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1

Mouse models of osteoarthritis and joint injury  

E-print Network

Nearly 21 million Americans are affected by osteoarthritis, a complex disease characterized by degenerative lesions to the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the joints. The complexity of the disease makes the use ...

Avedillo, Jose Enrique

2012-01-01

2

Osteoarthritis: The Peripheral Joints  

PubMed Central

Understanding of osteoarthritis has increased: the simplistic “wear and tear” concept no longer holds and this has positive clinical implications. A parallel development has taken place in treatment techniques: there is increasing expertise in the use of physical measures and in new orthopedic reconstructive surgical approaches to multiple joints. This gives the physician alternative approaches to the patient with painful and disabling osteoarthritis. The timing of these treatment options and some considerations which lead to orthopedic referral are considered in this general discussion. Imagesp285-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469342

Robinson, Harold S.

1981-01-01

3

CHECKing radiographic joint damage in early osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by pain and functional disability. OA commonly involves the larger joints, with symptomatic knee and hip OA affecting 6% and 3% of the adult population (age 30 years and over), respectively. The prevalence and disease duration will increase in the coming years since known risk factors for OA (ageing and obesity)

M. B. Kinds

2012-01-01

4

Surgical treatment of trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis is a common cause of radial-sided wrist pain that prevalently affects women. It is diagnosed on the basis of a thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation. While radiographs are used to determine the stage of disease, treatment is dependent on the severity of the symptoms. Non-surgical treatment frequently consists of activity modification, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, splinting and corticosteroid injections. After failure of conservative treatment, various surgical options exist depending on the stage of the disease. These options range from ligament reconstruction or osteotomy, for early painful laxity, to trapeziectomy, arthrodesis and arthroplasty for more severe osteoarthritis. This article reviews the literature supporting the various surgical treatment options and analyzes the surgical techniques most frequently used in the different disease stages.

TACCARDO, GIUSEPPE; DE VITIS, ROCCO; PARRONE, GIUSEPPE; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; FANFANI, FRANCESCO

2013-01-01

5

Osteoarthritis of the spine: the facet joints  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine involves the facet joints, which are located in the posterior aspect of the vertebral column and, in humans, are the only true synovial joints between adjacent spinal levels. Facet joint osteoarthritis (FJ OA) is widely prevalent in older adults, and is thought to be a common cause of back and neck pain. The prevalence of facet-mediated pain in clinical populations increases with increasing age, suggesting that FJ OA might have a particularly important role in older adults with spinal pain. Nevertheless, to date FJ OA has received far less study than other important OA phenotypes such as knee OA, and other features of spine pathoanatomy such as degenerative disc disease. This Review presents the current state of knowledge of FJ OA, including relevant anatomy, biomechanics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. We present the view that the modern concept of FJ OA is consonant with the concept of OA as a failure of the whole joint, and not simply of facet joint cartilage. PMID:23147891

Gellhorn, Alfred C.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Suri, Pradeep

2014-01-01

6

Osteoarthritis, a disease bridging development and regeneration  

PubMed Central

The osteoarthritic diseases are common disorders characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage in the joints, and associated with remodeling of the subchondral bone, synovitis and the formation of bone outgrowths at the joint margins, osteophytes. From the clinical perspective, osteoarthritis leads to joint pain and loss of function. Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of progressive disability. New data from genetic, translational and basic research have demonstrated that pathways with essential roles in joint and bone development also contribute to the postnatal homeostasis of the articular cartilage and are involved in osteoarthritis, making these potential therapeutic targets. Other systems of interest are the tissue-destructive enzymes that break down the extracellular matrix of the cartilage as well as mediators of inflammation that contribute to synovitis. However, the perspective of a durable treatment over years to decades highlights the need for a personalized medicine approach encompassing a global view on the disease and its management, thereby including nonpharmaceutical approaches such as physiotherapy and advanced surgical methods. Integration of novel strategies based on their efficacy and safety with the identification of individuals at risk and optimal individual rehabilitation management remains a major challenge for the medical community in particular, as the incidence of osteoarthritis is likely to further increase with the overall aging of the population. PMID:23951516

Lories, Rik J U; Luyten, Frank P

2012-01-01

7

Early Knee Osteoarthritis Management Should First Address Mechanical Joint Overload  

PubMed Central

Early knee osteoarthritis poses a therapeutic dilemma to the musculoskeletal clinician. Despite the recent interest in arthroscopic and injectable regenerative therapies intended to repair or restore a focal target such as cartilage, meniscus, or subchondral bone, none have been shown to slow disease progression. A likely cause of these disappointing treatment outcomes is the failure to address chronic and excessive loading of the knee joint. A growing body of evidence suggests that first-line therapies for early knee osteoarthritis should emphasize unloading the knee joint since any potential therapeutic benefit of regenerative therapies will likely be attenuated by excessive mechanical demand at the knee joint. Minimally invasive medical devices such as patient-specific interpositional implants and extracapsular joint unloading implants are currently in development to address this clinical need. PMID:24744839

