA in which injury is induced mechanically. A small number of non-invasive mouse models of PTOA have been described within the last few years, including intra-articular fracture of tibial subchondral bone, cyclic tibial compression loading of articular cartilage, and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture via tibial compression overload. This review describes the methods used to induce joint injury in each of these non-invasive models, and presents the findings of studies utilizing these models. Altogether, these non-invasive mouse models represent a unique and important spectrum of animal models for studying different aspects of PTOA. PMID:26003950

  1. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain joints such as those of the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid ( ... of the nose); swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; or kidney or liver disease. ...

  2. Evaluating inflammatory joint disease: how and when can autoantibodies help?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Olivier

    2003-12-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory joint disease rests on a constellation of symptoms, signs, laboratory test results and, occasionally, histological findings. Classification criteria have been developed by national learned societies, international panels of experts or, more rarely, an expert working alone. These criteria are intended to provide a common language for therapeutic trials and international publications. Yet, they are often inappropriately used as diagnostic tools for the individual patient. Identification of an early seroimmunologic marker with high sensitivity and specificity for classifying patients with recent-onset joint disease is a daunting challenge. Test performance characteristics such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the positive or negative likelihood ratio help to assess the diagnostic usefulness of a laboratory test in a specific situation. The difference between the pretest and posttest likelihoods of obtaining a positive or negative result measures the usefulness, or performance, of a laboratory test in a specific situation according to the prevalence of the disease. A higher positive likelihood ratio indicates a more useful test. In a patient with inflammatory joint disease, the diagnosis can be sought by assaying a limited number of autoantibodies according to a decision tree. Thus, IgM rheumatoid factors (latex test or ELISA) and antibodies to filaggrin or other citrullinated proteins (antikeratin antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent assay or anticyclic citrullinated peptides by ELISA) identify more than 70% of cases of early rheumatoid arthritis with greater than 98% specificity. If these markers are negative, testing for antinuclear antibodies by indirect immunofluorescent assay on HEp-2 cells identifies 99% of cases of lupus and progressive systemic sclerosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis can be obtained by characterizing the autoantibodies: thus, presence of antidouble-stranded DNA (dsDNA, by the Farr radioimmunoassay, indirect immunofluorescent assay on Crithidia luciliae, or ELISA (IgG)) or of antinucleosome antibodies (ELISA) indicates lupus, whereas anticentromere, antitopoisomerase I (Scl 70), and antinucleolar antibodies point to progressive systemic sclerosis. A positive test for antibodies to soluble nuclear antigens of the U1 RNP type suggests mixed connective tissue disease or lupus but may indicate scleroderma. Anti-Sm antibodies are found in fewer than 10% of lupus patients but are highly specific. Anti-SSA (Ro) and anti-SSB (La) suggest lupus or primary Sjögren's syndrome. When tests are negative for ANA, several antibodies to cytoplasmic organelles are valuable diagnostic tools, such as anti-J01 for polymyositis syndromes and antiribosome antibodies for lupus, although their sensitivity is modest (20-25%). Finally antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) ensure the diagnosis of small-vessel vasculitides, which often involve the lungs and kidneys. Thus, in diffuse Wegener's granulomatosis, ANCAs exhibiting the classic cytoplasmic pattern and corresponding by ELISA to anti-PR3 are found. In microscopic polyangiitis the ANCAs are peripheral and correspond by ELISA to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies. Tests for other antibodies are less often needed to evaluate inflammatory joint disease. PMID:14667551

  3. A woman living with osteoarthritis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jane C; Mallen, Christian D; Burrell, Helen S

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common condition that is typically associated with older adults. Other causes of osteoarthritis, such as those cases resulting from childhood Perthes disease, can affect younger people and frequently have a major impact on the lives of those affected. This case report describes the experiences of one patient with osteoarthritis, using examples of her poetry to illustrate her social, psychological and emotional transformation. PMID:18796144

  4. Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: biology.

    PubMed

    Malfait, A M

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights a selection of recently published literature in the area of osteoarthritis biology. Major themes transpiring from a PubMed search covering the year between the 2014 and the 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) World Congress are explored. Inflammation emerged as a significant theme, revealing complex pathways that drive dramatic changes in cartilage homeostasis and in the synovium. Highlights include a homeostatic role for CXC chemokines in cartilage, identification of the zinc-ZIP8-MTF1 axis as an essential regulator of cartilage catabolism, and the discovery that a small aggrecan fragment can have catabolic and pro-inflammatory effects through Toll-like receptor 2. Synovitis can promote joint damage, partly through alarmins such as S100A8. Synovitis and synovial expression of the pro-algesic neurotrophin, Nerve Growth Factor, are associated with pain. Increasingly, researchers are considering specific pathogenic pathways that may operate in distinct subsets of osteoarthritis associated with distinct risk factors, including obesity, age, and joint injury. In obesity, the contribution of metabolic factors and diet is under intense investigation. The role of autophagy and oxidative stress in age-related osteoarthritis has been further explored. This approach may open avenues for targeted treatment of distinct phenotypes of osteoarthritis. Finally, a small selection of novel analgesic targets in the periphery is briefly discussed, including calcitonin gene-related peptide and the neuronal sodium voltage-gated channels, Nav1.7 and Nav1.8. PMID:26707989

  5. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma in comparison with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus exercise: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Angoorani, Hooman; Mazaherinezhad, Ali; Marjomaki, Omid; Younespour, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is a disabling musculoskeletal disease with no definite treatment. This study compared the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) plus exercise in the treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 54 eligible patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups. (IRCT2012110611382N) Group A (27 patients) received 2 injections of PRP (4 weeks apart) and group B (27 patients) received 10 sessions of TENS as well as exercise during the study period. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) questionnaire before the treatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after that the treatment. Pain was also assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Time to an intolerable knee pain during treadmill workout was also evaluated using an objective test. Results: In the PRP group, the mean KOOS symptom score improved significantly from baseline to the end of study, while the change was not significant over this period for the group B. In both groups, significant reductions were observed in VAS scores from baseline till the end of study. The mean time to feel intolerable knee pain during treadmill work out of PRP group increased significantly from baseline to week 4, but no significant changes were found in this parameter over the time of study in the group B. Conclusion: Intraarticular injection of PRP is an effective, safe method for short-term treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. PMID:26478881

  6. New horizons in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wenham, Claire Y J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis worldwide and rapidly increasing with ageing populations. It is a major source of pain and disability for individuals and economic burden for health economies. Modern imaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has helped us to understand that OA is a dynamic remodelling process involving all the structures within the joint. Inflammation is common in OA, with a high prevalence of synovitis seen on imaging, and this has been associated with joint pain. MRI detected changes within the subchondral bone are also common and associated with pain and structural progression. Targeting individual pathologies may offer potential new therapeutic options for OA; this is particularly important given the current treatments are often limited by side effects or lack of efficacy. New approaches to understanding the pathology and pain pathways in OA offer hope of novel analgesic options, for example, monoclonal antibodies against nerve growth factor and centrally acting drugs such as duloxetine, tapentadol and bradykinin receptor antagonists have all recently undergone trials in OA. While treatment for OA has until now relied on symptom management, for the first time, recent trials suggest that structure modification may be possible by treating the subchondral bone. PMID:23568255

  7. Joint Leveling for Advanced Kienbock’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Ryan P.; Van Steyn, Marlo O.; Gyuricza, Cassie; Adams, Amelia; Weiland, Andrew J.; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The use of joint leveling procedures to treat Kienbock’s disease has been limited by the degree of disease advancement. This study was designed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of wrists with more advanced Kienbock’s disease (stage IIIB) to wrists with less advanced disease (stage II/IIIA) following radius shortening osteotomy. METHODS This retrospective study enrolled 31 adult wrists (30 patients, mean age 39 years), treated by radius shortening osteotomy between two institutions for either stage IIIB (n=14) or stage II/IIIA (n=17) disease. Evaluation was carried out at a mean of 74 months (IIIB, 77 months; II/IIIA, 72 months). Radiographic assessment determined disease progression. Clinical outcomes were determined by validated patient-based and objective measures. RESULTS Patient-based outcome ratings of wrists treated for stage IIIB were similar to those with stage II/IIIA [QuickDASH (15 vs 12:p=.63), MMWS (84 vs 87:p=.59), VAS pain (1.2 vs 1.7:p=.45), VAS function (2.6 vs 2.1:p=.59)]. The average flexion/extension arc was 102° for wrists with stage IIIB and 106° for wrists with stage II/IIIA Kienbock’s (p=.70). Grip strength was 77% of the opposite side for stage IIIB wrists versus 85% for stage II/IIIA (p=.25). Postoperative carpal height ratio and radioscaphoid angle were worse (p<.05) for wrists treated for stage IIIB (0.46:65°) than stage II/IIIA (0.53:53°) disease. Radiographic disease progression occurred in 7 wrists (6 stage II/IIIA: 1 stage IIIB). The one stage IIIB wrist that progressed underwent wrist arthrodesis. CONCLUSIONS In this limited series, clinical outcomes of radius shortening using validated, patient-based assessment instruments and objective measures failed to demonstrate predicted “clinically relevant” differences between stage II/IIIA and IIIB Kienbock’s. Provided the high percentage successful clinical outcomes in this case series of 14 stage IIIB wrists, we believe that static carpal malalignment does not preclude radius shortening osteotomy. Level of Evidence IV; retrospective case series PMID:20971577

  8. Management of knee osteoarthritis by combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Nathan; Diamond, Rod; Sekyere, Eric O; Thomas, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis is associated with persistent joint pain, stiffness, joint deformities, ligament damage, and surrounding muscle atrophy. The complexity of the disease makes treatment difficult. There are no therapeutic drugs available to halt the disease progression, leaving patients dependent on pain medication, anti-inflammatory drugs, or invasive joint replacement surgery. Case presentations Four patients with a history of unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were investigated for the therapeutic outcome of combining an exercise rehabilitation program with intra-articular injections of autologous StroMed (ie, stromal vascular fraction cells concentrated by ultrasonic cavitation from lipoaspirate) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS) was administered along with physical function tests over a 12-month period. The first patient achieved a maximum therapeutic outcome of 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee), and 100 for four subscales (right knee). The second patient scored 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee), and greater than 84 in all subscales (right knee). Treatment of the third patient resulted in improved outcomes in both knees of >93 for four KOOS subscales, and 60 for the Function in Sport and Recreation subscale. The fourth patient improved to 100 in all five KOOS subscales. In all patients, the physical function “Get-up and Go” test and “Stair Climbing Test” returned to normal (a value of zero). Conclusion This case series indicates that improved outcomes may be obtained when autologous stromal vascular fraction (StroMed) cell therapy is combined with traditional exercise practices and PRP for osteoarthritis. Of the seven joints treated: all patients’ scores of pain improved to >96; and quality of life scores to >93. Functional performance measures of mobility returned to normal. This simple treatment appears to be extremely effective for osteoarthritis disorders that have no drug treatment to halt disease progression. PMID:26609244

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Chondrocyte Catabolism and Anabolism in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeonkyeong; Kang, Donghyun; Cho, Yongsik; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent forms of joint disorder, associated with a tremendous socioeconomic burden worldwide. Various non-genetic and lifestyle-related factors such as aging and obesity have been recognized as major risk factors for OA, underscoring the potential role for epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis of the disease. OA-associated epigenetic aberrations have been noted at the level of DNA methylation and histone modification in chondrocytes. These epigenetic regulations are implicated in driving an imbalance between the expression of catabolic and anabolic factors, leading eventually to osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. Cellular senescence and metabolic abnormalities driven by OA-associated risk factors appear to accompany epigenetic drifts in chondrocytes. Notably, molecular events associated with metabolic disorders influence epigenetic regulation in chondrocytes, supporting the notion that OA is a metabolic disease. Here, we review accumulating evidence supporting a role for epigenetics in the regulation of cartilage homeostasis and OA pathogenesis. PMID:26242192

  10. Establishment of a rat model for osteoarthritis resulting from anterior cruciate ligament rupture and its significance

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, XIAO; WANG, JIAN; HONG, SHI DONG; XIN, FENG; WANG, LIN; YANG, XIAO WEI; WANG, JING RONG; WANG, LI MING; WEI, BO; WANG, QING; CUI, WEI DING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of a model concerned with osteoarthritis resulting from the anterior cruciate ligament rupture of rats and investigate the associated mechanism, as well as provide a theoretical basis for clinical treatment of the disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups of 20 rats each and the anterior cruciate ligament transaction model and knee joint brake model were successfully established. Two rats in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group (10%) and 3 rats in the knee joint brake group (15.0%) died. The survival rate of the two groups was not statistically significant (?2<0.001, P=1.000). Swelling of the knee joint and synovium of rats in the two experimental groups was aggravated. The Mankin score was significantly higher in the anterior cruciate ligament transection group than that in the experimental group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, no significant difference was observed for osteoarthritis severity for the two experimental groups (P>0.05). Analysis of the subgroups showed that the proportion of the anterior cruciate ligament in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the knee joint brake group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, the difference was not statistically significant in the comparison of the medium and early proportion (P>0.05). The content of protein polysaccharide and II collagen fiber in the experimental group of the anterior cruciate ligament transection was lower than that of the knee joint brake group, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus the mechanism of osteoarthritis may be associated with the decrease in the content of protein and II collagen fibers. PMID:26668592

  11. Current interventions in the management of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Dinesh; Bejarano, Tatiana; Novo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is progressive joint disease characterized by joint inflammation and a reparative bone response and is one of the top five most disabling conditions that affects more than one-third of persons > 65 years of age, with an average estimation of about 30 million Americans currently affected by this disease. Global estimates reveal more than 100 million people are affected by OA. The financial expenditures for the care of persons with OA are estimated at a total annual national cost estimate of $15.5-$28.6 billion per year. As the number of people >65 years increases, so does the prevalence of OA and the need for cost-effective treatment and care. Developing a treatment strategy which encompasses the underlying physiology of degenerative joint disease is crucial, but it should be considerate to the different age ranges and different population needs. This paper focuses on different exercise and treatment protocols (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), the outcomes of a rehabilitation center, clinician-directed program versus an at home directed individual program to view what parameters are best at reducing pain, increasing functional independence, and reducing cost for persons diagnosed with knee OA. PMID:23559821

  12. Atomic force microscopy reveals age-dependent changes in nanomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of native human menisci: implications for joint degeneration and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeanie; Grogan, Shawn; Meckes, Brian; Arce, Fernando; Lal, Ratnesh; D’Lima, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the menisci become more susceptible to degeneration due to sustained mechanical stress accompanied by age-related changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the mechanistic relationship between age-related meniscal degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) development is not yet fully understood. We have examined the nanomechanical properties of the ECM of normal, aged, and degenerated human menisci using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nanomechanical profiles revealed a unique differential qualitative nanomechanical profile of healthy young tissue: prominent unimodal peaks in the elastic moduli distribution among three different regions (outer, middle, and inner). Healthy aged tissue showed similar differential elasticity for the three regions but with both unimodal and bimodal distributions that included higher elastic moduli. In contrast, degenerated OA tissue showed the broadest distribution without prominent peaks indicative of substantially increased heterogeneity in the ECM mechanical properties. AFM analysis reveals distinct regional nanomechanical profiles that underlie aging dependent tissue degeneration and OA. PMID:24972006

  13. Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: mechanics.

    PubMed

    Varady, N H; Grodzinsky, A J

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the conceptual framework of multi-scale biomechanics, this narrative review highlights recent major advances with a focus on gait and joint kinematics, then tissue-level mechanics, cell mechanics and mechanotransduction, matrix mechanics, and finally the nanoscale mechanics of matrix macromolecules. A literature review was conducted from January 2014 to April 2015 using PubMed to identify major developments in mechanics related to osteoarthritis (OA). Studies of knee adduction, flexion, rotation, and contact mechanics have extended our understanding of medial compartment loading. In turn, advances in measurement methodologies have shown how injuries to both the meniscus and ligaments, together, can alter joint kinematics. At the tissue scale, novel findings have emerged regarding the mechanics of the meniscus as well as cartilage superficial zone. Moving to the cell level, poroelastic and poro-viscoelastic mechanisms underlying chondrocyte deformation have been reported, along with the response to osmotic stress. Further developments have emerged on the role of calcium signaling in chondrocyte mechanobiology, including exciting findings on the function of mechanically activated cation channels newly found to be expressed in chondrocytes. Finally, AFM-based nano-rheology systems have enabled studies of thin murine tissues and brush layers of matrix molecules over a wide range of loading rates including high rates corresponding to impact injury. With OA acknowledged to be a disease of the joint as an organ, understanding mechanical behavior at each length scale helps to elucidate the connections between cell biology, matrix biochemistry and tissue structure/function that may play a role in the pathomechanics of OA. PMID:26707990

  14. Viscosupplementation for Osteoarthritis: a Primer for Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) constitutes a growing public health burden and the most common cause of disability in the United States. Non-pharmacologic modalities and conservative pharmacologic therapies are recommended for the initial treatment of OA, including acetaminophen, and topical and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, safety concerns continue to mount regarding the use of these treatments and none have been shown to impact disease progression. Viscosupplementation with injections of hyaluronans (HAs) are indicated when non-pharmacologic and simple analgesics have failed to relieve symptoms (e.g., pain, stiffness) associated with knee OA. This review evaluates literature focusing on the efficacy and/or safety of HA injections in treating OA of the knee and in other joints, including the hip, shoulder, and ankle. Methods Relevant literature on intra-articular (IA) HA injections as a treatment for OA pain in the knee and other joints was identified through PubMed database searches from inception until January 2013. Search terms included “hyaluronic acid” or “hylan”, and “osteoarthritis”. Discussion Current evidence indicates that HA injections are beneficial and safe for patients with OA of the knee. IA injections of HAs treat the symptoms of knee OA and may also have disease-modifying properties, potentially delaying progression of OA. Although traditionally reserved for second-line treatment, evidence suggests that HAs may have value as a first-line therapy in the treatment of knee OA as they have been shown to be more effective in earlier stages and grades of disease, more recently diagnosed OA, and in less severe radiographic OA. Conclusion For primary care physicians who treat and care for patients with OA of the knee, IA injection with HAs constitutes a safe and effective treatment that can be routinely administered in the office setting. PMID:24203348

  15. Patient education, disease activity and physical function: can we be more targeted? A cross sectional study among people with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and hand osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In order to target educational needs of patients more effectively, an Austrian-German educational needs assessment tool (OENAT) was developed, the educational needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were described and the relationships between educational needs, gender, disease activity and function were explored. Methods The English ENAT was adapted into Austrian-German using Beaton's cross-cultural adaptation process. Internal construct validity was assessed by Rasch analysis. Educational needs across diagnostic groups and subgroups of patients were summarized descriptively and their relationship with disease activity and physical functioning explored. Results The sample comprised 130 RA, 125 PsA and 48 HOA patients. Their mean ages ±?SD were 56?±?14, 51?±?11 and 64?±?7 years for RA, PsA and HOA; disease duration was 11?±?9, 11?±?11 and 14?±?9 years, respectively. More than 70% in each patient group expressed interest in receiving education about their disease. The educational needs differed significantly between women and men in all 3 groups. In RA and PsA, female patients expressed significantly higher educational needs than men in 'movements’ and 'feelings’ domains (p=0.04 and p=0.03 for RA and p<0.01 and p=0.01 for PsA). Female patients in the HOA group had significantly higher scores on all domains except for the 'movements’. Older patients with PsA scored significantly higher than their younger counterparts in the 'pain’ domain (p=0.05). RA patients with disease duration >5 years), expressed higher educational needs in 'movements’ (p<0.01). Educational background had effects in the PsA group only, patients with basic education had greater scores than those with higher education on 'movements’ and 'arthritis process’ (p=0.01). In the RA group, DAS28 correlated significantly with 'movements’ (r=0.24, p=0.01), 'feelings’ (r=0.22, p=0.02), and 'treatments’ (r=0.22, p=0.03). In the PsA group, all OENAT domains correlated with disease activity (DAPSA and CDAI). Conclusions This study showed that educational needs vary with personal characteristics. Patient education may be more targeted and effective, if gender, age, educational background and disease duration are taken into account. Correlations with disease activity and function suggest that the OENAT could enable identification of 'intervention points’, which can be ideal opportunities for effective patient education. PMID:24286444

  16. Pathology of the Calcified Zone of Articular Cartilage in Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Melissa; Molligan, Jeremy; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the pathology occurring at the calcified zone of articular cartilage (CZC) in the joints afflicted with post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Methods Rats underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and medial meniscectomy to induce PTOA. Sham surgery was performed on another five rats to serve as controls. The rats were euthanized after four weeks of surgery and tibial plateaus were dissected for histology. The pathology of PTOA, CZC area and the tidemark roughness at six pre-defined locations on the tibial plateaus were quantified by histomorphometry. Results PTOA developed in the knees, generally more severe at the medial plateau than the lateral plateau, of rats in the experimental group. The CZC area was unchanged in the PTOA joints, but the topographic variations of CZC areas that presented in the control knees were reduced in the PTOA joints. The tidemark roughness decreased in areas of the medial plateau of PTOA joints and that was inversely correlated with the Mankin’s score of PTOA pathology. Conclusion Reduced tidemark roughness and unchanged CZC area differentiate PTOA from primary osteoarthritis, which is generally believed to have the opposite pathology at CZC, and may contribute to the distinct disease progression of the two entities of arthropathy. PMID:25807537

  17. Chondrocyte Apoptosis in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Sook; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly-regulated, active process of cell death involved in development, homeostasis and aging. Dysregulation of apoptosis leads to pathological states, such as cancer, developmental anomalies and degenerative diseases. Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic joint disease in the elderly population, is characterized by progressive destruction of articular cartilage, resulting in significant disability. Because articular cartilage depends solely on its resident cells, the chondrocytes, for the maintenance of extracellular matrix, the compromising of chondrocyte function and survival would lead to the failure of the articular cartilage. The role of subchondral bone in the maintenance of proper cartilage matrix has been suggested as well, and it has been proposed that both articular cartilage and subchondral bone interact with each other in the maintenance of articular integrity and physiology. Some investigators include both articular cartilage and subchondral bone as targets for repairing joint degeneration. In late-stage OA, the cartilage becomes hypocellular, often accompanied by lacunar emptying, which has been considered as evidence that chondrocyte death is a central feature in OA progression. Apoptosis clearly occurs in osteoarthritic cartilage; however, the relative contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of OA is difficult to evaluate, and contradictory reports exist on the rate of apoptotic chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage. It is not clear whether chondrocyte apoptosis is the inducer of cartilage degeneration or a byproduct of cartilage destruction. Chondrocyte death and matrix loss may form a vicious cycle, with the progression of one aggravating the other, and the literature reveals that there is a definite correlation between the degree of cartilage damage and chondrocyte apoptosis. Because current treatments for OA act only on symptoms and do not prevent or cure OA, chondrocyte apoptosis would be a valid target to modulate cartilage degeneration. PMID:26528972

  18. Chondrocyte Apoptosis in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun Sook; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly-regulated, active process of cell death involved in development, homeostasis and aging. Dysregulation of apoptosis leads to pathological states, such as cancer, developmental anomalies and degenerative diseases. Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic joint disease in the elderly population, is characterized by progressive destruction of articular cartilage, resulting in significant disability. Because articular cartilage depends solely on its resident cells, the chondrocytes, for the maintenance of extracellular matrix, the compromising of chondrocyte function and survival would lead to the failure of the articular cartilage. The role of subchondral bone in the maintenance of proper cartilage matrix has been suggested as well, and it has been proposed that both articular cartilage and subchondral bone interact with each other in the maintenance of articular integrity and physiology. Some investigators include both articular cartilage and subchondral bone as targets for repairing joint degeneration. In late-stage OA, the cartilage becomes hypocellular, often accompanied by lacunar emptying, which has been considered as evidence that chondrocyte death is a central feature in OA progression. Apoptosis clearly occurs in osteoarthritic cartilage; however, the relative contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of OA is difficult to evaluate, and contradictory reports exist on the rate of apoptotic chondrocytes in osteoarthritic cartilage. It is not clear whether chondrocyte apoptosis is the inducer of cartilage degeneration or a byproduct of cartilage destruction. Chondrocyte death and matrix loss may form a vicious cycle, with the progression of one aggravating the other, and the literature reveals that there is a definite correlation between the degree of cartilage damage and chondrocyte apoptosis. Because current treatments for OA act only on symptoms and do not prevent or cure OA, chondrocyte apoptosis would be a valid target to modulate cartilage degeneration. PMID:26528972

  19. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yun Ju; Joo, Young Bin; Jung, Young Ok; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Oh, Hye Jwa; Jhun, Joo Youn; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Jin Sil; Kang, Chang Min; Sung, Mi Sook; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1? and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA. PMID:21795829

  1. Predicting Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Bruce S; Woodhouse, Francis G; Besier, Thor F; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Lloyd, David G; Zhang, Lihai; Smith, David W

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA) beyond pain relief or total knee replacement are very limited. Because of this, attention has shifted to identifying which factors increase the risk of OA in vulnerable populations in order to be able to give recommendations to delay disease onset or to slow disease progression. The gold standard is then to use principles of risk management, first to provide subject-specific estimates of risk and then to find ways of reducing that risk. Population studies of OA risk based on statistical associations do not provide such individually tailored information. Here we argue that mechanistic models of cartilage tissue maintenance and damage coupled to statistical models incorporating model uncertainty, united within the framework of structural reliability analysis, provide an avenue for bridging the disciplines of epidemiology, cell biology, genetics and biomechanics. Such models promise subject-specific OA risk assessment and personalized strategies for mitigating or even avoiding OA. We illustrate the proposed approach with a simple model of cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis and loss regulated by daily physical activity. PMID:26206679

  2. Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease Past ... knees, pain plagued her every step. Living in New York City, Saisselin relied on walking and public ...

  3. Automated Quantitative Histomorphometry in Osteoarthritis

    E-print Network

    (degenerative joint disease), part of the research includes test on mice which spontaneously develop the disease. The module implements the described measurement methods and end points. A semi-automatic solution embeds

  4. Immediate Effects of an Elastic Knee Sleeve on Frontal Plane Gait Biomechanics in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Schween, Raphael; Gehring, Dominic; Gollhofer, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis of the knee affects millions of people. Elastic knee sleeves aim at relieving symptoms. While symptomatic improvements have been demonstrated as a consequence of elastic knee sleeves, evidence for biomechanical alterations only exists for the sagittal plane. We therefore asked what effect an elastic knee sleeve would have on frontal plane gait biomechanics. Methods 18 subjects (8 women, 10 men) with osteoarthritis of the medial tibiofemoral joint walked over ground with and without an elastic knee sleeve. Kinematics and forces were recorded and joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach. Conditions with sleeve and without sleeve were compared with paired t-Tests. Results With the sleeve, knee adduction angle at ground contact was reduced by 1.9±2.1° (P = 0.006). Peak knee adduction was reduced by 1.5±1.6° (P = 0.004). The first peak knee adduction moment and positive knee adduction impulse were decreased by 10.1% (0.74±0.9 Nm•kg-1; P = 0.002) and 12.9% (0.28±0.3 Nm•s•kg-1; P < 0.004), respectively. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that wearing an elastic knee sleeve during walking can reduce knee adduction angles, moments and impulse in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. As a higher knee adduction moment has previously been identified as a risk factor for disease progression in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, we speculate that wearing a knee sleeve may be beneficial for this specific subgroup. PMID:25621488

  5. Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712

  6. mTOR: a potential therapeutic target in osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Pal, Bandna; Endisha, Helal; Zhang, Yue; Kapoor, Mohit

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage, remodeling of the subchondral bone, and synovial inflammation. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that controls critical cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, and protein synthesis. Recent studies suggest that mTOR plays a vital role in cartilage growth and development and in altering the articular cartilage homeostasis as well as contributing to the process of cartilage degeneration associated with OA. Both pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of mTOR have been shown to reduce the severity of OA in preclinical mouse models. In this review article, we discuss the roles of mTOR in cartilage development, in maintaining articular cartilage homeostasis, and its potential as an OA therapeutic target. PMID:25688060

  7. MicroRNAs: Important Epigenetic Regulators in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Tomasz; Czarny-Ratajczak, Malwina

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms are implicated in the development of primary osteoarthritis (OA), in which genetic and epigenetic factors appear to interact with environmental factors and age to initiate the disease and stimulate its progression. Changes in expression of microRNAs (miRs) contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Numerous miRs are involved in cartilage development, homeostasis and degradation through targeting genes expressed in this tissue. An important regulator of gene expression in human cartilage is miR-140, which directly targets a gene coding aggrecanase ADAMTS-5, that cleaves aggrecan in cartilage. This miR is considered a biological marker for cartilage and its level significantly decreases in OA cartilage. On the other hand, increased expression of miR-146a in early OA inhibits two other cartilage-degrading enzymes: MMP13 and ADAMTS4, and may provide a useful tool in developing treatments for OA. The COL2A1 gene, encoding collagen type II, which is the most abundant structural protein of the cartilage, is silenced by miR-34a and activated by miR-675. Every year, new targets of cartilage miRs are validated experimentally and this opens new possibilities for new therapies that control joint destruction and stimulate cartilage repair. At the same time development of next-generation sequencing technologies allows to identify new miRs involved in cartilage biology. PMID:25598697

  8. Homeostatic Mechanisms in Articular Cartilage and Role of Inflammation in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Houard, Xavier; Goldring, Mary B.; Berenbaum, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole joint disease, in which thinning and disappearance of cartilage is a critical determinant in OA progression. The rupture of cartilage homeostasis whatever its cause: aging, genetic predisposition, trauma or metabolic disorder, induces profound phenotypic modifications of chondrocytes, which then promote the synthesis of a subset of factors that induce cartilage damage and target other joint tissues. Interestingly, among these factors are numerous components of the inflammatory pathways. Chondrocytes produce cytokines, chemokines, alarmins, prostanoids and adipokines and express numerous cell surface receptors for cytokines and chemokines, as well as toll-like receptors. These receptors activate intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammatory and stress responses of chondrocytes in OA joints. This review focuses on mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of cartilage homeostasis and highlights the role of inflammatory processes in OA progression. PMID:24072604

  9. Post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis in the young patient: therapeutic dilemmas and emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Stiebel, Matthew; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic knee injury is common in young adults and strongly contributes to premature development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Post-traumatic knee OA poses a therapeutic dilemma to the physician, since no known therapy has an acceptable safety profile, effectively relieves joint pain, and enjoys reasonable patient acceptance. Consequently, these young patients will ultimately be faced with the decision to either undergo surgical intervention, despite prosthesis durability concerns, or to continue with ineffective nonsurgical treatment. Emerging therapies, such as biologics, disease-modifying drugs, partial joint resurfacings, and minimally invasive joint-unloading implants are currently being studied to fill this therapeutic void in the young patient with post-traumatic knee OA. PMID:24744616

  10. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Print Bookmark Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized ... is also often found in the midfoot and ankle. Causes Osteoarthritis is considered a “wear and tear” ...

  11. Pharmacology of drugs used to treat osteoarthritis in veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Lees, Peter

    2003-01-01

    As in humans, pain in animals may be associated with a wide range of conditions and circumstances, ranging from acute trauma to joint diseases. Joint diseases are common in companion animal medicine (horse, dog, cat) and at least 80% of cases are classified as osteoarthritis (OA). Several drug classes are available for OA therapy, including corticosteroids, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), agents with potential disease modifying properties and nutraceuticals. For long-term maintenance OA treatment, particularly in the horse and dog, NSAIDs are routinely and extensively used. This review outlines the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of NSAIDs in companion and farm animal species. NSAID PK and PD have been studied in models of acute inflammation, which enable use of PK-PD modeling to facilitate (a) studies of mechanism of action at the molecular level and (b) prediction of dosages for clinical use. The PK-PD approach is a powerful but underutilized tool which also facilitates inter-species comparisons. PMID:15035792

  12. Cyclic phosphatidic acid relieves osteoarthritis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. Natural cPA and its chemically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), inhibit chronic and acute inflammation, and 2ccPA attenuates neuropathic pain. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease frequently associated with symptoms such as inflammation and joint pain. Because 2ccPA has obvious antinociceptive activity, we hypothesized that 2ccPA might relieve the pain caused by OA. We aimed to characterize the effects of 2ccPA on the pathogenesis of OA induced by total meniscectomy in the rabbit knee joint. Results Intra-articular injection of 2ccPA (twice a week for 42 days) significantly reduced pain and articular swelling. Histopathology showed that 2ccPA suppressed cartilage degeneration in OA. We also examined the effects of 2ccPA on the inflammatory and catabolic responses of human OA synoviocytes and chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells in vitro. 2ccPA stimulated synthesis of hyaluronic acid and suppressed production of the metalloproteinases MMP-1, -3, and -13. However, it had no effect on the production of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine. The suppressive effect of 2ccPA on MMP-1 and -3 production in synoviocytes and on MMP-13 production in SW1353 cells was not mediated by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor, LPA1 receptor (LPA1R). Conclusions Our results suggest that 2ccPA significantly reduces the pain response to OA by inducing hyaluronic acid production and suppressing MMP-1, -3, and -13 production in synoviocytes and chondrocytes. PMID:25123228

  13. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Elaine W.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D.; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A.; Giles, Graham G.; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Guymer, Robyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003–2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001–2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25–12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be due to an increased prevalence of fractures in those with poor central vision associated with the late complications of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26355683

  14. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be due to an increased prevalence of fractures in those with poor central vision associated with the late complications of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26355683

  15. Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Uthman, I; Raynauld, J; Haraoui, B

    2003-01-01

    The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

  16. Role of gold nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles for chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Nayak, Vijayashree; Kowshik, Meenal

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is a disease which is characterized by joint pain, swelling and stiffness. Articular cartilage has limited self-repair capacity due to its avascular and aneural nature. In this work, we show the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) for enhancing the delivery of chondroitin sulfate (CS), a drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). AuNps were synthesized and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-Ray diffraction analysis. AuNps were combined with CS (AuNps-CS) and their effect on primary goat chondrocytes was studied using MTT assay, Hoechst staining, production of glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Cell viability studies by MTT revealed that AuNps-CS stimulate cell proliferation. A two-fold increase in GAG and collagen production was observed in presence of AuNps-CS combination as compared to native CS, indicating that this combination stimulates chondrocyte proliferation and enhances extracellular matrix production (ECM). Hence, this study exhibits the potential of AuNps as a carrier of CS for treatment of osteoarthritis. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:1416-1422, 2015. PMID:26193993

  17. Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Ebnezar, John; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Yogitha, Bali; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35–80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, relaxation, pranayama and meditation. The control group had physiotherapy exercises. Assessments were done on 15th (post 1) and 90th day (post 2). Results: Resting pain (numerical rating scale) reduced better (P<0.001, Mann–Whitney U test) in yoga group (post 1=33.6% and post 2=71.8%) than control group (post 1=13.4% and post 2=37.5%). Morning stiffness decreased more (P<0.001) in yoga (post 1=68.6% and post 2=98.1%) than control group (post 1=38.6% and post 2=71.6%). State anxiety (STAI-1) reduced (P<0.001) by 35.5% (post 1) and 58.4% (post 2) in the yoga group and 15.6% (post 1) and 38.8% (post 2) in the control group; trait anxiety (STAI 2) reduced (P<0.001) better (post 1=34.6% and post 2=57.10%) in yoga than control group (post 1=14.12% and post 2=34.73%). Systolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?7.93% and post 2=?15.7%) than the control group (post 1=?1.8% and post 2=?3.8%). Diastolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?7.6% and post 2=?16.4%) than the control group (post 1=?2.1% and post 2=?5.0%). Pulse rate reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?8.41% and post 2=?12.4%) than the control group (post 1=?5.1% and post 2=?7.1%). Conclusion: Integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than physiotherapy exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in reducing pain, morning stiffness, state and trait anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate in patients with OA knees. PMID:22346063

  18. Effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rashmi R.; More, Amar S.; Gupta, Gaurav; Lingaraju, Madhu C.; Balaganur, Venkanna; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Anil K.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by joint pain and progressive loss of articular cartilage. Entada pursaetha has been traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory disease, liver ailment, etc. In this study we investigated suppressive effect of ethanolic extract of E. pursaetha (EPE) on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis pain and disease progression by histopathological changes in joints in a rat model. Methods: OA was induced in right knee of rat by intra-articular injection of 3 mg of MIA and characterized by pathological progression of disease and pain of affected joint. Spontaneous movements, mechanical, thermal and cold sensitivity were monitored at days 0 (before drug and MIA injection), 7, 14 and 21 of MIA administration. EPE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg), vehicle or etoricoxib (10 mg/kg; reference drug) were administered daily for 21 days by oral route. Results: EPE at various doses significantly reduced mechanical, heat, cold hyperalgesia and increased the horizontal and vertical movements in intra-articular MIA injected rats. EPE prevented the damage to cartilage structure and reduced the cellular abnormalities. Articular cartilage of rats treated with EPE at 300 mg/kg group was almost normal with well-developed smooth surface and chondrocytes were distributed individually or arranged in column. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that the EPE was not only able to mitigate pain and hyperalgesia but also inhibited MIA-induced cartilage degeneration in vivo. EPE may have the potential to become therapeutic modality in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, further studies need to be done to confirm these findings in other models and clinical trials. PMID:26112847

  19. Association of hip pain with radiographic evidence of hip osteoarthritis: diagnostic test study

    PubMed Central

    Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Clancy, Mary M; Lane, Nancy E; Link, Thomas M; Vlad, Steven; Tolstykh, Irina; Jungmann, Pia M.; Felson, David T; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is there concordance between hip pain and radiographic hip osteoarthritis? Methods In this diagnostic test study, pelvic radiographs were assessed for hip osteoarthritis in two cohorts: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study (community of Framingham, Massachusetts) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (a multicenter longitudinal cohort study of osteoarthritis in the United States). Using visual representation of the hip joint, participants reported whether they had hip pain on most days and the location of the pain: anterior, groin, lateral, buttocks, or low back. In the Framingham study, participants with hip pain were also examined for hip pain with internal rotation. The authors analysed the agreement between radiographic hip osteoarthritis and hip pain, and for those with hip pain suggestive of hip osteoarthritis they calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiographs as the diagnostic test. Study answer and limitations In the Framingham study (n=946), only 15.6% of hips in patients with frequent hip pain showed radiographic evidence of hip osteoarthritis, and 20.7% of hips with radiographic hip osteoarthritis were frequently painful. The sensitivity of radiographic hip osteoarthritis for hip pain localised to the groin was 36.7%, specificity 90.5%, positive predictive value 6.0%, and negative predictive value 98.9%. Results did not differ much for hip pain at other locations or for painful internal rotation. In the Osteoarthritis Initiative study (n=4366), only 9.1% of hips in patients with frequent pain showed radiographic hip osteoarthritis, and 23.8% of hips with radiographic hip osteoarthritis were frequently painful. The sensitivity of definite radiographic hip osteoarthritis for hip pain localised to the groin was 16.5%, specificity 94.0%, positive predictive value 7.1%, and negative predictive value 97.6%. Results also did not differ much for hip pain at other locations. What this study adds Hip pain was not present in many hips with radiographic osteoarthritis, and many hips with pain did not show radiographic hip osteoarthritis. Most older participants with a high suspicion for clinical hip osteoarthritis (groin or anterior pain and/or painful internal rotation) did not have radiographic hip osteoarthritis, suggesting that in many cases, hip osteoarthritis might be missed if diagnosticians relied solely on hip radiographs. Funding, competing interests, data sharing See the full paper on thebmj.com for funding. The authors have no competing interests. Additional data are available from bevochan@bu.edu. PMID:26631296

  20. Management of osteoarthritis in the primary-care setting: an evidence-based approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Lane, N E; Thompson, J M

    1997-12-29

    The most prevalent musculoskeletal condition that results in joint pain is osteoarthritis (OA), with nearly 70% of the population >65 years of age demonstrating radiographic evidence of this disease. The knee is the joint commonly affected. Therapy for OA of the knee is directed at decreasing joint pain and increasing function and includes both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Pharmacologic therapy begins with analgesic medications and proceeds to topical analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as needed. Intra-articular injections of corticosteroids can relieve pain and inflammation but the effect is of very short duration and such therapy should only be employed infrequently. Nonpharmacologic therapy should include patient education, weight loss if clinically indicated, physical therapy directed at maintaining joint mobility and strengthening muscle groups or an organized low-impact exercise program, and assistive devices as needed. Total joint replacement appears to be a successful therapy when joint pain severely limits a patient's ability to function. Experimental therapies to modify pain and function in OA patients include intra-articular injections of hyaluronan or arthroscopic joint lavage and debridement. In summary, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures can contribute to the treatment of pain from OA of the knee. PMID:9455966

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of B and E Vitamins with Diclofenac in Reducing Pain Due to Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders. Several pharmacological and non pharmacological approaches are used to treat this disease. Today, the effect of B and E vitamins on rheumatology diseases is being discussed. In this study, the efficacy of B and E vitamins accompanied with diclofenac on pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis was investigated and compared. Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients with knee osteoarthritis referring training Rheumatology and Orthopedics Clinic of Shahrekord University of Medical sciences were investigated. Of these patients, 12 were excluded throughout the study. The patients underwent treatment in three groups (oral diclofenac + oral B vitamin, oral diclofenac + oral vitamin E, and oral diclofenac + placebo). Pain relief was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire and morning stiffness and physical function were assessed by WOMAC standard questionnaire at three times; the first examination, two weeks, and three weeks after referring. Results: The mean score of WOMAC questionnaire at VASs of knee pain, total pain severity, knee joint stiffness, and function of the last 48 hours decreased significantly in all three groups (diclofenac, E and B vitamins) from the first to third examination (P<0.001). Decrease in VAS of knee pain and function of the last 48 hours was higher in B vitamin group than the diclofenac and E vitamin group (P=0.008) and decrease in total pain severity was reported higher in B vitamin group than E vitamin and diclofenac group (P=0.019). Decrease in knee joint stiffness underwent a similar trend in the three groups. Conclusion: In view similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as very few, non prevalent complications of B and E vitamins, use of two or more drugs with a different mechanism of effect seems necessary to enhance their effect on osteoarthritis treatment. PMID:26005259

  2. [Dissertations 25 years after date 28. Degenerative diseases of the temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    de Bont, L G M

    2011-09-01

    In 1985, the dissertation 'Temporomandibular joint. Articular cartilage structure and function' was published. Much was known at the time concerning the (clinical) pathogenesis of osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibuIar joint, the associated radiographical characteristics and the results of non-surgical treatment. Little was known, however, concerning the processes that lead to the loss of bone tissue and other degenerative changes. The current idea that osteoarthrosis was histopathologically characterized by defects in the joint surfaces did not seem to apply to temporomandibular joints. In temporomandibular joints, the phenomenon was recognized of degenerative changes in the deeper layers of the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone, while the articular surface could be microscopically intact. A dislocated articular disc was seen as part of the disease osteoarthrosis. Clear insight into the origins of osteoarthrosis was not achieved. PMID:21957640

  3. Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Daniel J.; Choudhury, Marwa; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals—food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease—offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment. PMID:24284399

  4. Joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease and their assessment

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Pidala, Joseph; Chai, Xiaoyu; Kurland, Brenda F.; Weisdorf, Daniel; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Palmer, Jeanne; Arai, Sally; Jacobsohn, David; Cutler, Corey; Jagasia, Madan; Goldberg, Jenna D.; Martin, Paul J.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Carpenter, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation need to be assessed reliably, simply and in a clinically meaningful way. Methods In a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (n=567), we evaluated 3 scales proposed for assessing joint status: National Institutes of Health (NIH) joint/fascia scale, Hopkins fascia scale and the Photographic Range of Motion (P-ROM) scale. Ten other scales were also tested for assessing symptoms, quality of life and physical functions. Results Joint and fascia manifestations were present at study enrollment in 164 (29%) patients. Limited range of motion was most frequent at wrists or fingers. Among the 3 joint scales, changes in the NIH scale correlated with both clinician and patient-perceived improvement of joint and fascia manifestations with higher sensitivity than the Hopkins fascia scale. Changes in all 3 scales correlated with clinician and patient-perceived worsening but the P-ROM scale was the most sensitive in this regard. Onset of joint and fascia manifestations was not associated with subsequent mortality. Conclusion Joint and fascia manifestations are common and should be assessed carefully in patients with chronic GVHD. Our results support the use of the NIH joint/fascia scale and P-ROM scale to assess joint and fascia manifestations. The NIH scale better captures improvement, while the P-ROM scale better captures worsening. The utility of these scales could also be tested in the rheumatic diseases. PMID:24757155

  5. Factors that may mediate the relationship between physical activity and the risk for developing knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, Donna M; Soufan, Cathy; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Wluka, Anita E; Hanna, Fahad; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of physical activity on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported conflicting results. We examine evidence to suggest that this may be due to the existence of subgroups of individuals who differ in their response to physical activity, as well as methodological issues associated with the assessment of knee joint structure and physical activity. Recommendations for future studies of physical activity and the development of knee osteoarthritis are discussed. PMID:18279536

  6. Menisectomized miniature Vietnamese pigs develop articular cartilage pathology resembling osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Raymundo; Ramírez, Carmen; Rojas, Oscar I; Casas-Mejía, Oscar; Kouri, Juan B; Vega-López, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    Animal models have been used to understand the basic biology of osteoarthritis (OA) and have helped to identify new candidate biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Small animals cannot sufficiently mimic human diseases; therefore, large animal models are needed. Pigs have been used as models for human diseases because they are similar to humans in terms of their anatomy, physiology and genome. Hence, we analyzed articular cartilage and synovial membrane pathology in miniature Vietnamese pigs after a unilateral partial menisectomy and 20-day exercise regimen to determine if the pigs developed pathological characteristics similar to human OA. Histological and protein expression analysis of articular cartilage from menisectomized pigs revealed the following pathologic changes resembling OA: fibrillation, fissures, chondrocyte cluster formation, decrease in proteoglycan content and upregulation of the OA-associated proteins MMP-3, MMP-13, procaspase-3 and IL-1?. Moreover, histological analysis of synovial membrane revealed mild synovitis, characterized by hyperplasia, cell infiltration and neoangiogenesis. Pathological changes were not observed in the contralateral joints or the joints of sham-operated pigs. Further studies are required to validate such an OA model; however, our results can encourage the use of pigs to study early stages of OA physiopathology. Based on their similarities to humans, pigs may be useful for preclinical studies to identify new candidate biomarkers and novel treatments for OA. PMID:26296921

  7. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.E.; Bloch, D.A.; Jones, H.H.; Marshall, W.H. Jr.; Wood, P.D.; Fries, J.F.