Arendt, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2014-01-01

8

[Treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb basal joint].  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC1) is described in three patients who were all restricted in their daily activities by the disease. CMC1 osteoarthritis is a common disease affecting mainly postmenopausal women and individuals who use the joint intensively. Two of our patients, a 52-year-old female teacher and a 45-year-old male dentist, were treated by resection of the articular surfaces and interposition of a tendon or a polycarbon disc into the joint. To achieve a strong, stable thumb a 58-year-old sculptress had arthrodesis of the left CMC1. In her right hand, resection of the trapezium and ligament reconstruction of the CMC1 joint was necessary. There is no evidence-based guideline for treatment of osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. Many non-surgical and surgical treatment options for CMC1 osteoarthrosis have been described. Optimal treatment is chosen depending on radiological staging of the disease and on the wishes and expectations of the patient. PMID:21108860

van Laarhoven, Cecile M C A; van Minnen, L Paul; Schuurman, Arnold H

2010-01-01

9

Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips ... spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ...

10

Imaging and management of thumb carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Primary osteoarthritis (OA) involving the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is a common and frequently debilitating disease. Clinical examination and radiographs are usually sufficient for diagnosis; however, familiarity with the cross-sectional anatomy is useful for diagnosis of this condition. The most widely used classification system for the radiographic staging of thumb carpometacarpal joint OA was first presented by Eaton and Littler, ranging from mild (stages I and II) to severe (stage IV) disease. If conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is considered. A variety of surgical techniques have been developed and implemented for the management of this pervasive and disabling condition. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of the basal joints of the thumb, pathophysiology, preoperative imaging, and various surgical techniques that are utilized in the treatment of OA of the basal joints of the thumb with emphasis on normal postoperative radiographic findings and possible postoperative complications. PMID:25209021

Melville, David M; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Scalcione, Luke R; Eble, Joseph M; Gimber, Lana H; DeSilva, Gregory L; Sheppard, Joseph E

2015-02-01

11

Study of 500 patients with limb joint osteoarthritis. I. Analysis by age, sex, and distribution of symptomatic joint sites.  

PubMed Central

Five hundred subjects with symptomatic limb joint osteoarthritis, who had been referred to a rheumatologist, were enrolled into a continuing study. They comprised 342 women (mean age 65.3) and 158 men (mean age 59.7), with a mean symptom duration of 15.4 years at entry. Only 31 patients (6%) had symptomatic osteoarthritis of one joint alone; however, in a further 205 (41%) the disease was limited to one site. One hundred and eighty two (36.4%) had two sites affected and 82 (16.4%) three or more sites of symptomatic osteoarthritis. Of 847 affected joints the most commonly involved were 349 (41.2%) knees, 254 (30%) hands, and 161 (19%) hips. Hip disease stood out as a separate entity, often occurring alone, and having a stronger male preponderance and different associations than osteoarthritis at other joint sites. Knee and hand disease were significantly associated in women. Obesity, hypertension, and Heberden's nodes were common. The number of sites affected, as well as the distribution, was strongly related to age as well as sex, suggesting that polyarticular osteoarthritis arises from slow acquisition of new joint sites in a non-random distribution. 'Generalised' osteoarthritis did not emerge as a distinct entity. PMID:1994877

Cushnaghan, J; Dieppe, P

1991-01-01

12

Distinguishing erosive osteoarthritis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease  

PubMed Central

Erosive osteoarthritis is a term utilized to describe a specific inflammatory condition of the interphalangeal and first carpal metacarpal joints of the hands. The term has become a part of medical philosophical semantics and paradigms, but the issue is actually more complicated. Even the term osteoarthritis (non-erosive) has been controversial, with some suggesting osteoarthrosis to be more appropriate in view of the perspective that it is a non-inflammatory process undeserving of the “itis” suffix. The term “erosion” has also been a source of confusion in osteoarthritis, as it has been used to describe cartilage, not bone lesions. Inflammation in individuals with osteoarthritis actually appears to be related to complicating phenomena, such as calcium pyrophosphate and hydroxyapatite crystal deposition producing arthritis. Erosive osteoarthritis is the contentious term. It is used to describe a specific form of joint damage to specific joints. The damage has been termed erosions and the distribution of the damage is to the interphalangeal joints of the hand and first carpal metacarpal joint. Inflammation is recognized by joint redness and warmth, while X-rays reveal alteration of the articular surfaces, producing a smudged appearance. This ill-defined, joint damage has a crumbling appearance and is quite distinct from the sharply defined erosions of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy. The appearance is identical to those found with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, both in character and their unique responsiveness to hydroxychloroquine treatment. Low doses of the latter often resolve symptoms within weeks, in contrast to higher doses and the months required for response in other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Reconsidering erosive osteoarthritis as a form of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease guides physicians to more effective therapeutic intervention. PMID:23610748

Rothschild, Bruce M

2013-01-01

13

Cross sectional evaluation of biochemical markers of bone, cartilage, and synovial tissue metabolism in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relations with disease activity and joint damage  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To analyse the relations between the urinary levels of type II collagen C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and glucosyl-galactosyl pyridinoline (Glc-Gal-PYD)—two newly developed biochemical markers of type II collagen and synovial tissue destruction respectively—disease activity and the severity of joint destruction in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The clinical performance of these two new markers was compared with that of a panel of other established biochemical markers of connective tissue metabolism.?METHODS—The following biochemical markers were measured in a group of 67 patients with knee OA (mean age 64 years, median disease duration eight years ) and in 67 healthy controls: for bone, serum osteocalcin, serum and urinary C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I); for cartilage, urinary CTX-II, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and serum human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40); for synovium, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD, serum type III collagen N-propeptide (PIIINP), serum hyaluronic acid (HA); and for inflammation, serum C reactive protein. Biochemical markers were correlated with pain and physical function (WOMAC index) and with quantitative radiographic evaluation of the joint space using the posteroanterior view of the knees flexed at 30°.?RESULTS—All bone turnover markers were decreased in patients with knee OA compared with controls (?36%, ?38%, and ?52%, p<0.0001 for serum osteocalcin, serum CTX-I and urinary CTX-I, respectively). Serum COMP (+16%, p=0.0004), urinary CTX-II (+25%, p=0.0009), urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (+18%, p=0.028), serum PIIINP (+33%, p<0.0001), and serum HA (+ 233%, p<0.0001) were increased. By univariate analyses, increased urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (r=0.41, p=0.002) and decreased serum osteocalcin (r=?0.30, p=0.025) were associated with a higher total WOMAC index. Increased urinary CTX-II (r=?0.40, p=0.0002) and Glc-Gal-PYD (r=?0.30, p=0.0046) and serum PIIINP (r=?0.29, p=0.0034) were the only markers which correlated with joint surface area. By multivariate analyses, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD and CTX-II were the most important predictors of the WOMAC index and joint damage, respectively.?CONCLUSION—Knee OA appears to be characterised by a systemic decrease of bone turnover and increased cartilage and synovial tissue turnover. CTX-II, Glc-Gal-PYD, and PIIINP may be useful markers of disease severity in patients with knee OA.?? PMID:11350852

Garnero, P; Piperno, M; Gineyts, E; Christgau, S; Delmas, P; Vignon, E

2001-01-01

14

Investigation of joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and management of the major arthropathies is critically reviewed, with particular reference to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and similar forms of arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, non-specific back pain, gout, the neuropathic joint, avascular necrosis, infection and the consequences of prosthetic joint insertion. Attention is drawn both to practical applications and deficiencies in current techniques and

M. V. Merrick

1992-01-01

15

Osteoarthritis of the costovertebral joints: the results of resection arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Thoracic back pain caused by osteoarthritis of a single costovertebral joint is a poorly recognised condition. We report a series of five patients who were successfully treated by resection arthroplasty of this joint. Each had received a preliminary image-guided injection of local anaesthetic and steroid into the joint to confirm it as the source of pain. The surgical technique is described. There were no complications. The pain improved from a mean of 7.0 (6 to 8) on a visual analogue scale to 2.0 (0 to 4) post-operatively. The final post-operative Oswestry disability index was a mean of 19.4 (9 to 38). Isolated osteoarthritis of a costovertebral joint is a rare but treatable cause of thoracic back pain. It is possible to obtain excellent short- and intermediate-term relief from pain with resection arthroplasty in appropriately selected patients. PMID:17957073

Sales, J R; Beals, R K; Hart, R A

2007-10-01

16

Is osteoarthritis a heterogeneous disease that can be stratified into subsets?  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical features, biochemical/genetic characteristics, and responses to treatments. To optimize palliative effects of current treatments and develop efficacious disease-modifying interventions, treatments may need to be tailored to the individual or a subset of osteoarthritic joints. The purpose of this review is to explore the current literature on the clinical and physiological variability in osteoarthritis and potential for stratifying patients. Several stratifications have been reported, including mechanism of onset, stage of disease progression, involved joints, inflammatory levels, and effusion. Most of these methods revealed two to three unique subsets of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritic joints may be stratified by an array of variables, some transient and others consistent throughout the disease process. Future research needs to continue to explore stratification techniques since these may be the key to optimizing palliative interventions and developing disease-modifying interventions for subsets within this heterogeneous disease. PMID:19924499

Driban, Jeffrey B; Sitler, Michael R; Barbe, Mary F; Balasubramanian, Easwaran

2010-02-01

17

Assessing macroscopic and microscopic indicators of osteoarthritis in the distal interphalangeal joints: a cadaveric study.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is manifested both by macroscopically visible lesions and by specific histological indicators. Although traditional views of the disease process invoke physical abrasion of joint surfaces, recent studies indicate that tissue-level changes may precede grossly visible lesions of articular cartilage. This study investigates the association between gross and histological indicators of osteoarthritis at the manual interphalangeal joints, and examines a sequence of events that may lead to the onset of cartilage degeneration. Interphalangeal joints from the hands of nine cadavers were dissected, of which 52 joints were collected and further evaluated. Gross degradation of the proximal articular surface was graded on a scale of 0-3 (with 0 representing normal cartilage with no visible lesions). Osteoarthritic lesions were found in 86% of specimens and showed no preferential occurrence between males and females or right and left hands. Histological analysis indicated that known microscopic indicators of osteoarthritis always occur in Grade 1-3 specimens, but can also be recognized in some macroscopically normal specimens. Many macroscopically normal specimens exhibited chondrocyte clustering (28.6%) and/or tide mark irregularities (57%), indicating that these features are most likely the earliest to develop in the progression of osteoarthritis. It is possible that the initiating etiology is thickening of the subchondral bone, but this was not directly observed. Results indicate significant thinning of the cartilage as macroscopic degradation progresses. Our study supports, with slight modification, a previously proposed cascade of histological changes that may ultimately lead to the physical destruction of articular cartilage. PMID:17583582