    1986-03-07

    Forty-one long-distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact (running) with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status. A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. Runners, both male and female, have approximately 40% more bone mineral than matched controls. Female runners, but not male runners, appear to have somewhat more sclerosis and spur formation in spine and weight-bearing knee x-ray films, but not in hand x-ray films. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

  8. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  9. A comparison of radiographic, arthroscopic and histological measures of articular pathology in the canine elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Goldhammer, Marc A; Smith, Sionagh H; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Clements, Dylan N

    2010-10-01

    Validation of radiographic and arthroscopic scoring of joint pathology requires their comparison with histological measures of disease from the same joint. Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a naturally occurring disease of the canine elbow joint that results in osteoarthritis, and the objectives of this study were to compare the severity of histopathological changes in the medial coronoid process (MCP) and medial articular synovial membrane with gross radiographic scoring of elbow joint osteophytosis and the arthroscopic assessment of the MCP articular cartilage surface. Radiographic scoring of osteophytosis and the arthroscopic scoring of visual cartilage pathology of the MCP correlated moderately well with the histopathological evaluation of cartilage damage on the MCP and synovial inflammation in the medial part of the joint, but not with bone pathology in the MCP. Marked cartilage pathology on the MCP was identified in joints with either no radiographic evidence of osteophytosis or with mild cartilage damage that was evident arthroscopically. PMID:19716324

  10. Biological Basis for the Use of Botanicals in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip is a debilitating disease affecting more women than men and the risk of developing OA increases precipitously with aging. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common form of inflammatory joint diseases, is a disease of unknown etiology and affects ?1% of the population worldwide, and unlike OA, generally involves many joints because of the systemic nature of the disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the first drugs of choice for the symptomatic treatment of both OA and RA. Because of the risks associated with the use of NSAIDs and other limitations, the use of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and medicinal herbs, is on the rise and according to reports ?60–90% of dissatisfied arthritis patients are likely to seek the option of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper reviews the efficacy of some of the common herbs that have a history of human use and their anti-inflammatory or antiarthritic properties have been evaluated in animal models of inflammatory arthritis, in studies employing well defined and widely accepted in vitro models that use human chondrocytes/cartilage explants or in clinical trials. Available data suggests that the extracts of most of these herbs or compounds derived from them may provide a safe and effective adjunctive therapeutic approach for the treatment of OA and RA. This, in turn, argues for trials to establish efficacy and optimum dosage of these compounds for treating human inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases. PMID:16136208

  11. Radiological and Radionuclide Imaging of Degenerative Disease of the Facet Joints

    PubMed Central

    Shur, Natalie; Corrigan, Alexis; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Desai, Amidevi; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    The facet joint has been increasingly implicated as a potential source of lower back pain. Diagnosis can be challenging as there is not a direct correlation between facet joint disease and clinical or radiological features. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, treatment, and current imaging modality options in the context of degenerative facet joint disease. We describe each modality in turn with a pictorial review using current evidence. Newer hybrid imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provide additional information relative to the historic gold standard magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnostic benefits of SPECT/CT include precise localization and characterization of spinal lesions and improved diagnosis for lower back pain. It may have a role in selecting patients for local therapeutic injections, as well as guiding their location with increased precision. PMID:26170560

  12. Association of interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (rs1800796) with severity and functional status of osteoarthritis in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcos T P; Fernandes, Karen B P; Marquez, Audrey S; Cólus, Ilce M S; Souza, Marilesia F; Santos, João Paulo M; Poli-Frederico, Regina C

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent disease of the musculoskeletal system and it has an important genetic component. Despite several reports have shown the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin-1? and TNF-?, the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in osteoarthritis is still unclear. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphism in the portion -572 of the promoter region of the IL6 gene (SNP -572G/C) with hip and knee OA in the elderly. In this case-control study, 257 physically independent elderly were recruited (case group: 92 individuals with osteoarthritis and control group: 165 individuals with no osteoarthritis). Blood samples were collected from patients for the DNA fragments extraction and amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by TaqMan system for subsequent genotyping of IL6 gene. The degree of joint damage was assessed by radiographic classification based on the criteria of Kellgren and Lawrence. The functional status was evaluated by Lequesne and WOMAC questionnaires. It was observed that individuals carrying the C allele have lower susceptibility to osteoarthritis (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.32-0.80, p=0.004) and less radiological impairment for both hip (Fisher-Freeman-Halton test=4.2 and p=0.04) and knee joints (Fisher-Freeman-Halton test=4.7 and p=0.03). Regarding functional status, individuals carrying the C allele has a lower degree of functional impairment assessed by WOMAC (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.04), although no difference was observed in the Lequesne questionnaire (p>0.05). Additionally, it was observed a marked reduction in IL-6 serum levels in individuals with GC and CC genotypes when compared to individuals harboring GG genotype. In conclusion, the polymorphism -572G/C IL6 is a protective factor for the presence and severity of hip and knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Further prospective studies with large sample size and methods (e.g. effect of this polymorphism on gene expression, haplotype analysis for IL-6 promoter polymorphism) are needed to validate this study findings. PMID:26233477

  13. Complementary therapies for osteoarthritis: are they effective?

    PubMed

    Shengelia, Rouzi; Parker, Samantha J; Ballin, Mary; George, Teena; Reid, M Carrington

    2013-12-01

    Increasing interest has focused on complementary management modalities, including tai chi, acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy, as treatments for osteoarthritis (OA). This review article synthesizes evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) that examined one or more of the above as treatments for OA. Medline, Pubmed, and Cinahl databases were searched to identify English-language articles using an RCT design or that conducted a SR of published studies and presented data on symptom or functional outcomes. Two authors independently abstracted relevant information (e.g., study sample, intervention characteristics, treatment effects, safety data). Retained articles (n = 29) included those that evaluated tai chi (8 RCTs, 2 SRs), acupuncture (11 RCTs, 4 SRs), yoga (2 RCTs), and massage therapy (2 RCTs). Available evidence indicates that tai chi, acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy are safe for use by individuals with OA. Positive short-term (?6 months) effects in the form of reduced pain and improved self-reported physical functioning were found for all 4 treatments. Limited information exists regarding the relative effectiveness of the therapies (e.g., yoga vs. tai chi vs. acupuncture), as well as treatment effects in persons with joint involvement besides the knee and in distinct patient subgroups (e.g., older vs. younger adults, persons with mild vs. moderate vs. advanced disease). Complementary therapies can reduce pain and improve function in adults with OA. Research is needed to evaluate long-term benefits of the treatments, as well as their relative effects among diverse patient subgroups. PMID:24315281

  14. Development of an Equine Groove Model to Induce Metacarpophalangeal Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study on 6 Horses

    PubMed Central

    Maninchedda, Ugo; Lepage, Olivier M.; Gangl, Monika; Hilairet, Sandrine; Remandet, Bernard; Meot, Francoise; Penarier, Geraldine; Segard, Emilie; Cortez, Pierre; Jorgensen, Christian; Steinberg, Régis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an equine metacarpophalangeal joint model that induces osteoarthritis that is not primarily mediated by instability or inflammation. The study involved six Standardbred horses. Standardized cartilage surface damage or “grooves” were created arthroscopically on the distal dorsal aspect of the lateral and medial metacarpal condyles of a randomly chosen limb. The contralateral limb was sham operated. After 2 weeks of stall rest, horses were trotted 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks, then evaluated for lameness and radiographed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for cytology and biomarkers. At 10 weeks post-surgery, horses were euthanized for macroscopic and histologic joint evaluation. Arthroscopic grooving allowed precise and identical damage to the cartilage of all animals. Under the controlled exercise regime, this osteoarthritis groove model displayed significant radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic degenerative and reactive changes. Histology demonstrated consistent surgically induced grooves limited to non-calcified cartilage and accompanied by secondary adjacent cartilage lesions, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage matrix softening, fissuring, mild subchondral bone inflammation, edema, and osteoblastic margination. Synovial fluid biochemistry and cytology demonstrated significantly elevated total protein without an increase in prostaglandin E2, neutrophils, or chondrocytes. This equine metacarpophalangeal groove model demonstrated that standardized non-calcified cartilage damage accompanied by exercise triggered altered osteochondral morphology and cartilage degeneration with minimal or inefficient repair and little inflammatory response. This model, if validated, would allow for assessment of disease processes and the effects of therapy. PMID:25680102

  15. Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Honsawek, Sittisak

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most commonly occurring in the ageing population. It is a slow progressive condition resulting in the destruction of hyaline cartilage followed by pain and reduced activity. Conventional treatments have little effects on the progression of the condition often leaving surgery as the last option. In the last 10 years tissue engineering utilising mesenchymal stem cells has been emerging as an alternative method for treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells found in various tissues, most commonly bone marrow and adipose tissue. MSCs are capable of differentiating into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Autologous MSCs can be easily harvested and applied in treatment, but allogenic cells can also be employed. The early uses of MSCs focused on the implantations of cell rich matrixes during open surgeries, resulting in the formation of hyaline-like durable cartilage. More recently, the focus has completely shifted towards direct intra-articular injections where a great number of cells are suspended and injected into affected joints. In this review the history and early uses of MSCs in cartilage regeneration are reviewed and different approaches in current trends are explained and evaluated. PMID:25548573

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wyles, Cody C; Houdek, Matthew T; Behfar, Atta; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics. PMID:26357483

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Cody C; Houdek, Matthew T; Behfar, Atta; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics. PMID:26357483

  18. Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: clinical.

    PubMed

    Sharma, L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight clinical research in osteoarthritis (OA). A literature search was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) with the search terms "osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND treatment [All Fields]" and the following limits activated: humans, English language, all adult 19+ years, published between April 1, 2014 and April 1, 2015. A second literature search was then conducted with the search terms "osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND epidemiology [All Fields]", with the same limits. Reports of surgical outcome, case series, surgical technique, tissue sample or culture studies, trial protocols, and pilot studies were excluded. Of 1523, 150 were considered relevant. Among epidemiologic and observational clinical studies, themes included physical activity, early knee OA, and confidence/instability/falls. Symptom outcomes of pharmacologic treatments were reported for methotrexate, adalimumab, anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibodies, strontium ranelate, bisphosphonates, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate, and structural outcomes of pharmacologic treatments for strontium ranelate, recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18, and glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Symptom outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for: neuromuscular exercise, quadriceps strengthening, weight reduction and maintenance, TENS, therapeutic ultrasound, stepped care strategies, cognitive behavior therapy for sleep disturbance, acupuncture, gait modification, booster physical therapy, a web-based therapeutic exercise resource center for knee OA; hip physical therapy for hip OA; and joint protection and hand exercises for hand OA. Structure outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for patellofemoral bracing. PMID:26707991

  19. Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease that has a major impact on joint function and quality of life. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements derived from herbs have long been used in traditional medicine and there is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals may play an important role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the biological effects of some medicinal fruits and herbs – pomegranate, green tea, cat’s claw, devil’s claw, ginger, Indian olibaum, turmeric and ananas – in an attempt to understand the pivotal molecular targets involved in inflammation and the joint destruction process and to summarize their toxicities and efficacy for OA management. So far there is insufficient reliable evidence on the effectiveness of ginger, turmeric and ananas. Pomegranate and green tea only have preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. In vivo and clinical studies are required to understand their targets and efficacy in OA. Limited in vitro and in vivo evidence is available for cat’s claw and Indian olibaum. More extensive studies are required before long-term controlled trials of whole cat’s claw and Indian olibaum extracts, or isolated active compounds, are carried out in patients with OA to determine their long-term efficacy and safety. Devil’s claw has not been rigorously tested to determine its antiarthritic potential in in vitro and in vivo models. There is strong clinical evidence of the effectiveness of devil’s claw in pain reduction. However, high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness. No serious side effects have been reported for any fruits and herbs. Overall, these studies identify and support the use of nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with OA and to be used as adjunct therapy for OA management. More high-quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention and/or treatment. PMID:22850529

  20. Practice guidelines in the management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Altman, R D; Lozada, C J

    1998-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular rheumatic disease. Practice guidelines have been developed to assist the practitioner in the care of patients with hip and knee OA. The guidelines divide the treatment strategy into nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic modalities. The nonpharmacologic or nonmedicinal approaches include patient education, psychosocial interventions, physical and surgical measures. Each of these are as important as the pharmacologic or medicinal measures. Medicinal measures can be subdivided into symptomatic therapy and disease modifying therapy. Even though all present therapies are aimed at symptoms, experimental therapies are being developed to alter the disease process. PMID:9743815

  1. The potential utility of high-intensity ultrasound to treat osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H J; Salmi, A; Karppinen, P; Hæggström, E; Hacking, S A

    2014-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread musculoskeletal disease that reduces quality of life and for which there is no cure. The treatment of OA is challenging since cartilage impedes the local and systemic delivery of therapeutic compounds (TCs). This review identifies high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) as a non-contact technique to modify articular cartilage and subchondral bone. HIU enables new approaches to overcome challenges associated with drug delivery to cartilage and new non-invasive approaches for the treatment of joint disease. Specifically, HIU has the potential to facilitate targeted drug delivery and release deep within cartilage, to repair soft tissue damage, and to physically alter tissue structures including cartilage and bone. The localized, non-invasive ultrasonic delivery of TCs to articular cartilage and subchondral bone appears to be a promising technique in the immediate future. PMID:25106678

  2. Changes in Membrane Receptors and Ion Channels as Potential Biomarkers for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint condition, is currently difficult to detect early enough for any of the current treatment options to be completely successful. Early diagnosis of this disease could increase the numbers of patients who are able to slow its progression. There are now several diseases where membrane protein biomarkers are used for early diagnosis. The numbers of proteins in the membrane is vast and so it is a rich source of potential biomarkers for OA but we need more knowledge of these before they can be considered practical biomarkers. How are they best measured and are they selective to OA or even certain types of OA? The first step in this process is to identify membrane proteins that change in OA. Here, we summarize several ion channels and receptors that change in OA models and/or OA patients, and may thus be considered candidates as novel membrane biomarkers of OA. PMID:26648874

  3. Management strategies for osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gouty arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, H Ralph

    2004-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases are among the most frequent causes of pain and disability. Effective management of rheumatic diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and gouty arthritis requires an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.Symptoms of OA result from both mechanical factors and elements of inflammation. Current management strategies target both of these factors and generally consist of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions, including use of nonspecific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors (coxibs), which have analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. Other approaches include intraarticular hyaluronate and the use of alternative therapies under investigation such as acupuncture or glucosamine.Disease mechanisms in AS involve enthesitis, an inflammation at the site of insertion of ligaments, tendons, or joint capsules to bone. Posture and exercise are important nonpharmacologic strategies that may be made easier with the use of NSAIDs or coxibs. Recently developed therapies, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, target the underlying disease mechanisms and have demonstrated dramatic symptomatic effects. Disease-modifying effects still need to be established.In gout, hyperuricemia leads to crystal-induced inflammation in some patients. Etoricoxib, one of the newer coxibs, has shown promise in treating acute gout, with efficacy similar to indomethacin, the current standard NSAID often used in these patients. Oral or intraarticular steroids can also be considered. For chronic care uricosurics can be beneficial if renal function is normal and excretion is not excessive, but allopurinol is used most often. Nonpharmacologic modalities, such as rest and cold applications, are useful for acute episodes, and lifestyle modification in the form of diet can also play a role in chronic disease management. PMID:17043496

  4. Inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption through alendronate treatment in rats reduces severe osteoarthritis progression.

    PubMed

    Siebelt, M; Waarsing, J H; Groen, H C; Müller, C; Koelewijn, S J; de Blois, E; Verhaar, J A N; de Jong, M; Weinans, H

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatoid joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of extra-cellular cartilage matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial thickening. Alendronate (ALN) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption and results in reduced bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of pre-emptive use of ALN on OA related osteoclastic subchondral bone resorption in an in vivo rat model for severe OA. Using multi-modality imaging we measured effects of ALN treatment within cartilage and synovium. Severe osteoarthritis was induced in left rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with subcutaneous ALN injections and compared to twenty untreated controls. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12weeks with in vivo ?CT to measure subchondral bone changes and SPECT/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation using a folate-based radiotracer. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12weeks with ex vivo contrast enhanced ?CT and histology to measure sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and cartilage thickness. ALN treatment successfully inhibited subchondral bone remodeling. As a result we found less subchondral plate porosity and reduced osteophytosis. ALN treatment did not reduce subchondral sclerosis. However, after the OA induction phase, ALN treatment protected cartilage ECM from degradation and reduced synovial macrophage activation. Surprisingly, ALN treatment also improved sGAG content of tibia cartilage in healthy joints. Our data was consistent with the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption might play an important role in OA and may be a driving force for progression of the disease. However, our study suggest that this effect might not solely be effects on osteoclastic activity, since ALN treatment also influenced macrophage functioning. Additionally, ALN treatment and physical activity exercised a positive effect in healthy control joints, which increased cartilage sGAG content. More research on this topic might lead to novel insights as to improve cartilage quality. PMID:24933343

  5. Hip Osteoarthritis and the Risk of All-Cause and Disease-Specific Mortality in Older Women: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Kamil E.; Lui, Li-Yung; Nevitt, Michael C.; Murphy, Louise B.; Helmick, Charles G.; Theis, Kristina A.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Lane, Nancy E.; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Determine the risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality among older women with hip OA and identify mediators in the causal pathway. Methods Data were from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a US population-based cohort study of 9704 white women, aged ?65 years. The analytic sample included women with hip radiographs at baseline (N=7,889) and year 8 (N=5,749). Mortality was confirmed through October 2013 by death certificates and hospital discharge summaries. Radiographic hip OA (RHOA) was defined as having Croft grade ?2 in at least 1 hip (definite joint space narrowing or osteophytes plus 1 other radiographic feature). Results Mean follow-up time was 16.1 ±6.2 years. Baseline and year 8 prevalence of RHOA was 8.0% and 11.0%, respectively. Cumulative incidence (proportion of deaths during study period) was 67.7% for all-cause mortality, 26.3% for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 11.7% for cancer mortality, 1.9% for gastrointestinal disease mortality, and 27.8% for all other mortality causes. RHOA was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24), and CVD (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09–1.41) mortality adjusted for age, body mass index, education, smoking, health status, diabetes, and stroke. These associations were partially explained by physical function (mediating variable). Conclusion RHOA was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among older white women followed for 16 years. Dissemination of evidence-based physical activity and self-management interventions for hip OA in community and clinical settings can improve physical function and might also contribute to lower mortality. PMID:25778744

  6. Feedforward postural adjustments in a simple two-joint synergy in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Latash, M L; Aruin, A S; Neyman, I; Nicholas, J J; Shapiro, M B

    1995-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease, age-matched controls and young control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist movements in a sagittal plane under the instruction to move one of the joints "as fast as possible." Relative stability of the other, postural joint was comparable in all 3 groups, while movement time was the highest in the patients and the lowest in young controls. Typically, EMG patterns in both muscle pairs acting at the joints demonstrated a commonly observed "tri-phasic" pattern. A cross-correlation analysis of the EMGs confirmed virtually simultaneous bursts in the wrist and elbow flexors and in the wrist and elbow extensors. In all 3 groups, there were no signs of anticipatory activation of postural muscles in about 90% of movements. We consider postural anticipation not a separate process, but a separate peripheral pattern of a single control process that may involve a number of joints and muscles. We conclude that the postural deficits in Parkinson's disease are not related to a basic deficit in the ability to generate feedforward postural adjustments but to other factors that may include the specificity of maintaining the vertical posture in the field of gravity. PMID:7537207

  7. Manual for guided home exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Carvalho, Nilza Aparecida; Bittar, Simoni Teixeira; de Souza Pinto, Flávia Ribeiro; Ferreira, Mônica; Sitta, Robson Roberto

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physiotherapy is one of the most important components of therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee. The objective of this prospective case series was to assess the efficiency of a guidance manual for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in relation to pain, range of movement , muscle strength and function, active goniometry, manual strength test and function. METHODS: Thirty-eight adults with osteoarthritis of the knee (? 45 years old) who were referred to the physiotherapy service at the university hospital (Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo) were studied. Patients received guidance for the practice of specific physical exercises and a manual with instructions on how to perform the exercises at home. They were evaluated for pain, range of movement, muscle strength and function. These evaluations were performed before they received the manual and three months later. Patients were seen monthly regarding improvements in their exercising abilities. RESULTS: The program was effective for improving muscle strength, controlling pain, maintaining range of movement of the knee joint, and reducing functional incapacity. DISCUSSION: A review of the literature showed that there are numerous clinical benefits to the regular practice of physical therapy exercises by patients with osteoarthritis of the knee(s) in a program with appropriate guidance. This study shows that this guidance can be attained at home with the use of a proper manual. CONCLUSIONS: Even when performed at home without constant supervision, the use of the printed manual for orientation makes the exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee beneficial. PMID:20835554

  8. PROTEOGLYCAN 4 EXPRESSION PROTECTS AGAINST THE DEVELOPMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Merry ZC; Erez, Ayelet; Guse, Kilian; Dawson, Brian; Bertin, Terry; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Yustein, Jason; Gannon, Francis; Lee, Brendan HL

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative condition that afflicts more than 70% of the population between 55 and 77 years of age (1). Although its prevalence is rising globally with aging of the population, current therapy is limited to symptomatic relief and in severe cases, joint replacement surgery. Here we report intra-articular expression of proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) in mice protects against development of osteoarthritis. Long-term Prg4 expression under the type II collagen promoter (Col2a1) does not adversely affect skeletal development but protects from developing signs of age-related osteoarthritis. The protective effect is also shown in a model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis created by cruciate ligament transection (CLT)(2). Moreover, intra-articular injection of helper-dependent adenoviral virus (HDV) expressing Prg4 protected against the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis when administered either before or after injury. Gene expression profiling of mouse articular cartilage and in vitro cell studies show that Prg4 expression inhibits the transcriptional programs that promote cartilage catabolism and hypertrophy through the up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor 3? (HIF3?). Analyses of available human OA datasets are consistent with the predictions of this model. Hence, our data provide insight into the mechanisms for OA development and offer a potential chondroprotective approach to its treatment. PMID:23486780

  9. Frontal-Plane Gait Mechanics in People With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Are Different From Those in People With Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Joaquin A.; Royer, Todd; Davis, Irene S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of research on gait mechanics in knee osteoarthritis has focused on people with medial compartment involvement. As a result, little is known about the gait mechanics of people with the less common, lateral compartment disease. Objective The objective of this study was to compare walking mechanics—specifically, differences in frontal-plane lower-extremity kinematics and kinetics—in people with medial knee osteoarthritis, people with lateral knee osteoarthritis, and people who were healthy. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Fifteen people with medial knee osteoarthritis, 15 people with lateral knee osteoarthritis, and 15 people who were healthy (control group) were recruited for the study. All participants underwent a gait analysis at an intentional walking speed. The variables of interest for the study were peak frontal-plane moments and angles and angular excursions of the lower extremity during the stance phase of gait. Data were statistically analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance. Results Participants with lateral knee osteoarthritis exhibited significantly less knee adduction excursion, lower peak knee abduction moment, and lower peak rear-foot eversion compared with the control group and the medial knee osteoarthritis group. Limitations Participants in the control group were approximately 10 years younger than participants with knee osteoarthritis. Despite this difference, neither body mass index nor gait speed, each of which is a factor with a stronger influence on gait mechanics, differed among the groups. Conclusions Participants with lateral knee osteoarthritis exhibited frontal-plane gait mechanics at the knee and rear foot that were different from those of participants with medial knee osteoarthritis. The results of this study may guide the development of interventions specific to treating people with lateral knee osteoarthritis. PMID:21680772

  10. Inflammatory synovial fluid microenvironment drives primary human chondrocytes to actively take part in inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Röhner, Eric; Matziolis, Georg; Perka, Carsten; Füchtmeier, Bernd; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank; Hoff, Paula

    2012-06-01

    The role of human chondrocytes in the pathogenesis of cartilage degradation in rheumatic joint diseases has presently gained increasing interest. An active chondrocyte participation in local inflammation may play a role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory joint diseases and in a disruption of cartilage repair mechanisms resulting in cartilage degradation. In the present study, we hypothesized that inflammatory synovial fluid triggers human chondrocytes to actively take part in inflammatory processes in rheumatic joint diseases. Primary human chondrocytes were incubated in synovial fluids gained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis arthritis and reactive arthritis. The detection of vital cell numbers was determined by using Casy Cell Counter System. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin-V and 7AAD staining. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was determined by a multiplex suspension array. Detection of vital cells showed a highly significant decrease in chondrocyte numbers. Flow cytometry demonstrated a significant increase in apoptotic chondrocytes after the incubation. An active secretion of cytokines such as MCP-1 and MIF by chondrocytes was observed. The inflammatory synovial fluid microenvironment mediates apoptosis and cell death of chondrocytes. Moreover, in terms of cytokine secretion, it also induces an active participation of chondrocytes in ongoing inflammation. PMID:21979468

  11. A trial of benorylate tablets in the symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, P J

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of Benoral Tablets in controlling joint pain and stiffness in osteoarthritis was assessed over a two-week period in a multicentre general practice open study. In this trial it has been demonstrated that a correlation exists between pain relief from stiffness for patients suffering from osteoarthritis taking Benoral Tablets over this period. It was also found that patients with initially mild to moderate pain benefited most from their treatment. PMID:17558

  12. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Demonstrating Destructive Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease of the Distal Radioulnar Joint Mimicking Tophaceous Gout.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ian M; Scott, Joshua N; Mansfield, Liem T; Battafarano, Daniel F

    2015-09-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition (CPPD) disease is a common etiology of crystalline arthropathy; however, it can manifest in multiple patterns such as acute calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal arthritis, osteoarthritis with CPPD, and chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis. Tumoral or tophaceous-like CPPD is a rare manifestation that is occasionally mistaken for gouty tophus or a soft tissue malignancy. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a new imaging modality currently utilized in assessing monosodium urate crystal deposition; however, its value in CPPD is uncertain. We describe a case using DECT to diagnose tumoral CPPD mimicking tophaceous gout versus recurrence of a previous synovial sarcoma. The imaging findings on DECT prevented unnecessary surgery to assess for possible malignancy, allowing for the prompt diagnosis of tumoral CPPD. Further studies should be performed to determine the role of DECT in assessing for crystalline deposition disease other than gout. PMID:26267716

  13. Bone-cartilage interface crosstalk in osteoarthritis: potential pathways and future therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X L; Meng, H Y; Wang, Y C; Peng, J; Guo, Q Y; Wang, A Y; Lu, S B

    2014-08-01

    Currently, osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a disease of the entire joint, which is not simply a process of wear and tear but rather abnormal remodelling and joint failure of an organ. The bone-cartilage interface is therefore a functioning synergistic unit, with a close physical association between subchondral bone and cartilage suggesting the existence of biochemical and molecular crosstalk across the OA interface. The crosstalk at the bone-cartilage interface may be elevated in OA in vivo and in vitro. Increased vascularisation and formation of microcracks associated with abnormal bone remodelling in joints during OA facilitate molecular transport from cartilage to bone and vice versa. Recent reports suggest that several critical signalling pathways and biological factors are key regulators and activate cellular and molecular processes in crosstalk among joint compartments. Therapeutic interventions including angiogenesis inhibitors, agonists/antagonists of molecules and drugs targeting bone remodelling are potential candidates for this interaction. This review summarised the premise for the presence of crosstalk in bone-cartilage interface as well as the current knowledge of the major signalling pathways and molecular interactions that regulate OA progression. A better understanding of crosstalk in bone-cartilage interface may lead to development of more effective strategies for treating OA patients. PMID:24928319

  14. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kelvin J.; Azari, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA’s burden of disease. PMID:26500356

  15. Lower body positive pressure: an emerging technology in the battle against knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Judit; Anderson, Judy E; Leiter, Jeff RS; MacDonald, Peter B; Peeler, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent medical condition in individuals over the age of 65 years, and is a progressive joint degenerative condition with no known cure. Research suggests that there is a strong relationship between knee pain and loss of physical function. The resulting lifestyle modifications negatively impact not only disease onset and progression but also overall health, work productivity, and quality of life of the affected individual. Purpose The goal of this investigation was to examine the feasibility of using an emerging technology called lower body positive pressure (LBPP) to simulate weight loss and reduce acute knee pain during treadmill walking exercise in overweight individuals with radiographically confirmed symptomatic knee OA. Design Prospective case series. Methods Twenty-two overweight individuals with knee OA completed two 20-minute treadmill walking sessions (one full weight bearing and one LBPP supported) at a speed of 3.1 mph, 0% incline. Acute knee pain was assessed using a visual analog scale, and the percentage of LBPP support required to minimize knee pain was evaluated every 5 minutes. Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores were used to quantify knee pain and functional status between walking sessions. The order of testing was randomized, with sessions occurring a minimum of 1 week apart. Results A mean LBPP of 12.4% of body weight provided participants with significant pain relief during walking, and prevented exacerbation of acute knee pain over the duration of the 20-minute exercise session. Patients felt safe and confident walking with LBPP support on the treadmill, and demonstrated no change in Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores over the duration of the investigation. Conclusion Results suggest that LBPP technology can be used safely and effectively to simulate weight loss and reduce acute knee pain during weight-bearing exercise in an overweight knee OA patient population. These results could have important implications for the development of future treatment strategies used in the management of at-risk patients with progressive knee OA. PMID:23926425

  16. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and immediately following the program. Secondary outcomes include the external knee adduction moment angular impulse, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, knee and hip muscle strength, balance, functional ability, and quality-of-life. Discussion The findings will help determine whether neuromuscular exercise is superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening regarding effects on knee load, pain and physical function in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12610000660088 PMID:22141334

  17. Relative contribution of contact and complement activation to inflammatory reactions in arthritic joints.

    PubMed Central

    Abbink, J J; Kamp, A M; Nuijens, J H; Erenberg, A J; Swaak, A J; Hack, C E

    1992-01-01

    Although both the complement and contact system are thought to contribute to the inflammatory reaction in arthritic joints, only activation of complement has so far been well established, whereas contact activation and its contribution to arthritis has not been systematically explored. Complement and contact activation were assessed in 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies and 11 with osteoarthritis using sensitive assays for C3a, and C1-inhibitor (C1INH)-kallikrein and C1INH-factor XIIa complexes respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of kallikrein-and factor XIIa-C1INH complexes were found in two and seven of the 71 patients with inflammatory arthropathies, respectively, and in none of the patients with osteoarthritis. Increased synovial fluid concentrations of kallikrein and factor XIIa complexes occurred in 13 and 15 patients with inflammatory joint diseases respectively, and in two patients with osteoarthritis. Contact system parameters did not correlate with clinical symptoms, local activity, or neutrophil activation. In contrast, synovial fluid concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes were increased in all patients and in 20 patients with inflammatory arthropathies respectively, and were higher in patients with a higher local activity score. Synovial fluid C3a correlated with parameters of neutrophil activation such as lactoferrin. Increased plasma concentrations of C3a and C1INH-C1 complexes occurred in 13 and 11 patients with inflammatory joint diseases, and in one and two patients with osteoarthritis respectively. Plasma concentrations of C3a correlated with the number of painful joints. Thus contact activation occurs only sporadically in patients with arthritis and contributes little if anything to the local inflammatory reaction and neutrophil activation. These latter events are significantly related to the extent of complement activation. PMID:1444625

  18. Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Onju; Lee, Chang Youn; Kim, Ran; Lee, Jihyun; Oh, Sekyung; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jongmin; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Maeng, Lee-So; Chang, Woochul

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible degenerative joint disease. Conventional OA treatments often result in complications such as pain and limited activity. However, transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has several beneficial effects such as paracrine effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and immunomodulatory capacity. In addition, MSCs can be differentiated into several cell types, including chondrocytes, osteocytes, endothelia, and adipocytes. Thus, transplantation of MSCs is a suggested therapeutic tool for treatment of OA. However, transplanted naïve MSCs can cause problems such as heterogeneous populations including differentiated MSCs and undifferentiated cells. To overcome this problem, new strategies for inducing differentiation of MSCs are needed. One possibility is the application of microRNA (miRNA) and small molecules, which regulate multiple molecular pathways and cellular processes such as differentiation. Here, we provide insight into possible strategies for cartilage regeneration by transplantation of differentiated MSCs to treat OA patients. PMID:26147426

  20. Best evidence of psychosocially focused nonpharmacologic therapies for symptom management in older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shin, So Young; Kolanowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic joint problem among older adults which causes severe pain and loss of physical function. Early diagnosis and proper management are important strategies in delaying disease exacerbation and maintaining physical mobility. The number of older adults suffering from joint diseases is increasing, and many of these individuals are using nonpharmacologic therapies (NPTs) to control pain. Because there is no cure for OA, interventions have aimed at controlling pain, improving joint function, and minimizing disability. This paper reviewed literature that examines the effects of psychosocially focused NPTs, including education, self-management, coping skills, and social support for pain control and function improvement in older adults with OA. This review demonstrates that NPTs do not have the side effects that pharmacologic therapies do, but more high-quality clinical trials with appropriate design and meta-analyses need to be conducted to more clearly identify the effects of such NPTs to control pain and improve physical function in older adults with OA. Because many NPTs are easy to learn and use without serious side effects, nurses can play a pivotal role in helping patients implement NPTs for maximal benefit. PMID:21095598

  1. Elevated chemerin levels in synovial fluid and synovial membrane from patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Niu, Dong-Sheng; Wan, Ning-Jun; Qin, Yi; Guo, Chong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    To test the serum, synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of the adipokine chemerin in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and investigate their relationships with the severity of articular cartilage damage and synovitis. According to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA), 30 cases with OA diagnoses (OA group) were selected from patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from June 2013 to February 2014. Another 30 cases with other knee joint diseases (non-OA group) were included as controls. The synovial fluid and serum levels of chemerin were assayed by ELISA, and the synovial membrane level of chemerin was assayed by the immunohistochemical method. The severity of the knee articular cartilage damage and synovitis-related pathological changes were evaluated by arthroscopy using the Outerbridge and Ayral scores, respectively. The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin in the OA group were higher than those in the non-OA group. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin (P < 0.05). The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin were positively correlated with the serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), Outerbridge score and Ayral score in the OA group. The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin are increased in KOA patients and are positively correlated with the severity of KOA. PMID:26722546

  2. Photoacoustic tomography of the human finger: towards the assessment of inflammatory joint diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Es, P.; Biswas, S. K.; Bernelot Moens, H. J.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-03-01

    Inflammatory arthritis is often manifested in finger joints. The growth of new or withdrawal of old blood vessels can be a sensitive marker for these diseases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has great potential in this respect since it allows the sensitive and highly resolved visualization of blood. We systematically investigated PA imaging of finger vasculature in healthy volunteers using a newly developed PA tomographic system. We present the PA results which show excellent detail of the vasculature. Vessels with diameters ranging between 100 ?m and 1.5 mm are visible along with details of the skin, including the epidermis and the subpapillary plexus. The focus of all the studies is at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, and in the context of ultimately visualizing the inflamed synovial membrane in patients. This work is important in laying the foundation for detailed research into PA imaging of the phalangeal vasculature in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Chronic joint disease caused by persistent Chikungunya virus infection is controlled by the adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    Hawman, David W; Stoermer, Kristina A; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Pal, Pankaj; Oko, Lauren; Diamond, Michael S; Morrison, Thomas E