Bentley, Brian S; Hill, Robert V

2007-10-01

18

Concomitant treatment of mandibular ameloblastoma and bilateral temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis with bone graft and total joint prostheses.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that can create clinical problems in the masticatory musculature, jaws, occlusion, and other associated structures and is commonly accompanied by inflammatory changes and pain. Many cases of TMJ dysfunction can be managed with nonsurgical therapies, but patients with irreversible TMJ damage may require surgical intervention for repair or reconstruction. Despite various methods of TMJ reconstruction, the patient-fitted total joint prostheses may be the best option to achieve good outcomes. Multicystic ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws that is found most often in the mandible, in the region of the molars, and the ramus. Ameloblastomas usually progress slowly, but are locally invasive and may cause significant morbidity and sometimes death. This report describes a case of concomitant treatment of recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma and severe bilateral TMJ osteoarthritis treated by resection of the tumor, reconstruction with bone grafting, and bilateral TMJ reconstruction in a 63-year-old woman. PMID:25511957

Rodrigues, Daniel B; Wolford, Larry M; Malaquias, Pietry; Campos, Paulo S F

2015-01-01

19

Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis for Treating Osteoarthritis in a Patient with Kashin-Beck Disease  

PubMed Central

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic degenerative osteoarthritis. Death of cartilage and growth plate is the pathologic feature; therefore, KBD involves skeletal deformity and often results in osteoarthritis. Deficiency of selenium, high humic acid levels in water, and fungi on storage gains are considered the cause of KBD. The most frequently involved joints are ankles, knees, wrists, and elbows and symptoms are pain and limited motions of those joints. The main treatments for KBD are rehabilitation and osteotomy to correct the deformities because preventive treatment has not been established. In this report, we present a case of ankle osteoarthritis due to KBD and first describe arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis for treating osteoarthritis of KBD. PMID:25349619

Iwasa, Kenjiro; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

20

Relationship between joint effusion, joint pain, and protein levels in joint lavage fluid of patients with internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of joint effusion, joint pain, and protein levels in joint lavage fluid (JL) of patients with internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight joints in 26 patients with ID and OA of the TMJ were studied. Magnetic resonance imaging

Tetsu Takahashi; Hirokazu Nagai; Hiroshi Seki; Masayuki Fukuda

1999-01-01

21

Osteoarthritis: New Insights Part 1: The Disease and Its Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local bio- mechanical factors (such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity).

David T. Felson; Reva C. Lawrence; Paul A. Dieppe; Rosemarie Hirsch; Charles G. Helmick; Joanne M. Jordan; Raynard S. Kington; Michael C. Nevitt; Yuqing Zhang; MaryFran Sowers; Timothy McAlindon; Tim D. Spector; A. Robin Poole; Susan Z. Yanovski; Gerard Ateshian; Leena Sharma; Joseph A. Buckwalter; Kenneth D. Brandt; James F. Fries

2000-01-01

22

Managing joint pain in osteoarthritis: safety and efficacy of hylan G-F 20  

PubMed Central

The use of intra-articular viscosupplementation in the nonoperative management of patients with osteoarthritis has become quite popular. Recent clinical data have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions of hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation reduce pain while improving patient function. We review the basic science and development of viscosupplementation and discuss the mounting evidence in support of the efficacy and safety profile of hylan G-F 20. Recent evidence suggesting a disease-modifying effect of hylan G-F 20 is also assessed. Furthermore, although the primary focus of this article is on treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, we also discuss the use of viscosupplementation in other joints, such as the hip, ankle, and shoulder. PMID:21197297

Conduah, Augustine H; Baker, Champ L; Baker, Champ L

2009-01-01

23

Surgical treatment for acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis: patient selection, surgical options, complications, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of pain originating from the acromioclavicular (AC) joint. An awareness of\\u000a appropriate diagnostic techniques is necessary in order to localize clinical symptoms to the AC joint. Initial treatments\\u000a for AC joint osteoarthritis, which include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and corticosteroids, are recommended\\u000a prior to surgical interventions. Distal clavicle excision, the main surgical

Salvatore Docimo Jr; Dellene Kornitsky; Bennett Futterman; David E. Elkowitz

2008-01-01

24

Hylan G-F 20: Review of its Safety and Efficacy in the Management of Joint Pain in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease that is a clinically and economically important disease. The increased prevalence of OA with aging, coupled to the demographics of aging populations, make OA a high priority health care problem. Viscosupplementation (VS) is a well-established treatment option in knee OA that is included in the professional guidelines for treatment of this joint disease, and could potentially provide a useful alternative in treating such patients with painful OA. Theoretically VS is an approach that should apply to all synovial joints. Objectives: The aim of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety of viscosupplementation with Hylan GF-20 (Synvisc®) in the management of joint pain in osteoarthritis. Methods: The following databases were searched: Medline, Database of Abstract on Reviews and Effectiveness, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Furthermore, the lists of references of retrieved publications were manually checked for additional references. The search terms Review, Viscosupplementation, Osteoarthritis, Hyaluronic acid, Hyaluronan, Sodium Hyaluronate, Hylan GF-20, Synvisc, intra-articular injection were used to identify all studies relating to the use of Synvisc® viscosupplementation therapy in OA. Results: Hylan GF-20 is a safe and effective treatment for decreasing pain and improving function in patients suffering from knee and hip OA but new evidences are emerging for its use in other joints. PMID:21151854

Migliore, A.; Giovannangeli, F.; Granata, M.; Laganà, B.

2010-01-01

25

Associations between early radiographic and computed tomographic measures and canine hip joint osteoarthritis at maturity.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity. ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis. PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated. RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis. PMID:25535657

Andronescu, Anemone A; Kelly, Laura; Kearney, Michael T; Lopez, Mandi J

2015-01-01

26

Is osteoarthritis a heterogeneous disease that can be stratified into subsets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical features, biochemical\\/genetic characteristics,\\u000a and responses to treatments. To optimize palliative effects of current treatments and develop efficacious disease-modifying\\u000a interventions, treatments may need to be tailored to the individual or a subset of osteoarthritic joints. The purpose of this\\u000a review is to explore the current literature on the clinical and physiological variability

Jeffrey B. Driban; Michael R. Sitler; Mary F. Barbe; Easwaran Balasubramanian

2010-01-01

27

The Etiology of Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis: Early Indications from In Vivo Joint Contact Mechanics  

E-print Network

The thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA). The prevalence of thumb CMC OA greatly increases with age and has disproportional predominance in postmenopausal women. However, so far the etiology of thumb CMC OA...

Zheng, Qi

2014-05-31

28

Radiographic patterns of osteoarthritis of the knee joint in the community: the importance of the patellofemoral joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intimate relation which the patella has with the knee joint and quadriceps muscle suggests that patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis is likely to be an important cause of knee pain and disability. Two hundred and seventy three subjects who reported knee pain in a postal questionnaire survey and 240 control subjects consented to have anteroposterior weightbearing and lateral knee radiographs. Each

T E McAlindon; S Snow; C Cooper; P A Dieppe

1992-01-01

29

Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was

Colin J. Alexander

1989-01-01

30

Automated Quantitative Histomorphometry in Osteoarthritis  

E-print Network

Automated Quantitative Histomorphometry in Osteoarthritis Eigil Mølvig Jensen Supervised by Bjarne in the preclinical phase when researching for compounds as drug candidates. In the matter of osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), part of the research includes test on mice which spontaneously develop the disease

31

Clarification on Mechanical Characteristic in State of Stress of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joint Using Stress Freezing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint was pick up, the 3-dimensional stress freezing method of photoelastic method was applied, and the state of the stress in the normality hip joint and the transformable hip joint was examined. The direction and the singular point of principal stress and stress distribution were experimentally examined. At result, The Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint touches by 2 points, Osteoarthritis of Hip Joint occurrence of the new singular point with flat of the femoral head, They change the direction of the principal stress line in an existing singular point is cause.

Maezaki, Nobutaka; Ezumi, Tsutomu; Hachiya, Masashi

32

Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain. PMID:25431643

Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad

2014-01-01

33

CT Images of a Severe TMJ Osteoarthritis and Differential Diagnosis with Other Joint Disorders  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritis which affects the human body and can affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The diagnosis of TMJ OA is essentially based on clinical examination. However, laboratory tests and radiographic exams are also useful to exclude other diseases. The diagnosis of OA may be difficult because of other TMJ pathologies that can have similar clinical and radiographic aspects. The purpose of this study was to describe an unusual case of bilateral TMJ OA in an advanced stage and discuss its most common clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings, focusing on their importance in the differential diagnosis with other TMJ diseases. Erosion, sclerosis, osteophytes, flattening, subchondral cysts, and a reduced joint space were some of the radiographic findings in TMJ OA. We concluded that, for the correct differential diagnosis of TMJ OA, it is necessary to unite medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and radiographic findings. Computed tomography is the test of choice for evaluating bone involvement and for diagnosing and establishing the degree of the disease. PMID:24381768

Ferrazzo, K. L.; Osório, L. B.; Ferrazzo, V. A.

2013-01-01

34

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities.

Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.; Edwards, N.L.; Longley, S.; Yonker, R.; Webster, E.; Nauman, J.; Stork, J.; Pettersson, H.