    2013-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes incapacitating disease in humans characterized by intense joint pain that can persist for weeks, months, or even years. Although there is some evidence of persistent CHIKV infection in humans suffering from chronic rheumatologic disease symptoms, little is known about chronic disease pathogenesis, and no specific therapies exist for acute or chronic CHIKV disease. To investigate mechanisms of chronic CHIKV-induced disease, we utilized a mouse model and defined the duration of CHIKV infection in tissues and the associated histopathological changes. Although CHIKV RNA was readily detectable in a variety of tissues very early after infection, CHIKV RNA persisted specifically in joint-associated tissues for at least 16 weeks. Inoculation of Rag1(-/-) mice, which lack T and B cells, resulted in higher viral levels in a variety of tissues, suggesting that adaptive immunity controls the tissue specificity and persistence of CHIKV infection. The presence of CHIKV RNA in tissues of wild-type and Rag1(-/-) mice was associated with histopathological evidence of synovitis, arthritis, and tendonitis; thus, CHIKV-induced persistent arthritis is not mediated primarily by adaptive immune responses. Finally, we show that prophylactic administration of CHIKV-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented the establishment of CHIKV persistence, whereas therapeutic administration had tissue-specific efficacy. These findings suggest that chronic musculoskeletal tissue pathology is caused by persistent CHIKV infection and controlled by adaptive immune responses. Our results have significant implications for the development of strategies to mitigate the disease burden associated with CHIKV infection in humans. PMID:24131709

  4. Chronic Joint Disease Caused by Persistent Chikungunya Virus Infection Is Controlled by the Adaptive Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Hawman, David W.; Stoermer, Kristina A.; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Pal, Pankaj; Oko, Lauren; Diamond, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes incapacitating disease in humans characterized by intense joint pain that can persist for weeks, months, or even years. Although there is some evidence of persistent CHIKV infection in humans suffering from chronic rheumatologic disease symptoms, little is known about chronic disease pathogenesis, and no specific therapies exist for acute or chronic CHIKV disease. To investigate mechanisms of chronic CHIKV-induced disease, we utilized a mouse model and defined the duration of CHIKV infection in tissues and the associated histopathological changes. Although CHIKV RNA was readily detectable in a variety of tissues very early after infection, CHIKV RNA persisted specifically in joint-associated tissues for at least 16 weeks. Inoculation of Rag1?/? mice, which lack T and B cells, resulted in higher viral levels in a variety of tissues, suggesting that adaptive immunity controls the tissue specificity and persistence of CHIKV infection. The presence of CHIKV RNA in tissues of wild-type and Rag1?/? mice was associated with histopathological evidence of synovitis, arthritis, and tendonitis; thus, CHIKV-induced persistent arthritis is not mediated primarily by adaptive immune responses. Finally, we show that prophylactic administration of CHIKV-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented the establishment of CHIKV persistence, whereas therapeutic administration had tissue-specific efficacy. These findings suggest that chronic musculoskeletal tissue pathology is caused by persistent CHIKV infection and controlled by adaptive immune responses. Our results have significant implications for the development of strategies to mitigate the disease burden associated with CHIKV infection in humans. PMID:24131709

  5. Pharmacologic treatment of hand-, knee- and hip-osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bobacz, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease of high prevalence and affects > 90 % of the population, depending on several risk factors. Symptomatic OA is less frequent, but requires an individually tailored therapeutic regimen consisting of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment modalities. Pharmacologic therapy, however, is mainly limited to analgetic and anti-inflammatory agents; structure modifying remedies do not exist. The therapeutic approach to hand-, knee- and hip-OA is basically similar and differs only at some minor points. Generally, topical agents or paracetamol are recommended as first-line agents. If unsuccessful oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selctive inhibitors should be introduced. Tramadol is an option in the case patients will not respond satisfactorily to NSAIDs. Glucosamine and chondroitine sulphate are no longer recommended in knee and hip OA, but chondroitine might be efficient in treating hand OA. Oral NSAIDs should be prescribed with caution due to potential side effects. Opioids are not recommended as their benefits are outweighed by an increased risk for serious adverse events. PMID:23715933

  6. Mutation analysis of the Smad3 gene in human osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yan; An, Jing; Mao, Chun-Ming; Hou, Ning; Lv, Ya-Xin; Wang, You-Liang; Cui, Fang; Huang, Min; Yang, Xiao

    2003-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that targeted disruption of Smad3 in mouse results in OA. To reveal the possible association between the Smad3 gene mutation and human OA, we employed polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing to screen mutations in all nine exons of the Smad3 gene in 32 patients with knee OA and 50 patients with only bone fracture. A missense mutation of the Smad3 gene was found in one patient. The single base mutation located in the linker region of the SMAD3 protein was A --> T change in the position 2 of codon 197 and resulted in an asparagine to isoleucine amino-acid substitution. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in sera of the patient carrying the mutation were higher than other OA patients and controls. This is the first report showing that the Smad3 gene mutations could be associated with the pathogenesis of human OA. PMID:12939660

  7. Biomarkers of early stage osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and musculoskeletal health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Usman; Anwar, Attia; Savage, Richard S.; Costa, Matthew L.; Mackay, Nicola; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Watts, Richard A.; Winyard, Paul G.; Tarr, Joanna; Haigh, Richard C.; Thornalley, Paul J.; Rabbani, Naila

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no biochemical test for detection of early-stage osteoarthritis (eOA). Tests for early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies require refinement to improve clinical utility. We developed robust mass spectrometric methods to quantify citrullinated protein (CP) and free hydroxyproline in body fluids. We detected CP in the plasma of healthy subjects and surprisingly found that CP was increased in both patients with eOA and eRA whereas anti–CCP antibodies were predominantly present in eRA. A 4-class diagnostic algorithm combining plasma/serum CP, anti-CCP antibody and hydroxyproline applied to a cohort gave specific and sensitive detection and discrimination of eOA, eRA, other non-RA inflammatory joint diseases and good skeletal health. This provides a first-in-class plasma/serum-based biochemical assay for diagnosis and type discrimination of early-stage arthritis to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, exploiting citrullinated protein and related differential autoimmunity. PMID:25788417

  8. Management of Osteoarthritis with Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Blaine A.; Bhatti, Simrit; Goudarzi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and life-altering disease that severely limits the daily activities of millions of Americans, and it is one of the most common causes of disability in the world. With obesity on the rise and the world’s population living longer, the prevalence of OA is expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades, generating burdensome socioeconomic costs. This review summarizes current pharmaceutical, nonpharmaceutical, and prospective new treatments for OA, with primary focus on the dietary supplement avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU). ASU modulates OA pathogenesis by inhibiting a number of molecules and pathways implicated in OA. Anticatabolic properties prevent cartilage degradation by inhibiting the release and activity of matrix metalloproteinases and increasing tissue inhibitors of these catabolic enzymes. ASU also inhibits fibrinolysis by stimulating the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor. Anabolic properties promote cartilage repair by stimulating collagen and aggrecan synthesis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, ERK, and prostaglandin E2. Chondroprotective effects are mediated by correcting growth factor abnormalities, increasing TGF-?, and decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid. ASU also inhibits cholesterol absorption and endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, which mediate reactive oxygen species pathology in chondrocytes. At the clinical level, ASU reduces pain and stiffness while improving joint function, resulting in decreased dependence on analgesics. PMID:25621100

  9. The benefits and barriers to physical activity and lifestyle interventions for osteoarthritis affecting the adult knee

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis prevalence is increasing, placing greater demands on healthcare and future socioeconomic costing models. Exercise and non-pharmacological methods should be employed to manage this common and disabling disease. Expectations at all stages of disease are increasing with a desire to remain active and independent. Three key areas have been reviewed; the evidence for physical activity, lifestyle changes and motivational techniques concerning knee osteoarthritis and the barriers to instituting such changes. Promotion of activity in primary care is discussed and evidence for compliance has been reviewed. This article reviews a subject that is integral to all professionals involved with osteoarthritis care. PMID:22462601

  10. Managing Osteoarthritis and Other Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in society and can lead to significant disability and impairment of a patient's capacity to perform activities of daily living. The focus of this article is various treatment options for the management of OA, with emphasis on conservative management. The emphasis is on the role of exercise, pharmacology, intra-articular joint injections, and bracing options in the management of OA. PMID:26614724

  11. In vivo x-ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coan, Paola; Wagner, Andreas; Bravin, Alberto; Diemoz, Paul C.; Keyriläinen, Jani; Mollenhauer, Juergen

    2010-12-01

    Over the last two decades phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques have been extensively studied for applications in the biomedical field. Published results demonstrate the high capability of these imaging modalities of improving the image contrast of biological samples with respect to standard absorption-based radiography and routinely used clinical imaging techniques. A clear depiction of the anatomic structures and a more accurate disease diagnosis may be provided by using radiation doses comparable to or lower than those used in current clinical methods. In the literature many works show images of phantoms and excised biological samples proving the high sensitivity of the phase contrast imaging methods for in vitro investigations. In this scenario, the applications of the so-called analyzer-based x-ray imaging (ABI) phase contrast technique are particularly noteworthy. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo x-ray ABI phase contrast imaging for biomedical applications and in particular with respect to joint anatomic depiction and osteoarthritis detection. ABI in planar and tomographic modes was performed in vivo on articular joints of guinea pigs in order to investigate the animals with respect to osteoarthritis by using highly monochromatic x-rays of 52 keV and a low noise detector with a pixel size of 47 × 47 µm2. Images give strong evidence of the ability of ABI in depicting both anatomic structures in complex systems as living organisms and all known signs of osteoarthritis with high contrast, high spatial resolution and with an acceptable radiation dose. This paper presents the first proof of principle study of in vivo application of ABI. The technical challenges encountered when imaging an animal in vivo are discussed. This experimental study is an important step toward the study of clinical applications of phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis-celiac disease relationship: joints get that gut feeling.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and celiac disease (CD) belong to the autoimmune disease family. Despite being separate entities they share multiple aspects. Epidemiologically they share comparable incidence environmental influences, associated antibodies and a recent incidental surge. They differ in their HLA pre-dispositions and specific predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. At the clinical level, celiac disease exhibits extra-intestinal rheumatic manifestations and RA gastrointestinal ones. Small bowel pathology exists in rheumatic patients. A trend towards responsiveness to a gluten free diet has been observed, ameliorating celiac rheumatic manifestations, whereas dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis remain controversial. Pathophysiologically, both diseases are mediated by endogenous enzymes in the target organs. The infectious, dysbiotic and increased intestinal permeability theories, as drivers of the autoimmune cascade, apply to both diseases. Contrary to their specific HLA pre-disposition, the diseases share multiple non-HLA loci. Those genes are crucial for activation and regulation of adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, light was shed on the interaction between host genetics and microbiota composition in relation to CD and RA susceptibility, connecting bugs and us and autoimmunity. A better understanding of the above mentioned similarities in the gut-joint inter-relationship, may elucidate additional facets in the mosaic of autoimmunity, relating CD to RA. PMID:26190704

  13. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Personalized medicine for osteoarthritis: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a much talked about subject that is a timely and important development to healthcare in general and also specifically for patients affected by osteoarthritis. This review uses biomarker examples pertinent to osteoarthritis to highlight the current status of the field, while also highlighting probable future developments. It is not meant to be an exhaustive account. The BIPED(s) [Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognosis, Efficacy, Diagnosis (safety)] classification system is used to organize the discussion of examples. Biomarkers pertaining to burden, investigation, prognosis, efficacy, diagnosis and safety are highlighted. The examples are followed by a discussion of issues related to interpretation and application of biomarker results and approaches to solve the challenges interpretation faces, including graphical, mathematical and synthetic representations. Through this review, it is hoped that a better appreciation can be gained of the potential and pitfalls of personal medicine in the care of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:23641258

  15. Radiographic patterns and associations of osteoarthritis of the knee in patients referred to hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ledingham, J; Regan, M; Jones, A; Doherty, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate differing patterns and associations of osteoarthritis of the knee in patients referred to hospital. METHODS--Two hundred and fifty two consecutive patients (161 women, 91 men; mean age 70 years, range 34-91 years) referred to hospital with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent clinical, radiographic, and synovial fluid screening. RESULTS--Radiographic changes of osteoarthritis of the knee (definite narrowing with or without osteoarthritic features) were bilateral in 85% of patients. Of 470 knees affected, 277 (59%) were affected in two compartments and 28 (6%) in three compartments. Unilateral and isolated medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis were more common in men. Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition was common (synovial fluid identification in 132 (28%) knees; knee chondrocalcinosis in 76 (30%) patients) and associated with disability, bilateral, multicompartmental and severe radiographic osteoarthritis, marked osteophytosis, attrition, and cysts. Multiple clinical nodes (58 (23%) patients) and radiographic polyarticular interphalangeal osteoarthritis (66 (26%) patients) were associated with a higher frequency of inactivity pain, disability, multicompartmental and severe radiographic change. Forestier's disease predominated in men but showed no other associations. CONCLUSIONS--In a group of patients referred to hospital osteoarthritis of the knee is usually bilateral and affects more than one compartment. Severe and multicompartmental radiographic changes are associated with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition, nodal change, and polyarticular interphalangeal osteoarthritis. PMID:8346979

  16. State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

    2015-02-16

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States' population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States' population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are presently being studied. The goal of developing new treatment strategies for knee OA is to prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty which should be utilized only if other strategies have failed. High tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are potential alternatives if only a single compartment is involved with more data supporting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as a good treatment option in this scenario. Arthroscopy has been commonly used for many years to treat knee OA to address degenerative articular cartilage and menisci, however, several high-quality studies have shown that it is not a very effective treatment for the majority of cases and should generally not be considered when managing knee OA. Improving the management of knee OA requires a multi-faceted treatment approach along with continuing to broaden our understanding of this complex disease so that therapeutic advancements can continue to be developed with the goal of preventing further disease progression and even potentially reversing the degenerative process. PMID:25685755

  17. State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States’ population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States’ population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are presently being studied. The goal of developing new treatment strategies for knee OA is to prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty which should be utilized only if other strategies have failed. High tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are potential alternatives if only a single compartment is involved with more data supporting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as a good treatment option in this scenario. Arthroscopy has been commonly used for many years to treat knee OA to address degenerative articular cartilage and menisci, however, several high-quality studies have shown that it is not a very effective treatment for the majority of cases and should generally not be considered when managing knee OA. Improving the management of knee OA requires a multi-faceted treatment approach along with continuing to broaden our understanding of this complex disease so that therapeutic advancements can continue to be developed with the goal of preventing further disease progression and even potentially reversing the degenerative process. PMID:25685755

  18. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs-A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Serge; Body, Jean-Jacques; Bruyère, Olivier; Bergmann, Pierre; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cooper, Cyrus; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Gielen, Evelien; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products provide a package of essential nutrients that is difficult to obtain in low-dairy or dairy-free diets, and for many people it is not possible to achieve recommended daily calcium intakes with a dairy-free diet. Despite the established benefits for bone health, some people avoid dairy in their diet due to beliefs that dairy may be detrimental to health, especially in those with weight management issues, lactose intolerance, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or trying to avoid cardiovascular disease. This review provides information for health professionals to enable them to help their patients make informed decisions about consuming dairy products as part of a balanced diet. There may be a weak association between dairy consumption and a possible small weight reduction, with decreases in fat mass and waist circumference and increases in lean body mass. Lactose intolerant individuals may not need to completely eliminate dairy products from their diet, as both yogurt and hard cheese are well tolerated. Among people with arthritis, there is no evidence for a benefit to avoid dairy consumption. Dairy products do not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly if low fat. Intake of up to three servings of dairy products per day appears to be safe and may confer a favourable benefit with regard to bone health. PMID:26445771

  19. Therapeutic and physical fitness exercise prescription for older adults with joint disease: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, M; Fletcher, J; Ortiz, S

    2000-08-01

    Aging with joint disease does necessarily result in chronic pain, adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, and functional dependency. Several randomized controlled trials clearly show that regular exercise does not exacerbate pain or accelerate disease progression. On the contrary, these studies suggest that exercise training may increase the physiologic reserve and reduce the risk for functional dependency in older adults with joint disease. The goals for an exercise program should be directed toward increasing flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness. An exercise training program that is tailored specifically to an older adult's physical limitations may achieve these goals, and by optimizing patient safety lead to improve long-term exercise compliance. PMID:10989515

  20. Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pourcho, Adam M; Smith, Jay; Wisniewski, Stephen J; Sellon, Jacob L

    2014-11-01

    Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has emerged as a promising treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Studies to date, including multiple randomized controlled trials, have shown that PRP is a safe and effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis. Intraarticular PRP is similar in efficacy to hyaluronic acid, and seems to be more effective than hyaluronic acid in younger, active patients with low-grade osteoarthritis. Treatment benefits seem to wane after 6-9 mos. There are numerous PRP treatment variables that may be of importance, and the optimal PRP protocol remains unclear. Future investigations should control and analyze the effects of these variables in PRP treatment. High-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to optimize PRP treatment methods and better define the role of PRP in osteoarthritis management in the knee and, potentially, in other joints. PMID:24879553

  1. [Pharmacological therapies for osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Richette, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    According to international recommendations, acetaminophen should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with osteoarthritis, because of its safety and effectiveness. NSAIDs should be considered in patients unresponsive to acetaminophen, and should be prescribed at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. The use of stronger analgesics, such as weak opioids and narcotic analgesics, is only indicated when other drugs, such as NSAIDs, have been ineffective or are contraindicated. Symptomatic slow acting drugs (avocado soybean unsaponifiable, chondroitin sulphate, diacerein, glucosamine sulphate, hyaluronan injections) have mild symptomatic effects and may reduce the consumption of NSAIDs. Intra-articular injections of glucocorticoids are indicated for flare of knee pain, especially if accompanied by effusion. PMID:22031681

  2. Depression and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Elizabeth H B

    2008-11-01

    Depression is significant among patients with arthritis and musculoskeletal illnesses. However, the impact of depression on osteoarthritis has not been extensively studied. This article highlights the close links between these 2 prevalent chronic conditions, and the associated individual and societal burden. Results from a large clinical trial of depressed older patients with arthritis showed that a focused, collaborative depression care intervention not only decreased depression but also improved arthritis-associated outcomes, such as pain severity and arthritis-related limitations in daily activities. Relative to patients given usual care, patients receiving intervention also reported better health status and higher quality of life. Analyses of the depression interventions uncovered a reciprocal interrelation between depression and pain. Higher severity of either depression or pain decreased the benefits of systematic depression treatment and was associated with worse pain and depression outcomes. Current approaches to management of depression and arthritis do not reflect readily-available evidence-based treatment. A pilot study using a combined approach to address both depression and pain problems among elderly patients with depression and osteoarthritis suggested that benefits for depression, pain, and functional outcomes are strengthened by providing both pain and depression care management. An integrated depression and pain program using evidenced-based pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments is needed to achieve optimal depression and pain outcomes. Currently, a randomized trial is under way to evaluate effectiveness of a combined pain and depression intervention using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. Key intervention components in these 2 innovative and integrated depression and pain programs can guide clinicians to treat both depression and pain with more focus and intensity. PMID:18954588

  3. Diet and Exercise for Obese Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS OA is a common chronic disease and there is a need for treatments that can be provided for the course of the disease with minimal adverse side effects. Exercise is a safe intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with few contraindications or adverse events. Indeed, there are few treatments that, from a public health perspective, can be delivered to a large proportion of those with OA with little associated adverse risk as exercise. Exercise therapy is recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and this recommendation is supported by Level 1 evidence. Obesity is the most modifiable risk factor for knee OA. The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. This paper reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity and exercise on older adults with knee OA; the effects of long-term weight-loss and exercise interventions, and the utility and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice. PMID:20699166

  4. Independent and joint effects of the MAPT and SNCA genes in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Alexis; Ross, Owen A.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Moisan, Frédéric; Aasly, Jan; Annesi, Grazia; Bozi, Maria; Brighina, Laura; Chartier-Harlin, Marie-Christine; Destée, Alain; Ferrarese, Carlo; Ferraris, Alessandro; Gibson, J. Mark; Gispert, Suzana; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Klein, Christine; Krüger, Rejko; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Lohmann, Katja; van de Loo, Simone; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Lynch, Timothy; Mellick, George D.; Mutez, Eugénie; Nilsson, Christer; Opala, Grzegorz; Puschmann, Andreas; Quattrone, Aldo; Sharma, Manu; Silburn, Peter A.; Stefanis, Leonidas; Uitti, Ryan J.; Valente, Enza Maria; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Maraganore, Demetrius M.; Farrer, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium. Methods Participants of Caucasian ancestry were genotyped for a total of four SNCA (rs2583988, rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074) and two MAPT (rs1052553, rs242557) SNPs. Individual and joint effects of SNCA and MAPT SNPs were investigated using fixed- and random-effects logistic regression models. Interactions were studied both on a multiplicative and an additive scale, and using a case-control and case-only approach. Results Fifteen GEO-PD sites contributed a total of 5302 cases and 4161 controls. All four SNCA SNPs and the MAPT H1-haplotype defining SNP (rs1052553) displayed a highly significant marginal association with PD at the significance level adjusted for multiple comparisons. For SNCA, the strongest associations were observed for SNPs located at the 3? end of the gene. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between any of the four SNCA SNPs and rs1052553 or rs242557, neither on the multiplicative nor on the additive scale. Interpretation This study confirms the association between PD and both SNCA SNPs and the H1 MAPT haplotype. It shows, based on a variety of approaches, that the joint action of variants in these two loci is consistent with independent effects of the genes without additional interacting effects. PMID:21391235

  5. CONTAGIOUS DISEASE MODULE FOR THE JOINT EFFECTS MODEL Mr. Jason Rodriguez, Ms. Karen E. Cheng, Dr. Gene E. McClellan, Dr. David J. Crary, and Dr.

    E-print Network

    Ray, Jaideep

    CONTAGIOUS DISEASE MODULE FOR THE JOINT EFFECTS MODEL Mr. Jason Rodriguez, Ms. Karen E. Cheng, Dr to modeling the spread of contagious diseases across a population-at-risk represented by the LandScan database used by the Joint Effects Model (JEM). We are implementing two models of disease transmission

  6. Recreational exercise in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Holla, J; Fluit, M; van Schaardenburg, D; Dekker, J; Verhagen, E; Steultjens, M

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life after eight to twelve months of recreational exercise in patients with rheumatic diseases (inflammatory joint disease, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and other generalized pain syndromes), and to determine whether patient (age, sex, diagnosis) and exercise characteristics (follow-up time, type of activity, frequency of participation) are related to health-related quality of life change. Health-related quality of life was assessed twice in 138 patients with rheumatic diseases. 1) At enrolment in a centre for outpatient recreational exercise and 2) following eight to twelve months of recreational exercise. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form Health Survey 36 and three numeric rating scales for pain, fatigue and general condition. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influence of patient and exercise characteristics on follow-up HRQoL-score. Patients showed significant improvements in pain and general condition, and reported a positive change in health. A diagnosis of inflammatory joint disease (e. g. rheumatoid arthritis, polyarthritis, spondylitis) or osteoarthritis, participating in sports activities two to three times per week, and following land-based fitness classes were associated with the most improvement in health-related quality of life. Regular participation in recreational exercise contributes to improved health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:19685415

  7. Hand osteoarthritis, menopause and menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona E

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest musculoskeletal conditions, primarily affecting women over the age of 50, typically around the age of the menopause. Symptomatic disease can give rise to substantial pain, impairment of hand function and quality of life, leading to significant socioeconomic cost. There is currently no disease-modifying therapy, representing a huge unmet clinical need. The evidence for a relationship between hand OA and the menopause is summarised. Whether there is evidence for an effect of menopausal hormonal therapy on the incidence, prevalence or severity of symptomatic hand OA is critically reviewed, and gaps in our knowledge identified. Lastly, the potential mechanisms by which estrogen, or newer agents such as SERMs, might act to interfere with disease pathogenesis are overviewed. The need for specifically designed, controlled trials of agents in cohorts with symptomatic hand OA, refractory to standard symptomatic management is highlighted. PMID:26471929

  8. Collagen Fibril Disruption Occurs Early in Primary Guinea Pig Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Janet L; Williams, James M; Deberg, Michelle; Henrotin, Yves; Kraus, Virginia Byers

    2009-01-01

    Objective A major barrier inhibiting the discovery of structural modifying agents for osteoarthritis (OA) is an incomplete understanding of early disease events. Herein, we investigated the time course of collagen II cleavage and fibril disruption in the well-validated Hartley guinea pig model of spontaneous osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: Knee joints of 46 male Hartley guinea pigs were analyzed at 3 weeks, 2, 4, 7, 10, 12, and 18 months of age for histological severity of OA, cartilage collagen fibril disruption by semi-quantitative polarized light microscopy, and expression of type II collagen degradation biomarkers, 9A4 and Coll2-1, by immunohistochemistry. In addition, serum biomarkers specific for collagen II degradation, CTX-II, C2C, and Coll2-1 were quantified. Results Collagen fibril disruption and expression of the collagenase-generated cleavage neoepitope, 9A4, were observed as early as 2 months of age, despite the appearance of histological OA at 4 months of age. Only serum Coll2-1 increased coincident with the early disruption of the collagen fibril between 3 weeks and 7 months, in contrast to serum C2C, which did not change significantly or correlate with histological severity. Inversely, CTX-II declined dramatically from 3 weeks to 4 months and remaining low thereafter, coincident with growth plate turnover. Conclusions Collagenase cleavage and disruption of the type II collagen network are early OA disease events in this model, preceding histological evidence of proteoglycan loss. The markedly different serum profiles of collagen II-related biomarkers during the early stages of disease development suggest compartmental segregation and temporal regulation of collagen degrading enzymes. PMID:19825496

  9. Chondrocyte response to in vitro mechanical injury and co-culture with joint capsule tissue

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jennifer H. (Jennifer Henrica)

    2005-01-01

    Acute traumatic joint injury in young adults leads to an increased risk for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) later in life irrespective of surgical intervention to stabilize the injured joint. Although the mechanism ...

  10. In vitro models of cartilage degradation following joint injury : mechanical overload, inflammatory cytokines and therapeutic approaches

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yihong C. S

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disorder. Individuals who have sustained an acute traumatic joint injury are at greater risk for the development of OA. The mechanisms by which injury causes cartilage ...

  11. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  12. Osteoarthritis at Young Age, a Diagnostic Challenge: A Case of Stickler Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Wergifosse, Isabelle; Westhovens, Rene

    2014-01-01

    A young woman presents with severe polyarticular osteoarthritis with relevant family history potentially suggesting a hereditary disease. Previously, the patient’s mother had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and reported to have suffered from some locomotor problems. Careful clinical evaluation with an extensive personal and familial history pointed towards a diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition with progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, (early osteoarthritis and myopia). Following this timely diagnosis, genetic counselling was offered. PMID:25598853

  13. High resolution three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of human finger joints in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-08-01

    We present a method for noninvasively imaging the hand joints using a three-dimensional (3D) photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system. This 3D PAI system utilizes cylindrical scanning in data collection and virtual-detector concept in image reconstruction. The maximum lateral and axial resolutions of the PAI system are 70 ?m and 240 ?m. The cross-sectional photoacoustic images of a healthy joint clearly exhibited major internal structures including phalanx and tendons, which are not available from the current photoacoustic imaging methods. The in vivo PAI results obtained are comparable with the corresponding 3.0 T MRI images of the finger joint. This study suggests that the proposed method has the potential to be used in early detection of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis.

  14. ["Plica disease" (synovial folds) of the knee-joint: arthroscopic and histological findings, with suggestions for treatment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klein, W; Schulitz, K P; Huth, F

    1979-09-01

    A mediopatellar plica (synovial fold) of the knee-joint may develop without recognisable cause in adolescents or young adults, predominantly females. It leads to pain on pressure over the medial knee compartment, sudden or "springing" intraarticular movements and pseudolocking of the joint. Similar plicae occur after traumatic joint contusion, with meniscus disease, or more rarely with arthrosis deformans. Histologically they are characterized by band-like fibrosed evaginations of the synovial membrane and of the synovial fat and connective tissue into the joint spaces. The following therapeutic suggestions, based on the personal experience of 15 cases, are made in the knowledge that significant inflammatory or proliferative arthritic changes can be excluded: the plica can be cut through under arthroscopy; chondromalacial defects, directly or indirectly caused by plical rubbing, of the medial femoral condyle and the medial patella can be removed, also under arthroscopic control, with an electric razor. Arthrotomy is no longer needed in most cases. PMID:477536

  15. Self-management approaches for osteoarthritis in the hand: a 2×2 factorial randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Krysia; Nicholls, Elaine; Hill, Susan; Hammond, Alison; Handy, June; Thomas, Elaine; Hay, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of disability in older adults. Evidence of effectiveness for self-management of hand osteoarthritis is lacking. Methods In this randomised, factorial trial, we evaluated the effectiveness of joint protection versus no joint protection, and hand exercise versus no hand exercise in adults, 50?years of age or older, with hand osteoarthritis. Following a population survey (n=12?297), eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to: leaflet and advice; joint protection; hand exercise; joint protection plus hand exercise. Joint protection and hand exercises were delivered by nine occupational therapists, over four group sessions. The primary outcome was the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria at 6?months. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation (3, 6, 12?m). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Of 257 participants randomised (65:62:65:65) (mean age (SD) 66?years (9.1); female 66%) follow-up was 85% at 6?m (n=212). Baseline characteristics and loss to follow-up were similar between groups. There were no reported treatment side effects. At 6?m 33% assigned joint protection were responders compared with 21% with no joint protection (p=0.03). Of those assigned hand exercises, 28% were responders compared with 25% with no exercises (n.s.). Differences in secondary outcomes were not statistically significant, except for improvement in pain self-efficacy with joint protection (3?m p=0.002; 6?m p=0.001; 12?m p=0.03). Conclusions These findings show that occupational therapists can support self-management in older adults with hand osteoarthritis, and that joint protection provides an effective intervention for medium term outcome. (Funded by the Arthritis Research UK ISRCTN 33870549). PMID:24107979

  16. Force distribution through the wrist joint in patients with different stages of Kienböck's disease: using computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, N; Minami, A; Miyazawa, T; Kaneda, K

    2000-09-01

    The pattern of subchondral bone density has been considered to reflect the stress distribution that occurs under physiologic loading conditions. To determine the force distribution through the wrist joint with Kienböck's disease in living subjects, we applied a computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry and investigated the subchondral bone density pattern across the radio-carpal joint of 6 normal subjects and 10 patients suffering from Kienböck's disease (Lichtman's stage IIIA, 5 patients; stage IIIB, 5 patients). A single density maximum was found in each scaphoid and lunate fossa in all normal subjects. Among the subjects with Kienböck's disease, the current analysis demonstrated that the density maximum area significantly increased in the scaphoid fossa and decreased in the lunate fossa from stage IIIA to IIIB group. These findings indicate that the load is shifted away from the lunate to the scaphoid with the progression of Kienböck's disease in living subjects. PMID:11040302

  17. RBPj?-dependent Notch signaling is required for articular cartilage and joint maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mirando, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhaoyang; Moore, Tyler; Lang, Alexandra; Kohn, Anat; Osinski, Alana M.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Mooney, Robert A.; Zuscik, Michael J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease resulting in severe joint cartilage destruction and disability. While the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of OA are poorly understood, gene mutations have been identified within cartilage-related signaling molecules implicating impaired cell signaling in OA and joint disease. The Notch pathway has recently been identified as a crucial regulator of growth plate cartilage development and components are expressed in joint tissues. Therefore, we set out to investigate a novel role for Notch signaling in joint cartilage development, maintenance, and the pathogenesis of joint disease. Methods We performed the first mouse genetic studies in which the core Notch signaling component, RBPj?, was tissue-specifically deleted within joints. The Prx1Cre transgene removed Rbpj? floxed alleles in mesenchymal joint precursor cells, while the Col2CreERT2 transgene specifically deleted Rbpj? in postnatal chondrocytes. Articular chondrocyte cultures were also utilized to examine Notch regulation of gene expression. Results Loss of Notch signaling in mesenchymal joint precursor cells does not affect embryonic joint development, but rather results in an early, progressive OA-like pathology. Additionally, partial loss of Notch signaling in postnatal cartilage results in progressive joint cartilage degeneration and an age-related OA-like pathology. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters expression of the ECM-related factors: COL2A1, PRG4, COL10A1, MMP13, and ADAMTSs. Conclusions These data have identified the RBPj?-dependent Notch pathway as: 1) a novel pathway involved in joint maintenance and articular cartilage homeostasis, 2) a critical regulator of articular cartilage ECM-related molecules, and 3) a potentially important therapeutic target for OA-like joint disease. PMID:23839930

  18. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis . ... thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthopolasty: Evidence-based guideline and evidence report. American ...

  19. The Effects on Knowledge of the Systematic Education of Patients with Joint Diseases Treated with NSAIDs and Diuretics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linne, Agneta Bjorck; Liedholm, Hans; Jacobsson, Lennart

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled trial, patients with joint diseases and concomitant treatment with NSAIDs and diuretics received systematic education. The intervention group was given information focusing on awareness of drug interactions and encouragement of self-adjustment of treatment. Results reveal that the intervention group achieved greater…

  20. Exercising with Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep a positive attitude l Maintain a healthy body weight Three types of exercise are best if you ... Examples of flexibility exercises include upper- and lower-body stretching, yoga, and tai ... support and protect joints. Weight-bearing exercises, such as weight lifting, fall into ...

  1. Is exercise effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee?

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To review and determine the effectiveness of exercise treatment in osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods—A computerised literature search of Medline was carried out searching between June 1966 and January 2000. Results—Twenty three randomised controlled trials were identified from the literature. Only three trials were sufficiently powered. Small to moderate beneficial effects of exercise treatment were found for pain, small beneficial effects on disability outcome measures, and moderate to great beneficial effects were observed according to patient global assessment of effect. It was not possible to obtain evidence on the content of exercise interventions, as studies were hampered by lack of attention to proper concealment, reporting of adverse effects, and long term effects of exercise treatment. The lack of standard outcomes measures is also noted. Conclusions—The available evidence indicates beneficial short term effects of exercise treatment in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, the number of available studies is limited, and more research is needed to expand this recommendation. Specifically, additional trials should provide information on adherence, home based interventions, interaction with pharmacological treatments, functional outcomes measures relevant to exercise treatment in these patients, and long term effects. At present, doctors should recommend exercise to all patients with mild/moderate disease. Further study should be encouraged and exercise should be continued to be recommended as a mainstay of non-pharmacological treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Key Words: osteoarthritis; knee; exercise PMID:11049140

  2. A joint model for multistate disease processes and random informative observation times, with applications to electronic medical records data

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jane M.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Multistate models are used to characterize individuals’ natural histories through diseases with discrete states. Observational data resources based on electronic medical records pose new opportunities for studying such diseases. However, these data consist of observations of the process at discrete sampling times, which may either be pre-scheduled and non-informative, or symptom-driven and informative about an individual’s underlying disease status. We have developed a novel joint observation and disease transition model for this setting. The disease process is modeled according to a latent continuous-time Markov chain; and the observation process, according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process with observation rates that depend on the individual’s underlying disease status. The disease process is observed at a combination of informative and non-informative sampling times, with possible misclassification error. We demonstrate that the model is computationally tractable and devise an expectation-maximization algorithm for parameter estimation. Using simulated data, we show how estimates from our joint observation and disease transition model lead to less biased and more precise estimates of the disease rate parameters. We apply the model to a study of secondary breast cancer events, utilizing mammography and biopsy records from a sample of women with a history of primary breast cancer. PMID:25319319

  3. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100 mg of enriched Boswellia serrata extract improved symptoms compared to placebo. Mean pain was 40 points on a 0 to 100 point VAS scale (0 is no pain) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata reduced pain by a mean of 17 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 8 to 26); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 2; the 95% CIs did not exclude a clinically significant reduction of 15 points in pain. Physical function was 33 points on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 0 to 100 point subscale (0 is no loss of function) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata improved function by 8 points (95% CI 2 to 14); NNTB 4. Assuming a minimal clinically important difference of 10 points, we cannot exclude a clinically important benefit in some people. Moderate-quality evidence (one study, 96 participants) indicated that adverse events were probably reduced with enriched Boswellia serrata (18/48 events versus 30/48 events with placebo; relative risk (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). Possible benefits of other Boswellia serrata extracts over placebo were confirmed in moderate-quality evidence from two studies (97 participants) of Boswellia serrata (enriched) 100 mg plus non-volatile oil, and low-quality evidence from small single studies of a 999 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata extract and 250 mg daily dose of enriched Boswellia serrata. It was uncertain if a 99 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata offered benefits over valdecoxib due to the very low-quality evidence from a small single study. It was uncertain if there was an increased risk of adverse events or withdrawals with Boswellia serrata extract due to variable reporting of results across studies. The studies reported no serious adverse events. Quality of life and radiographic joint changes were not measured. Six studies examined the ASU product Piasclidine®.Moderate-quality evidence from four studies (651 participants) indicated that ASU 300 mg produced a small and clinically questionable improvement in symptoms, and probably no increased adverse events

  4. Are Bisphosphonates Effective in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis Pain? A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alison J.; Smith, Toby O.; Hing, Caroline B.; Sofat, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis worldwide. Pain and reduced function are the main symptoms in this prevalent disease. There are currently no treatments for OA that modify disease progression; therefore analgesic drugs and joint replacement for larger joints are the standard of care. In light of several recent studies reporting the use of bisphosphonates for OA treatment, our work aimed to evaluate published literature to assess the effectiveness of bisphosphonates in OA treatment. Methods Literature databases were searched from inception to the 30th June 2012 for clinical trials of bisphosphonates to treat OA pain. Data was appraised and levels of evidence determined qualitatively using best evidence synthesis from the Cochrane Collaboration. The two largest studies were conducted with risedronate in the treatment of knee OA, for which meta-analyses were performed for pain and functional outcomes. Results Our searches found 13/297 eligible studies, which included a total of 3832 participants. The trials recruited participants with OA of the hand (n?=?1), knee (n?=?8), knee and spine (n?=?3), or hip (n?=?1). Our meta-analysis of the two largest knee studies using risedronate 15 mg showed odds ratios favouring placebo interventions for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain (1.73), WOMAC function (2.03), and WOMAC stiffness (1.82). However, 8 trials (61.5%) reported that bisphosphonates improve pain assessed by VAS scores and 2 (38.5%) reported significant improvement in WOMAC pain scores compared to control groups. Conclusions There is limited evidence that bisphosphonates are effective in the treatment of OA pain. Limitations of the studies we analysed included the differences in duration of bisphosphonate use, the dose and route of administration and the lack of long-term data on OA joint structure modification post-bisphosphonate therapy. Future more targeted studies are required to appreciate the value of bisphosphonates in treating osteoarthritis pain. Trial Registration PROSPERO Register CRD42012002541 PMID:24023766

  5. Fish Oil and Osteoarthritis: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-07-01

    According to the 2005 US census, osteoarthritis (OA) was the leading cause of disability in the United States, affecting more than 50 million people. Current treatments are targeted at reducing symptoms of the inflammatory reaction that occurs after destruction of essential joint cartilage. However, these treatments do not prevent significant pain and activity restriction. We reviewed the literature to address claims that fish oil supplementation can prevent or decrease severity of OA. Our extensive search of databases covered all relevant terms related to omega-3-containing supplements and their effects on OA. We hypothesized there would be insufficient clinical studies to justify recommending supplementation to patients.Laboratory studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce proinflammatory mediators and increase joint lubrication in vitro. In addition, canine trials have shown clinically significant reductions in various symptom parameters. Results of human clinical trials have not been consistently significant. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to substantiate or refute the potential benefit of fish oils in OA treatment. Long-term studies are needed to assess the possibility of prevention. In addition, standardization of the fish oil industry is needed for consistency of therapy. PMID:26161757

  6. The relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Im, Gun-Il; Kim, Min-Kyu

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP), the two most common skeletal disorders related to aging, is controversial. Previous studies suggest that OA is inversely related to OP when studied cross-sectionally and systematically. However, there are differences in the results depending on the parameter used to define OA. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the literature, and derive possible answers to three key questions along with a brief introduction on underlying mechanisms: (1) Is OA correlated to a high bone mineral density (BMD)? (2) Does OA influence the progression of OP or osteoporotic fractures? (3) Does high BMD affect the incidence and progression of OA? A review of the literature suggests that OA is inversely related to OP in general when studied cross-sectionally and systematically. However, when analyzed in individual bones, the BMD of the appendicular skeleton in OA-affected joints may decrease, particularly in the upper extremities. On whether OA influences bone loss or osteoporotic fractures, differences are observed according to the affected joints. The risk for osteoporotic fracture does not seem to decrease despite a high BMD in patients with OA, probably due to postural instability and muscle strength. Low BMD at the lumbar spine is associated with a lower incidence of knee OA although it does not arrest the progression of knee OA. PMID:24196872

  7. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking.