1986-03-07

35

Knee Joint Pain Potentially Due to Bone Alterations in a Knee Osteoarthritis Patient  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 83 Final Diagnosis: Osteoarthritis Symptoms: Knee joint pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Resting Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and functional disability worldwide. However, the etiology of this condition is still largely unknown. Case Report: We report the clinical course of an elderly man with knee OA. Conclusions: Plain radiographs and MRI examinations performed during follow-up suggested that the pathophysiology of the patient’s knee OA and joint pain may have been primarily due to bone alterations. PMID:25436838

Komatsu, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Kamimura, Mikio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

36

Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and

Kay M Crossley; Bill Vicenzino; Marcus G Pandy; Anthony G Schache; Rana S Hinman

2008-01-01

37

Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: a study of 38 finger joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous work has shown that near-infrared diffuse optical tomography has the potential to be a clinical tool in diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Here we report a study of 38 joints from 38 females, including 20 OA and 18 healthy joints. The quantitative results obtained show that there exists clear difference between OA and healthy joints in terms of the ratio of optical properties of the joint soft tissues to that of the associated bone. Statistic analysis of these clinical data is also presented.

Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

2009-02-01

38

Disease severity and knee extensor force in knee osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the method of disease severity measurement influences the magnitude of knee extensor force deficits in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (n = 659) were analyzed. Knee extensor force was assessed with isometric contractions. Clinical severity was measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients were stratified into tertiles of severity (i.e. moderate, mild and severe OA), based on lowest, middle and highest WOMAC scores. Kellgren-Lawrence grading (KLG) was used to assess radiographic severity of the tibiofemoral compartment and patients were again stratified into mild (KLG<2), moderate (KLG = 2) and severe (KLG>2) knee OA. Results When stratifying with WOMAC, force was significantly lower in severe compared to mild (~18% lower, p<0.001) and moderate (~9% lower, p = 0.03) groups and in moderate compared to mild group (~10% lower, p = 0.03). When stratifying with KLG, small, non-significant differences were observed in the severe (~7% lower, p = 0.19) and moderate (~8% lower, p = 0.08) compared to mild group. Large intra-group variability was observed when comparing WOMAC score across radiographic severity (coefficients of variation were 79.3%, 74.6% and 61.6% for KLG<2, KLG = 2 and KLG>2, respectively). Conclusion The method of disease severity stratification influences the magnitude of knee extensor force deficits as no difference in force between disease subgroups was observed when stratifying with KLG. Furthermore, there was large variability in WOMAC score within each radiographic subgroup, highlighting the limitations in using radiographic measures to reflect symptom severity. PMID:22238225

Berger, Michael J.; Kean, Crystal O.; Goela, Aashish; Doherty, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

39

Failed joint unloading implant system in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

In the setting of end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee, total knee arthroplasty is the gold-standard treatment. Recently, a minimally invasive, joint preserving treatment option in the treatment of medial osteoarthritis of the knee has been developed. It is called the KineSpring(®) (Moximed(®) International GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland). The goal of this novel device is to reduce medial compartment loading without significantly affecting the loading of the lateral compartment. In this context, the current authors present a case of device failure using these new implants, which at 7 months post-op necessitated revision surgery with complete removal of the device. PMID:23912420

Citak, Mustafa; Kendoff, Daniel; O Loughlin, Padhraig F; Klatte, Till O; Gebauer, Matthias; Gehrke, Thorsten; Haasper, Carl

2013-11-01

40

Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883

Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

2014-10-23

41

Imaging osteoarthritis in the knee joints using x-ray guided diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous studies, near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) had been successfully applied to imaging osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints where significant difference in optical properties of the joint tissues was evident between healthy and OA finger joints. Here we report for the first time that large joints such as the knee can also be optically imaged especially when DOT is combined with x-ray tomosynthesis where the 3D image of the bones from x-ray is incorporated into the DOT reconstruction as spatial a priori structural information. This study demonstrates that NIR light can image large joints such as the knee in addition to finger joints, which will drastically broaden the clinical utility of our x-ray guided DOT technique for OA diagnosis.

Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

2010-02-01

42

Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... cause joint damage, stiffness, and pain. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese treatment. It is thought that when acupuncture needles stimulate certain points on the body, chemicals ...

43

Developments in the scientific understanding of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is often a progressive and disabling disease, which occurs in the setting of a variety of risk factors – such as advancing age, obesity, and trauma – that conspire to incite a cascade of pathophysiologic events within joint tissues. An important emerging theme in osteoarthritis is a broadening of focus from a disease of cartilage to one of the

Steven B Abramson; Mukundan Attur

2009-01-01

44

Osteoarthritis in Temporomandibular Joint of Col2a1 Mutant Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Col2a1 gene mutations cause premature degeneration of knee articular cartilage in disproportionate micromelia (Dmm) and spondyloepiphesial dysplasia congenita (sedc) mice. The present study analyzes the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in Col2a1 mutant mice in order to provide an animal model of TMJ osteoarthritis (OA) that may offer better understanding of the progression of this disease in humans. Design Dmm/+ mice and controls were compared at two, six, nine and 12 months. Craniums were fixed, processed to paraffin sections, stained with Safranin-O/Fast Green, and analyzed with light microscopy. OA was quantified using a Mankin scoring procedure. Unfolded protein response (UPR) assay was performed and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assay for known OA biomarkers. Results Dmm/+ TMJs showed fissuring of condylar cartilage as early as 6 months of age. Chondrocytes were clustered, leaving acellular regions in the matrix. Significant staining of HtrA1, Ddr2 and Mmp-13 was observed in Dmm/+ mice (p< 0.01). We detected upregulation of the UPR in knee but not TMJ. Conclusions Dmm/+ mice are subject to early-onset OA in the TMJ. We observed upregulation of biomarkers and condylar cartilage degradation concomitant with OA. An upregulated UPR may exacerbate the onset of OA. The Dmm/+ mouse TMJ is a viable model for the study of the progression of OA in humans. PMID:23518238

Ricks, M. L.; Farrell, J.T.; Falk, D. J.; Holt, D W.; Rees, M.; Carr, J.; Williams, T.; Nichols, B.A.; Bridgewater, L. C.; Reynolds, P. R.; Kooyman, D L; Seegmiller, R. E.

2013-01-01

45

Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).  

PubMed

Museum skull specimens (n = 1,008) of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria for the presence, severity and characteristics of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). The specimens were from stranded young adult to adult animals. Overall, 4.1% of the specimens had findings consistent with TMJ-OA. Of these, 61.0% were from females and 39.0% were from males. In addition, 85.4% of the affected specimens were from adults and 14.6% were from young adults. However, there was no significant association between age and sex with the presence or severity of TMJ-OA. Lesion severity was mild in 41.5%, moderate in 19.5% and severe in 39.0% of affected specimens. The most prominent changes were the presence of osteophytes and subchondral bone defects and porosity. The mandibular condylar process and fossa were affected equally. The lengths of the right and left mandibular heads were significantly associated with age (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, respectively) and sex (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.001, respectively), but not with the presence of TMJ-OA. The significance of this disease in sea otters remains elusive, but this condition may play an important role in survival of these animals. PMID:23721871

Arzi, B; Winer, J N; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

2013-11-01

46

An adolescent case of skeletal maxillary protrusion with osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is designed to report the treatment of an adolescent patient, aged 13 years and 5 months, with maxillary protrusion and temporomandibular joint-osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). MRI showed anterior disk displacement without reduction in both TMJs and the left condyle revealed a flattened-structure with undefined cortical bone. TMJ pain disappeared 4 months after splint therapy, and the initiation of orthodontic treatment

Masahiko Michida; Nobuaki Tanaka; Kotaro Tanimoto; Kazuo Tanne

2010-01-01

47

Multimodal Ayurvedic management for Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis of knee joints)  

PubMed Central

Vata is the governing factor in the maintenance of equilibrium in the universe as well as in the body. As age advances, the influence of Vata Dosha progresses, resulting in the process of gradual degeneration of the body. Sandhigatavata (osteoarthritis) is one of the consequences of this process, which is common in the elderly people. This is one of the major causes of chronic disability, affecting the quality of life. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in India is more among menopausal women. This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurvedic multimodal management in Sandhigatavata and to provide better options to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). In present clinical trial, 50 patients of Sandhigatavata have been registered and have been given Snehana, Svedana, Mriduvirechana, Matrabasti, and Jalaukavacharana, along with oral medications like Yogaraja Guggulu and Ashvagandha Churna. This multimodal therapy is being used in P.D. Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad, since years, providing good relief to patients with Sandhigatavata. The results have been analyzed statistically by using the Student paired‘t’ test. The therapy showed highly significant (P < 0.001) beneficial effect on the clinical features of Sandhigatavata. On overall effect of therapy, 4% of the patients were relieved completely, while 24% have shown marked improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 22% mild improvement. Results of follow-up showed that marked improvement decreased, but moderate improvement was steady. Continuing the study on a larger number of patients, with inclusion of more objective parameters to get better conclusions is suggested at the end of the study. PMID:24049405

Sharma, Manisha R.; Mehta, Charmi S.; Shukla, Dipali J.; Patel, Kalapi B.; Patel, Manish V.; Gupta, Shiv Narayan

2013-01-01

48

Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is called rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis usually leads to pain and limited movement of the joint. Symptoms & Causes ... rubs on bone, damaging the bones and causing pain. Sometimes new bone grows along the side of ...

49

Accurate joint space quantification in knee osteoarthritis: a digital x-ray tomosynthesis phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current imaging standard for diagnosis and monitoring of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is projection radiography. However radiographs may be insensitive to markers of early disease such as osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Relative to standard radiography, digital X-ray tomosynthesis (DTS) may provide improved visualization of the markers of knee OA without the interference of superimposed anatomy. DTS utilizes a series of low-dose projection images over an arc of +/-20 degrees to reconstruct tomographic images parallel to the detector. We propose that DTS can increase accuracy and precision in JSN quantification. The geometric accuracy of DTS was characterized by quantifying joint space width (JSW) as a function of knee flexion and position using physical and anthropomorphic phantoms. Using a commercially available digital X-ray system, projection and DTS images were acquired for a Lucite rod phantom with known gaps at various source-object-distances, and angles of flexion. Gap width, representative of JSW, was measured using a validated algorithm. Over an object-to-detector-distance range of 5-21cm, a 3.0mm gap width was reproducibly measured in the DTS images, independent of magnification. A simulated 0.50mm (+/-0.13) JSN was quantified accurately (95% CI 0.44-0.56mm) in the DTS images. Angling the rods to represent knee flexion, the minimum gap could be precisely determined from the DTS images and was independent of flexion angle. JSN quantification using DTS was insensitive to distance from patient barrier and flexion angle. Potential exists for the optimization of DTS for accurate radiographic quantification of knee OA independent of patient positioning.