    PubMed

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (-0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (-0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking. PMID:26504334

  8. Biomechanical comparison of frontal plane knee joint moment arms during normal and Tai Chi walking

    PubMed Central

    Jagodinsky, Adam; Fox, John; Decoux, Brandi; Weimar, Wendi; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Medial knee osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, affects adults. The external knee adduction moment, a surrogate knee-loading measure, has clinical implications for knee osteoarthritis patients. Tai Chi is a promising intervention for pain alleviation in knee osteoarthritis; however, the characteristics of external knee adduction moment during Tai Chi have not been established. [Subjects and Methods] During normal and Tai Chi walking, a gait analysis was performed to compare the external knee adduction moment moment-arm characteristics and paired t-tests to compare moment-arm magnitudes. [Results] A significant difference was observed in the average lateral direction of moment-arm magnitude during Tai Chi walking (?0.0239 ± 0.011 m) compared to that during normal walking (?0.0057 ± 0.004 m). No significant difference was found between conditions in average medial direction of moment-arm magnitude (normal walking: 0.0143 ± 0.010 m; Tai Chi walking: 0.0098 ± 0.014 m). [Conclusion] Tai Chi walking produced a larger peak lateral moment-arm value than normal walking during the stance phase, whereas Tai Chi walking and normal walking peak medial moment-arm values were similar, suggesting that medial knee joint loading may be avoided during Tai Chi walking. PMID:26504334

  9. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing joint diseases, especially effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the proximal interphalangeal finger joints. Using a dual-wavelength tomographic imaging system and previously implemented reconstruction scheme, I have performed initial dynamic imaging case studies on healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed with RA. These studies support our hypothesis that differences in the vascular and metabolic reactivity exist between affected and unaffected joints and can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Pan, X.; Wong, H.H.; Wagner, C.A.; Lahey, L.J.; Robinson, W.H.; Sokolove, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boswellic acid is a plant-derived molecule with putative anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to determine whether oral or topical administration of boswellic acid can attenuate joint damage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Levels of boswellic acid were measured in the blood and synovium of mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid. OA was generated by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Therapy with oral or topical boswellic acid was initiated one day after surgery and continued for 12 weeks, when knees were harvested and scored histologically for degree of cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. Microdissected OA synovium was stimulated with IL-1? or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of boswellic acid and cytokine production by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiplex enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Results Topical treatment resulted in synovial concentrations of boswellic acid 2–6-fold higher than that measured in plasma. Cartilage loss was significantly reduced in mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid compared with vehicle control (P < 0.01 for both oral and topical therapies). Likewise, treatment with either oral boswellic acid or boswellic acid ointment reduced of synovitis (P = 0.006 and 0.025, respectively) and osteophyte formation (P = 0.009 and 0.030, respectively). In vitro, boswellic acid was able to inhibit IL-1? and TLR4 mediated induction of several inflammatory mediators from OA synovial explant tissue. Conclusions Significant synovial concentration and therapeutic efficacy can be achieved with topical boswellic acid treatment. These findings suggest that boswellic acid has potential as a disease-modifying agent in OA. PMID:24185109

  11. Compositional MRI techniques for evaluation of cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Guermazi, A; Alizai, H; Crema, M D; Trattnig, S; Regatte, R R; Roemer, F W

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), a leading cause of disability, affects 27 million people in the United States and its prevalence is rising along with the rise in obesity. So far, biomechanical or behavioral interventions as well as attempts to develop disease-modifying OA drugs have been unsuccessful. This may be partly due to antiquated imaging outcome measures such as radiography, which are still endorsed by regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in clinical trials. Morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows unparalleled multi-feature assessment of the OA joint. Furthermore, advanced MRI techniques also enable evaluation of the biochemical or ultrastructural composition of articular cartilage relevant to OA research. These compositional MRI techniques have the potential to supplement clinical MRI sequences in identifying cartilage degeneration at an earlier stage than is possible today using morphologic sequences only. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe compositional MRI techniques for cartilage evaluation, which include T2 mapping, T2* Mapping, T1 rho, dGEMRIC, gagCEST, sodium imaging and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). We also reviewed relevant clinical studies that have utilized these techniques for the study of OA. The different techniques are complementary. Some focus on isotropy or the collagen network (e.g., T2 mapping) and others are more specific in regard to tissue composition, e.g., gagCEST or dGEMRIC that convey information on the GAG concentration. The application and feasibility of these techniques is also discussed, as they will play an important role in implementation in larger clinical trials and eventually clinical practice. PMID:26050864

  12. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Oxidant Damage in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth; Flannelly, Joanne; Bowler, Russell; Tran, Karen; Nicks, Michael; Carbone, Beth Duda; Glueck, Deborah; Heijnen, Harry; Mason, Roger; Crapo, James

    2009-01-01

    Objective To use human cartilage samples and a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a constituent of cartilage and to evaluate whether there is a relationship between EC-SOD deficiency and OA. Methods Samples of human cartilage were obtained from femoral heads at the time of joint replacement surgery for OA or femoral neck fracture. Samples of mouse tibial cartilage obtained from STR/ort mice and CBA control mice were compared at 5, 15, and 35 weeks of age. EC-SOD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry techniques. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure messenger RNA for EC-SOD and for endothelial cell, neuronal, and inducible nitric oxide synthases. Nitrotyrosine formation was assayed by Western blotting in mouse cartilage and by fluorescence immunohistochemistry in human cartilage. Results Human articular cartilage contained large amounts of EC-SOD (mean ± SEM 18.8 ± 3.8 ng/gm wet weight of cartilage). Cartilage from patients with OA had an ~4-fold lower level of EC-SOD compared with cartilage from patients with hip fracture. Young STR/ort mice had decreased levels of EC-SOD in tibial cartilage before histologic evidence of disease occurred, as well as significantly more nitrotyrosine formation at all ages studied. Conclusion EC-SOD, the major scavenger of reactive oxygen species in extracellular spaces, is decreased in humans with OA and in an animal model of OA. Our findings suggest that inadequate control of reactive oxygen species plays a role in the pathophysiology of OA. PMID:16255039

  13. Managing osteoarthritis pain when your patient fails simple analgesics and NSAIDs and is not a candidate for surgery.

    PubMed

    McHughes, Mary; Lipman, Arthur G

    2006-02-01

    With no disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs on the immediate horizon, the goal of osteoarthritis therapy remains management of pain and maintenance of function. Evidence supports use of nonpharmacologic measures including patient education, judicious exercise and weight loss, and assistive devices when appropriate to reduce pain and further loss of function. First line pharmacotherapy is acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, toxicities are associated with long-term use of these drugs. Evidence also supports the use of opioids in osteoarthritis pain management when other interventions are insufficient. NSAIDs and opioids are mutually dose sparing and combining relatively low doses of a drug from each class provides synergistic analgesia while limiting toxicity. Alternative therapies include tramadol and intra-articular injections of steroids and hyaluronic acid. There is evidence to support glucosamine as an adjunct in treating osteoarthritis. Evidence is lacking to support the use of chondroitin, S-adenosyl-methionine, or dimethyl sulfoxide in osteoarthritis pain management. PMID:16515761

  14. Haemophilus influenzae infection of a prosthetic knee joint in a patient with CLL: a vaccine preventable disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sheema; Reddy, Srinivasulu

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was admitted with a 2-day history of the hot and swollen right knee in December 2012. He had undergone a primary cemented right total knee replacement (TKR) in 2002. He also had a history of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), haemolytic anaemia and splenomegaly, and was in partial remission following chemotherapy in 2008. He underwent arthroscopic washout of right TKR on admission. Blood cultures on admission and joint fluid specimen grew Haemophilus influenzae (Hi). The isolate was identified as a non-encapsulated Hi strain by the reference laboratory. Non-encapsulated Hi strains rarely cause invasive disease. CLL with splenomegaly may have predisposed our patient to severe invasive disease. A recently licensed 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to the immunogenic outer membrane protein D of Hi could potentially prevent invasive Hi disease. Routine vaccination should be considered in all patients with prosthetic joints and predisposing comorbidities. PMID:24252835

  15. Therapeutic Effect of Chenodeoxycholic Acid in an Experimental Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhao-wei; Dong, Ji; Qin, Chen-hao; Zhao, Chun-yang; Miao, Li-yan; He, Chun-yan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. At present, there is no ideal agent to treat OA. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was a principal active constituent from animal bile. However, the therapeutic effect of CDCA on OA severity was largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intra-articular injection of CDCA in a rabbit OA model. OA was induced in experimental rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and then rabbits were intra-articularly injected with CDCA (10?mg/kg or 50?mg/kg) once per week for 5 weeks. The results showed that CDCA significantly decreased cartilage degradation on the surface of femoral condyles, reducing the pathological changes of articular cartilage and synovial membrane by macroscopic and histological analysis. CDCA also significantly decreased bone destruction and erosion of joint evaluated by micro-CT. Furthermore, CDCA could markedly reduce the release of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in synovial fluid. These observations highlight CDCA might be a potential therapeutic agent for OA. PMID:26538834

  16. Injectable hyaluronic-acid-doxycycline hydrogel therapy in experimental rabbit osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that causes disabilities in elderly adults. However, few long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agents with low side effects have been developed to treat OA. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of intra-articular injections of hydrogels containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and doxycycline (DOX) in a rabbit OA model. Results Thirteen week old New Zealand White rabbits undergone a partial meniscectomy and unilateral fibular ligament transection were administered with either normal saline (NT), HA, DOX or HA-DOX hydrogels on day 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12; animals were also examined the pain assessment in every three days. The joint samples were taken at day 14 post-surgery for further histopathological evaluation. The degree of pain was significantly attenuated after day 7 post-treatment with both HA and HA-DOX hydrogels. In macroscopic appearance, HA-DOX hydrogel group showed a smoother cartilage surface, no or minimal signs of ulceration, smaller osteophytes, and less fissure formation in compare to HA or DOX treatment alone. In the areas with slight OA changes, HA-DOX hydrogel group exhibited normal distribution of chondrocytes, indicating the existence of cartilage regeneration. In addition, HA-DOX hydrogels also ameliorated the progression of OA by protecting the injury of articular cartilage layer and restoring the elastoviscosity. Conclusion Overall, from both macroscopic and microscopic data of this study indicate the injectable HA-DOX hydrogels presented as a long-lasting pharmacotherapeutic agent to apply for OA therapy. PMID:23574696

  17. Therapeutic effect of irradiation of magnetic infrared laser on osteoarthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Kwon, Ogon; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Hee-Duk; Kwon, Young-Sam; Park, Soo-Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease caused by articular cartilage loss. Many complementary and alternative medicines for OA have been reported so far, but the effectiveness is controversial. Previously, we have shown anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy with static magnetic field, magnetic infrared laser (MIL), in various animal models. Therefore, the beneficial effects were examined in OA rat model. Rats were divided by six groups; no treatment controls of sham and OA model, three MIL treatment groups of OA model at 6.65, 2.66 and 1.33 J cm(-2), and Diclofenac group of OA model with 2 mg kg(-1) diclofenac sodium. The OA control exhibited typical symptoms of OA, but 4-week MIL treatment improved the functional movement of knee joint with reduced edematous changes. In addition, cartilage GAGs were detected more in all MIL treatment groups than OA control. It suggests that 4-week MIL irradiation has dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects on OA. Histopathological analyses revealed that MIL treatment inhibits the cartilage degradation and enhances chondrocyte proliferation. The fact that MIL has an additional potential for the cartilage formation and no adverse effects can be regarded as great advantages for OA treatment. These suggest that MIL can be useful for OA treatment. PMID:24962501

  18. Early MRI and intraoperative findings in rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is still unclear. Also, there have been only few reports on the initial stage of the disease. We report a case of an initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA, documented by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings. Presentation of case A 77-year-old woman reported left hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Initial radiographs showed no obvious abnormality. After 4 months of conservative therapy, radiographs showed progressive joint-space narrowing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed a bone-marrow edema pattern not only on the femoral head but also on the lateral side of the acetabulum. Then during total hip arthroplasty, we found extensive inversion of the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum, and the location was mostly consistent with the bone-marrow edema lesions in the femoral head and acetabulum. Discussion Several theories for the etiology of rapidly destructive hip OA have been proposed, including idiopathic chondrolysis, abnormal immunoreaction, intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and subchondral insufficiency fracture. One of the reasons rapidly destructive hip OA is still considered idiopathic is the lack of reports regarding the initial stage of the disease. Our report is the first to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging for initial-stage disease with intraoperative findings before collapse of the femoral head. Conclusion Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be a mechanism of rapidly destructive hip OA. PMID:25603485

  19. Methylation quantitative trait locus analysis of osteoarthritis links epigenetics with genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Michael D; Reynard, Louise N; Young, David A; Shepherd, Colin; Aubourg, Guillaume; Gee, Fiona; Darlay, Rebecca; Deehan, David; Cordell, Heather J; Loughlin, John

    2015-12-20

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, painful and debilitating disease of articulating joints resulting from the age-associated loss of cartilage. Well-powered genetic studies have identified a number of DNA polymorphisms that are associated with OA susceptibility. Like most complex trait loci, these OA loci are thought to influence disease susceptibility through the regulation of gene expression, so-called expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs. One mechanism through which eQTLs act is epigenetic, by modulating DNA methylation. In such cases, there are quantitative differences in DNA methylation between the two alleles of the causal polymorphism, with the association signal referred to as a methylation quantitative trait locus, or meQTL. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the OA susceptibility loci identified to date are functioning as meQTLs by integrating genotype data with whole genome methylation data of cartilage DNA. We investigated potential genotype-methylation correlations within a 1.0-1.5 Mb region surrounding each of 16 OA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 99 cartilage samples and identified four that function as meQTLs. Three of these replicated in an additional cohort of up to 62 OA patients. These observations suggest that OA susceptibility loci regulate the level of DNA methylation in cis and provide a mechanistic explanation as to how these loci impact upon OA susceptibility, further increasing our understanding of the role of genetics and epigenetics in this common disease. PMID:26464490

  20. Methylation quantitative trait locus analysis of osteoarthritis links epigenetics with genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Michael D.; Reynard, Louise N.; Young, David A.; Shepherd, Colin; Aubourg, Guillaume; Gee, Fiona; Darlay, Rebecca; Deehan, David; Cordell, Heather J.; Loughlin, John

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, painful and debilitating disease of articulating joints resulting from the age-associated loss of cartilage. Well-powered genetic studies have identified a number of DNA polymorphisms that are associated with OA susceptibility. Like most complex trait loci, these OA loci are thought to influence disease susceptibility through the regulation of gene expression, so-called expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs. One mechanism through which eQTLs act is epigenetic, by modulating DNA methylation. In such cases, there are quantitative differences in DNA methylation between the two alleles of the causal polymorphism, with the association signal referred to as a methylation quantitative trait locus, or meQTL. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the OA susceptibility loci identified to date are functioning as meQTLs by integrating genotype data with whole genome methylation data of cartilage DNA. We investigated potential genotype–methylation correlations within a 1.0–1.5 Mb region surrounding each of 16 OA-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 99 cartilage samples and identified four that function as meQTLs. Three of these replicated in an additional cohort of up to 62 OA patients. These observations suggest that OA susceptibility loci regulate the level of DNA methylation in cis and provide a mechanistic explanation as to how these loci impact upon OA susceptibility, further increasing our understanding of the role of genetics and epigenetics in this common disease. PMID:26464490

  1. Dextrose Prolotherapy for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J.; Mundt, Marlon; Kijowski, Richard; Grettie, Jessica; Segal, Neil A.; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS Ninety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or at-home exercise. Extra- and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), post-procedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used. RESULTS No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P <.01) at 52 weeks. Adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index, WOMAC scores for patients receiving dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises. PMID:23690322

  2. Early-Onset Osteoarthritis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Like Neuropathy, Autoimmune Features, Multiple Arterial Aneurysms and Dissections: An Unrecognized and Life Threatening Condition

    PubMed Central

    Aubart, Mélodie; Gobert, Delphine; Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Detaint, Delphine; Hanna, Nadine; d’Indya, Hyacintha; Lequintrec, Janine-Sophie; Renard, Philippe; Vigneron, Anne-Marie; Dieudé, Philippe; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Koch, Pierre; Muti, Christine; Roume, Joelle; Cusin, Veronica; Grandchamp, Bernard; Gouya, Laurent; LeGuern, Eric; Papo, Thomas; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe osteoarthritis and thoracic aortic aneurysms have recently been associated with mutations in the SMAD3 gene, but the full clinical spectrum is incompletely defined. Methods All SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre and their families were investigated prospectively with a structured panel including standardized clinical workup, blood tests, total body computed tomography, joint X-rays. Electroneuromyography was performed in selected cases. Results Thirty-four SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre were identified and 16 relatives were considered affected because of aortic surgery or sudden death (total 50 subjects). Aortic disease was present in 72%, complicated with aortic dissection, surgery or sudden death in 56% at a mean age of 45 years. Aneurysm or tortuosity of the neck arteries was present in 78%, other arteries were affected in 44%, including dissection of coronary artery. Overall, 95% of mutation carriers displayed either aortic or extra-aortic arterial disease. Acrocyanosis was also present in the majority of patients. Osteoarticular manifestations were recorded in all patients. Joint involvement could be severe requiring surgery in young patients, of unusual localization such as tarsus or shoulder, or mimicking crystalline arthropathy with fibrocartilage calcifications. Sixty eight percent of patients displayed neurological symptoms, and 9 suffered peripheral neuropathy. Electroneuromyography revealed an axonal motor and sensory neuropathy in 3 different families, very evocative of type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, although none had mutations in the known CMT2 genes. Autoimmune features including Sjogren’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, or isolated autoantibodies- were found in 36% of patients. Interpretation SMAD3 gene mutations are associated with aortic dilatation and osteoarthritis, but also autoimmunity and peripheral neuropathy which mimics type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth. PMID:24804794

  3. [Platelet-rich plasma in knee osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, Mario Alberto; Vílchez-Cavazos, José Félix; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The biological changes that commonly cause degenerative articular cartilage injuries in the knee are primarily associated to misalignment of the joint and metabolic changes related to age, as occurs in osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the capacity for cartilage self-regeneration is quite limited due to the lack of vascularity of the tissue. To date there is no ideal treatment capable to stimulate cartilage regeneration; thus there is a need to seek alternative therapies for the treatment of such conditions. The number of publications demonstrating the therapeutic and regenerative benefits of using platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis has been increasing in recent years. In spite of encouraging results, there are still only a few randomised control studies with strong clinical evidence, lacking clarity on points such as the optimum formulation or the mechanism of action of platelet-rich plasma. Up to this point and based on the results of clinical studies, not all patients can benefit from this therapy. It is important to consider aspects such as the age and grade of cartilage degeneration. The aim of the present paper is to review the recent scientific literature on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma, and the biological bases of this therapy, as well as presenting the current opinion on this subject. PMID:26116039

  4. Deletion of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1 Does Not Predispose Mice to Increased Spontaneous Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pest, Michael Andrew; Pest, Courtney Alice; Bellini, Melina Rodrigues; Feng, Qingping; Beier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with poorly understood etiology and pathobiology. Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including ERK and p38 play important roles in the mediation of downstream pathways involved in cartilage degenerative processes. Dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) dephosphorylates the threonine/serine and tyrosine sites on ERK and p38, causing deactivation of downstream signalling. In this study we examined the role of DUSP1 in spontaneous OA development at 21 months of age using a genetically modified mouse model deficient in Dusp1 (DUSP1 knockout mouse). Results Utilizing histochemical stains of paraffin embedded knee joint sections in DUSP1 knockout and wild type female and male mice, we showed similar structural progression of cartilage degeneration associated with OA at 21 months of age. A semi-quantitative cartilage degeneration scoring system also demonstrated similar scores in the various aspects of the knee joint articular cartilage in DUSP1 knockout and control mice. Examination of overall articular cartilage thickness in the knee joint demonstrated similar results between DUSP1 knockout and wild type mice. Immunostaining for cartilage neoepitopes DIPEN, TEGE and C1,2C was similar in the cartilage lesion sites and chondrocyte pericellular matrix of both experimental groups. Likewise, immunostaining for phosphoERK and MMP13 showed similar intensity and localization between groups. SOX9 immunostaining demonstrated a decreased number of positive cells in DUSP1 knockout mice, with correspondingly decreased staining intensity. Analysis of animal walking patterns (gait) did not show a discernable difference between groups. Conclusion Loss of DUSP1 does not cause changes in cartilage degeneration and gait in a mouse model of spontaneous OA at 21 months of age. Altered staining was observed in SOX9 immunostaining which may prove promising for future studies examining the role of DUSPs in cartilage and OA, as well as models of post-traumatic OA. PMID:26562438

  5. The Comprehensive Arthroscopic Management Procedure for Treatment of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mook, William R.; Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Younger, high-demand patients who are less suitable for joint replacement procedures are often affected by advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis. There are several alternatives to total joint arthroplasty for the treatment of these patients. However, the outcomes of these procedures are less predictable and have limited durability. The comprehensive arthroscopic management procedure, which includes a combination of arthroscopic glenohumeral debridement, chondroplasty, synovectomy, loose body removal, humeral osteoplasty with excision of the goat's beard osteophyte, capsular releases, subacromial and subcoracoid decompressions, axillary nerve decompression, and biceps tenodesis, has been shown to reduce pain, improve function, and provide a predictable short-term joint-preserving option for patients with advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis. A unique feature of the comprehensive arthroscopic management procedure is the indirect and direct decompression of the axillary nerve, which may explain the difference in outcomes with this technique compared with other approaches. Furthermore, the technique is technically demanding and associated with several notable pitfalls that are preventable when using the meticulous surgical technique detailed in this article and accompanying video. PMID:26697301

  6. Identifying and Treating Pre-Clinical and Early Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Felson, David T.; Hodgson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and nonsurgical treatments of disease have limited efficacy. Studies suggest, at least for disease in the knee, that most persons with painful OA already have extensive structural disease including malalignment, which may preclude successful stabilization or reversal of disease. This provides a strong rationale for developing strategies to prevent disease or to identify and treat it early. A variety of approaches, reviewed here, are likely to capture those at high risk of or with early disease; imaging techniques offer great promise of characterizing structural changes before they are irreversible. However, given the absence of effective treatments, it is unclear whether structural disease could be successfully slowed or prevented in those with early symptoms or those at high risk of disease. PMID:25437286

  7. The effect of doxycycline on canine hip osteoarthritis: design of a 6-months clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Suwankong, Niyada; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five dogs were included in a randomized, double-blind trial to assess the efficacy of doxycycline (DOX) orally administered twice a day at 4 mg/kg/day (n = 12) for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip. Chondroitin sulfate (CS; 525 mg/day) was used as a positive control (n = 13). Dogs were re-examined monthly for 6 months after initiation of treatment. The assessment protocol included clinical score, radiographic findings and serum osteoarthritis biomarkers. Dogs treated with DOX showed statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in lameness, joint mobility, pain on palpation, weight-bearing and overall score at 2, 6, 4, 4 and 4 months, respectively, after treatment. Biomarker levels of CS-WF6 epitope and hyaluronan were significantly increased and decreased (p < 0.05) at 2 and 3 months after treatment compared to pretreatment. These results showed that DOX had a positive therapeutic effect in dogs with osteoarthritis. PMID:19687625

  8. Postoperative Therapy for Chronic Thumb Carpometacarpal (CMC) Joint Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Wollstein, Ronit; Michael, Dafna; Harel, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Surgical arthroplasty of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis is commonly performed. Postoperative therapeutic protocols aim to improve range of motion and function of the revised thumb. We describe a case in which the thumb CMC joint had been chronically dislocated before surgery, with shortening of the soft-tissue dynamic and static stabilizers of the joint. The postoperative protocol addressed the soft tissues using splinting and exercises aimed at lengthening and strengthening these structures, with good results. It may be beneficial to evaluate soft-tissue tension and the pattern of thumb use after surgery for thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis to improve postoperative functional results. PMID:26709434

  9. Criterion Validation Testing of Clinical Metrology Instruments for Measuring Degenerative Joint Disease Associated Mobility Impairment in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Thomson, Andrea E.; Simpson, Wendy; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Methods Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Results Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Conclusions Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease. PMID:26162101

  10. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis. PMID:26141136

  11. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, B K; Saltin, B

    2006-02-01

    Considerable knowledge has accumulated in recent decades concerning the significance of physical activity in the treatment of a number of diseases, including diseases that do not primarily manifest as disorders of the locomotive apparatus. In this review we present the evidence for prescribing exercise therapy in the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related disorders (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity), heart and pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, intermittent claudication), muscle, bone and joint diseases (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome) and cancer, depression, asthma and type 1 diabetes. For each disease, we review the effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis, on symptoms specific to the diagnosis, on physical fitness or strength and on quality of life. The possible mechanisms of action are briefly examined and the principles for prescribing exercise therapy are discussed, focusing on the type and amount of exercise and possible contraindications. PMID:16451303

  12. MicroRNAs' Involvement in Osteoarthritis and the Prospects for Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ming; Meng, Hao-Ye; Yuan, Xue-Ling; Wang, Yu; Guo, Quan-Yi; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Ai-Yuan; Lu, Shi-Bi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease and its etiology is complex. With increasing OA incidence, more and more people are facing heavy financial and social burdens from the disease. Genetics-related aspects of OA pathogenesis are not well understood. Recent reports have examined the molecular mechanisms and genes related to OA. It has been realized that genetic changes in articular cartilage and bone may contribute to OA's development. Osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in joints must express appropriate genes to achieve tissue homeostasis, and errors in this can cause OA. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been discovered to be overarching regulators of gene expression. Their ability to repress many target genes and their target-binding specificity indicate a complex network of interactions, which is still being defined. Many studies have focused on the role of miRNAs in bone and cartilage and have identified numbers of miRNAs that play important roles in regulating bone and cartilage homeostasis. Those miRNAs may also be involved in the pathology of OA, which is the focus of this review. Future studies on the role of miRNAs in OA will provide important clues leading to a better understanding of the mechanism(s) of OA and, more particularly, to the development of therapeutic targets for OA. PMID:26587043

  13. Deletion of Panx3 Prevents the Development of Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paxton M.; Penuela, Silvia; Barr, Kevin; Khan, Sami; Pin, Christopher L.; Welch, Ian; Attur, Mukundan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent, disabling joint disease with no existing therapies to slow or halt its progression. Cartilage degeneration hallmarks OA pathogenesis, and pannexin 3 (Panx3), a member of a novel family of channel proteins, is upregulated during this process. The function of Panx3 remains poorly understood, but we consistently observed a strong increase in Panx3 immunostaining in OA lesions in both mice and humans. Here, we developed and characterized the first global and conditional Panx3 knockout mice to investigate the role of Panx3 in OA. Interestingly, global Panx3 deletion produced no overt phenotype and had no obvious effect on early skeletal development. Mice lacking Panx3 specifically in the cartilage and global Panx3 knockout mice were markedly resistant to the development of OA following destabilization of medial meniscus surgery. These data indicate a specific catabolic role of Panx3 in articular cartilage and identify Panx3 as a potential therapeutic target for OA. Lastly, while Panx1 has been linked to over a dozen human pathologies, this is the first in vivo evidence for a role of Panx3 in disease. PMID:26138248

  14. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  15. Functional Annotation of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Associated Genes by Integrative Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profiling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan-Chun; Xiao, Jie; Peng, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jian-Wei; Ma, Tao; Cheng, Guang-Qi; Dong, Yu-Qi; Wang, Wei-li; Liu, Zu-De

    2014-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are two major types of joint diseases that share multiple common symptoms. However, their pathological mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of our study is to identify RA and OA related-genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of these diseases. Methods We collected 11 whole genome-wide expression profiling datasets from RA and OA cohorts and performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. This method can avoid some pitfalls of single dataset analyses. Results and Conclusion We found that several biological pathways (i.e., the immunity, inflammation and apoptosis related pathways) are commonly involved in the development of both RA and OA. Whereas several other pathways (i.e., vasopressin-related pathway, regulation of autophagy, endocytosis, calcium transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress related pathways) present significant difference between RA and OA. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:24551036

  16. Attenuation of the Progression of Articular Cartilage Degeneration by Inhibition of TGF-?1 Signaling in a Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rebecca; Mian, Michelle; Fu, Martin; Zhao, Jing Ying; Yang, Liang; Li, Yefu; Xu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) is implicated in osteoarthritis. We therefore studied the role of TGF-?1 signaling in the development of osteoarthritis in a developmental stage-dependent manner. Three different mouse models were investigated. First, the Tgf-? receptor II (Tgfbr2) was specifically removed from the mature cartilage of joints. Tgfbr2-deficient mice were grown to 12 months of age and were then euthanized for collection of knee and temporomandibular joints. Second, Tgfbr2-deficient mice were subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Knee joints were then collected from the mice at 8 and 16 weeks after the surgery. Third, wild-type mice were subjected to DMM at the age of 8 weeks. Immediately after the surgery, these mice were treated with the Tgfbr2 inhibitor losartan for 8 weeks and then euthanized for collection of knee joints. All joints were characterized for evidences of articular cartilage degeneration. Initiation or acceleration of articular cartilage degeneration was not observed by the genetic inactivation of Tgfbr2 in the joints at the age of 12 months. In fact, the removal of Tgfbr2 and treatment with losartan both delayed the progression of articular cartilage degeneration induced by DMM compared with control littermates. Therefore, we conclude that inhibition of Tgf-?1 signaling protects adult knee joints in mice against the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:26355014

  17. Patterns of knee osteoarthritis in a hospital setting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bija, Marie Doualla; Luma, Henry Namme; Temfack, Elvis; Gueleko, Eunice Tafam; Kemta, Fernando; Ngandeu, Madeleine

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent joint disease in adults, ranks among the top 5 causes of disability. The burden of OA is expected to be greater in developing countries, where life expectancy is increasing and access to joint replacement therapy is not readily available. Risk factors associated with knee OA in Africa may differ from those identified in other parts of the world. This study aimed to establish the prevalence, clinical presentation, and associated factors of knee OA in two large referral centers in Cameroon. Between February and July 2012, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 148 patients with knee OA followed at two rheumatology units in Douala. We included all patients with mechanical knee pain, who fulfilled the 1986 ACR for the classification and reporting of knee OA. One thousand four hundred ninety-six patients with musculoskeletal complaints were seen; 148 (9.9 %) with knee OA were analyzed. Mean age was 56.9?±?10.7 years, 75 % were females, and 68 % were post-menopausal. The VAS of pain at the time of diagnosis was higher than 50/100 mm in 64.2 % of patients. Mean pain duration was 1 year (7 months-3.5 years). Obesity (BMI?>?30) was present in 52 % of patients, hypertension in 37.2 %, and diabetes in 8.8 %. Knee x-ray showed 35.5 % of patients with grades III and IV on Kellgren and Lawrence classification. Bilateral bi-compartmental knee OA was found in 38.5 % of patients and bilateral tricompartmental in 14.2 %. The mean Lequesne disability index (LDI) was 8.4?±?2.8. Pain intensity did not correlate with radiological findings whereas there was an association between pain and LDI. Knee OA is not rare among patients in Cameroon. Multiple factors including limited access to health care may account for why knee OA patients present at later stages of the disease with severe disability. PMID:24916604

  18. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT. In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists. The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively). A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  19. Bone and joint diseases around the world. Sweden: a brief update on burden and priority.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Kristina

    2003-08-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are increasingly common with advancing age. The life expectancy increased early and rapidly in Sweden, and today 17% of the population is over age 65. Musculoskeletal problems are therefore common but in general are receiving low attention, despite enormous costs for society. The indirect costs for musculoskeletal conditions vastly exceed direct costs (80% vs 20%). This is obviated by the fact that in 2001, of all persons receiving disability pension or taking longterm sick leave, 60% had a diagnosis related to the musculoskeletal system. Further, in a population of 9 million, 70,000 fragility fractures occur each year, 18,000 of the hip and 25,000 of the forearm, corresponding to a hip fracture incidence of 20.14/10,000, among the highest in the world. Government policy is implemented through several agencies, national and local. State of the art reports are currently available in 12 areas of musculoskeletal condition, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and hip fracture, while no national evidence-based guidelines have been developed for these conditions. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care provides the scientific foundation of present methods for treatment through evidence-based evaluations. National registers are continuously evaluating orthopedic implant procedures, of which the Swedish Hip Register has provided valuable information on total hip replacements since 1979. For the future, there is a need for setting of priorities with regard to musculoskeletal conditions, including development of guidelines of mechanism of implementation. PMID:12926652

  20. [Management of osteoarthritis: oral therapies].

    PubMed

    Richette, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    According to the European League of Associations of Rheumatology (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), acetaminophen should be used as a first-line therapy in patients with osteoarthritis, because of its safety and effectiveness. NSAID should be considered in patients unresponsive to acetaminophen, and should be prescribed at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. The use of stronger analgesics, such as weak opioids and narcotic analgesics, is only indicated when other drugs, such as NSAID, have been ineffective or are contraindicated. Symptomatic slow acting drugs (avocado soybean unsaponifiable, chondroitin sulphate, diacerein, glucosamine sulphate) have mild symptomatic effects and may reduce the consumption of NSAID. PMID:22730795

  1. Search for hand osteoarthritis susceptibility locus on chromosome 6p12.3-p12.1.

    PubMed

    Jakowlev, K; Livshits, G; Kalichman, L; Ben-Asher, E; Malkin, I; Lancet, D; Kobyliansky, E

    2007-02-01

    The existence of osteoarthritis susceptibility loci on chromosome 6 for individuals suffering from hip and knee osteoarthritis has been suggested. We determined whether radiographic hand osteoarthritis in a demographically homogeneous population of European origin can be linked to loci on chromosome 6p12.3-p12.1. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 764 individuals (members of 189 nuclear and more complex two- or three-generation families). Radiographic hand osteoarthritis was characterized by two traits: (1) the total individual osteoarthritis score (PC1-OA) and (2) the osteophytes score (PC1-OS), obtained from the principal components analysis of sums of the Kellgren and Lawrence grade and of the osteophyte grades, respectively, for 14 joints on each hand. The contribution of genetic and environmental factors and of covariates such as age and body mass index to hand osteoarthritis was evaluated by variance components analysis. The association between the studied traits and selected DNA markers was evaluated by three types of transmission disequilibrium tests. The parent-offspring and sib-sib correlations were statistically significant for all studied traits. The additive genetic effects for PC1-OA and PC1-OS were estimated to be 43% and 37.9%, respectively. Transmission disequilibrium tests consistently revealed a statistically significant association (p values ranged from 0.017 to 0.030) between SNP rs1508632 and PC1-OS. In the tested cohort the putative genetic factors are influential enough to determine interindividual differences regarding the extent of hand osteoarthritis. SNP rs1508632 lies in immediate proximity to the TINAG gene, implicating it as a possible hand osteoarthritis susceptibility gene. PMID:17985653

  2. Abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty for carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Kaarela, O; Raatikainen, T

    1999-05-01

    Thirty-eight thumbs in 35 patients with painful osteoarthritis of the thumb basal joint were treated by trapezium excision and abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty. Long-term results were obtained from all patients by subjective evaluation and 29 patients were re-examined 1 to 11 years after surgery (mean, 6 years). The overall result was excellent or good in 79% of the cases and 76% of the patients reported good or excellent pain relief. In 6 cases (16%) surgery provided no improvement. The range of shortening of the first ray was from 2 to 10 mm (mean, 7 mm). Grip and pinch strengths were measured, but the results were variable and consequently not informative. On the basis of our results we recommend abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb basal joint. PMID:10357523

  3. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562235

  4. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the emotional manifestations of osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    La Porta, Carmen; Bura, S Andreea; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Pastor, Antoni; Navarrete, Francisco; García-Gutiérrez, María Salud; De la Torre, Rafael; Manzanares, Jorge; Monfort, Jordi; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the emotional and cognitive alterations associated with osteoarthritis pain. The monosodium iodoacetate model was used to evaluate the affective and cognitive manifestations of osteoarthritis pain in type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) cannabinoid receptor knockout and wild-type mice and the ability of CB1R (ACEA) and CB2R (JWH133) selective agonists to improve these manifestations during a 3-week time period. The levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were measured in plasma and brain areas involved in the control of these manifestations. Patients with knee osteoarthritis and healthy controls were recruited to evaluate pain, affective, and cognitive symptoms, as well as plasma endocannabinoid levels and cannabinoid receptor gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The affective manifestations of osteoarthritis were enhanced in CB1R knockout mice and absent in CB2R knockouts. Interestingly, both ACEA and JWH133 ameliorated the nociceptive and affective alterations, whereas ACEA also improved the associated memory impairment. An increase of 2-AG levels in prefrontal cortex and plasma was observed in this mouse model of osteoarthritis. In agreement, an increase of 2-AG plasmatic levels and an upregulation of CB1R and CB2R gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in patients with osteoarthritis compared with healthy subjects. Changes found in these biomarkers of the ECS correlated with pain, affective, and cognitive symptoms in these patients. The ECS plays a crucial role in osteoarthritis and represents an interesting pharmacological target and biomarker of this disease. PMID:26067584

  5. Functional anatomy of the distal radioulnar joint in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is critical to the function of the forearm as a mechanical unit. This paper is concerned with the concepts and observations that have changed understanding of the function of the DRUJ, notably with respect to the biomechanics of this joint. The DRUJ has been shown to be important in acting to distribute load and removal of the ulna head leads to the biomechanical equivalent of a one-bone forearm. The soft tissues with topographical relations to the distal forearm and DRUJ have also been investigated in our experimental series with findings including the description of a clinical disorder termed subluxation-related ulna neuropathy syndrome. PMID:23827285

  6. Potent inhibition of cartilage biosynthesis by coincubation with joint capsule through an IL-1-independent pathway

    E-print Network

    Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    The reason for the increased risk for development of osteoarthritis (OA) after acute joint trauma is not well understood, but the mechanically injured cartilage may be more susceptible to degradative mediators secreted by ...

  7. Modifications of Gait as Predictors of Natural Osteoarthritis Progression in STR/Ort Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poulet, Blandine; de Souza, Roberto; Knights, Chancie B; Gentry, Clive; Wilson, Alan M; Bevan, Stuart; Chang, Yu-Mei; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disease for which disease-modifying therapies are not currently available. Studies to seek new targets for slowing the progress of OA rely on mouse models, but these do not allow for longitudinal monitoring of disease development. This study was undertaken to determine whether gait can be used to measure disease severity in the STR/Ort mouse model of spontaneous OA and whether gait changes are related to OA joint pain. Methods Gait was monitored using a treadmill-based video system. Correlations between OA severity and gait at 3 treadmill speeds were assessed in STR/Ort mice. Gait and pain behaviors of STR/Ort mice and control CBA mice were analyzed longitudinally, with monthly assessments. Results The best speed to identify paw area changes associated with OA severity in STR/Ort mice was found to be 17 cm · seconds?1. Paw area was modified with age in CBA and STR/Ort mice, but this began earlier in STR/Ort mice and correlated with the onset of OA at 20 weeks of age. In addition, task noncompliance appeared at 20 weeks. Surprisingly, STR/Ort mice did not show any signs of pain with OA development, even when treated with the opioid antagonist naloxone, but did exhibit normal pain behaviors in response to complete Freund's adjuvant–induced arthritis. Conclusion The present results identify an animal model in which OA severity and OA pain can be studied in isolation from one another. The findings suggest that paw area and treadmill noncompliance may be useful tools to longitudinally monitor nonpainful OA development in STR/Ort mice. This will help in providing a noninvasive means of assessing new therapies to slow the progression of OA. PMID:24623711

  8. High Spatial Resolution MRI of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Iliofemoral Vein Communicating with the Hip Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Michael; Pantziara, Maria Ioannidis, Kleanthis

    2013-05-14

    Venous cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an extremely rare entity, and so far less than 20 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe the imaging findings of CAD of iliofemoral vein in a 51-year-old woman who presented with leg swelling with special emphasis on high spatial resolution MRI, which demonstrated communication of the cyst with the hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of high spatial resolution MRI findings in venous CAD supporting a new theory about the pathogenesis of venous CAD.

  9. Neurovascular invasion at the osteochondral junction and in osteophytes in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Sunita; Gill, Sarah E; de Camin, Sally Massena; Wilson, Deborah; McWilliams, Daniel F; Walsh, David A

    2007-01-01

    Background Normal adult articular cartilage is thought to be avascular and aneural. Objective To describe neurovascular structures at the osteochondral junction and in osteophytes in tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) displaying a range of severity of cartilage changes. Methods Articular surfaces were obtained from 40 patients at total knee joint replacement surgery for tibiofemoral OA (TKR) and seven patients post mortem (PM). Antibodies directed against CD34 (vascular endothelium), protein gene product 9.5 (pan?neuronal marker), substance P and calcitonin gene?related peptide (sensory nerves) and C?flanking peptide of neuropeptide Y (sympathetic nerves) were used to localise blood vessels and nerves by immunohistochemistry. Severity of OA cartilage changes was graded histologically. Results TKR and PM samples displayed a range of OA cartilage changes including tidemark breaching by vascular channels. Sympathetic and sensory nerves were both present within vascular channels in the articular cartilage, in both mild and severe OA. Perivascular and free nerve fibres, and nerve trunks were observed within the subchondral bone marrow and within the marrow cavities of osteophytes. Sensory and sympathetic nerves displayed similar distributions in each region studied. Conclusion Vascularisation and the associated innervation of articular cartilage may contribute to tibiofemoral pain in OA across a wide range of structural disease severity. PMID:17446239

  10. Shoulder arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: current concepts in biomechanics and surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, G; Nastrucci, G; Porcellini, G

    Shoulder arthroplasty is a technically demanding procedure to restore shoulder function in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The modern prosthetic system exploit the benefits of modularity and the availibility of additional sizes of the prosthetic components. In this paper we describe the biomechanics of shoulder arthroplasty and the technique for shoulder replacement including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) with all-polyethylene and metal-backed glenoid component, humeral head resurfacing and stemless humeral replacement. PMID:24251240

  11. Identifying Patient-Specific Pathology in Osteoarthritis Development Based on MicroCT Analysis of Subchondral Trabecular Bone.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Marla J; Eisenhauer, Peter T; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify alternative mechanisms of osteoarthritis pathology by analyzing subchondral bone. Femoral condyle samples were collected from post-menopausal female patients with knee osteoarthritis undegoing total knee arthroplasty. In the majority of patients, subchondral trabecular bone volume doubled under a region of the medial femoral condyle with full-thickness cartilage deterioration. However, in a subset of patients the bone volume in this region remained constant. This subset also had larger areas of vascular penetration in the calcified cartilage of the lateral condyle concurrent with increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Subtyping by subchondral bone characteristics identified a unique population, which lacked the sclerotic bone characteristic of late-stage osteoarthritis. Identification of subtypes within the osteoarthritis population allows investigation of alternate disease pathologies. PMID:26411393

  12. The role of PGRN in musculoskeletal development and disease.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Jessica; Richbourgh, Brendon; Liu, Chuanju

    2014-01-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor that has been implicated in wound healing, inflammation, infection, tumorigenesis, and is most known for its neuroprotective and proliferative properties in neurodegenerative disease. This pleiotropic growth factor has been found to be a key player and regulator of a diverse spectrum of multi-systemic functions. Its critical anti-inflammatory role in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disease models has allowed for the propulsion of research to establish its significance in musculoskeletal diseases, including inflammatory conditions involving bone and cartilage pathology. In this review, we aim to elaborate on the emerging role of PGRN in the musculoskeletal system, reviewing its particular mechanisms described in various musculoskeletal diseases, with special focus on osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint disease patho-mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of PGRN and its derivatives in these and other musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:24389211

  13. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  14. The infrapatellar fat pad from diseased joints inhibits chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Rudjito, E; Fahy, N; Verhaar, J A; Clockaerts, S; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y M; van Osch, G J

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage repair by bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be influenced by inflammation in the knee. Next to synovium, the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) has been described as a source for inflammatory factors. Here, we investigated whether factors secreted by the IPFP affect chondrogenesis of MSCs and whether this is influenced by different joint pathologies or obesity. Furthermore, we examined the role of IPFP resident macrophages. First, we made conditioned medium from IPFP obtained from osteoarthritic joints, IPFP from traumatically injured joints during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, we made conditioned medium of macrophages isolated from osteoarthritic IPFP and of polarised monocytes from peripheral blood. We evaluated the effect of different types of conditioned medium on MSC chondrogenesis. Conditioned medium from IPFP decreased collagen 2 and aggrecan gene expression as well as thionin and collagen type 2 staining. This anti-chondrogenic effect was the same for conditioned medium from IPFP of osteoarthritic and traumatically injured joints. Furthermore, IPFP from obese (Body Mass Index >30) donors did not inhibit chondrogenesis more than that of lean (Body Mass Index <25) donors. Finally, conditioned medium from macrophages isolated from IPFP decreased the expression of hyaline cartilage genes, as did peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IPFP and the resident pro-inflammatory macrophages could therefore be targets for therapies to improve MSC-based cartilage repair. PMID:26629970

  15. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  16. Anti-Osteoarthritic Effects of the Litsea japonica Fruit in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis Induced by Monosodium Iodoacetate

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dae Won; Kwon, Jung Eun; Jung, Moon Won; Meng, Xue; Jo, Se Min; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Song, Sang Mok; Ham, Young-Min; Jung, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Chang Sook; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative chronic disease that affects various tissues surrounding the joints, such as the subchondral bone and articular cartilage. The onset of OA is associated with uncontrolled catabolic and anabolic remodeling processes of the joints, including the cartilage and subchondral bone, to adapt to local biological and biochemical signals. In this study, we determined whether 70% ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Litsea japonica fruit (LJFE) had beneficial effects on the articular cartilage, including structural changes in the tibial subchondral bone, matrix degradation, and inflammatory responses, in OA by using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA. Our results showed that administration of LJFE increased the bone volume and cross-section thickness, but the mean number of objects per slice in this group was lower than that in the OA control (OAC) group. In addition, the LJFE decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared to the OAC group, the group treated with high doses of LJFE (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed a more than 80% inhibition of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Our results suggest that LJFE can be used as a potential anti-osteoarthritic agent. PMID:26244981

  17. Augmented chondroprotective effect of coadministration of celecoxib and rebamipide in the monosodium iodoacetate rat model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Su-Jin; Park, Jin-Sil; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Yang, Eun-Ji; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Min, Jun-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Although cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib are recommended to patients at high risk of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, COX-2 inhibitors do not completely prevent GI adverse events. Rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent, has anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an oxygen radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of coadministration of rebamipide and celecoxib in an OA rat model. OA was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Oral administration of rebamipide was initiated on the day of OA induction. In this study, rebamipide showed antinociceptive properties and attenuated cartilage degeneration. Rebamipide reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13, interleukin-1?, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrotyrosine in OA cartilage. OA rats treated with celecoxib in combination with rebamipide demonstrated a higher pain threshold than those treated with monotherapy. Histological examination also showed that the joints from OA animals treated with combination therapy demonstrated less cartilage damage than those of animals treated with monotherapy. We showed that the potential benefit of combination therapy with celecoxib and rebamipide on pain and cartilage degeneration in OA. PMID:23338062

  18. Joint analysis of structural and perfusion MRI for cognitive assessment and classification of Alzheimer’s disease and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Duygu; Mojabi, Pouria; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain tissue loss and physiological imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can provide complimentary information for the characterization of brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but studies into gains in classification power for AD using these image modalities jointly have been limited. Our aim in this study was to determine the joint contribution of structural and perfusion-weighted imaging for the classification of AD in a cross-sectional study using an integrated multimodality MRI processing framework and a cortical surface-based analysis approach. We used logistic regression analysis to determine sequentially the value of cortical thickness, rCBF, and cortical thickness and rCBF jointly for classification for diagnosis of AD compared to controls. We further tested the extent to which cortical thinning and reduced rCBF explain individually or together variability in dementia severity. Separate analysis of structural MRI and perfusion-weighted MRI data yielded the well-established pattern of cortical thinning and rCBF reduction in AD, affecting predominantly temporo-parietal brain regions. Using structural MRI and perfusion-weighted MRI jointly indicated that cortical thinning dominated the classification of AD and controls without significant contributions from rCBF. However there was also a positive interaction between reduced rCBF and cortical thinning in the right superior temporal sulcus, implying that structural and physiological brain alterations in AD can be complementary. Compared to reduced rCBF, regional cortical thinning better explained the variability in dementia severity. In conclusion, structural brain alterations compared to physiological variations are the dominant features of MRI in AD. PMID:20406691

  19. Prevalence and management of osteoarthritis in primary care: an epidemiologic cohort study from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network

    PubMed Central

    Morkem, Rachael; Peat, George; Williamson, Tyler; Green, Michael E.; Khan, Shahriar; Jordan, Kelvin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a common chronic condition that affects many older Canadians and is a considerable cause of disability. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of osteoarthritis in patients aged 30 years and older using electronic medical records (EMRs) in a Canadian primary care population. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the EMRs of 207 610 patients over 30 years of age (extracted on December 31, 2012) who had at least one clinic visit during the preceding 2 years. We calculated the age–sex standardized prevalence of diagnosed osteoarthritis and its association with comorbidities and covariates available in the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network database. Results The estimated prevalence of diagnosed osteoarthritis was 14.2% (15.6% among women, 12.4% among men). The diagnosis of osteoarthritis was associated with several comorbidities: hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.18), depression (PR 1.26, 95% CI 1.22–1.3), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.11–1.21) and epilepsy (PR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13–1.43). In addition, 56.6% of patients had received a prescription for a range of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 45% of which were topical. Opioid medications were prescribed to 33% of patients for pain management. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is a common disease in middle-aged and older Canadians. It is more common in women than in men and is associated with comorbid conditions. Most patients with osteoarthritis received pharmacotherapy for inflammation and pain management. As the Canadian population ages, osteoarthritis will become an increasing burden for individuals and the health care system. PMID:26442224

  20. The relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic osteoarthritis and 3D bone area: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Barr, A.J.; Dube, B.; Hensor, E.M.A.; Kingsbury, S.R.; Peat, G.; Bowes, M.A.; Conaghan, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Radiographic measures of osteoarthritis (OA) are based upon two dimensional projection images. Active appearance modelling (AAM) of knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate, 3D quantification of joint structures in large cohorts. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic measures of OA and 3D bone area (tAB). Methods Clinical data and baseline paired radiographic and MRI data, from the medial compartment of one knee of 2588 participants were obtained from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). The medial femur (MF) and tibia (MT) tAB were calculated using AAM. ‘OA-attributable’ tAB (OA-tAB) was calculated using data from regression models of tAB of knees without OA. Associations between OA-tAB and radiographic measures of OA were investigated using linear regression. Results In univariable analyses, height, weight, and age in female knees without OA explained 43.1%, 32.1% and 0.1% of the MF tAB variance individually and 54.4% when included simultaneously in a multivariable model. Joint space width (JSW), osteophytes and sclerosis explained just 5.3%, 14.9% and 10.1% of the variance of MF OA-tAB individually and 17.4% when combined. Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade explained approximately 20% of MF OA-tAB individually. Similar results were seen for MT OA-tAB. Conclusion Height explained the majority of variance in tAB, confirming an allometric relationship between body and joint size. Radiographic measures of OA, derived from a single radiographic projection, accounted for only a small amount of variation in 3D knee OA-tAB. The additional structural information provided by 3D bone area may explain the lack of a substantive relationship with these radiographic OA measures. PMID:25278079

  1. Longitudinal Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Older Adults with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shibing; Dubé, Catherine E.; Eaton, Charles B.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Lapane, Kate L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for more mobility issues in older adults than any other disease. OA is a chronic and often painful disease for which there is no cure. Cross-sectional studies have shown that older adults frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and arthritis is the most common reason for CAM use. While previous research has profiled the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of CAM users, few have provided information on variation in CAM use over time and most only considered use of any CAM, which was often a mixture of heterogeneous therapies. Objectives This study sought to describe the longitudinal patterns of CAM use among older adults with knee OA, and to identify correlates/predictors of different commonly-used CAM therapies. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative included 1,121 adults aged 65 years and above with radiographic tibiofemoral OA in one or both knees at baseline. Annual surveys captured current use of conventional therapies and 25 CAM modalities (grouped into 6 categories) for joint pain or arthritis at baseline and during the 4-year follow-up. We assessed longitudinal use of CAM modalities by summing the number of visits with participants reporting use of each modality. Correlates of CAM use under consideration included sociodemographic indicators, body mass index, overall measures of mental and physical wellbeing, and clinical indices of knee OA. Generalized estimation equations provided adjusted odds ratio estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Results Nearly one third of older adults reported using ? one CAM modality for treating OA at all assessments. With the exception of glucosamine and chondroitin (18%), few were persistent users of other CAM modalities. One in five of those using NSAIDs or glucosamine/chondroitin were using them concurrently. Adjusted models showed: 1) adults aged ?75 years were less likely to use dietary supplements than those aged between 65 and 75 years; 2) persons with more severe knee pain or stiffness reported more CAM use; 3) better knee-related physical function was correlated with more use of chiropractic/massage; 4) older adults with more comorbidities were less likely to report use of dietary supplements. Conclusion Patterns of CAM use are, to some extent, inconsistent with current guidelines for OA treatment. Evaluating the potential risks and benefits in older adults from commonly-used CAM modalities, with or without combination use of conventional analgesics, is warranted. PMID:24145044

  2. Femoroacetabular impingement and osteoarthritis of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Charlie; Li, Linda; Forster, Bruce B.; Kopec, Jacek A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Halai, Lalji; Cibere, Jolanda; Esdaile, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To outline the clinical presentation, physical examination findings, diagnostic criteria, and management options of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Sources of information PubMed was searched for relevant articles regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of FAI. Main message In recent years, FAI has been increasingly recognized as a potential precursor and an important contributor to hip pain in the adult population and idiopathic hip osteoarthritis later in life. Femoroacetabular impingement is a collection of bony morphologic abnormalities of the hip joint that result in abnormal contact during motion. Cam-type FAI relates to a non-spherical osseous prominence of the proximal femoral neck or head-neck junction. Pincer-type FAI relates to excessive acetabular coverage over the femoral head, which can occur owing to several morphologic variants. Patients with FAI present with chronic, deep, or aching anterior groin pain most commonly in the sitting position, or during or after activity. Patients might also experience occasional sharp pains during activity. A thorough history should be taken that includes incidence of trauma and exercise frequency. A physical examination should be performed that includes a full hip, low back, and abdominal examination to assess for alternate causes of anterior groin pain. Diagnosis of FAI should be confirmed with radiography. Femoroacetabular impingement can be managed conservatively with rest, modification of activities, medications, and physiotherapy, or it can be treated surgically. Conclusion Femoroacetabular impingement is an important cause of anterior groin pain. Early recognition and intervention by the primary care provider might be critical to alleviating morbidity and preventing FAI progression. PMID:26668284

  3. Osteoarthritis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Osteoarthritis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Korean (???) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Chinese - Simplified ( ...

  4. Radial MRI of the hip with moderate osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horii, M; Kubo, T; Hirasawa, Y

    2000-04-01

    We carried out radial MRI in 30 hips with moderate osteoarthritis and in ten normal hips. On a scout view containing the entire acetabular rim, 12 vertical radial slices were set at 15 degrees intervals. Different appearances were observed in different parts of the joint. In the weight-bearing portion, from 45 degrees anterosuperior to 45 degrees posterosuperior, 'attenuation' (n = 16) and 'disappearance' (n = 25) were observed as abnormalities of the labrum with 'capsular stripping' (n = 29) and 'extraosseous high signal lesion' (n = 27) as capsular abnormalities, seen more often in the anterosuperior portion. In all 12 planes there were osteophytes on the acetabular edge (n = 24), femoral head (n = 22) and/or at the central acetabulum (n = 6), a bone cyst on the acetabulum (n = 18) and/or the femoral head (n = 9), irregularity of the articular cartilage (n = 30), and an effusion (n = 28). Our findings indicate that radial MRI may be a useful non-invasive diagnostic method for demonstrating pathology in moderate osteoarthritis of the hip. PMID:10813170

  5. Meniscal Transplantation and its Effect on Osteoarthritis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N. A.; Achten, J.; Parsons, N.; Wright, D.; Parkinson, B.; Thompson, P.; Hutchinson, C. E.; Spalding, T.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subtotal or total meniscectomy in the medial or lateral compartment of the knee results in a high risk of future osteoarthritis. Meniscal allograft transplantation has been performed for over thirty years with the scientifically plausible hypothesis that it functions in a similar way to a native meniscus. It is thought that a meniscal allograft transplant has a chondroprotective effect, reducing symptoms and the long-term risk of osteoarthritis. However, this hypothesis has never been tested in a high-quality study on human participants. This study aims to address this shortfall by performing a pilot randomised controlled trial within the context of a comprehensive cohort study design. Methods Patients will be randomised to receive either meniscal transplant or a non-operative, personalised knee therapy program. MRIs will be performed every four months for one year. The primary endpoint is the mean change in cartilage volume in the weight-bearing area of the knee at one year post intervention. Secondary outcome measures include the mean change in cartilage thickness, T2 maps, patient-reported outcome measures, health economics assessment and complications. Results This study is expected to report its findings in 2016. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:93–8 PMID:26036203

  6. Loss of ATRX Does Not Confer Susceptibility to Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Lauren A.; Russell, Bailey A.; Makar, David; Bérubé, Nathalie G.; Beier, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The chromatin remodelling protein ATRX is associated with the rare genetic disorder ATR-X syndrome. This syndrome includes developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a variety of skeletal deformities. ATRX plays a role in several basic chromatin-mediated cellular events including DNA replication, telomere stability, gene transcription, and chromosome congression and cohesion during cell division. We have used a loss-of-function approach to directly investigate the role of Atrx in the adult skeleton in three different models of selective Atrx loss. We specifically targeted deletion of Atrx to the forelimb mesenchyme, to cartilage and to bone-forming osteoblasts. We previously demonstrated that loss of ATRX in forelimb mesenchyme causes brachydactyly while deletion in chondrocytes had minimal effects during development. We now show that targeted deletion of Atrx in osteoblasts causes minor dwarfism but does not recapitulate most of the skeletal phenotypes seen in ATR-X syndrome patients. In adult mice from all three models, we find that joints lacking Atrx are not more susceptible to osteoarthritis, as determined by OARSI scoring and immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that while ATRX plays limited roles during early stages of skeletal development, deficiency of the protein in adult tissues does not confer susceptibility to osteoarthritis. PMID:24386478

  7. Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

  8. Conservative biomechanical strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L

    2011-02-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent forms of this disease, with the medial compartment most commonly affected. The direction of external forces and limb orientation during walking results in an adduction moment that acts around the knee, and this parameter is regarded as a surrogate measure of medial knee compression. The knee adduction moment is intimately linked with the development and progression of knee OA and is, therefore, a target for conservative biomechanical intervention strategies, which are the focus of this Review. We examine the evidence for walking barefoot and the use of lateral wedge insoles and thin-soled, flexible shoes to reduce the knee adduction moment in patients with OA. We review strategies that directly affect the gait, such as walking with the foot externally rotated ('toe-out gait'), using a cane, lateral trunk sway and gait retraining. Valgus knee braces and muscle strengthening are also discussed for their effect upon reducing the knee adduction moment. PMID:21289615

  9. Posttraumatic Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Helen E.; Quinn, Peter D.; Granquist, Eric; Chou, Joli C.

    2009-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has many essential functions. None of its components are exempt from injury. Facial asymmetry, malocclusion, disturbances in growth, osteoarthritis, and ankylosis can manifest as complications from trauma to the TMJ. The goals of initial treatment include achievement of pretraumatic function, restoration of facial symmetry, and resolution of pain. These same objectives hold true for late repairs and reconstruction of the TMJ apparatus. Treatment is demanding, and with opposing approaches. The following article explores various treatment options for problems presenting as a result of a history of trauma to the TMJ. PMID:22110802

  10. Intraarticular injections (corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma) for the knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Egemen; Kesmezacar, Hayrettin; Akgun, Isik

    2014-07-18

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex "whole joint" disease pursued by inflammatory mediators, rather than purely a process of "wear and tear". Besides cartilage degradation, synovitis, subchondral bone remodeling, degeneration of ligaments and menisci, and hypertrophy of the joint capsule take parts in the pathogenesis. Pain is the hallmark symptom of OA, but the extent to which structural pathology in OA contributes to the pain experience is still not well known. For the knee OA, intraarticular (IA) injection (corticosteroids, viscosupplements, blood-derived products) is preferred as the last nonoperative modality, if the other conservative treatment modalities are ineffective. IA corticosteroid injections provide short term reduction in OA pain and can be considered as an adjunct to core treatment for the relief of moderate to severe pain in people with OA. IA hyaluronic acid (HA) injections might have efficacy and might provide pain reduction in mild OA of knee up to 24 wk. But for HA injections, the cost-effectiveness is an important concern that patients must be informed about the efficacy of these preparations. Although more high-quality evidence is needed, recent studies indicate that IA platelet rich plasma injections are promising for relieving pain, improving knee function and quality of life, especially in younger patients, and in mild OA cases. The current literature and our experience indicate that IA injections are safe and have positive effects for patient satisfaction. But, there is no data that any of the IA injections will cause osteophytes to regress or cartilage and meniscus to regenerate in patients with substantial and irreversible bone and cartilage damage. PMID:25035839

  11. A microfluidic platform with a flow-balanced fluidic network for osteoarthritis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kangil; Park, Yoo Min; Yoon, Hyun C.; Yang, Sang Sik

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common human diseases, and the occurrence of OA is likely to increase with the increase of population ages. The diagnosis of OA is based on patientrelevant measures, structural measures, and measurement of biomarkers that are released through joint metabolism. Traditionally, radiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose OA and predict its course. However, diagnostic imaging in OA provides only indirect information on pathology and treatment response. A sensing of OA based on the detection of biomarkers insignificantly improves the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis and reduces the cost compared with that of radiography or MRI. In our former study, we proposed microfluidic platform to detect biomarker of OA. But the platform can detect only one biomarker because it has one microfluidic channel. In this report, we proposes microfluidic platform that can detect several biomarkers. The proposed platform has three layers. The bottom layer has gold patterns on a Si substrate for optical sensing. The middle layer and top layer were fabricated by polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) using soft-lithography. The middle layer has four channels connecting top layer to bottom layer. The top layer consists of one sample injection inlet, and four antibody injection inlets. To this end, we designed a flow-balanced microfluidic network using analogy between electric and hydraulic systems. Also, the designed microfluidic network was confirmed by finite element model (FEM) analysis using COMSOL FEMLAB. To verify the efficiency of fabricated platform, the optical sensing test was performed to detect biomarker of OA using fluorescence microscope. We used cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as biomarker because it reflects specific changes in joint tissues. The platform successfully detected various concentration of COMP (0, 100, 500, 1000 ng/ml) at each chamber. The effectiveness of the microfluidic platform was verified computationally and experimentally.

  12. Intraarticular injections (corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma) for the knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Egemen; Kesmezacar, Hayrettin; Akgun, Isik

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex “whole jointdisease pursued by inflammatory mediators, rather than purely a process of “wear and tear”. Besides cartilage degradation, synovitis, subchondral bone remodeling, degeneration of ligaments and menisci, and hypertrophy of the joint capsule take parts in the pathogenesis. Pain is the hallmark symptom of OA, but the extent to which structural pathology in OA contributes to the pain experience is still not well known. For the knee OA, intraarticular (IA) injection (corticosteroids, viscosupplements, blood-derived products) is preferred as the last nonoperative modality, if the other conservative treatment modalities are ineffective. IA corticosteroid injections provide short term reduction in OA pain and can be considered as an adjunct to core treatment for the relief of moderate to severe pain in people with OA. IA hyaluronic acid (HA) injections might have efficacy and might provide pain reduction in mild OA of knee up to 24 wk. But for HA injections, the cost-effectiveness is an important concern that patients must be informed about the efficacy of these preparations. Although more high-quality evidence is needed, recent studies indicate that IA platelet rich plasma injections are promising for relieving pain, improving knee function and quality of life, especially in younger patients, and in mild OA cases. The current literature and our experience indicate that IA injections are safe and have positive effects for patient satisfaction. But, there is no data that any of the IA injections will cause osteophytes to regress or cartilage and meniscus to regenerate in patients with substantial and irreversible bone and cartilage damage. PMID:25035839

  13. Human genome-wide expression analysis reorients the study of inflammatory mediators and biomechanics in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sandy, J D; Chan, D D; Trevino, R L; Wimmer, M A; Plaas, A

    2015-11-01

    A major objective of this article is to examine the research implications of recently available genome-wide expression profiles of cartilage from human osteoarthritis (OA) joints. We propose that, when viewed in the light of extensive earlier work, this novel data provides a unique opportunity to reorient the design of experimental systems toward clinical relevance. Specifically, in the area of cartilage explant biology, this will require a fresh evaluation of existing paradigms, so as to optimize the choices of tissue source, cytokine/growth factor/nutrient addition, and biomechanical environment for discovery. Within this context, we firstly discuss the literature on the nature and role of potential catabolic mediators in OA pathology, including data from human OA cartilage, animal models of OA, and ex vivo studies. Secondly, due to the number and breadth of studies on IL-1? in this area, a major focus of the article is a critical analysis of the design and interpretation of cartilage studies where IL-1? has been used as a model cytokine. Thirdly, the article provides a data-driven perspective (including genome-wide analysis of clinical samples, studies on mutant mice, and clinical trials), which concludes that IL-1? should be replaced by soluble mediators such as IL-17 or TGF-?1, which are much more likely to mimic the disease in OA model systems. We also discuss the evidence that changes in early OA can be attributed to the activity of such soluble mediators, whereas late-stage disease results more from a chronic biomechanical effect on the matrix and cells of the remaining cartilage and on other local mediator-secreting cells. Lastly, an updated protocol for in vitro studies with cartilage explants and chondrocytes (including the use of specific gene expression arrays) is provided to motivate more disease-relevant studies on the interplay of cytokines, growth factors, and biomechanics on cellular behavior. PMID:26521740

  14. Dynamic activation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in collagen-induced arthritis supports their role in joint homeostasis and disease

    PubMed Central

    Daans, Melina; Lories, Rik JU; Luyten, Frank P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease affecting peripheral joints and leading to loss of joint function. The severity and outcome of disease are dependent on the balance between inflammatory/destructive and homeostatic or repair pathways. Increasing evidence suggests a role for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in joint homeostasis and disease. Methods Activation of BMP signaling in collagen-induced arthritis as a model of rheumatoid arthritis was studied by immunohistochemistry and Western blot for phosphorylated SMAD1/5 at different time points. Expression of different BMP ligands and noggin, a BMP antagonist, was determined on synovium and cartilage extracts of arthritic knees, at different time points, with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the protein level, BMP2 and BMP7 were studied with immunohistochemistry. Finally, the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) treatment on the expression of BMP2, BMP7, and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) in synovium and cartilage of arthritic knees was investigated. Results A time-dependent activation of the BMP signaling pathway in collagen-induced arthritis was demonstrated with a dynamic and characteristic expression pattern of different BMP subfamily members in synovium and cartilage of arthritic knees. As severity increases, the activation of BMP signaling becomes more prominent in the invasive pannus tissue. BMP2 is present in cartilage and the hyperplastic lining layer. BMP7 is found in the sublining zone and inflammatory infiltrate. Treatment with etanercept slowed down progression of disease, but no change in expression of GDF5, BMP2, and BMP7 in synovium was found; in the cartilage, however, blocking of TNF? increased the expression of BMP7. Conclusions BMP signaling is dynamically activated in collagen-induced arthritis and is partly TNF?-independent. TNF? blocking increased the expression of BMP7 in the articular cartilage, possibly enhancing anabolic mechanisms. Different types of source and target cells are recognized. These data further support a role for BMP signaling in arthritis. PMID:18816401

  15. Association analysis of BMD-associated SNPs with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Yau, Michelle S; Liu, Youfang; Krishnan, Subha; Renner, Jordan B; Eaton, Charles B; Kwoh, C Kent; Nevitt, Michael C; Duggan, David J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Jordan, Joanne M; Hochberg, Marc C; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) risk is widely recognized to be heritable but few loci have been identified. Observational studies have identified higher systemic bone mineral density (BMD) to be associated with an increased risk of radiographic knee osteoarthritis. With this in mind, we sought to evaluate whether well-established genetic loci for variance in BMD are associated with risk for radiographic OA in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis (JoCo) Project. Cases had at least one knee with definite radiographic OA, defined as the presence of definite osteophytes with or without joint space narrowing (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade ? 2) and controls were absent for definite radiographic OA in both knees (KL grade ? 1 bilaterally). There were 2014 and 658 Caucasian cases, respectively, in the OAI and JoCo Studies, and 953 and 823 controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for association analysis from the literature. Genotyping was carried out on Illumina 2.5M and 1M arrays in Genetic Components of Knee OA (GeCKO) and JoCo, respectively and imputation was done. Association analyses were carried out separately in each cohort with adjustments for age, body mass index (BMI), and sex, and then parameter estimates were combined across the two cohorts by meta-analysis. We identified four SNPs significantly associated with prevalent radiographic knee OA. The strongest signal (p?=?0.0009; OR?=?1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.37) maps to 12q3, which contains a gene coding for SP7. Additional loci map to 7p14.1 (TXNDC3), 11q13.2 (LRP5), and 11p14.1 (LIN7C). For all four loci the allele associated with higher BMD was associated with higher odds of OA. A BMD risk allele score was not significantly associated with OA risk. This meta-analysis demonstrates that several genomewide association studies (GWAS)-identified BMD SNPs are nominally associated with prevalent radiographic knee OA and further supports the hypothesis that BMD, or its determinants, may be a risk factor contributing to OA development. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24339167

  16. In an interconnected world: joint research priorities for the environment, agriculture and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca; Butler, Colin D; McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) commissioned ten think-tanks to work on disease-specific and thematic reference groups to identify top research priorities that would advance the research agenda on infectious diseases of poverty, thus contributing to improvements in human health. The first of the thematic reference group reports - on environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty - was recently released. In this article we review, from an insider perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of this thematic reference group report and highlight key messages for policy-makers, funders and researchers. PMID:24472225

  17. Knee osteoarthritis: Clinical connections to articular cartilage structure and function.

    PubMed

    Brody, Lori Thein

    2015-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a unique biphasic material that supports a lifetime of compressive and shear forces across joints. When articular cartilage deteriorates, whether due to injury, wear and tear or normal aging, osteoarthritis and resultant pain can ensue. Understanding the basic science of the structure and biomechanics of articular cartilage can help clinicians guide their patients to appropriate activity and loading choices. The purpose of this article is to examine how articular cartilage structure and mechanics, may interact with risk factors to contribute to OA and how this interaction provides guidelines for intervention choices This paper will review the microstructure of articular cartilage, its mechanical properties and link this information to clinical decision making. PMID:25783021

  18. Arthritis and pain. Future targets to control osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Dray, Andy; Read, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    Clinical presentation of osteoarthritis (OA) is dominated by pain during joint use and at rest. OA pain is caused by aberrant functioning of a pathologically altered nervous system with key mechanistic drivers from peripheral nerves and central pain pathways. This review focuses on symptomatic pain therapy exemplified by molecular targets that alter sensitization and hyperexcitability of the nervous system, for example, opioids and cannabinoids. We highlight opportunities for targeting inflammatory mediators and their key receptors (for example, prostanoids, kinins, cytokines and chemokines), ion channels (for example, NaV1.8, NaV1.7 and CaV2.2) and neurotrophins (for example, nerve growth factor), noting evidence that relates to their participation in OA etiology and treatment. Future neurological treatments of pain appear optimistic but will require the systematic evaluation of emerging opportunities. PMID:17561993

  19. Two-Year Incidence and Predictors of Future Knee Arthroplasty in Persons with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: Preliminary Analysis of Longitudinal Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangrong; Jiranek, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence to guide physicians when discussing future likelihood of knee arthroplasty with patients who have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Data from Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) was used to determine the incidence of and predictors for knee arthroplasty. Methods OAI data were collected on a sample of 778 persons aged 45 to 79 years with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. An extensive set of measurements were obtained at baseline and persons were followed for 2 years to identify who underwent knee arthroplasty. Random forest analysis was used to identify optimal variables that discriminate among those who did and those who did not undergo knee arthroplasty. Results The two year incidence of knee arthroplasty in the cohort was 3.7% (95%CI, 2.6%, 5.3%). Because of the low number of knee arthroplasty procedures, the predictor analysis was preliminary in nature. The analysis identified several variables that could be used to assist in identifying patients at future risk for knee arthroplasty. Conclusion For persons at high risk of knee arthroplasty, the two year incidence of knee arthroplasty is very low. The most powerful predictors were those that accounted for disease severity and functional loss. These data could assist physicians in advising patients with knee osteoarthritis on future surgical care. PMID:19419874

  20. Low-Frequency High-Magnitude Mechanical Strain of Articular Chondrocytes Activates p38 MAPK and Induces Phenotypic Changes Associated with Osteoarthritis and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Quinn, Thomas M.; Haglund, Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disorder resulting from an incompletely understood combination of mechanical, biological, and biochemical processes. OA is often accompanied by inflammation and pain, whereby cytokines associated with chronic OA can up-regulate expression of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF). Several studies suggest a role for cytokines and NGF in OA pain, however the effects of changing mechanical properties in OA tissue on chondrocyte metabolism remain unclear. Here, we used high-extension silicone rubber membranes to examine if high mechanical strain (HMS) of primary articular chondrocytes increases inflammatory gene expression and promotes neurotrophic factor release. HMS cultured chondrocytes displayed up-regulated NGF, TNF? and ADAMTS4 gene expression while decreasing TLR2 expression, as compared to static controls. HMS culture increased p38 MAPK activity compared to static controls. Conditioned medium from HMS dynamic cultures, but not static cultures, induced significant neurite sprouting in PC12 cells. The increased neurite sprouting was accompanied by consistent increases in PC12 cell death. Low-frequency high-magnitude mechanical strain of primary articular chondrocytes in vitro drives factor secretion associated with degenerative joint disease and joint pain. This study provides evidence for a direct link between cellular strain, secretory factors, neo-innervation, and pain in OA pathology. PMID:25196344

  1. In vitro assessment of biomaterial-induced remodeling of subchondral and cancellous bone for the early intervention of joint degeneration with focus on the spinal disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCanless, Jonathan D.

    Osteoarthritis-associated pain of the spinal disc, knee, and hip derives from degeneration of cartilagenous tissues in these joints. Traditional therapies have focused on these cartilage (and disc specific nucleus pulposus) changes as a means of treatment through tissue grafting, regenerative synthetic implants, non-regenerative space filling implants, arthroplasty, and arthrodesis. Although such approaches may seem apparent upon initial consideration of joint degeneration, tissue pathology has shown changes in the underlying bone and vascular bed precede the onset of cartilaginous changes. It is hypothesized that these changes precedent joint degeneration and as such may provide a route for early prevention. The current work proposes an injectable biomaterial-based therapy within these subchondral and cancellous bone regions as a means of preventing or reversing osteoarthritis. Two human concentrated platelet releasate-containing alginate hydrogel/beta-tricalcium phosphate composites have been developed for this potential biomaterial application. The undertaking of assessing these materials through bench-, in vitro, and ex vivo work is described herein. These studies showed the capability of the biomaterials to initiate a wound healing response in monocytes, angiogenic and differentiation behavior in immature endothelial cells, and early osteochondral differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. These cellular activities are associated with fracture healing and endochondral bone formation, demonstrating the potential of the biomaterials to induce osseous and vascular tissue remodeling underlying osteoarthritic joints as a novel therapy for a disease with rapidly growing healthcare costs.

  2. Distribution of Risk Factors in Male and Female Primary Health Care Patients with Osteoarthritis in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Fatos; Tafaj, Argjent; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to describe the distribution of the main risk factors among primary health care users diagnosed with osteoarthritis in Albania, a post-communist country in South Eastern Europe. Methods: Our study involved all individuals who were diagnosed with osteoarthritis over a two-year period (January 2013 – December 2014) in several primary health care centers in Tirana, the Albanian capital. On the whole, during this two-year period, 1179 adult individuals were diagnosed with osteoarthritis (521 men aged 60.1±10.6 years and 658 women aged 58.1±9.6 years). According to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, the diagnosis of osteoarthritis was based on the history of the disease, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological findings. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the sex-differences regarding the major risk factors among individuals diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Results: In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, female gender was inversely associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95%CI=0.27-0.56), alcohol intake (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.06-0.10), overweight but not obesity (OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.46-0.91 and OR=0.74, 95%CI=0.46-1.18, respectively), weight lifting (OR=0.38, 95%CI=0.22-0.66) and heavy physical exercise (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.46-1.03). Conversely, female gender was positively related to genetic factors (OR=2.17, 95%CI=1.55-3.04) and preexisting inflammatory diseases (OR=1.53, 95%CI=0.93-2.53). Conclusion: This study offers useful evidence about the distribution of the main risk factors for osteoarthritis in adult individuals diagnosed with osteoarthritis in Albania. This information may support health professionals and decision-makers in Albania for evidence-based health planning and policy formulation in order to control the toll of osteoarthritis in this transitional society. PMID:26261379

  3. Nacre extract restores the mineralization capacity of subchondral osteoarthritis osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Brion, A; Zhang, G; Dossot, M; Moby, V; Dumas, D; Hupont, S; Piet, M H; Bianchi, A; Mainard, D; Galois, L; Gillet, P; Rousseau, M

    2015-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of joint chronic pain and involves the entire joints. Subchondral osteoarthritic osteoblasts present a mineralization defect and, to date, only a few molecules (Vitamin D3 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein2) could improve the mineralization potential of this cell type. In this context, we have tested for the first time the effect of nacre extract on the mineralization capacity of osteoblasts from OA patients. Nacre extract is known to contain osteogenic molecules which have demonstrated their activities notably on the MC3T3 pre-osteoblastic cell line. For this goal, molecules were extracted from nacre (ESM, Ethanol Soluble Matrix) and tested on osteoblasts of the subchondral bone from OA patients undergoing total knee replacement and on MC3T3 cells for comparison. We chose to investigate the mineralization with Alizarin Red staining and with the study of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and composition. In a complementary way the structure of the ECM secreted during the mineralization phase was investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG). Nacre extract was able to induce the early presence (after 7days) of precipitated calcium in cells. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy showed the presence of nanograins of an early crystalline form of calcium phosphate in OA osteoblasts ECM and hydroxyapatite in MC3T3 ECM. SHG collagen fibers signal was present in both cell types but lower for OA osteoblasts. In conclusion, nacre extract was able to rapidly restore the mineralization capacity of osteoarthritis osteoblasts, therefore confirming the potential of nacre as a source of osteogenic compounds. PMID:26496825

  4. Low prevalence of osteoarthritis in patients with congenital clubfoot at more than 60 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wallander, H; Saebö, M; Jonsson, K; Bjönness, T; Hansson, G

    2012-11-01

    We investigated 60 patients (89 feet) with a mean age of 64 years (61 to 67) treated for congenital clubfoot deformity, using standardised weight-bearing radiographs of both feet and ankles together with a functional evaluation. Talocalcaneal and talonavicular relationships were measured and the degree of osteo-arthritic change in the ankle and talonavicular joints was assessed. The functional results were evaluated using a modified Laaveg-Ponseti score. The talocalcaneal (TC) angles in the clubfeet were significantly lower in both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral projections than in the unaffected feet (p < 0.001 for both views). There was significant medial subluxation of the navicular in the clubfeet compared with the unaffected feet (p < 0.001). Severe osteoarthritis in the ankle joint was seen in seven feet (8%) and in the talonavicular joint in 11 feet (12%). The functional result was excellent or good (? 80 points) in 29 patients (48%), and fair or poor (< 80 points) in 31 patients (52%). Patients who had undergone few (0 to 1) surgical procedures had better functional outcomes than those who had undergone two or more procedures (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the functional result and the degree of medial subluxation of the navicular (p < 0.001, r2= 0.164), the talocalcaneal angle on AP projection (p < 0.02, r2 = 0.025) and extent of osteoarthritis in the ankle joint (p < 0.001). We conclude that poor functional outcome in patients with congenital clubfoot occurs more frequently in those with medial displacement of the navicular, osteoarthritis of the talonavicular and ankle joints, and a low talocalcaneal angle on the AP projection, and in patients who have undergone two or more surgical procedures. However, the ankle joint in these patients appeared relatively resistant to the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:23109633

  5. Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents ... about possible other causes, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnosis A combination of the following methods are used ...

  6. Osteoarthritis: Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studying: Tools to detect osteoarthritis earlier Genes Tissue engineering—special ways to grow cartilage to replace damaged ... athletes from these injuries. Discovery of the various genetic mutations leading to osteoarthritis could lead to new ...

  7. 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum reveals unique metabolic fingerprints associated with subtypes of surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Maher, Anthony D; Coles, Chantal; White, Jason; Bateman, John F; Fuller, Emily S; Burkhardt, Dan; Little, Christopher B; Cake, Martin; Read, Richard; McDonagh, Matthew B; Rochfort, Simone Jane

    2012-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent joint disease. Its slow progressive nature and the correlation between pathological changes and clinical symptoms mean that OA is often well advanced by the time of diagnosis. In the absence of any specific pharmacological treatments, there is a pressing need to develop robust biomarkers for OA. We have adopted a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic strategy to identify molecular responses to surgically induced OA in an animal model. Sheep underwent one of three types of surgical procedure (sham (control), meniscal destabilization, MD or anterior cruciate ligament transaction, ACLT), and for every animal a serum sample was collected both pre- and postoperatively, thus, affording two types of "control" data for comparison. 1D 1H NMR spectra were acquired from each sample at 800 MHz and the digitized spectral data were analyzed using principal components analysis and partial least-squares regression discriminant analysis. Our approach, combined with the study design, allowed us to separate the metabolic responses to surgical intervention from those associated with OA. We were able to identify dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) as being increased in MD after 4 weeks, while ACLT-induced OA exhibited increased 3-methylhistidine and decreased branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). The findings are discussed in the context of interpretation of metabolomic results in studies of human disease, and the selection of appropriate "control" data sets. PMID:22784358

  8. Occupational and genetic risk factors for osteoarthritis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Charles, Luenda E.; Baker, Brent; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease with strong genetic and occupational components. Although published studies have described several risk factors for OA, very few studies have investigated the occupational and genetic factors that contribute to this debilitating condition. OBJECTIVE To describe occupational and genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing (OA). METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the search terms osteoarthritis, occupation, work, and genetics. RESULTS Heavy physical work load was the most common occupational risk factor for OA in several anatomical locations. Other factors include kneeling and regular stair climbing, crawling, bending and whole body vibration, and repetitive movements. Numerous studies have also shown the influence of genetic variability in the pathogenesis of OA. Genetic variants of several groups of genes e.g., cartilage extracellular matrix structural genes and the genes related to bone density have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. CONCLUSION This review shows that occupational factors were extensively studied in knee OA unlike OA of other anatomical regions. Although genetic association studies performed to date identified a number of risk variants, some of these associations have not been consistently replicated across different studies and populations. Therefore, more research is needed. PMID:24004806

  9. Serum xylosyltransferase 1 level increases during early posttraumatic osteoarthritis in mice with high bone forming potential.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sarah Y; Falgowski, Kerry A; Srinivasan, Padma P; Thompson, William R; Selva, Erica M; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B

    2012-08-01

    Increased proteoglycan (PG) synthesis is essential for the stimulation of cartilage repair processes that take place during the reversible phase of osteoarthritis (OA). In articular cartilage, xylosyltransferase 1 (Xylt1) is the key enzyme that initiates glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis by transferring the first sugar residue to the PG core protein. Biological activity of PGs is closely linked to GAG biosynthesis since their polyanionic nature directly contributes to the proper hydration and elastic properties of the cartilage tissue present at the articular interface. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variations in the level of Xylt1 present in serum can be used to predict OA disease progression. The influence of bone forming activity on the systemic release of this enzyme was addressed by experimentally-inducing OA in mice of two different genetic backgrounds that were previously characterized for their distinct bone metabolism: C57BL/6J (B6, high bone remodelers) or C3H/HeJ (C3H, high bone formers). Serum was collected after medial meniscectomy or sham surgeries in young adult mice of these two strains over a period of 3.5months at which point knee histopathology was assessed. A significant increase in serum Xylt1 levels observed shortly after meniscectomy positively correlated with severe cartilage damage evaluated by histological assessment at later time points in mice of the C3H background. In contrast, no temporal regulation of Xylt1 level was found between meniscectomies and control surgeries in B6 mice, which developed OA at a slower rate. Additionally, longitudinal evaluation of the serum levels of other markers of cartilage/bone metabolism (C1,2C, osteocalcin) did not reveal any association with late knee damages. Our results strongly support the idea that serum Xylt1 has a clinical value for monitoring risk of OA progression in young adults with high bone forming potential. Ultimately, the understanding of posttraumatic mechanisms regulating PG synthesis and their modification by GAG will be essential so that interventions that stimulate cartilage regrowth can be undertaken prior to irreversible destruction of the joint tissue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis". PMID:22146554

  10. Radiosynovectomy in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    ?bikowski, Piotr; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Buscombe, John R.; Sudo?-Szopi?ska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Radiosynovectomy is a safe and repeatable treatment method of chronic synovitis with synovial overgrowth and refractory chronic or acute inflammatory joint effusion. It consist in the intraarticular administration of a radioactive isotope in the form of a colloid causing the extinguishing of active synovitis. The radiocolloid causes permanent irradiation of the synovium with beta ray electron beams, which ultimately leads to its fibrosis and extinguishes the inflammatory process destroying the joint. The main indications for radiosynovectomy include chronic and acute arthritis in the course of systemic diseases, intraarticular bleeding in hemorrhagic diatheses (hemophilia), selected cases of osteoarthritis, recurrent effusions following surgery, e.g. arthroplasty, or other iatrogenic post-surgery complications causing arthritis. Radiosynovectomy is also performed in pigmented villonodular synovitis and crystal synovitis. The most common method used to determine the eligibility for radiosynovectomy is an ultrasound, which shows the location and activity of the thickened synovium. The administration of a radiocolloid into the joint, sheath or bursa should also be performed under the control of the ultrasound image, as this ensures a precise location of the puncture needle and full control of the isotope administration process. Clinical efficacy of radiosynovectomy depends on the proper qualification of patients for the procedure. The success rate of radiosynovectomy in common indications is 65–80%. It is confirmed by the visualization of avascular (fibrotic) synovium in follow-up ultrasound tests. The aim of this article is to present techniques and indications for the radiosynovectomy treatment.

  11. Canine adipose-derived stromal cell viability following exposure to synovial fluid from osteoarthritic joints

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Kristina M.; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Pluhar, Elizabeth G.; Conzemius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stem cell therapy used in clinical application of osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine typically involves intra-articular injection of the cells, however the effect of an osteoarthritic environment on the fate of the cells has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives Assess the viability of adipose derived stromal cells following exposure to osteoarthritic joint fluid. Materials and Methods Adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) were derived from falciform adipose tissue of five adult dogs, and osteoarthritic synovial fluid (SF) was obtained from ten patients undergoing surgical intervention on orthopedic diseases with secondary osteoarthritis. Normal synovial fluid was obtained from seven adult dogs from an unrelated study. ASCs were exposed to the following treatment conditions: culture medium, normal SF, osteoarthritic SF, or serial dilutions of 1:1 to 1:10 of osteoarthritic SF with media. Cells were then harvested and assessed for viability using trypan blue dye exclusion. Results There was no significant difference in the viability of cells in culture medium or normal SF. Significant differences were found between cells exposed to any concentration of osteoarthritic SF and normal SF and between cells exposed to undiluted osteoarthritic SF and all serial dilutions. Subsequent dilutions reduced cytotoxicity. Conclusions Osteoarthritic synovial fluid in this ex vivo experiment is cytotoxic to ASCs, when compared with normal synovial fluid. Current practice of direct injection of ASCs into osteoarthritic joints should be re-evaluated to determine if alternative means of administration may be more effective. PMID:26392889

  12. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with incident knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, with knee osteoarthritis being the leading cause of lower extremity disability among older adults in the US. There are no treatments available to prevent the structural pathology of osteoarthritis. Because of vitamin K’s role in regulating skeleta...

  13. Analyzing the effects of platelet gel on knee osteoarthritis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Guner, Savas; Buyukbebeci, Orhan

    2013-09-01

    Platelet gel (PG) includes concentrated dose of growth factors which plays role in physiological processes of healing. The goal of this study is to evaluate repairing effects of intra-articular injection of PG use in a rat model of knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 20 rats were randomly distributed into a PG group and a control group. Both the groups were induced OA in knee joints with intra-articular formaline injection. The rats in the PG group and the control group were injected in the knee joint with PG and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. Two weeks after last injections, all rats were sacrificed by ether asphyxiation. Tissue samples were obtained from the knee joints and were examined histopathologically. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cartilage healing (P > .05). We were unable to determine any beneficial or harmful effects of PG on joint cartilage healing in OA. PMID:22790657

  14. Hydrogen sulphide decreases IL-1?-induced activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sieghart, Daniela; Liszt, Melissa; Wanivenhaus, Axel; Bröll, Hans; Kiener, Hans; Klösch, Burkhard; Steiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Balneotherapy employing sulphurous thermal water is still applied to patients suffering from diseases of musculoskeletal system like osteoarthritis (OA) but evidence for its clinical effectiveness is scarce. Since the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2S) seems to affect cells involved in degenerative joint diseases, it was the objective of this study to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are key players in OA pathogenesis being capable of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes. To address this issue primary FLS derived from OA patients were stimulated with IL-1? and treated with the H2S donor NaHS. Cellular responses were analysed by ELISA, quantitative real-time PCR, phospho-MAPkinase array and Western blotting. Treatment-induced effects on cellular structure and synovial architecture were investigated in three-dimensional extracellular matrix micromasses. NaHS treatment reduced both spontaneous and IL-1?-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES in different experimental settings. In addition, NaHS treatment reduced the expression of matrix metallo-proteinases MMP-2 and MMP-14. IL-1? induced the phosphorylation of several MAPkinases. NaHS treatment partially reduced IL-1?-induced activation of several MAPK whereas it increased phosphorylation of pro-survival factor Akt1/2. When cultured in spherical micromasses, FLS intentionally established a synovial lining layer-like structure; stimulation with IL-1? altered the architecture of micromasses leading to hyperplasia of the lining layer which was completely inhibited by concomitant exposure to NaHS. These data suggest that H2S partially antagonizes IL-1? stimulation via selective manipulation of the MAPkinase and the PI3K/Akt pathways which may encourage development of novel drugs for treatment of OA. PMID:25312962

  15. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee (nonarthroplasty).

    PubMed

    Richmond, John; Hunter, David; Irrgang, Jay; Jones, Morgan H; Levy, Bruce; Marx, Robert; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Watters, William C; Haralson, Robert H; Turkelson, Charles M; Wies, Janet L; Boyer, Kevin M; Anderson, Sara; St Andre, Justin; Sluka, Patrick; McGowan, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The clinical practice guideline was explicitly developed to include only treatments less invasive than knee replacement (ie, arthroplasty). Patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee are to be encouraged to participate in self-management educational programs and to engage in self-care, as well as to lose weight and engage in exercise and quadriceps strengthening. The guideline recommends taping for short-term relief of pain as well as analgesics and intra-articular corticosteroids, but not glucosamine and/or chondroitin. Patients need not undergo needle lavage or arthroscopy with débridement or lavage. Patients may consider partial meniscectomy or loose body removal or realignment osteotomy, as conditions warrant. Use of a free-floating interpositional device should not be considered for symptomatic unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. Lateral heel wedges should not be prescribed for patients with symptomatic medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. The work group was unable either to recommend or not recommend the use of braces with either valgus- or varus-directing forces for patients with medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis; the use of acupuncture or of hyaluronic acid; or osteotomy of the tibial tubercle for isolated symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis. PMID:19726743

  16. Intra-articular transplantation of porcine adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shen-Yang; Huang, Yun-Ching; Chueh, Ling-Ling; Yeh, Lih-Seng; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To test whether intra-articular injection of porcine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can treat canine osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: To enroll in this study dogs must have stifle joint OA that had lasted ? 3 mo and been treated with OA medication without significant improvement. Three dogs fulfilled these criteria and were thus subjects for ADSCs treatment. ADSCs were isolated from abdominal adipose tissue of a 2-mo-old female Yorkshire pig. Their stem cell marker expression was examined by immunofluorescence staining. For treatment, 5 million ADSCs were injected into the diseased joint of each dog. In the next 48 h, the patient was observed for signs of inflammatory and allergic reactions. The patient was then discharged to the owner and, at 2, 6, and 12 wk, followed up with orthopedic assessment, owner questionnaire, X-ray imaging, and force-plate gait analysis. RESULTS: Porcine ADSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers CD90 and CD105. Injection of porcine ADSCs into canine stifle joints did not cause any inflammatory or allergic reactions. Orthopedic evaluation found improvements in two dogs, particularly at the longest time point. Owners’ evaluation found increased capacity and decreased pain in all three dogs’ activities such as walking and running. Radiographic evaluation did not find statistically significant differences before and after treatment. Force-plate analysis found significant improvements in all three dogs after treatment. CONCLUSION: Xenotransplantation of ADSCs for the treatment of OA is feasible. Further studies are needed to validate this novel treatment modality, which can then be implemented for the routine treatment of OA in veterinary medicine. PMID:25346893

  17. Effects of osteoarthritis and pathological walking on contact stresses in femoral cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mabuma, J; Schwarze, M; Hurschler, C; Markert, B; Ehlers, W

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis is a widespread abnormality in synovial joints leading to increasing pain and potential work disability in middle-aged and older populations. A primary cause of osteoarthritis is related to damages from high local stresses combined with insufficient self-healing of cartilage. In this framework, it is the goal of the present contribution to offer a thermodynamically consistent simulation of a highly anisotropic, heterogeneous, osmotic swelling and poroviscoelastic model of healthy and osteoarthritic articular cartilage based on the Theory of Porous Media. Physiological and pathological loading patterns are included by means of multi-body system calculations on patients. The contact stresses at the cartilage surface are represented by means of three-dimensional and simplified stereographic views of the femoral head. For normal walking, the stress peaks are higher in the degenerated case than in the healthy case. Interestingly, pathological walking combined with degenerated cartilage tissue minimises the occurrence of high local stresses. PMID:25776518

  18. Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for analyzing architectural changes induced by OA.

  19. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care.

    PubMed

    Garver, Matthew J; Focht, Brian C; Taylor, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA) is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality). Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1) what is OA?, 2) effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principles for OA patients, 3) goal-setting and barriers, and 4) translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora of assessments and cognitive therapy topics that could be utilized in the care strategy that we are promoting, but the present topics were selected for their low clinician and patient burden and promising results in trials with OA patients. Clinicians who are comfortable and knowledgeable about a wider range of management tools may serve more effectively in the critical, central management process and help patients embrace personal care more successfully. PMID:26396527

  20. Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J; Focht, Brian C; Taylor, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA) is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality). Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1) what is OA?, 2) effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principles for OA patients, 3) goal-setting and barriers, and 4) translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora of assessments and cognitive therapy topics that could be utilized in the care strategy that we are promoting, but the present topics were selected for their low clinician and patient burden and promising results in trials with OA patients. Clinicians who are comfortable and knowledgeable about a wider range of management tools may serve more effectively in the critical, central management process and help patients embrace personal care more successfully. PMID:26396527

  1. To Run or Not to Run: A Post-Meniscectomy Qualitative Risk Analysis Model for Osteoarthritis When Considering a Return to Recreational Running

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The increased likelihood of osteoarthritic change in the tibiofemoral joint following meniscectomy is well documented. This awareness often leads medical practitioners to advise patients previously engaged in recreational running who have undergone meniscectomy to cease all recreational running. This literature review examines the following questions: 1) Is there evidence to demonstrate that runners, post-meniscectomy, incur a great enough risk for early degenerative OA to cease all running? 2) Does the literature yield risk factors for early OA that would guide a physical therapist with regard to advising the post-meniscectomy patient contemplating a return to recreational running? Current literature related to meniscal structure and function, etiology and definition of osteoarthritis, methods for assessing osteoarthritis, relationship between running and osteoarthritis, and relationship between meniscectomy and osteoarthritis are reviewed. This review finds that while the probability for early osteoarthritis in the post-meniscectomy population is substantial, it is a probability and not a certainty. To help guide a physical therapist with regard to advising the patient for a safe return to running following a meniscectomy, a qualitative risk assessment based on identified risk factors for osteoarthritis in both the running and the post-meniscectomy populations is proposed. PMID:19125175

  2. New developments in osteoarthritis. Prevention of injury-related knee osteoarthritis: opportunities for the primary and secondary prevention of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Where risk factors have been identified in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), with few exceptions, no prevention strategies have proven beneficial. The major risk factors for knee OA are advanced age, injury and obesity. However, there is limited or no evidence that they are modifiable or to what degree modifying them is effective in preventing development of knee OA or in preventing symptoms and progressive disease in persons with early OA. The notable exception is the growing epidemic of (sports) injury related knee OA. This review details the biological and clinical data indicating the efficacy of interventions targeting neuromuscular and biomechanical factors that make this subset of OA an attractive public health target, and highlights research opportunities for the future. PMID:20815918

  3. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Joint ICS/NCCP (I) recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Maturu, V. N.; Dhooria, Sahajal; Prasad, K. T.; Sehgal, Inderpaul S.; Yenge, Lakshmikant B.; Jindal, Aditya; Singh, Navneet; Ghoshal, A. G.; Khilnani, G. C.; Samaria, J. K.; Gaur, S. N.; Behera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem in India. Although several International guidelines for diagnosis and management of COPD are available, yet there are lot of gaps in recognition and management of COPD in India due to vast differences in availability and affordability of healthcare facilities across the country. The Indian Chest Society (ICS) and the National College of Chest Physicians (NCCP) of India have joined hands to come out with these evidence-based guidelines to help the physicians at all levels of healthcare to diagnose and manage COPD in a scientific manner. Besides the International literature, the Indian studies were specifically analyzed to arrive at simple and practical recommendations. The evidence is presented under these five headings: (a) definitions, epidemiology, and disease burden; (b) disease assessment and diagnosis; (c) pharmacologic management of stable COPD; (d) management of acute exacerbations; and (e) nonpharmacologic and preventive measures. The modified grade system was used for classifying the quality of evidence as 1, 2, 3, or usual practice point (UPP). The strength of recommendation was graded as A or B depending upon the level of evidence. PMID:24049265

  4. Anticipated significant work limitation in primary care consulters with osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Ross; Phillipson, Chris; Hay, Elaine M; Pransky, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of expected work limitations (EWL) prior to future retirement age in osteoarthritis consulters, and the associated health, sociodemographic and workplace factors. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting General practices in Staffordshire, England. Participants 297 working adults aged 50–65, who had consulted primary care for osteoarthritis. Outcome EWL was defined using a single question, “Do you think joint pain will limit your ability to work before you reach 69?years old?” Results 51 (17.2%) indicated that joint pain would not limit their ability to work until 69, 79 (26.6%) indicated EWL and 167 (56.2%) did not know if joint pain would limit work before 69. In bivariate analysis, physical function (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.96), depression (4.51; 1.81 to 11.3), cognitive symptom (3.84; 1.81 to 8.18), current smoker (2.75; 1.02 to 7.38), age (0.69; 0.58 to 0.82), physically demanding job (3.18; 1.50 to 6.72), no opportunities to retrain (3.01; 1.29 to 7.05) and work dissatisfaction (3.69; 1.43 to 9.49) were associated with EWL. The final multivariate model included physical function and age. Conclusions Only one in five osteoarthritis consulters expected that joint pain would not limit their work participation before 69?years of age. Given the expectation for people to work until they are older, the results highlight the increasing need for clinicians to include work participation in their consultation and implement strategies to address work loss/limitation. Targeting pain-related functional limitation and effective communication with employers to manage workplace issues could reduce EWL. PMID:25190616

  5. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis: clinical and research evidence of inverse relationship.

    PubMed

    Dequeker, Jan; Aerssens, Jeroen; Luyten, Frank P

    2003-10-01

    The etiology of osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) is multifactorial: both constitutional and environmental factors, ranging from genetic susceptibility, endocrine and metabolic status, to mechanical and traumatic injury, are thought to be involved. When interpreting research data, one must bear in mind that pathophysiologic factors, especially in disorders associated with aging, must be regarded as either primary or secondary. Therefore, findings in end-stage pathology are not necessarily the evidence or explanation of the primary cause or event in the diseased tissue. Both aspects of research are important for potentially curative or preventive measures. These considerations, in the case of our topic--the inverse relationship of OP and OA--are of particular importance. Although the inverse relationship between two frequent diseases associated with aging, OA and OP, has been observed and studied for more than 30 years, the topic remains controversial for some and stimulating for many. The anthropometric differences of patients suffering from OA compared with OP are well established. OA cases have stronger body build and are more obese. There is overwhelming evidence that OA cases have increased BMD or BMC at all sites. This increased BMD is related to high peak bone mass, as shown in mother-daughter and twin studies. With aging, the bone loss in OA is lower, except when measured near an affected joint (hand, hip, knee). The lower degree of bone loss with aging is explained by lower bone turnover as measured by bone resorption-formation parameters. OA cases not only have higher apparent and real bone density, but also wider geometrical measures of the skeleton, diameters of long bones and trabeculae, both contributing positively to better strength and fewer fragility fractures. Not only is bone quantity in OA different but also bone quality, compared with controls and OP cases, with increased content of growth factors such as IGF and TGFbeta, factors required for bone repair. Furthermore, in vitro studies of osteoblasts recruited from OA bone have different differentiation patterns and phenotypes. These general bone characteristics of OA bone may explain the inverse relationship OA-OP and why OA cases have fewer fragility fractures. The role of bone, in particular subchondral bone, in the pathophysiology, initiation and progression of OA is not fully elucidated and is still controversial. In 1970, it was hypothesized that an increased number of microfractures lead to an increase in subchondral bone stiffness, which impairs its ability to act as a shock absorber, so that cartilage suffers more. Although subchondral bone is slightly hypomineralized because of local increased turnover, the increase in trabecular number and volume compensates for this, resulting in a stiffer structure. There is also some experimental evidence that osteoblasts themselves release factors such as metalloproteinases directly or indirectly from the matrix, which predispose cartilage to deterioration. Instead, the osteoblast regenerative capacity of bone in OP is compromised compared with OA, as suggested by early cell adhesion differences. The proposition that drugs which suppress bone turnover in OP, such as bisphosphonates, may be beneficial for OA is speculative. Although bone turnover in the subchondral region of established OA is increased, the general bone turnover is reduced. Further reduction of bone turnover, however, may lead to overmineralized (aged) osteons and loss of bone quality, resulting in increased fragility. PMID:14703009

  6. Randomized clinical trial of peganum oil for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Abolhassanzadeh, Zohreh; Aflaki, Elham; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2015-04-01

    Osteoarthritis affects about 50% of people aged older than 65 years. Pain is the most important symptom in this disease. Today public interest in the use of complementary medicine, especially traditional herbal medicines has increased. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of traditional preparation of Peganum harmala L oil on patients with knee osteoarthritis. The product has been analyzed and standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography. A double blind controlled randomized clinical trial consisting of 54 patients were performed. Patients rubbed the drug or control (olive oil) on the knee 4 drops 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The patients were asked to fill out the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Visual Analogue Scale questionnaires at week 0 and 4. The adapted results from the questionnaires showed that pain and difficulty in function were significantly decreased in Peganum oil group after 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in stiffness change between 2 groups. PMID:25654976

  7. Loads in the hip joint during physically demanding occupational tasks: A motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Varady, Patrick Aljoscha; Glitsch, Ulrich; Augat, Peter

    2015-09-18

    Epidemiologic studies of osteoarthritis of the hip indicate a possible connection between work related activities and the pathogenesis of the disease. This study investigated the hip joint contact forces for physically demanding occupational tasks (lifting, carrying, transferring of a weight (mass: 25kg, 40kg and 50kg); stair climbing without and with additional load of 25kg; ladder climbing) and compared these with everyday activities (level gait, sitting down and getting up). The hip joint contact force was calculated with the human multibody simulation software AnyBody employing motion capture and ground reaction force measurements by force plates and an instrumented staircase and ladder. Although the results for 11 male test subjects showed individual variations, a general trend could be observed in regards of force curves' characteristics and maxima. The largest joint contact forces calculated were (637±148)%-body weight for horizontal transfer of a 50kg weight. For several of the occupational activities the computed hip joint contact forces were significantly larger compared to the investigated examples of activities of daily living. This study provides original data of simulated hip joint contact forces for physically demanding activities. PMID:26187677

  8. Role of inflammatory factors and adipose tissue in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Part I: Rheumatoid adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kontny, Ewa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Prohorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Saied, Fadhil; Ma?li?ski, W?odzimierz

    2013-01-01

    For many years, it was thought that synovial cells and chondrocytes are the only sources of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors found in the synovial fluid in patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Currently, it is more and more frequently indicated that adipose tissue plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases as well as that a range of pathological processes that take place in the adipose tissue, synovial membrane and cartilage are interconnected. The adipose tissue is considered a specialized form of the connective tissue containing various types of cells which produce numerous biologically active factors. The latest studies reveal that, similarly to the synovial membrane, articular adipose tissue may take part in the local inflammatory response and affect the metabolism of the cartilage and subchondral osseous tissue. In in vitro conditions, the explants of this tissue obtained from patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis produce similar pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to the explants of the synovial membrane. At this stage already, knowledge translates into imaging diagnostics. In radiological images, the shadowing of the periarticular soft tissues may not only reflect synovial membrane pathologies or joint effusion, but may also suggest inflammatory edema of the adipose tissue. On ultrasound examinations, abnormal presentation of the adipose tissue, i.e. increased echogenicity and hyperemia, may indicate its inflammation. Such images have frequently been obtained during ultrasound scanning and have been interpreted as inflammation, edema, hypertrophy or fibrosis of the adipose tissue. At present, when the knowledge concerning pathogenic mechanisms is taken into account, abnormal echogenicity and hyperemia of the adipose tissue may be considered as a proof of its inflammation. In the authors’ own practice, the inflammation of the adipose tissue usually accompanies synovitis. However, we also diagnose cases in which the inflammatory process in the joint is no longer active, but abnormal vascularity still persists in the adipose tissue. There are also cases where abnormal adipose tissue is the only sign of inflammation. Therefore, ultrasound examination confirms the existence of the additional site of inflammation, i.e. the adipose tissue which should be evaluated at the stage of initial diagnosis and during follow-up, also in terms of remission. PMID:26674614

  9. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  10. Possible role of granulysin in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kehler, Tatjana; Laskarin, Gordana; Massari, Drazen; Dominovic, Marin; Persic, Viktor; Rosovic, Ivan; Laginja, Josip; Rukavina, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Increased presence of immune mediator and cytotoxic/apoptotic molecule granulysin was noticed in different tissues during pathological processes with the domination of Th1 over Th2 mediated immunity. Beside granulysin expression in T and NKT cells, activated NK cells are thought to be the major source of chemotactic 15kDa and cytotoxic 9kDa granulysin in vivo. As NK cells are the principal joint's tissue-infiltrating lymphocyte subset, we hypothesized that granulysin mediated human cell death (apoptosis) could be responsible for the relatively silent damage of the joint's tissue without clinically notable signs of systemic inflammation in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The analyzes of the presence and frequency of granulysin expressing lymphocytes at protein and gene levels in peripheral blood and synovial samples and/or the samples of joint's tissue after the joint replacement therapy in patients with OA could give the initial insight to evaluate our hypothesis. It would be of the particular interest to differentiate the expression of 9kDa and 15kDa granulysin forms in the effector cells, since only the shorter form exhibits cytotoxic properties. The measurement of granulysin mediated early apoptosis in human NK sensitive K562 cells could be suitable in vitro model for evaluating granulysin activity. Furthermore, disturbed balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in OA patients, could influence the level of the granulysin expression. Having in mind that the granulysin and its regulation is still unknown in the pathogenesis of OA, it could be worth to explore this important pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic/apoptotic mediator. PMID:26508721

  11. Fucoidan Prevents the Progression of Osteoarthritis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Don-Gil; Park, Sang-Yong; Chung, Won-Seok; Park, Jae-Hee; Hwang, Eunson; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Tom; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of fucoidan (extract from Hizikia fusiforme) on symptoms and inflammatory cytokine activation in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Forty male SD rats were divided into five groups, including normal, negative control (MIA), positive control (Lyprinol), and two experimental groups treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Weight-bearing assessments were done after MIA injection into the right knee to induce OA. After 14 days of treatment, microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) images were made of rat knee joints, and then animals were sacrificed for joint histology and inflammatory cytokine level assessments. MIA injection successfully induced OA by causing 40% weight-bearing imbalance, severe bone loss and cartilage degeneration, and markedly increased cytokine levels. However, fucoidan groups showed over 45% of imbalance and no articular cartilage surface lesions or change in subchondral trabecular bones in Micro-CT images. Histological analysis revealed that cartilage morphology and cell counts were also normal in the 100 mg/kg fucoidan group. In addition, the 100 mg/kg fucoidan groups exhibited lower serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) (30%), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) (48%), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) (65%) compared to the MIA groups. These results suggest that administration of fucoidan prevents the progression of OA in a MIA-induced OA rat model. PMID:26197088

  12. A potential role of homeobox transcription factors in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    When a healthy joint progressively becomes osteoarthritic, the structures of the affected cartilage, bone and synovia undergo an initial phase of rearrangement. The exact molecular and cellular events occurring in this early osteoarthritic transition phase still remain elusive. Homeobox (Hox) genes encode for transcription factors that typically regulate limb morphogenesis and skeletal formation during development. More recently they were shown to be required for tissue remodelling and homeostasis in adults and to be modulated in a variety of pathologies. Here we present and discuss the hypothesis that dysregulation of specific Hox genes is associated with the onset and development of osteoarthritis (OA). Discovering mechanisms modulating Hox gene expression could not only provide important information in understanding OA pathology and its initiation, but also help to identify biomarkers reflecting the state of early OA. This knowledge would allow anticipating the time window for clinical treatment of the affected cartilage and assist in the development of innovative strategies to restore joint homeostasis, e.g., by cell or gene therapy.

  13. Leptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex joint disorder with a number of underlying physical, biochemical, biomechanical and genetic causes. Obesity is considered to be one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of OA. It actively contributes to the inflammatory status and to cartilage degradation in the OA joints. Recent data suggests that metabolic factors produced by white adipose tissue, such as leptin, may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and OA, providing an explanation for the high prevalence of OA among obese and over-weight individuals. The unbalanced production of catabolic and anabolic mediators by chondrocytes, the only cell type present in cartilage, determines cartilage degradation, which is the central pathological feature of OA. Evidence is accumulating to support a key role for leptin in the pathogenesis and/or progression of OA. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of leptin in OA with particular emphasis on the effects of this adipokine in cartilage and chondrocyte pathophysiology. PMID:26094910

  14. Joint recognition-expression impairment of facial emotions in Huntington's disease despite intact understanding of feelings.

    PubMed

    Trinkler, Iris; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder that causes major motor impairments, also show cognitive and emotional deficits. While their deficit in recognising emotions has been explored in depth, little is known about their ability to express emotions and understand their feelings. If these faculties were impaired, patients might not only mis-read emotion expressions in others but their own emotions might be mis-interpreted by others as well, or thirdly, they might have difficulties understanding and describing their feelings. We compared the performance of recognition and expression of facial emotions in 13 HD patients with mild motor impairments but without significant bucco-facial abnormalities, and 13 controls matched for age and education. Emotion recognition was investigated in a forced-choice recognition test (FCR), and emotion expression by filming participants while they mimed the six basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and joy) to the experimenter. The films were then segmented into 60 stimuli per participant and four external raters performed a FCR on this material. Further, we tested understanding of feelings in self (alexithymia) and others (empathy) using questionnaires. Both recognition and expression were impaired across different emotions in HD compared to controls and recognition and expression scores were correlated. By contrast, alexithymia and empathy scores were very similar in HD and controls. This might suggest that emotion deficits in HD might be tied to the expression itself. Because similar emotion recognition-expression deficits are also found in Parkinson's Disease and vascular lesions of the striatum, our results further confirm the importance of the striatum for emotion recognition and expression, while access to the meaning of feelings relies on a different brain network, and is spared in HD. PMID:22244587

  15. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific questionnaire on osteoarthritis pain quality for osteoarthritis pain phenotyping: the OsteoArthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS). PMID:24244589

  16. The Role of Neuromuscular Changes in Aging and Knee Osteoarthritis on Dynamic Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G.; Garland, S. Jayne; Hunt, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular changes associated with aging may be responsible for some of these alterations in dynamic postural control. Even greater neuromuscular deficits, which may impact dynamic postural control and the ability to defend against a fall, are seen in people with knee OA. There is little evidence to date on how knee OA affects the ability to respond to and defend against falls and the neuromuscular changes that contribute to balance deficits. As a result, this review will: summarize the key characteristics of postural responses to an external perturbation, highlight the changes in dynamic postural control seen with normal aging, review the neuromuscular changes associated with aging that have known and possible effects on dynamic postural control, and summarize the neuromuscular changes and balance problems in knee OA. Future research to better understand the role of neuromuscular changes in knee OA and their effect on dynamic postural control will be suggested. Such an understanding is critical to the successful creation and implementation of fall prevention and treatment programs, in order to reduce the excessive risk of falling in knee OA. PMID:23696951

  17. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor 1 in the synovial membranes of patients with late stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Wang, B; He, C Q; Yang, Y Q; Guo, H; Chen, Y; Du, T H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the systemic joint that involves multiple cytokines and growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is increased in patients with rheumatic arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression and secretion of FGF-1 differed in synovial tissue from patients with late stage OA from that in normal tissues. We selected eight patients with late stage OA and eight healthy donors for this study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the amount of FGF-1 in the synovial fluid and in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of FGF-1 and FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) in synovial and cartilage tissues. We detected FGF-1 in the synovial fluid from all eight donors, as well as in the culture medium of synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fluid from patients with OA and culture medium of OA synovial fibroblasts contained significantly more FGF-1 than those from controls. FGF-1 expression was also lower in the synovial membranes of normal donors than in those of OA patients. FGFR2 expression was also higher in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage. Overall, these results demonstrated that FGF-1 synthesis and secretion by synovial fibroblasts were significantly increased in OA. FGFR2 expression was also shown to be upregulated in patients with OA. These findings suggest that increased FGF-1 signaling correlates with an OA pathological condition. PMID:26400350

  18. Progranulin protects against osteoarthritis through interacting with TNF-? and ?-Catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ben; Wei, Jian-lu; Richbourgh, Brendon; Liu, Chuan-ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective Progranulin (PGRN) was previously isolated as an osteoarthritis (OA)-associated growth factor. Additionally, PGRN was found to play a therapeutic role in inflammatory arthritis mice models through antagonising tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). This study was aimed at investigating the role of PGRN in degradation of cartilage and progression of OA. Methods Progression of OA was analysed in both spontaneous and surgically induced OA models in wild type and PGRN-deficient mice. Cartilage degradation and OA were evaluated using Safranin O staining, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Additionally, mRNA expression of degenerative factors and catabolic markers known to be involved in cartilage degeneration in OA were analysed. Furthermore, the anabolic effects and underlying mechanisms of PGRN were investigated by in vitro experiments with primary chondrocytes. Results Here, we found that deficiency of PGRN led to spontaneous OA-like phenotype in `aged' mice. Additionally, PGRN-deficient mice exhibited exaggerated breakdown of cartilage structure and OA progression, while local delivery of recombinant PGRN protein attenuated degradation of cartilage matrix and protected against OA development in surgically induced OA models. Furthermore, PGRN activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling and elevated the levels of anabolic biomarkers in human chondrocyte, and the protective function of PGRN was mediated mainly through TNF receptor 2. Additionally, PGRN suppressed inflammatory action of TNF-? and inhibited the activation of ?-Catenin signalling in cartilage and chondrocytes. Conclusions Collectively, this study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of OA, and also presents PGRN as a potential target for the treatment of joint degenerative diseases, including OA. PMID:25169730

  19. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and/or knee OA. These data, in addition to data from national registries, will provide unique insights into clinically and radiologically confirmed OA with respect to risk factors, consequences, and management. PMID:23826721

  20. Piperine inhibits IL-? induced expression of inflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Chen, Xiaowei; Cheng, Shaowen; Shen, Yue; Peng, Lei; Xu, Hua Zi

    2013-10-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. The present study aimed to assess the effects of piperine, the active phenolic component in black pepper extract, on human OA chondrocytes. In this study, human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with piperine at 10, 50 or 100?g/ml and subsequently stimulated with IL-1? (5ng/ml) for 24h. Production of PGE2 and NO was evaluated by the Griess reaction and an ELISA. Gene expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 was measured by real-time PCR. MMP-3 and MMP-13 proteins in culture medium were determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the iNOS and COX-2 protein production in the culture medium. The regulation of NF-kB activity and the degradation of IkB were explored using luciferase and Western immunoblotting, respectively. We found that piperine inhibited the production of PGE2 and NO induced by IL-1?. Piperine significantly decreased the IL-1?-stimulated gene expression and production of MMP-3, MMP-13, iNOS and COX-2 in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine inhibited the IL-1?-mediated activation of NF-?B by suppressing the degradation of its inhibitory protein I?B? in the cytoplasm. The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of piperine in human OA chondrocytes. Piperine can effectively abrogate the IL-1?-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators; suggesting that piperine may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. PMID:23838114

  1. Identification of differentially methylated regions in new genes associated with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Carolina A; Lewallen, Eric A; Baheti, Saurabh; Bradley, Elizabeth W; Stuart, Michael J; Berry, Daniel J; van Wijnen, Andre J; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2016-01-15

    Epigenetic changes in articular chondrocytes are associated with osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression. Numerous studies have identified differentially methylated cytosines in OA tissues; however, the consequences of altered CpG methylation at single nucleotides on gene expression and phenotypes are difficult to predict. With the objective of detecting novel genes relevant to OA, we conducted a genome-wide assessment of differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs). DNA was extracted from visually damaged and normal appearing, non-damaged human knee articular cartilage from the same joint and then subjected to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. DMRs were identified using a genome-wide systematic bioinformatics approach. A sliding-window of 500bp was used for screening the genome for regions with clusters of DMSs. Gene expression levels were assessed and cell culture demethylation experiments were performed to further examine top candidate genes associated with damaged articular cartilage. More than 1000 DMRs were detected in damaged osteoarthritic cartilage. Nineteen of these contained five or more DMSs and were located in gene promoters or first introns and exons. Gene expression assessment revealed that hypermethylated DMRs in damaged samples were more consistently associated with gene repression than hypomethylated DMRs were with gene activation. Accordingly, a demethylation agent induced expression of most hypermethylated genes in chondrocytes. Our study revealed the utility of a systematic DMR search as an alternative to focusing on single nucleotide data. In particular, this approach uncovered promising candidates for functional studies such as the hypermethylated protein-coding genes FOXP4 and SHROOM1, which appear to be linked to OA pathology in humans and warrant further investigation. PMID:26484395

  2. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Design and conduct of clinical trials for hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kloppenburg, M; Maheu, E; Kraus, V B; Cicuttini, F; Doherty, M; Dreiser, R-L; Henrotin, Y; Jiang, G-L; Mandl, L; Martel-Pelletier, J; Nelson, A E; Neogi, T; Pelletier, J-P; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R; Simon, L S; Wang, S

    2015-05-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a very frequent disease, but yet understudied. However, a lot of works have been published in the past 10 years, and much has been done to better understand its clinical course and structural progression. Despite this new knowledge, few therapeutic trials have been conducted in hand OA. The last OARSI recommendations for the conduct of clinical trials in hand OA dates back to 2006. The present recommendations aimed at updating previous recommendations, by incorporating new data. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven exercise is to provide evidence-based guidance on the design, execution and analysis of clinical trials in hand OA, where published evidence is available, supplemented by expert opinion, where evidence is lacking, to perform clinical trials in hand OA, both for symptom and for structure-modification. They indicate core outcome measurement sets for studies in hand OA, and list the methods and instruments that should be used to measure symptoms or structure. For both symptom- and structure-modification, at least pain, physical function, patient global assessment, HR-QoL, joint activity and hand strength should be assessed. In addition, for structure-modification trials, structural progression should be measured by radiographic changes. We also provide a research agenda listing many unsolved issues that seem to most urgently need to be addressed from the perspective of performing "good" clinical trials in hand OA. These updated OARSI recommendations should allow for better standardizing the conduct of clinical trials in hand OA in the next future. PMID:25952348

  3. Detection and classification of interstitial lung diseases and emphysema using a joint morphological-fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Kuang-Che; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Prêteux, Françoise; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has high accuracy and specificity on volumetrically capturing serial images of the lung. It increases the capability of computerized classification for lung tissue in medical research. This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) automated approach based on mathematical morphology and fuzzy logic for quantifying and classifying interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and emphysema. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages: (1) an image multi-resolution decomposition scheme based on a 3D morphological filter is used to detect and analyze the different density patterns of the lung texture. Then, (2) for each pattern in the multi-resolution decomposition, six features are computed, for which fuzzy membership functions define a probability of association with a pathology class. Finally, (3) for each pathology class, the probabilities are combined up according to the weight assigned to each membership function and two threshold values are used to decide the final class of the pattern. The proposed approach was tested on 10 MDCT cases and the classification accuracy was: emphysema: 95%, fibrosis/honeycombing: 84% and ground glass: 97%.

  4. -----Insulin-Like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Cartilage Matrix Loss and Promotes Cartilage Integrity in Experimental Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Uchimura, Tomoya; Foote, Andrea T; Smith, Eric L; Matzkin, Elizabeth G; Zeng, Li

    2015-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread chronic joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction and accompanied by pain and disability. In this study, we found that the expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) was reduced in articular cartilage in human OA patients as well as in the murine experimental OA model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). In primary human articular chondrocytes, ectopic expression of lentiviral IGF-II inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation as well as catabolic gene expression. Interestingly, IGF-II did not significantly alter the phosphorylation states of ERK1/2 or Akt, which are kinases typically activated by IGF-I. Instead, it induced the activity of phospholipase C (PLC) and a PLC inhibitor blocked the inhibitory activity of IGF-II against IL-1?, suggesting that this activity is mediated through PLC. Furthermore, IGF-II increased cartilage matrix levels and decreased MMP13 protein expression in explanted human OA cartilage cultures in vitro. In the in vivo DMM model, intraarticular injection of lentiviral IGF-II led to enhanced cartilage matrix levels and decreased MMP13 protein expression, as well as reduced osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. Therefore, our results suggest that IGF-II can promote cartilage integrity and halt knee joint destruction in OA. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2858-2869, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26015264

  5. Deficiency of G-protein coupled receptor 40, a lipid-activated receptor, heightens in vitro- and in vivo-induced murine osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Philippe, Claire; Mercier, Sylvie; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related degenerative joint disease. To date, its management is focused on symptoms (pain and inflammation). Studies suggest that fatty acids can reduce the expression of inflammatory and catalytic mediators, and improve in vivo joint function. Free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) such as G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) are proposed as attractive therapeutic targets to counteract inflammation and cartilage degradation observed in OA. This study aims to elucidate the involvement of GPR40 in OA. In this study, we used an in vitro model of OA, and surgically induced OA by ligament transection and partial meniscectomy in wild-type and GPR40 deficient mice. OA phenotype was investigated in vivo by histology and genes expression. We demonstrate that IL-1?-treated GPR40(-/-) chondrocytes secret more inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2) and active catabolic enzymes (metalloproteinase-2, -9 [MMP-2, MMP-9]), and show decreased anabolism (glycoaminoglycan) compared to GPR40(+/+) cells. In accordance with these results, we show that GPR40(-/-) mice exhibit an aggravated OA-induced phenotype characterized by higher tidemark exposure, frequency of osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. Altogether our results demonstrate that GPR40 deficiency leads to an extended OA phenotype, providing evidence that increasing GPR40 activity, by natural or synthetic ligands, could be a new strategy in the management of OA. PMID:25585625

  6. Fluid shear stress-induced osteoarthritis: roles of cyclooxygenase-2 and its metabolic products in inducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Guan, Pei-Pei; Guo, Chuang; Zhu, Fei; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You

    2013-12-01

    The mechanical overloading of cartilage is involved in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) by both biochemical and mechanical pathways. The application of fluid shear stress to chondrocytes recapitulates the earmarks of OA, as evidenced by the release of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and apoptotic factors. Dysregulations or mutations in these genes might directly cause OA in addition to determining the stage at which OA becomes apparent, the joint sites involved, and the severity of the disease and how rapidly it progresses. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this review, we propose that the dysregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is associated with fluid shear stress-induced OA via its metabolic products at different stages of the disease. Indeed, high fluid shear stress rapidly induces the production of PICs and MMPs via COX-2-derived prostaglandin (PG)E2 at the early stage of OA. In contrast, prolonged shear exposure (>12 h) aggravates the condition by concurrently up-regulating the expression of proapoptotic genes and down-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic genes in a 15-deoxy-? (12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2)-dependent manner at the late stage of disease. These observations may help to resolve long-standing questions in OA progression and provide insight for development of strategies to treat and combat OA. PMID:23964078

  7. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ylva; Söderquist, Lennart; Ekman, Stina

    2007-01-01

    The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle), tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal) joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples) from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34) had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93%) had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86%) of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47%) had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71%) of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12%) had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9%) had mild osteoarthritis (OA), 5 (5/34, 15%) moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50%) severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15%) deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97%) were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34) had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%). Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11) had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55%) or moderate (36%). None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness. PMID:17983470

  8. Joint swelling

    MedlinePLUS

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  9. Up regulation of cathepsin K expression in articular chondrocytes in a transgenic mouse model for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Morko, J; Soderstrom, M; Saamanen, A; Salminen, H; Vuorio, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the expression of cysteine proteinases, particularly cathepsin K, and their extracellular inhibitor cystatin C in articular cartilage of transgenic Del1 mice which harbour a short deletion mutation in a type II collagen transgene and are predisposed to early onset osteoarthritis. Methods: Northern analysis was used to measure mRNA levels of cathepsins B, H, K, L, and S, and cystatin C in total RNA extracted from knee joints of Del1 mice, using their non-transgenic litter mates as controls. Immunohistochemistry and morphometry was used to study the distribution of cathepsin K and cystatin C in the knee joints. Results: Up regulation of cathepsin K mRNA expression was seen in the knee joints of transgenic Del1 mice at the onset of cartilage degeneration. Cathepsin K was found near sites of matrix destruction in articular chondrocytes, particularly in clusters of proliferating cells, and in calcified cartilaginous matrix. In intact articular cartilage of control animals, cathepsin K was only seen in a small number of chondrocytes. Upon aging, control animals also developed osteoarthritis, which was accompanied by increased cathepsin K expression. Cystatin C was mostly localised in and around chondrocytes located in calcified cartilage, with no obvious association with the onset of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion: The temporospatial distribution of cathepsin K in osteoarthritic cartilage suggests a role for this enzyme in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Because cathepsin K can digest cartilage matrix components it may contribute to the development of osteoarthritic lesions. These data may provide new clues for the development of treatments aimed at preventing cartilage degeneration. PMID:15140771

  10. Intra-articular injection of collagenase in the knee of rats as an alternative model to study nociception associated with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Animal models currently used in osteoarthritis-associated pain research inadequately reproduce the initiating events and structural pathology of human osteoarthritis. Conversely, intra-articular injection of collagenase is a structurally relevant model, as it induces articular degeneration both by digesting collagen from cartilage and by causing articular instability, thereby reproducing some of the main events associated with osteoarthritis onset and development. Here, we evaluated if the intra-articular injection of collagenase can be an alternative model to study nociception associated with osteoarthritis. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by two intra-articular injections of either 250 U or 500 U of collagenase into the left knee joint of adult male Wistar rats. A six weeks time-course assessment of movement- and loading-induced nociception was performed by the Knee-Bend and CatWalk tests. The effect of morphine, lidocaine and diclofenac on nociceptive behaviour was evaluated in animals injected with 500 U of collagenase. Joint histopathology was scored for both doses throughout time. The expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was evaluated. Results An increase in nociceptive behaviour associated with movement and loading of affected joints was observed after intra-articular collagenase injection. With the 500 U dose of collagenase, there was a significant correlation between the behavioural and the histopathological osteoarthritis-like structural changes developed after six weeks. One week after injection of 500 U collagenase, swelling of the injected knee and inflammation of the synovial membrane were also observed, indicating the occurrence of an early inflammatory reaction. Behavioural changes induced by the 500 U dose of collagenase were overall effectively reversed by morphine and lidocaine. Diclofenac was effective one week after injection. TRPV1 expression increased six weeks after 500 U collagenase injection. Conclusion We conclude that the intra-articular injection of 500 U collagenase in the knee of rats can be an alternative model for the study of nociception associated with osteoarthritis, since it induces significant nociceptive alterations associated with relevant osteoarthritis-like joint structural changes. PMID:24423138

  11. A hyaluronic acid-salmon calcitonin conjugate for the local treatment of osteoarthritis: chondro-protective effect in a rabbit model of early OA.

    PubMed

    Mero, Anna; Campisi, Monica; Favero, Marta; Barbera, Carlo; Secchieri, Cynthia; Dayer, Jean M; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Pasut, Gianfranco

    2014-08-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic degeneration of joints, involving mainly the articular cartilage and the underlying bone, and severely impairing the quality of life of the patient. Although with limited efficacy, currently available pharmacological treatments for OA aim to control pain and to retard disease progression. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is a drug which has been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis by inhibiting both bone turnover and cartilage degradation and reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is used as a lubricant in OA therapy, and, interestingly, HA polymers may normalize the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -13. We demonstrated that sCT rapidly clears from the knee joint of rat animal model, after intra-articular (i.a.) administration, and it induces systemic effects. Here, sCT was conjugated to HA (200kDa) with the aim of prolonging the residence time of the polypeptide in the joint space by reducing its clearance. An aldehyde derivative of HA was used for N-terminal site-selective coupling of sCT. The activity of sCT was preserved, both in vitro and in vivo, after its conjugation and the i.a. injection of HA-sCT did not trigger any systemic effects in rats. The efficacy of HA-sCT treatment was tested in a rabbit OA model and clear chondro-protective effect was proven by macro- and microscopic assessments and histological findings. Our results indicate that HAylation of sCT increases the size of the polypeptide in a stable covalent manner and delays its passage into the blood stream. We conclude that HA conjugation prolongs the anti-catabolic effects of sCT in joint tissues, including the synovial membrane and cartilage. PMID:24837189

  12. Amelioration of osteoarthritis by intra-articular hyaluronan synthase 2 gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Yang, Quan-Sheng; Zhu, Jin-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Rui; Li, Li-Wen; Zhu, Qing-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, degenerative disorder of multifactorial aetiology, characterized by loss of articular cartilage and periarticular bone remodelling. Goals of managing OA include controlling pain, maintaining and improving function and health-related quality of life, and limiting functional impairment. Although several managements had been proved to ameliorate the symptoms of osteoarthritis, no methods could cure it thoroughly. High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is a major component of synovial joint fluids which physically acts as a viscous lubricant for slow joint movements and as an elastic shock absorber during rapid movements. It also has a variety of biologic effects in vivo, such as inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and suppressing the degradation of cartilage matrix. Intra-articular injection of synthetic HMW-HA has been used as viscosupplement for knee OA and its therapeutic efficacy has been verified. However, repeated injections of HMW-HA which is needed to control symptoms increase the probability of infection and sometimes there will have acute joint pain with effusion, which requires aspiration to exclude sepsis. In order to overcome the disadvantages of repeated injections of HMW-HA, novel strategies should be developed. As HMW-HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthase-2 (HAS2), we postulate that HAS2 gene could be delivered into intra-articular cells by methods of gene therapy to achieve long-lasting synthesis of HMW-HA. In our opinion, this strategy seems to hold interesting future prospects for the treatment of OA. PMID:17433560

  13. Assessment of cortical and trabecular bone changes in two models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Hannah M; Larson, Blair E; Coatney, Garrett A; Button, Keith D; DeCamp, Charlie E; Fajardo, Ryan S; Haut, Roger C; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2015-12-01

    Subchondral bone is thought to play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The goal of this study was to document changes in tibial and femoral subchondral bone that occur as a result of two lapine models of anterior cruciate ligament injury, a modified ACL transection model and a closed-joint traumatic compressive impact model. Twelve weeks post-injury bones were scanned via micro-computed tomography. The subchondral bone of injured limbs from both models showed decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density. Surgical transection animals showed significant bone changes primarily in the medial hemijoint of femurs and tibias, while significant changes were noted in both the medial and lateral hemijoints of both bones for traumatic impact animals. It is believed that subchondral bone changes in the medial hemijoint were likely caused by compromised soft tissue structures seen in both models. Subchondral bone changes in the lateral hemijoint of traumatic impact animals are thought to be due to transmission of the compressive impact force through the joint. The joint-wide bone changes shown in the traumatic impact model were similar to clinical findings from studies investigating the progression of osteoarthritis in humans. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1835-1845, 2015. PMID:26147652

  14. Realignment Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Hentges, Matthew J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lamm, Bradley M

    2016-01-01

    Subtalar joint arthrodesis is a commonly performed procedure for the correction of hindfoot deformity and/or the relief of pain related to osteoarthritis. The purpose of the present study was to provide preoperative and intraoperative objective radiographic parameters to improve the accuracy and long-term success of realignment arthrodesis of the subtalar joint. We retrospectively reviewed the data from 16 patients, 11 male (57.9%) and 8 female (42.1%) feet, who had undergone realignment subtalar joint arthrodesis. A total of 19 fusions were performed in 9 (47.4%) right and 10 (52.6%) left feet, with a mean follow-up period of 2 (range 1 to 4.8) years. The mean age at surgery was 54.5 (range 14 to 77) years. Statistically significant improvement in radiographic alignment was found in the anteroposterior talo-first metatarsal angle (p = .002), lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (p < .001), tibial-calcaneal angle (p < .001), and tibial-calcaneal distance (p < .001). A positive correlation was observed between the tibial-calcaneal angle and tibial-calcaneal distance (r = 0.825, p < .001). The statistically significant improvement in tibial-calcaneal alignment, in both angulation and distance, support our conclusions that proper realignment of the calcaneus to vertical and central under the tibia will lead to short-term success and, likely, long-term success of subtalar joint arthrodesis. PMID:26028600

  15. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. Methods A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. Results At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. Discussion We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis for the design of an adequately powered randomized controlled trial. PMID:26089699

  16. Clinical review of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, D

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic slow-acting drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis (SYSADOA; OA) are compounds which are prescribed as drugs in European countries since many years, whereas they are sold as nutraceuticals in USA. In Europe, the publication of the EULAR Recommendations for the Treatment of Knee OA in 2003 has listed oral chondroitin sulfate (CS) as evidence 1A and strength of recommendation A which represents the highest level for a therapeutic strategy. Symptomatic slow-acting drugs are intended to be used as ground therapy for OA; these compounds are not rapidly acting agents such as Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), and their clinical efficacy on algo-functional symptoms can only be demonstrated after a couple of weeks of regular intake. Interestingly, once the administration is stopped, they do show carry-over effects of various durations, from about 3 months with the oral formulations to 6-9 months with intra-articular formulations. The main rationale behind the use of the SYSADOA therapeutic class is the reduction of NSAIDs in the overall drug management of OA disease and therefore consequently to limit the very significant risks of upper Gastro-intestinal (GI) tract erosions, ulcers with bleeding and/or deleterious renal effects in elderly patients. The evidence for clinical efficacy of oral CS as a drug able to significantly improve the algo-functional symptoms of OA disease does come from a set of randomized clinical studies published a couple of years ago. Indeed, it was demonstrated that the drug was effective in knee and finger OA, whereas previous data suggested that hip OA patients could also benefit from it. In addition, oral CS supported the comparison with NSAIDs such as diclofenac sodium in a medium/long-term clinical study in patients with knee OA. A dose-finding study in patients with knee OA did provide strong data supporting the administration of 800 mg of CS orally which had nearly the same effects as 1200 mg/day, whereas the use of a sequential 3 months administration mode, twice a year was also shown to provide the same results as a continuous treatment. The good tolerability and safety aspects of oral CS were largely documented in these CTs. Taking these important points into account, we definitively have enough clinical data available supporting the view that oral CS is a valuable and safe symptomatic treatment for OA disease. More recent data based on a couple of previous trials and two pivotal studies do provide further evidence that oral CS does also have structure-modifying effects in knee OA patients. A couple of other compounds such as hyaluronan, diacerein, avocado and soya unsaponifiables, doxycycline have also been tested with respect to their potential disease-modifying effects. Additional compounds including receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) ligand inhibitors, cathepsin K inhibitors, bisphosphonates are further assessed regarding their potential structure-modifying effect. PMID:18674931

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study identifies a locus on chromosome 7q22 to influence susceptibility for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhof, Hanneke J.M.; Lories, Rik J.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Valdes, Ana M; Arp, Pascal; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Jhamai, Mila; Jonsson, Helgi; Stolk, Lisette; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zhai, Guangju; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yanyan; van der Breggen, Ruud; Carr, Andrew; Doherty, Michael; Doherty, Sally; Felson, David T.; Gonzalez, Antonio; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Hart, Deborah J.; Hauksson, Valdimar B.; Hofman, Albert; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lane, Nancy E.; Loughlin, John; Luyten, Frank P.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Parimi, Neeta; Pols, Huibert A.P.; van de Putte, Tom; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Slagboom, Eline P.; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Tsezou, Aspasia; Zmuda, Joseph; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.

    2012-01-01

    To identify genes involved in osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent form of joint disease, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in which we tested 500,510 Single Nucelotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1341 OA cases and 3496 Dutch Caucasian controls. SNPs associated with at least two OA-phenotypes were analysed in 14,938 OA cases and approximately 39,000 controls. The C-allele of rs3815148 on chromosome 7q22 (MAF 23%, 172 kb upstream of the GPR22 gene) was consistently associated with a 1.14-fold increased risk (95%CI: 1.09–1.19) for knee- and/or hand-OA (p=8×10?8), and also with a 30% increased risk for knee-OA progression (95%CI: 1.03–1.64, p=0.03). This SNP is in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with rs3757713 (located 68 kb upstream of GPR22) which is associated with GPR22 expression levels in lymphoblast cell lines (p=4×10?12). GPR22 encodes an G-protein coupled receptor with unkown ligand (orphan receptor). Immunohistochemistry experiments showed absence of GPR22 in normal mouse articular cartilage or synovium. However, GPR22 positive chondrocytes were found in the upper layers of the articular cartilage of mouse knee joints that were challenged by in vivo papain treatment or in the presence of interleukin-1 driven inflammation. GRP22 positive chondrocyte-like cells were also found in osteophytes in instability-induced OA. In addition, GPR22 is also present in areas of the brain involved in locomotor function. Our findings reveal a novel common variant on chromosome 7q22 to influence susceptibility for prevalence and progression of OA. PMID:20112360

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of doxycycline-chondroitin sulfate/PCLmicrospheres for intraarticular treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ozlem; Korkusuz, Feza; Korkusuz, Petek; Tezcaner, Aysen; Bilgic, Elif; Yaprakci, Volkan; Keskin, Dilek

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, which has no complete treatment with medication yet. Intraarticular hyaluronan (HA) injection can decrease pain and modify the natural course of OA. This study was designed to provide long term delivery of an MMP (matrix-metalloproteinase) inhibitor agent-doxycycline, together with matrix regenerative agent-chondroitin sulfate for treating OA which progress with matrix degenerations. Doxycycline (D) and doxycycline-chondroitin sulfate (D-CS) loaded poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) microspheres (MS) were prepared as intraarticular delivery systems. Bio-effectiveness of developed microspheres was first evaluated with three-dimensional in vitro model of OA where both MS showed significant reduction in MMP-13 levels compared to untreated OA-chondrocytes at 15 and 24 days. Significant decrease was observed in GAG release into the media for both D MS and D-CS MS treated groups at 15 and 24 days. Second, the microspheres were injected to rabbit knee in hyaluronan (HA) to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Radiographic scores of D MS and D-CS MS groups improved after 8 weeks when compared to OA group. Mankin-Pitzker histological scores similarly showed improvement with D MS and D-CSMS groups when compared to OA group. Ex vivo hardness tests of cartilages demonstrated superior hardness values with both doses of D-CSMS compared to OA group. D MS showed promising improvement of OA in histology results. Although, both MS groups had similar effects on cells in the in vitro model, D-CSMS had a positive contribution on all in vivo treatment outcomes and showed potential as a new strategy for treatment when applied to OA knee joints. PMID:25350566

  19. Benorylate: a report on 2 years' experience of its use in rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, K

    1975-01-01

    52 outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were given benorylate (as the 40% suspension) in doses of up to 8 g daily. Peroids of medication were varied but some patients were given the drug for nearly 2 years. Assessments of clinical progress were made at regular intervals by recording both subjective and objective measurements including duration of morning stiffness, grip strength, joint size. Laboratory investigations include renal function tests, liver function tests, blood picture and occult blood. No serious side effect, attributable to benorylate was reported and it was concluded that the drug is satisfactory for the long term treatment of rheumatic diseases. PMID:8837

  20. Activity limitations and participation restrictions in women with hand osteoarthritis: patients' descriptions and associations between dimensions of functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kjeken, I; Dagfinrud, H; Slatkowsky-Christ..., B; Mowinckel, P; Uhlig, T; Kvien, T; Finset, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the functional consequences of hand osteoarthritis, and analyse associations between personal factors, hand impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: 87 women with hand osteoarthritis completed a clinical examination including recording of sociodemographic data, measures of hand impairment, and completion of self reported health status measures. The function subscale of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index was used as a measure of hand related activity limitations, while the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to describe and measure activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual. The study variables were categorised using the dimensions in the ICF framework and analysed using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Results: The patients described problems in many domains of activity and participation. The most frequently described hand related problems were activities requiring considerable grip strength combined with twisting of the hands. On the impairment level, the patients had reduced grip force and joint mobility in the hands, and resisted motion was painful. Regression analyses showed that hand related activity limitations were associated with measures of hand impairment, while activity and participation (as measured by the COPM) were more strongly associated with personal factors than with hand impairment. Conclusions: Hand osteoarthritis has important functional consequences in terms of pain, reduced hand mobility and grip force, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Rehabilitation programmes should therefore be multidisciplinary and multidimensional, focusing on hand function, occupational performance, and coping strategies. PMID:15829571

  1. MiR-210 inhibits NF-?B signaling pathway by targeting DR6 in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Cao, Xiaorui; Li, Jun; Zhao, Guangyue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of articular cartilage and joint inflammation. MicroRNAs have been proved to play an important role in the regulation of chondrogenesis. Previous study showed that microRNA-210 (miR-210) was probably associated with osteoarthritis, while the function of miR-210 in osteoarthritis still remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of miR-210 on osteoarthritis. In the in vitro study, miR-210 level in chondrocytes was decreased after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transfection with miR-210 mimic inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, cell viability reduction and cell apoptosis. Results of luciferase activity assay showed that miR-210 targeted 3'-UTR of death receptor 6 (DR6) to inhibit its expression. MiR-210 mimic and DR6 siRNA transfection inhibited the activation of NF-?B pathway and cell apoptosis of chondrocytes. For the in vivo study, OA model was established on rats by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). MiR-210 expression is reduced in OA rats. MiR-210 over-expressing lentivirus was injected into the OA rats. Cytokines production, and NF-?B and DR6 expression in OA rats was inhibited by miR-210 overexpression. The results demonstrated that miR-210 decreased inflammation in articular cavity in OA rats by targeting DR6 and inhibiting NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:26244598

  2. Early osteoarthritis and reduced quality of life after retirement in former professional soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Yamada, Ricardo Kim Fukunishi; Yamada, André Fukunishi; Miyashita, Gustavo Kenzo; Mandelbaum, Bert; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of osteoarthritis in two groups: one comprising former professional soccer players and the other comprising non-professional-athlete participants. METHODS: Twenty-seven male former professional soccer players and 30 male volunteers from different non-sports professional areas participated in the study. All participants underwent bilateral knee radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the quality of life, knee pain and joint function were evaluated and compared using questionnaires given to all participants in both groups. Specific knee evaluations, with regard to osteoarthritis and quality of life, were performed in both groups using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subjective questionnaires and the Short-form 36. The chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t-test were used for group comparisons. RESULTS: The between-groups comparison revealed significant differences in the following: pain, symptoms and quality of life related to the knee in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales; the physical aspects subscale of the SF-36; total whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging scores with regard to the dominant and non-dominant knees. Former soccer players had worse scores than the controls in all comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Both the clinical and magnetic resonance evaluations and the group comparisons performed in this study revealed that former soccer players have a worse quality of life than that of a control group with regard to physical aspects related to the knee; these aspects include greater pain, increased symptoms and substantial changes in radiographic and magnetic resonance images of the knee. PMID:25318089

  3. Nonoperative Treatment Approach to Knee Osteoarthritis in the Master Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Huleatt, Joel B.; Campbell, Kevin J.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Middle-age and elderly participants in athletic activities frequently encounter the chronic disabling process of osteoarthritis. Knowledge of the treatment of knee osteoarthritis is needed to keep the master athlete active. Objective: This article reviews the current scientific evidence regarding recommendations for the maturing athlete, specifically discussing the strengths and weaknesses of dietary and lifestyle modifications, physical therapy, bracing, supplements, pharmacotherapies, and biologics in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: These treatment modalities can help keep the aging athlete active, which in itself plays an important role in reducing the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24427443

  4. Rolling contact orthopaedic joint design

    E-print Network

    Slocum, Alexander Henry, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Arthroplasty, the practice of rebuilding diseased biological joints using engineering materials, is often used to treat severe arthritis of the knee and hip. Prosthetic joints have been created in a "biomimetic" manner to ...

  5. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Elizabeth; Gormsen Hansen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients' overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient's risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis. PMID:23346399

  6. Analgesia and the patient with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2002-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, its prevalence increasing with age: as much as 80% of the population over 75 years show radiologic signs of the condition. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, and functional impairment; however, not all patients are symptomatic. Management starts with nonpharmacologic interventions, followed by pharmacologic means, and ultimately by surgical intervention. The management is multidisciplinary and is tailored to the needs of the individual patient. It is, therefore, a good model of collaborative care: multidisciplinary management of a chronic condition for which the patients themselves coordinate the use of the management options, with information and guidance from health care professionals and written materials, as needed. Guidelines for the management of osteoarthritis have been developed and are applied in different continents. These guidelines are based on searches of the literature and evidence-based interpretation, in combination with expert opinion. Pharmacologic management guidelines state that based on its overall efficacy, toxicity profile, and cost, paracetamol-acetaminophen should be tried first and, if successful, should be used as the preferred long-term analgesic. In patients who do not experience adequate symptomatic relief with paracetamol-acetaminophen, alternative or additional pharmacologic agents should be considered, especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). When the combination of paracetamol-acetaminophen with NSAIDs fails, tramadol may be given. Most patients with osteoarthritis are able, after discussion with their physician, to manage their symptoms themselves. They make use of educational occupational, and physical advisers, and they use their medication on demand. The basis of this self-administered pharmacologic management is paracetamol-acetaminophen, sometimes in combination with NSAIDs. A promising option for the future is the development of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis that possess structure-modifying properties. PMID:11941378

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of hip joint cartilage and labrum

    PubMed Central

    Zilkens, Christoph; Miese, Falk; Jäger, Marcus; Bittersohl, Bernd; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Hip joint instability and impingement are the most common biomechanical risk factors that put the hip joint at risk to develop premature osteoarthritis. Several surgical procedures like periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia or hip arthroscopy or safe surgical hip dislocation for femoroacetabular impingement aim at restoring the hip anatomy. However, the success of joint preserving surgical procedures is limited by the amount of pre-existing cartilage damage. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques like delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) might help to monitor the effect of surgical or non-surgical procedures in the effort to halt or even reverse joint damage. PMID:22053256

  8. Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, Dan; Beck, Thomas J.; Carrino, John A.; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2011-09-01

    A high-resolution radiographic method for soft tissues in the small joints of the hand would aid in the study and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), which often attacks these joints. Of particular interest would be imaging with <100 µm resolution the joint cartilage, whose integrity is a main indicator of disease. Differential phase-contrast (DPC) or refraction-based x-ray imaging with Talbot grating interferometers could provide such a method, since it enhances soft tissue contrast and can be implemented with conventional x-ray tubes. A numerical joint phantom was first developed to assess the angular sensitivity and spectrum needed for a hand DPC system. The model predicts that, due to quite similar refraction indexes for joint soft tissues, the refraction effects are very small, requiring high angular resolution. To compare our model to experiment we built a high-resolution bench-top interferometer using 10 µm period gratings, a W anode tube and a CCD-based detector. Imaging experiments on animal cartilage and on a human finger support the model predictions. For instance, the estimated difference between the index of refraction of cartilage and water is of only several percent at ~25 keV mean energy, comparable to that between the linear attenuation coefficients. The potential advantage of DPC imaging thus comes mainly from the edge enhancement at the soft tissue interfaces. Experiments using a cadaveric human finger are also qualitatively consistent with the joint model, showing that refraction contrast is dominated by tendon embedded in muscle, with the cartilage layer difficult to observe in our conditions. Nevertheless, the model predicts that a DPC radiographic system for the small hand joints of the hand could be feasible using a low energy quasi-monochromatic source, such as a K-edge filtered Rh or Mo tube, in conjunction with a ~2 m long 'symmetric' interferometer operated in a high Talbot order.

  9. A Synoviocyte Model for Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Response to Ibuprofen, Betamethasone, and Ginger Extract—A Cross-Sectional In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribel-Madsen, Søren; Bartels, Else Marie; Stockmarr, Anders; Borgwardt, Arne; Cornett, Claus; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining if synovial cell cultures from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and healthy controls (HC) differ and are suitable disease models in pharmacological studies, and tested their response to some anti-inflammatory drugs. Synovial cells were isolated from synovial membrane or joint fluid. Cells were cultivated and exposed to no or TNF-? stimulation without, or in the presence of, betamethasone, ibuprofen, or a standardized ginger extract. Concentrations of a panel of cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines were mapped for each culture and condition. Our cells secreted an increased amount of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 in response to TNF-? stimulation in all conditions. OA cells showed a higher IL-6 and IL-8 and a lower IL-1? production, when not stimulated, than RA and HC cells, which were similar. TNF-? stimulation caused similar IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 release in all groups. Ibuprofen showed no effect on cytokine production, while ginger extract was similar to betamethasone. Ginger extract was as effective an anti-inflammatory agent as betamethasone in this in vitro model. Cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes from OA and RA subjects promise to be a useful pharmacological disease model, but further studies, to support results from such a model are needed. PMID:23365744

  10. Robotic joint replacement surgery: does technology improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Hill, Chelsea; El-Bash, Reem; Johnson, Leslie; Coustasse, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common disease that leads patients to seek total joint replacement (TJR). Component misalignment leads to failure of TJR. Computer navigation enhances the precision of component alignment, but the addition of robotic guidance can boost TJR to a higher level of accuracy. Some 29 English-language peer-reviewed articles from 2002 to 2013 and 1 Web site were reviewed. A conceptual framework was adapted to explain benefits and barriers of adoption of robotic TJR. A total of 10 studies were reviewed with focus on more precise alignment, outcomes, length of stay, and costs. Cost to obtain robotic surgical equipment was found to be about $1 million with maintenance costs approaching $350 000. Robotic techniques compared with conventional orthopedic surgery showed slight variances in favor of robotic procedures. Although hospitals have the potential to reduce costs and improve outcomes with robotic TJR, the expenditure and maintenance have not been proven a clear return on investment. As surgical robotic technology evolves in accuracy and accessibility, joint replacement surgery may benefit from improved precision and decreased health care costs. However, equipment purchase and upkeep costs and surgeon training may impede use to its full potential in orthopedic surgery in the United States. PMID:25909400

  11. Treatment of Varus Ankle Osteoarthritis and Instability With a Novel Mortise-Plasty Osteotomy Procedure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hayato; Kageyama, Yasunori; Shido, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Although joint-preserving surgery for intermediate ankle osteoarthritis has been reported to be effective, failures of supramalleolar osteotomy and plafond-plasty can occur because of persistent malalignment of the distal tibia and incongruent ankle mortise. We introduce a novel opening wedge distal tibial osteotomy procedure (mortise-plasty) with rigid plate fixation combined with synthetic bone wedges. We performed 27 mortise-plasties in 25 patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis and instability. Six males (24%) and 19 females (76%), with a mean age of 63 (range 28 to 79) years, were followed up for a mean of 27.3 (range 14 to 45) months. The mean preoperative visual analog scale score, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, and Takakura ankle scale score were 7.4 (range 5.4 to 10), 58.7 (range 18 to 84), and 55.9 (range 29 to 88), respectively. These scores improved significantly to 2.1 (range 0 to 6.5), 89.3 (range 67 to 100), and 84.7 (range 55 to 100) postoperatively (p < .001). The mean preoperative tibial-anterior surface angle and talar tilt angle were 84.9° (range 78° to 90°) and 8.3° (range 3° to 21°), respectively. At the most recent follow-up visit, the corresponding values were 95.0° (range 82° to 99°) and 1.8° (range 0° to 8°), respectively (p < .001). Computed tomography scans indicated that the ankle mortise narrowed by approximately 1.8 mm and the tibial plafond was lowered after osteotomy. No patients underwent lateral ligament reconstruction, ankle joint replacement, or arthrodesis. Mortise-plasty osteotomy corrects the intra-articular and extra-articular deformities simultaneously and provides good clinical and radiographic outcomes for patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis and instability. PMID:26190784

  12. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypermobile joints have an increased risk for joint dislocation and other problems. Extra care may be needed ... the joint? Is there any history of joint dislocation, difficulty walking, or difficulty using the arms? Further ...

  13. The role of inflammation-related genes in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E L; Reynard, L N; Loughlin, J

    2015-11-01

    In this review article we examine the role of inflammation-related genes in osteoarthritis (OA) from the perspective of genetics, epigenetics and gene expression. There have been great strides in such genomic analyses of OA in recent years thanks to the study of adequately powered patient cohorts, the detailed analysis of candidate genes, and the application of genome-wide approaches. These have led to some unexpected and therefore exciting discoveries, implicating pathways that would not necessarily have been predicted to have a role in this common arthritis. Inflammatory-related genes sit firmly in the candidate camp based on prior observations that the OA disease process can have an inflammatory component. What is clear from the genetic studies published to date is that there is no compelling evidence that DNA variation in inflammatory genes is an OA risk factor. This conclusion may of course change as ever more powerful association studies are conducted. There is, however, compelling evidence that epigenetic effects involving inflammatory genes are a component of OA and that alteration in the expression of these genes is also highly relevant to the disease process. We may in fact be close to demonstrating, at the genomic level, a clear separation of OA patients into those in whom inflammation is a key driver of the disease and those in whom it is not. This has obvious implications for the design of trials of novel OA interventions and may also guide the intelligent re-purposing of anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:26521739

  14. Analyzing the History of Falls in Patients with Severe Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsonga, Theano; Michalopoulou, Maria; Malliou, Paraskevi; Godolias, George; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Soucacos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Background One out of three adults over the age of 65 years and one out of two over the age of 80 falls annually. Fall risk increases for older adults with severe knee osteoarthritis, a matter that should be further researched. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the history of falls including frequency, mechanism and location of falls, activity during falling and injuries sustained from falls examining at the same time their physical status. The secondary purpose was to determine the effect of age, gender, chronic diseases, social environment, pain elsewhere in the body and components of health related quality of life such as pain, stiffness, physical function, and dynamic stability on falls frequency in older adults aged 65 years and older with severe knee osteoarthritis. Methods An observational longitudinal study was conducted on 68 patients (11 males and 57 females) scheduled for total knee replacement due to severe knee osteoarthritis (grade 3 or 4) and knee pain lasting at least one year or more. Patients were personally interviewed for fall history and asked to complete self-administered questionnaires, such as the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and physical performance test was performed. Results The frequency of falls was 63.2% for the past year. The majority of falls took place during walking (89.23%). The main cause of falling was stumbling (41.54%). There was a high rate of injurious falling (29.3%). The time patients needed to complete the physical performance test implied the presence of disability and frailty. The high rates of fall risk, the high disability levels, and the low quality of life were confirmed by questionnaires and the mobility test. Conclusions Patients with severe knee osteoarthritis were at greater risk of falling, as compared to healthy older adults. Pain, stiffness, limited physical ability, reduced muscle strength, all consequences of severe knee osteoarthritis, restricted patient's quality of life and increased the fall risk. Therefore, patients with severe knee osteoarthritis should not postpone having total knee replacement, since it was clear that they would face more complicated matters when combining with fractures other serious injuries and disability. PMID:26640627

  15. Epigenetic regulation of interleukin-8, an inflammatory chemokine, in osteoarthritis

    E-print Network

    Epigenetic regulation of interleukin-8, an inflammatory chemokine, in osteoarthritis A. Takahashi y Epigenetics Inflammation Osteoarthritis s u m m a r y Objective: To determine whether altered IL8 methylation compared to controls17 . Gene expression is regulated by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms

  16. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  17. Growth factors in the treatment of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Civinini, Roberto; Nistri, Lorenzo; Martini, Caterina; Redl, Birgit; Ristori, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is the science that studies the regeneration of biological tissues obtained through use of cells, with the aid of support structures and with biomolecules such as growth factors. As regards the growth factors the PRP, or the platelet-rich plasma, obtained from a withdrawal of autologous blood, concentrating the platelets, represents a safe, economical, easy to prepare and easy to apply source of growth factors. Numerous growth factors are in fact within the platelets and in particular a large number of them have a specific activity on neo-proliferation, on cartilage regeneration and in particular also an antiapoptotic effect on chondroblasts: - The PDGF which regulates the secretion and synthesis of collagen;- The EGF that causes cellular proliferation, endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis;- The VEGF that increases angiogenesis and vascular permeability;- The TGF-beta that stimulates the proliferation of undifferentiated MSC, stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells and angiogenesis;- The bFGF that promotes the growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts stimulates mitogenesis of mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. These properties have led to the development of studies that evaluated the efficacy of treatment of infiltrations in the knee and hip with platelet-derived growth factors. Regarding the knee it was demonstrated that in patients with moderate degree of gonarthrosis, the PRP is able to significantly reduce the pain and improve joint function, both on placebo and towards infiltrations with hyaluronic acid. The success of the treatment was proportional to the age of and inversely proportional to the severity of osteoarthritis according to Kellgren and Lawrence classification. The possibility of infiltrations guided with ultrasound into the hip led us to extend the indications also to hip arthrosis, as already showed by Sanchez. Even in coxarthrosis preliminary results at 6 and 12 months show that a cycle of 3 infiltrations of PRP has significantly decreased the pain and increased range of motion and joint function. PMID:23858307

  18. TH-A-18C-02: An Electrostatic Model for Assessment of Joint Space Morphology in Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Thawait, G; Gang, G; Zbijewski, W; Riegel, T; Demehri, S; Siewerdsen, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: High-resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities presents a potentially valuable basis for image-based biomarkers of arthritis, trauma, and risk of injury. We present a new method for 3D joint space analysis that exploits the high isotropic spatial resolution of CBCT and is sensitive to small changes in disease-related morphology. Methods: The approach uses an “electrostatic” model in which joint surfaces (e.g., distal femur and proximal tibia) are labeled as charge densities between which the electric field is solved by approximation to the Laplace equation. The method yields a unique solution determined by the field lines across the “capacitor” and is hypothesized to be more sensitive than conventional (Sharp) scores and immune to degeneracies that limit simple distance-along-axis or closest-point analysis. The algorithm was validated in CBCT phantom images and applied in two clinical scenarios: osteoarthritis (OA, change in loadbearing tibiofemoral joint space); and assessment of injury risk (correlation of 3D joint space to tibial slope). Results: Joint space maps computed from the electrostatic model were accurate to within the voxel size (0.26 mm). The method highlighted subtle regions of morphological change that would likely be missed by conventional scalar metrics. Regions of subtle cartilage erosion were well quantified, and the method confidently discriminated OA and non-OA cohorts. 3D joint space maps correlated well with tibial slope and provide a new basis for principal component analysis of loadbearing injury risk. Runtime was less than 5 min (235×235×121 voxel subvolume in Matlab). Conclusion: A new method for joint space assessment was reported as a possible image-based biomarker of subtle articular change. The algorithm yields accurate quantitation of the joint in a manner that is robust against operator and patient setup variation. The method shows promising initial results in ongoing trials of CBCT in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury risk assessment. Research supported by R01 and R21 grants from the National Institutes of Health, academic-industry partnership with Carestream Health, and a grant from the US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center.

  19. A Bamboo Joint-Like Appearance is a Characteristic Finding in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Crohn's Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Fujiya, Mikihiro; Sakatani, Aki; Dokoshi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Gotoh, Takuma; Kashima, Shin; Tominaga, Motoya; Inaba, Yuhei; Ito, Takahiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Yokota, Kinnichi; Watari, Jiro; Saitoh, Yusuke; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    The clinical importance of Crohn's disease (CD)-specific lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (upper GIT) has not been sufficiently established. The aim of this case-control study is to investigate the characteristic findings of CD in the upper GIT.In 2740 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University between April 2011 and December 2012, 81 CD patients, 81 gender- and age-matched non-IBD patients, and 66 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were investigated in the present study. (1) The diagnostic ability and odds ratio of each endoscopic finding (a bamboo joint-like appearance in the cardia, erosions, and/or ulcers in the antrum, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum) were compared between the CD and non-IBD patients or UC patients. (2) The interobserver agreement of the diagnosis based on the endoscopic findings was evaluated by 3 experienced and 3 less-experienced endoscopists.The incidence of detecting a bamboo joint-like appearance, notched signs, and erosions and/or ulcers in the duodenum was significantly higher in the CD patients than in the non-IBD and UC patients. In addition, the diagnostic ability and odds ratio of a bamboo joint-like appearance for CD were higher than those for the other findings. Kendall's coefficients of concordance in the group of experienced and less-experienced endoscopists were relatively high for a bamboo joint-like appearance (0.748 and 0.692, respectively).A cardiac bamboo joint-like appearance is a useful finding for identifying high-risk groups of CD patients using only gastroduodenoscopy. PMID:26376393

  20. Identification of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients by transcriptome-based rule set generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Discrimination of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from patients with other inflammatory or degenerative joint diseases or healthy individuals purely on the basis of genes differentially expressed in high-throughput data has proven very difficult. Thus, the present study sought to achieve such discrimination by employing a novel unbiased approach using rule-based classifiers. Methods Three multi-center genome-wide transcriptomic data sets (Affymetrix HG-U133 A/B) from a total of 79 individuals, including 20 healthy controls (control group - CG), as well as 26 osteoarthritis (OA) and 33 RA patients, were used to infer rule-based classifiers to discriminate the disease groups. The rules were ranked with respect to Kiendl’s statistical relevance index, and the resulting rule set was optimized by pruning. The rule sets were inferred separately from data of one of three centers and applied to the two remaining centers for validation. All rules from the optimized rule sets of all centers were used to analyze their biological relevance applying the software Pathway Studio. Results The optimized rule sets for the three centers contained a total of 29, 20, and 8 rules (including 10, 8, and 4 rules for ‘RA’), respectively. The mean sensitivity for the prediction of RA based on six center-to-center tests was 96% (range 90% to 100%), that for OA 86% (range 40% to 100%). The mean specificity for RA prediction was 94% (range 80% to 100%), that for OA 96% (range 83.3% to 100%). The average overall accuracy of the three different rule-based classifiers was 91% (range 80% to 100%). Unbiased analyses by Pathway Studio of the gene sets obtained by discrimination of RA from OA and CG with rule-based classifiers resulted in the identification of the pathogenetically and/or therapeutically relevant interferon-gamma and GM-CSF pathways. Conclusion First-time application of rule-based classifiers for the discrimination of RA resulted in high performance, with means for all assessment parameters close to or higher than 90%. In addition, this unbiased, new approach resulted in the identification not only of pathways known to be critical to RA, but also of novel molecules such as serine/threonine kinase 10. PMID:24690414

  1. Effect of severity of knee osteoarthritis on the variability of gait parameters.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Rita M

    2011-10-01

    Gait analysis has provided important information concerning gait patterns and variability of gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) of varying severity. The objective of this study was to clarify how the variability of gait parameters is influenced by the severity of knee OA. Gait analysis was performed at three different controlled walking speeds in three groups of subjects with varying degrees of knee OA (20 healthy subjects with no OA and 90 patients with moderate or severe OA). The variability of gait parameters was characterized by the coefficient of variance (CV) of spatial-temporal parameters, as well as by the mean coefficient variance (MeanCV) of angular parameters. Based on our results, we conclude that the complexity of gait decreases if the walking speed differs from the self-selected speed. In patients with knee OA, the decreased variability of angular parameters on the affected side represents decreased joint flexibility. This leads to decreased consistency in movements of the lower limbs from stride-to-stride, as shown by increased variability of spatial-temporal parameters. Decreased joint flexibility and consistency of movement can be associated with decreased complexity of movement. Other joints of the kinetic chain, such as joints of the non-affected side and the pelvis, play an important role in compensation and adaptation of step-by step motion and in the ability of secure gait. Results suggest that the variability of gait associated with knee osteoarthritis is gender-dependent. During rehabilitation, particular attention must be paid to improving gait stability and proprioception and gender differences should be taken into account. PMID:21840223

  2. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  3. TNF Accelerates Death of Mandibular Condyle Chondrocytes in Rats with Biomechanical Stimulation-Induced Temporomandibular Joint Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Jing; Jing, Lei; Liao, Lifan; Wang, Meiqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if temporomandibular joint chondrocyte apoptosis is induced in rats with dental biomechanical stimulation and what a role TNF takes. Methods Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group) and exposed to incisor mal-occlusion induced by unilateral anterior crossbite biomechanical stimulation. Two groups were sampled at 2 or 4 weeks. The other two groups were treated with local injections of a TNF inhibitor or PBS into the temporomandibular joints area at 2 weeks and then sampled at 4 weeks. Twenty-four rats either served as unilateral anterior crossbite mock operation controls (n = 8/group) with sampling at 2 or 4 weeks or received a local injection of the TNF inhibitor at 2 weeks with sampling at 4 weeks. Chondrocytes were isolated from the temporomandibular joints of 6 additional rats and treated with TNF in vitro. Joint samples were assessed using Hematoxylin&eosin, Safranin O, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, fluorogenic activity assays and Western blot analyses. The isolated chondrocytes were also analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Unilateral anterior crossbite stimulation led to temporomandibular joint cartilage degradation, associated with an increase in TUNEL-positive chondrocytes number, caspase-9 expression levels, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria at 2 weeks without changes in TNF and caspase-8 levels until after 4 weeks. TNF stimulated apoptosis of the isolated chondrocytes and up-regulated caspase-8 expression, but did not change caspase-9 expression levels. Local injection of TNF inhibitor down-regulated caspase-8 expression and reduced TUNEL-positive cell number, but did not reverse cartilage thickness reduction, caspase-9 up-regulation or cytochrome c release. Conclusions Unilateral anterior crossbite stimulation induces mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. TNF accelerated the unilateral anterior crossbite induced chondrocytes apoptosis via death-receptor pathway. However, anti-TNF therapy does not prevent cartilage loss in this model of temporomandibular joint. PMID:26529096

  4. A Preclinical Physiological Assay to Test Modulation of Knee Joint Pain in the Spinal Cord: Effects of Oxycodone and Naproxen

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jason A.; Stanley, Phil; Gore, Katrina; Turner, Jamie; Dias, Rebecca; Rees, Huw

    2014-01-01

    Sensory processing in the spinal cord during disease states can reveal mechanisms for novel treatments, yet very little is known about pain processing at this level in the most commonly used animal models of articular pain. Here we report a test of the prediction that two clinically effective compounds, naproxen (an NSAID) and oxycodone (an opiate), are efficacious in reducing the response of spinal dorsal horn neurons to noxious knee joint rotation in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) sensitized rat. The overall objective for these experiments was to develop a high quality in vivo electrophysiology assay to confidently test novel compounds for efficacy against pain. Given the recent calls for improved preclinical experimental quality we also developed and implemented an Assay Capability Tool to determine the quality of our assay and ensure the quality of our results. Spinal dorsal horn neurons receiving input from the hind limb knee joint were recorded in anesthetized rats 14 days after they were sensitized with 1 mg of MIA. Intravenous administered oxycodone and naproxen were each tested separately for their effects on phasic, tonic, ongoing and afterdischarge action potential counts in response to innocuous and noxious knee joint rotation. Oxycodone reduced tonic spike counts more than the other measures, doing so by up to 85%. Tonic counts were therefore designated the primary endpoint when testing naproxen which reduced counts by up to 81%. Both reductions occurred at doses consistent with clinically effective doses for osteoarthritis. These results demonstrate that clinically effective doses of standard treatments for osteoarthritis reduce pain processing measured at the level of the spinal cord for two different mechanisms. The Assay Capability Tool helped to guide experimental design leading to a high quality and robust preclinical assay to use in discovering novel treatments for pain. PMID:25157947

  5. Role of Arthroscopy in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of Knee

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Saurabh; Singh, Ch Arun Kumar; Datta, Snehasish; Paul, Vinil; Masatvar, Pranav; Hmarj, Christopher L.; Marbaniang, Graham Bell

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of procedures have been described for treatment of the osteoarthritic knee. Comprehensive Arthroscopic treatment regime has definite role in treating patients with knee Osteoarthritis. Aim To evaluate the role of arthroscopy in functional and subjective outcomes of patient with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of knee. Materials and Methods Between October 2011 to September 2013, 30 patients were treated with an arthroscopic regimen. Patients with primary osteoarthritis who fulfilled clinical and radiographic classification criteria of American College of Rheumatology for osteoarthritis were included. All patients were followed for 18 months. All patients were subjected to comprehensive arthroscopic treatment. Results Overall, mean age was 59 years, with 17 females and 13 males. According to Kellgren Lawrence scale, 17 patients had grade 2 osteoarthritis, 10 had grade 3 osteoarthritis and 3 patients had grade 4. The average preoperative Lysholm score was 38.8. According to Outerbridge grading of chondral surface lesions, 14 patients were in grade-1, 5 in grade-2, 8 in grade-3 and 3 patients were in grade-4. The average 18 months postoperative Lysholm score was 83.3 (range 60- 96). 73.33% patients showed good/ excellent outcome. 80% of patients with chondral and meniscal lesions showed excellent/good outcome. Conclusion This arthroscopic treatment regimen can improve function and activity levels in patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis. Patients with meniscal and chondral pathology will be benefited more by arthroscopic treatment. PMID:26436009

  6. Ameliorative Effects of PACAP against Cartilage Degeneration. Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Evidence from in Vivo and in Vitro Models of Rat Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Marzagalli, Rubina; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Pichler, Karin; Mobasheri, Ali; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA); the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1? in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF), were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1?-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:25782157

  7. Serum and synovial fluid C-reactive protein level variations in dogs with degenerative joint disease and their relationships with physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Boal, S; Miguel Carreira, L

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a progressive, chronic joint disease with an inflammatory component promoting an acute phase protein (APP) response. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important APPs, used as an inflammation marker in human, but not veterinary medicine. The study was developed in a sample of 48 dogs (n = 48) with DJD and aimed to: 1) identify and quantify the synovial fluid CRP (SFCRP) in these specimens using a validated ELISA test for serum CRP (SCRP) detection and quantification; and 2) to study the possible relationship between SCRP and SFCRP levels variations in DJD patients evaluating the influence of some physical parameters such as gender, body weight, pain level, DJD grade, and the physical activity (PA) of the patients. Statistical analysis considered the results significant for p values <0.05. Our study showed that it is possible to detect and quantify SFCRP levels in DJD patients using a previously validated canine SCRP ELISA test, allowing us to point out a preliminary reference value for SFCRP in patients with DJD. Although, individuals with DJD presents SCRP values within the normal reference range and the SFCRP levels were always lower. Obesity, pain, and the DJD grade presented by the patients are conditions which seem to influence the SCRP levels but not the SFCRP. PMID:26178643

  8. Anti-Lubricin Monoclonal Antibodies Created Using Lubricin-Knockout Mice Immunodetect Lubricin in Several Species and in Patients with Healthy and Diseased Joints

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Minrong; Cui, Yajun; Sy, Man-Sun; Lee, David M.; Zhang, Ling Xiu; Larson, Katherine M.; Kurek, Kyle C.; Jay, Gregory D.; Warman, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Lubricin, encoded by the gene PRG4, is the principal lubricant in articulating joints. We immunized mice genetically deficient for lubricin (Prg4-/-) with purified human lubricin, and generated several mAbs. We determined each mAb’s binding epitope, sensitivity, and specificity using biologic samples and recombinant lubricin sub-domains, and we also developed a competition ELISA assay to measure lubricin in synovial fluid and blood. We found the mAbs all recognized epitopes containing O-linked oligosaccharides conjugated to the peptide motif KEPAPTTT. By western blot, the mAbs detected lubricin in 1 ?l of synovial fluid from several animal species, including human. The mAbs were specific for lubricin since they did not cross-react with other synovial fluid constituents from patients with camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP), who genetically lack this protein. The competition ELISA detected lubricin in blood samples from healthy individuals but not from patients with CACP, indicating blood can be used in a diagnostic test for patients suspected of having CACP. Lubricin epitopes in blood do not represent degradation fragments from synovial fluid. Therefore, although blood lubricin levels did not differentiate patients with inflammatory joint disease from healthy controls, epitope-specific anti-lubricin mAbs could be useful for monitoring disease activity in synovial fluid. PMID:25642942

  9. Anti-lubricin monoclonal antibodies created using lubricin-knockout mice immunodetect lubricin in several species and in patients with healthy and diseased joints.

    PubMed

    Ai, Minrong; Cui, Yajun; Sy, Man-Sun; Lee, David M; Zhang, Ling Xiu; Larson, Katherine M; Kurek, Kyle C; Jay, Gregory D; Warman, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Lubricin, encoded by the gene PRG4, is the principal lubricant in articulating joints. We immunized mice genetically deficient for lubricin (Prg4-/-) with purified human lubricin, and generated several mAbs. We determined each mAb's binding epitope, sensitivity, and specificity using biologic samples and recombinant lubricin sub-domains, and we also developed a competition ELISA assay to measure lubricin in synovial fluid and blood. We found the mAbs all recognized epitopes containing O-linked oligosaccharides conjugated to the peptide motif KEPAPTTT. By western blot, the mAbs detected lubricin in 1 ?l of synovial fluid from several animal species, including human. The mAbs were specific for lubricin since they did not cross-react with other synovial fluid constituents from patients with camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP), who genetically lack this protein. The competition ELISA detected lubricin in blood samples from healthy individuals but not from patients with CACP, indicating blood can be used in a diagnostic test for patients suspected of having CACP. Lubricin epitopes in blood do not represent degradation fragments from synovial fluid. Therefore, although blood lubricin levels did not differentiate patients with inflammatory joint disease from healthy controls, epitope-specific anti-lubricin mAbs could be useful for monitoring disease activity in synovial fluid. PMID:25642942

  10. Roles of inflammatory and anabolic cytokines in cartilage metabolism: signals and multiple effectors converge upon MMP-13 regulation in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Mary B; Otero, Miguel; Plumb, Darren A; Dragomir, Cecilia; Favero, Marta; El Hachem, Karim; Hashimoto, Ko; Roach, Helmtrud I; Olivotto, Eleonora; Borzì, Rosa Maria; Marcu, Kenneth B

    2011-01-01

    Human cartilage is a complex tissue of matrix proteins that vary in amount and orientation from superficial to deep layers and from loaded to unloaded zones. A major challenge to efforts to repair cartilage by stem cell-based and other tissue engineering strategies is the inability of the resident chondrocytes to lay down new matrix with the same structural and resilient properties that it had upon its original formation. This is particularly true of the collagen network, which is susceptible to cleavage once proteoglycans are depleted. Thus, a thorough understanding of the similarities and particularly the marked differences in mechanisms of cartilage remodeling during development, osteoarthritis, and aging may lead to more effective strategies for preventing cartilage damage and promoting repair. To identify and characterize effectors or regulators of cartilage remodeling in these processes, we are using culture models of primary human and mouse chondrocytes and cell lines and mouse genetic models to manipulate gene expression programs leading to matrix remodeling and subsequent chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation, pivotal processes which both go astray in OA disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-13, the major type II collagen-degrading collagenase, is regulated by stress-, inflammation-, and differentiation-induced signals that not only contribute to irreversible joint damage (progression) in OA, but importantly, also to the initiation/onset phase, wherein chondrocytes in articular cartilage leave their natural growth- and differentiation-arrested state. Our work points to common mediators of these processes in human OA cartilage and in early through late stages of OA in surgical and genetic mouse models. PMID:21351054

  11. Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate gene loci in a family with autosomal dominant osteoarthritis without dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbelt, I; Bijkerk, C; Breedveld, F C; Slagboom, P E

    1997-01-01

    The role of various gene loci was investigated in a family in which familial osteoarthritis (FOA), with onset at an early age, is transmitted as an autosomal dominant mendelian trait. The absence of clinical and radiographic signs of dysplasia and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) indicates that the basic disease process in this family is osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate genes resulted in the exclusion of 10 important genes (COL2A1, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL11A1, COL11A2, COMP, the CPDD region, CRTL-1, CRTM, and MMP3). Other relevant genes were not informative in this family. The candidate loci previously identified in FOA and heritable skeletal disorders associated with OA are clearly not involved in the development of the primary FOA phenotype in the family investigated, indicating genetic heterogeneity. Images PMID:9429149

  12. Very early osteoarthritis changes sensitively fluid flow properties of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, J T A; Han, S-K; Herzog, W; Korhonen, R K

    2015-09-18

    In this study, fibril-reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) modeling was used for rabbit knee after anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) to assess how the mechanical properties of collagen, proteoglycans, and fluid in articular cartilage change in early osteoarthritis, and how site-specific these changes are. Unilateral ACLT was performed in eight skeletally mature, female New Zealand white rabbits. A separate control (CTRL) group consisted of knee joints of five non-operated rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at four weeks after ACLT and cartilage-on-bone samples from femoral groove, medial and lateral femoral condyles, and tibial plateaus were harvested. A stress-relaxation protocol in indentation geometry was applied and the FRPE model was fitted to the experimental force-time curve by minimizing the mean absolute error between experiment and simulation. The optimized parameters were: fibril network modulus (Ef), representing the collagen network; non-fibrillar matrix modulus (Enf), representing the PG matrix; and permeability (k), representing fluid flow. Permeability was increased significantly in the ACLT group compared to the CTRL group knees at all sites except for the medial tibial plateau. ACLT also caused a decrease in the Ef at all sites except for the medial and lateral tibial plateaus. The Enf of the ACLT group knees was altered only for the lateral femoral condyle. The results of this study suggest that early osteoarthritis primarily affects cartilage permeability and impairs the collagen network stiffness in a site-specific manner. These findings from early osteoarthritis indicate that fluid flow velocity in articular cartilage may change prior to quantifiable structural alterations in the tissue. PMID:26159056

  13. National Priority Setting of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development for Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    By November 2013, a total of 125 clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed in Korea. However, despite the high burden of diseases and the clinical importance of CPGs, most chronic diseases do not have available CPGs. Merely 83 CPGs are related to chronic diseases, and only 40 guidelines had been developed in the last 5 yr. Considering the rate of the production of new evidence in medicine and the worsening burden from chronic diseases, the need for developing CPGs for more chronic diseases is becoming increasingly pressing. Since 2011, the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been jointly developing CPGs for chronic diseases. However, priorities have to be set and resources need to be allocated within the constraint of a limited funding. This study identifies the chronic diseases that should be prioritized for the development of CPGs in Korea. Through an objective assessment by using the analytic hierarchy process and a subjective assessment with a survey of expert opinion, high priorities were placed on ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, osteoarthritis, neck pain, chronic kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver. PMID:26713047

  14. How do people with knee osteoarthritis use osteoarthritis pain medications and does this change over time? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this analysis was to describe comprehensively the cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of analgesic and nutraceutical medication use for knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a contemporary US cohort and to investigate associated demographic and clinical factors. Methods Baseline, 12, 24 and 36 month data were obtained retrospectively from the National Institutes of Health Osteoarthritis Initiative. Participants had symptomatic radiographic knee OA. Multiple binary logistic regression models identified characteristics independently associated with the use of analgesics or nutraceuticals. Results We included 987 subjects (55.9% female, mean age 61.5 years, 71.0% white). At baseline, 68.2% reported frequent use of a conventional analgesic or nutraceutical for joint pain (for more than half of the previous month). Non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently reported medications (26.8%), even in those more than 75-years old. Multiple conventional analgesics were used by 11.9%. Frequent analgesic use was more likely in women (odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3)) and people with more pain (moderate 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4); severe 3.1 (2.1 to 4.7)); nutraceutical use was less likely in non-whites (0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)), those more than 74-years old (0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)) and those with comorbidities (0.6 (0.5 to 0.9)) and more likely in people with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 4 (2.2 (1.5 to 3.3)). Overall there was no change in the proportion of participants frequently using prescription or over the counter (OTC) analgesics at 36 months, although most people had changed medication type; of those using a traditional analgesic at baseline approximately one third were still using the same type at 36 months (ranging from 26.2% of baseline prescription NSAID users to 40.6% of baseline acetaminophen users). All participants reporting baseline analgesic use also reported 36 month analgesic use. Female participants (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2, P = 0.009), those with high body mass index (1.2 to 4.8, P = 0.010) and those with moderate (1.6 to 2.6, P = 0.090) or severe (1.8 to 12.0, P = 0.002) baseline pain were more likely to use pain medication during the 36 month follow-up period; participants more than 75-years old were less likely (0.2 to 1.0, P = 0.053). Conclusions Most people with knee OA used pharmacological therapies frequently, and use appeared to be according to American College of Rheumatology recommendations. Change in medication type used was common. Persistent non-prescription NSAID use in older people is an area of concern. PMID:24008023

  15. Biodynamic performance of hyaluronic acid versus synovial fluid of the knee in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Corvelli, Michael; Che, Bernadette; Saeui, Christopher; Singh, Anirudha; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural biomaterial present in healthy joints but depleted in osteoarthritis (OA), has been employed clinically to provide symptomatic relief of joint pain. Joint movement combined with a reduced joint lubrication in osteoarthritic knees can result in increased wear and tear, chondrocyte apoptosis, and inflammation, leading to cascading cartilage deterioration. Therefore, development of an appropriate cartilage model that can be evaluated for its friction properties with potential lubricants in different conditions is necessary, which can closely resemble a mechanically induced OA cartilage. Additionally, a comparison of different models with and without endogenous lubricating surface zone proteins, such as PRG4 promotes a well-rounded understanding of cartilage lubrication. In this study, we present our findings on the lubricating effects of HA on different articular cartilage model surfaces in comparison to synovial fluid, a physiological lubricating biomaterial. The mechanical testings data demonstrated that HA reduced average static and kinetic friction coefficient values of the cartilage samples by 75% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, HA mimicked the friction characteristics of freshly harvested natural synovial fluid throughout all tested and modeled OA conditions with no statistically significant difference. These characteristics led us to exclusively identify HA as an effective boundary layer lubricant in the technology that we develop to treat OA (Singh et al., 2014). PMID:25858258

  16. Are lateral compartment osteophytes a predictor for lateral cartilage damage in varus osteoarthritic knees? : Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Faschingbauer, M; Renner, L; Waldstein, W; Boettner, F

    2015-12-01

    We studied whether the presence of lateral osteophytes on plain radiographs was a predictor for the quality of cartilage in the lateral compartment of patients with varus osteoarthritic of the knee (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 3). The baseline MRIs of 344 patients from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) who had varus osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee on hip-knee-ankle radiographs were reviewed. Patients were categorised using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) osteophyte grading system into 174 patients with grade 0 (no osteophytes), 128 grade 1 (mild osteophytes), 28 grade 2 (moderate osteophytes) and 14 grade 3 (severe osteophytes) in the lateral compartment (tibia). All patients had Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3 arthritis of the medial compartment. The thickness and volume of the lateral cartilage and the percentage of full-thickness cartilage defects in the lateral compartment was analysed. There was no difference in the cartilage thickness or cartilage volume between knees with osteophyte grades 0 to 3. The percentage of full-thickness cartilage defects on the tibial side increased from < 2% for grade 0 and 1 to 10% for grade 3. The lateral compartment cartilage volume and thickness is not influenced by the presence of lateral compartment osteophytes in patients with varus OA of the knee. Large lateral compartment osteophytes (grade 3) increase the likelihood of full-thickness cartilage defects in the lateral compartment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1634-9. PMID:26637677

  17. Myrtol ameliorates cartilage lesions in an osteoarthritis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Binbin; Maimaiti, Abudu kelimujiang; Song, Donghui; Zhu, Songsong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of myrtol standardized on cartilage lesions in osteoarthritis (OA) rats. Methods: Fifty-six healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group (13 rats) and OA model group (43 rats) with interior meniscus excision. Then serum estradiol (E2) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in cartilage tissue were measured by radioimmunoassay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. After that, the model rats were randomly divided into low dose myrtol (LDM) group, middle dose myrtol (MDM) group and high dose myrtol (HDM) group (10 rats in each group) with treatment of 450 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg myrtol, respectively. Then, Mankin scores were used to evaluate lesion extent of knee joint cartilage. Expression of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin (IL)-6, Bax and Bcl-2 were investigated using PCR gel electrophoresis method. Results: Mankin cores were lower in sham group and myrtol group than in model group. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) between sham group and model group in expression of TNF-?, TGF-?1, IL-6, Bax and Bcl-2 in the cartilage tissue. Myrtol significantly reduced the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and Bax, and increased the expression of TGF-?1 and Bcl-2 in myrtol group, comparing with those in model group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Myrtol could down-regulate the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and Bax, and up-regulate the expression of TGF-?1 and Bcl-2. Myrtol standardized is a promising drug to ameliorate knee cartilage lesions in the OA rat model. PMID:25973028

  18. Osteoarthritis year 2013 in review: genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A

    2013-10-01

    Progress in genetic research has delivered important highlights in the last year. One of the widest impact is the publication of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project showing the impressive complexity of the human genome and providing information useful for all areas of genetics. More specific of osteoarthritis (OA) has been the incorporation of DOT1-like, histone H3 methyltransferase (DOT1L) to the list of 11 OA loci with genome-wide significant association, the demonstration of significant overlap between OA genetics and height or body mass index (BMI) genetics, and the tentative prioritization of HMG-box transcription factor 1 (HBP1) in the 7q22 locus based on functional analysis. In addition, the first large scale analysis of DNA methylation has found modest differences between OA and normal cartilage, but has identified a subgroup of OA patients with a very differentiated phenotype. The role of DNA methylation in regulation of NOS2, SOX9, MMP13 and IL1B has been further clarified. MicroRNA expression studies in turn have shown some replication of differences between OA and control cartilage from previous profiling studies and have identified potential regulators of TGF? signaling and of IL1? effects. In addition, non-coding RNAs showed promising results as serum biomarkers of cartilage damage. Gene expression microarray studies have found important differences between studies of hip or knee OA that reinforce the idea of joint specificity in OA. Expression differences between articular cartilage and other types of cartilage highlighted the WNT pathway whose regulation is proposed as critical for maintaining the articular cartilage phenotype. Many of these results need confirmation but they signal the exciting progress that is taking place in all areas of OA genetics, indicate questions requiring more study and augur further interesting discoveries. PMID:23845519

  19. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... colleagues are studying stem cells in specially bred mice to determine whether there is a correlation between ... genes, for cartilage repair and osteoarthritis in these mice, and target these genes in the development of ...

  20. A Comprehensive Review of the Effectiveness of Different Exercise Programs for Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Caine, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available, and scientific evidence is necessary for advising patients with OA on the optimal treatment strategy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild to moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, gender and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415

  1. Yoga for osteoarthritis: nursing and research considerations.

    PubMed

    Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2012-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Current treatment guidelines recommend nonpharmacological approaches such as yoga for firstline treatment of OA. Yoga is a promising mind-body practice that includes physical postures, breathing practices, and meditative mental focus. This article presents the current evidence, as well as a proposed conceptual model for future research. Current research on yoga for OA is scant but promising, showing some evidence of reduced pain, sleep disturbance, and disability. The conceptual model described here proposes musculoskeletal effects (strengthening, flexibility, relaxation), reduction of autonomic arousal, and therapeutic cognitive patterns (distraction, mindfulness) as potentially important mechanisms of yoga. This article also describes considerations for patients and health care providers when evaluating the potential usefulness and safety of yoga programs: yoga style, instructor qualifications, and amount of time spent in yoga practice. PMID:22715961

  2. Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2006-02-01

    Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis are commonly used and therefore it is important that health-care providers and patients are aware of the evidence for or against these approaches. In this article, the best available evidence is reviewed. The results suggest that, for several treatments, the risk-benefit profile is encouraging: acupuncture, several herbal medicines and capsaicin cream. For other therapies the evidence is weak or contradictory: homeopathy, magnet therapy, tai chi, leech therapy, music therapy, yoga, imagery and therapeutic touch. Many other treatments have not been scientifically tested. It is concluded that some complementary or alternative therapies have generated sufficiently promising results to warrant further investigation in large-scale, definitive, randomized clinical trials. PMID:16932660

  3. 77 FR 4051 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Special Emphasis Panel, Osteoarthritis Initiative. Date: February 14, 2012... Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Boulevard,...

  4. The Relationship between Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Bone Mineral Density of Proximal Femur: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Korean Population in Women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Jin; Kim, Chang Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) is complicated and it may differ according to the site or stage of disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the relationship between the severity of radiological knee OA and the degree of OP in the ipsilateral proximal femur as denoted by bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean population, especially among women. Methods One hundred ninety-five female patients who had knee pain and radiological knee OA were investigated with respect to the relationship of knee OA severity with BMD. The BMD of the proximal femur and spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the severity of knee OA was evaluated based on Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) radiographic criteria, joint space narrowing (JSN) and mechanical axis of knee alignment. Partial correlation analysis and ANCOVA adjusted for confounding factors (age and body mass index) were performed to assess the relationship. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the BMD of the proximal femur and JSN, and the BMD of the proximal femur was positively associated with increased joint space width. There was a lack of association between the spine BMD and JSN. The BMD of the proximal femur was also significantly lower in patients who had a higher K-L grade. Conclusions The radiographic finding of severe OA in the knee is associated with decreased BMD of the ipsilateral proximal femur including the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, and region of the entire hip (neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle). PMID:25436066

  5. Prodromal symptoms in knee osteoarthritis: a nested case–control study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Case, R.; Thomas, E.; Clarke, E.; Peat, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective In order to gain a better understanding of the timing of emergent symptoms of osteoarthritis, we sought to investigate the existence, duration and nature of a prodromal symptomatic phase preceding incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (ROA). Design Data were from the incidence cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) public use datasets. Imposing a nested case–control design, ten control knees were selected for each case of incident tibiofemoral ROA between 2004 and 2010 from participants aged 45–79 years. Candidate prodromal symptoms were Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale scores and individual items, available up to 4 years prior to the time of incident ROA. Multi-level models were used to estimate the length of the prodromal phases. Results The prodromal phase for subscale scores ranged from 29 months (KOOS Other Symptoms) to 37 months (WOMAC Pain). Pain and difficulty on activities associated with higher dynamic knee loading were associated with longer prodromal phases (e.g., pain on twisting/pivoting (39 months, 95% confidence interval: 13, 64) vs pain on standing (25 months: 7, 42)). Conclusions Our analysis found that incident ROA is preceded by prodromal symptoms lasting at least 2–3 years. This has potential implications for understanding phasic development and progression of osteoarthritis and for early recognition and management. PMID:25843364

  6. Contrast-enhanced microCT (EPIC-µCT) ex vivo applied to the mouse and human jaw joint

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, L; Lin, A S; Langenbach, G E J; Koolstra, J H; Guldberg, R E; Everts, V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is susceptive to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). More detailed knowledge of its development is essential to improve our insight into TMJ-OA. It is imperative to have a standardized reliable three-dimensional (3D) imaging method that allows for detailed assessment of both bone and cartilage in healthy and diseased joints. We aimed to determine the applicability of a contrast-enhanced microCT (µCT) technique for ex vivo research of mouse and human TMJs. Methods: Equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent via µCT (EPIC-µCT) was previously applied for cartilage assessment in the knee joint. The method was ex vivo, applied to the mouse TMJ and adapted for the human TMJ. Results: EPIC-µCT (30-min immersion time) was applied to mouse mandibular condyles, and 3D imaging revealed an average cartilage thickness of 110?±?16?µm. These measurements via EPIC-µCT were similar to the histomorphometric measures (113?±?19?µm). For human healthy OA-affected TMJ samples, the protocol was adjusted to an immersion time of 1?h. 3D imaging revealed a significant thicker cartilage layer in joints with early signs of OA compared with healthy joints (414.2?±?122.6 and 239.7?±?50.5?µm, respectively). A subsequent significant thinner layer was found in human joints with late signs of OA (197.4?±?159.7?µm). Conclusions: The EPIC-µCT technique is effective for the ex vivo assessment of 3D cartilage morphology in the mouse as well as human TMJ and allows bone–cartilage interaction research in TMJ-OA. PMID:24353248

  7. A Mechanism-Based Approach to the Management of Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ezra; Lee, Yvonne C

    2015-12-01

    Pain from osteoarthritis (OA) affects millions of people worldwide, yet treatments are limited to acetaminophen, NSAIDs, physical therapy, and ultimately, surgery when there is significant disability. In recent years, our understanding of pain pathways in OA has developed considerably. Though joint damage and inflammation play a significant role in pain generation, it is now understood that both central and peripheral nervous system mechanisms exacerbate symptoms. Evolving management strategies for OA address central factors (e.g., sleep difficulties, catastrophizing, and depression) with treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise. In addition, emerging data suggest that antibodies against peripheral signaling neuropeptides, such as nerve growth factor-1 (NGF-1), may significantly alleviate pain. However, concerns regarding potential adverse effects, such as rapidly progressive OA, still remain. A nuanced understanding is essential if we are to make headway in developing more effective treatments for OA. PMID:26419467

  8. Patient dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty for hemophilic arthropathy and osteoarthritis (non-hemophilia patients).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In advanced painful hemophilic arthropathy of the knee (APHAK) and advanced painful osteoarthritis of the knee (APOAK) the last resort is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, some patients with APOAK are not satisfied despite a good clinical result. A review the literature on APHAK and APOAK was performed to know their rates of dissatisfaction and their main causes. In APOAK the rate of dissatisfaction ranges between 3 and 28.3%. Causes of dissatisfaction in APOAK are high preoperative body mass index, lack of fulfillment of patient expectations, a low 1-year WOMAC, preoperative pain at rest, a postoperative complication requiring hospital readmission, and a poor preoperative psychological state. Very limited information exists on APAHAK in the literature, but it also shows an increase in patient satisfaction after TKA. However, the results do not reach the same level as in patients with APOAK, due to residual symptoms and impairment of other joints. PMID:26561009

  9. Effect of a topical copper indomethacin gel on inflammatory parameters in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Nemat Z; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Yakoot, Mostafa; Hassan, Mohamed; Helmy, Sherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the effect of topical application of a Copper indomethacin (Cu-Indo) gel preparation on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced arthritis of the knee joint of rats and to test our hypothesis that copper complex of indomethacin could be a more potent anti-inflammatory agent than its parent compound. Methods After induction of osteoarthritis by the intracapsular injection of 50 ?L with 40 mg/mL MIA, we compared the anti-inflammatory efficacy and safety of a topical application of 1% indomethacin gel in a dose of 1 g/kg of the gel (equivalent to 10 mg/kg of the active substance) daily for 3 weeks versus three decremental dose levels of Cu-Indo gel: an equivalent dose, half the dose, and 25% of the dose of indomethacin. Anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in all treated groups by measurement of serum inflammatory cytokines: interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; and by the weekly assessment of knee joint swelling. Joint mobility and motor coordination were also assessed once weekly by the accelerating rotarod apparatus; histopathological examination of affected joints was also performed. Safety of topical application of Cu-Indo (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg) for up to 3 months to rats’ skin was determined by the estimation of a complete blood count, liver and kidney functions, and histopathologic examination for target tissues. Results Cu-Indo gel at lower doses was superior to or at least as effective as its parent substance, indomethacin, in most of the studied parameters of inflammation. The lowest tested dose of Cu-Indo, corresponding to 25% of the parent substance indomethacin, exhibited the highest efficacy in reducing the elevated serum-tested interleukins and in increasing the time of duration on the rotarod test, whereas its effect on reduction of edema and tumor necrosis factor alpha was comparable to that of the others. After 3 months of daily application, there were no notable changes in studied safety parameters with the lowest Cu-Indo dose, but the group treated with the higher dose showed a small but statistically significant increase in serum-unconjugated bilirubin and a slight decrease in hemoglobin levels, red blood cells, and platelet count, with normal indices denoting a slight hemolytic effect at the highest dose. Conclusion Cu-Indo gel has potent anti-inflammatory activity against joint inflammation in the MIA-treated rat model of osteoarthritis at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg. The lowest studied dose was better on both safety and efficacy parameters. PMID:25792809

  10. Emerging regulators of the inflammatory process in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Bryan, Ru; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) contributes to symptoms and disease progression. Effective disease-modifying medical OA therapies are lacking, but better understanding inflammatory pathophysiology in OA could lead to transformative therapy. Networks of diverse innate inflammatory danger signals, including complement and alarmins, are activated in OA. Through inflammatory mediators, biomechanical cartilage injury and oxidative stress compromise chondrocyte viability and reprogram viable chondrocytes to hypertrophic differentiation and proinflammatory, and procatabolic responses in mechanistically similar ways. Integral to this reprogramming are certain ‘switching’ pathways in transcriptional signals, other than the well-characterized effects of NF?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. HIF-2? transcriptional signalling and ZIP8-mediated Zn2+ uptake, with downstream MTF1 transcriptional signalling, have been implicated in chondrocyte reprogramming, but further validation is required. Permissive factors in procatabolic reprogramming of OA chondrocytes by inflammatory mediators also have come to light, including impaired bioenergetics, such as altered mitochondrial function and decreased activity of the bioenergy sensors AMPK and SIRT1. These factors interact with molecular inflammatory responses and proteostasis mechanisms that normally resolve cell stress, such as the unfolded protein response and autophagy. Bioenergy-sensing by AMPK and SIRT1 modulates proteostasis and provides ‘stop signals’ for oxidative stress, inflammatory, and matrix catabolic processes in chondrocytes. The complexity of molecular inflammatory processes in OA, and the involvement of multiple inflammatory mediators in tissue repair responses, raises daunting questions about how to therapeutically target inflammatory processes and macroscopic inflammation in OA. Bioenergy sensing might provide a pragmatic ‘entry point’ for novel strategies to limit OA progression. PMID:25266449

  11. TRAIL, DR5 and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in vessels of diseased human temporomandibular joint disc. An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Almeida, L.E.; Migliore, M.R.; Caltabiano, M.; Leonardi, R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the apoptosis involvement in the angiogenesis as a self-limiting process in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) degenerated disc vessels, we assessed, by immunohistochemistry, the detection of TRAIL, its death receptor DR5 and caspase 3. TRAIL, its death receptor DR5 and caspase 3 expression were studied by immunohistochemistry in 15 TMJ discs displaced without reduction and in 4 unaffected discs. These apoptosis molecules were detected in the intima and media layers of newly formed vessels affected discs. In conclusion, vessels apoptosis activation in TMJ disc with ID could be regarded as a self-limiting process that try to leads to vessel regression; in this way an inhibition of angiogenic vessels may prove a key strategy in limiting pathological angiogenesis, by cutting off blood supply to tumors, or by reducing harmful inflammation. PMID:20839416

  12. Evaluation of the effect of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, on osteoarthritis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Roberto; Illnait, José; Mas, Rosa; Carbajal, Daisy; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Gámez, Rafael; Reyes, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms but cause adverse effects. D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, is effective against experimental OA. A pilot study found that D-002 (50 mg/day) for 8 weeks improves OA symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-002 (50 to 100 mg/day) administered for 6 weeks on OA symptoms. Methods Patients with OA symptoms were double-blindly randomized to D-002 (50 mg) or placebo for 6 weeks. Symptoms were assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Patients without symptom improvement at week 3 were titrated to two daily tablets. The primary outcome was the total WOMAC score. WOMAC pain, joint stiffness and physical function scores, VAS score, and use of rescue medications were secondary outcomes. Results All randomized patients (n = 60) completed the study, and 23 experienced dose titration (two in the D-002 and 21 in the placebo groups). At study completion, D-002 reduced total WOMAC (65.4%), pain (54.9%), joint stiffness (76.8%), and physical function (66.9%) WOMAC scores, and the VAS score (46.8%) versus placebo. These reductions were significant beginning in the second week, and became enhanced during the trial. The use of rescue medication by the D-002 (6/30) group was lower than that in the placebo (17/30) group. The treatment was well tolerated. Seven patients (two in the D-002 and five in the placebo group) reported adverse events. Conclusions These results indicate that D-002 (50 to 100 mg/day) for 6 weeks ameliorated arthritic symptoms and was well tolerated. PMID:24648802

  13. Cartilage-specific deletion of Mig-6 results in osteoarthritis-like disorder with excessive articular chondrocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Ben; Williams, Bart O.; Beier, Frank; Vande Woude, George F.; Zhang, Yu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    A deficiency of mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6) in mice leads to the development of an early-onset, osteoarthritis (OA)-like disorder in multiple synovial joints, underlying its importance in maintaining joint homeostasis. Here we determined what joint tissues Mig-6 is expressed in and what role chondrocytes play in the Mig-6–deficient OA-like disorder. A Mig-6/lacZ reporter mouse strain expressing ?-galactosidase under the control of the Mig-6 gene promoter was generated to determine Mig-6 expression in joint tissues. By ?-galactosidase staining, we demonstrated that Mig-6 was uniquely expressed in the cells across the entire surface of the synovial joint cavity, including chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and in the meniscus, as well as synovial lining cells. By crossing Mig-6–floxed mice to Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice, to generate cartilage-specific deletion of Mig-6, we demonstrated that deficiency of Mig-6 in the chondrocytes results