Sewell, Tanzania S.; Piacsek, Kelly L.; Heckel, Beth A.; Sabol, John M.

2011-03-01

50

Establishment of a rat model of adjuvant-induced osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint.  

PubMed

To study the establishment of adjuvant-induced osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in a rat model. Complete Freund's adjuvant (experimental group) and saline (control group) were randomly injected into the right and left side of rat, respectively. The rats were killed, and degeneration of lumbar facet joint was evaluated at macroscopic level and scored based on OARSI scores system. Moreover, Interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? levels in the synovium were measured. The macroscopic scores and OARSI scores of experimental group were higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The concentration of tumor necrosis factor-? was significantly increased only on 3- and 7-day post-surgery when compared with controls, and interleukin-1? was increased on days 3,7 and 14 post-surgery (P < 0.05). The rat model of adjuvant can induce degeneration of the lumbar facet joint. It can be useful for studies on mechanisms and treatment of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis. PMID:24973958

Shuang, Feng; Zhu, Jialiang; Song, Keran; Hou, Shuxun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunli; Tang, Jiaguang

2014-12-01

51

Vascular pathology and osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that vascular pathology plays a role in the initiation and\\/or progression of the major disease of joints: osteoarthritis (OA). Potential mechanisms are: episodically reduced blood flow through the small vessels in the subchondral bone at the ends of long bones, and related to this, reduced interstitial fluid flow in subchondral bone. Blood flow may be reduced

D. M. Findlay

2007-01-01

52

Motion Versus Fixed Distraction of the Joint in the Treatment of Ankle Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Initial reports have shown the efficacy of fixed distraction for the treatment of ankle osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that allowing ankle motion during distraction would result in significant improvements in outcomes compared with distraction without ankle motion. Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the outcomes for patients with advanced ankle osteoarthritis who were managed with anterior osteophyte removal and either (1) fixed ankle distraction or (2) ankle distraction permitting joint motion. Thirty-six patients were randomized to treatment with either fixed distraction or distraction with motion. The patients were followed for twenty-four months after frame removal. The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) was the main outcome variable. Results: Two years after frame removal, subjects in both groups showed significant improvement compared with the status before treatment (p < 0.02 for both groups). The motion-distraction group had significantly better AOS scores than the fixed-distraction group at twenty-six, fifty-two, and 104 weeks after frame removal (p < 0.01 at each time point). At 104 weeks, the motion-distraction group had an overall mean improvement of 56.6% in the AOS score, whereas the fixed-distraction group had a mean improvement of 22.9% (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Distraction improved the patient-reported outcomes of treatment of ankle osteoarthritis. Adding ankle motion to distraction showed an early and sustained beneficial effect on outcome. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22637202

Saltzman, Charles L.; Hillis, Stephen L.; Stolley, Mary P.; Anderson, Donald D.; Amendola, Annunziato

2012-01-01

53

Increased function of pronociceptive TRPV1 at the level of the joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis pain  

PubMed Central

Objectives Blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with systemic antagonists attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) pain behaviour in rat models, but on-target-mediated hyperthermia has halted clinical trials. The present study investigated the potential for targeting TRPV1 receptors within the OA joint in order to produce analgesia. Methods The presence of TRPV1 receptors in human synovium was detected using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In a rat model of OA, joint levels of an endogenous ligand for TRPV1, 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects of peripheral administration of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist JNJ-17203212 on afferent fibre activity, pain behaviour and core body temperature were investigated. Effects of a spinal administration of JNJ-17203212 on dorsal horn neuronal responses were studied. Results We demonstrate increased TRPV1 immunoreactivity in human OA synovium, confirming the diseased joint as a potential therapeutic target for TRPV1-mediated analgesia. In a model of OA pain, we report increased joint levels of 12-HETE, and the sensitisation of joint afferent neurones to mechanical stimulation of the knee. Local administration of JNJ-17203212 reversed this sensitisation of joint afferents and inhibited pain behaviour (weight-bearing asymmetry), to a comparable extent as systemic JNJ-17203212, in this model of OA pain, but did not alter core body temperature. There was no evidence for increased TRPV1 function in the spinal cord in this model of OA pain. Conclusions Our data provide a clinical and mechanistic rationale for the future investigation of the therapeutic benefits of intra-articular administration of TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of OA pain. PMID:24152419

Kelly, S; Chapman, R J; Woodhams, S; Sagar, D R; Turner, J; Burston, J J; Bullock, C; Paton, K; Huang, J; Wong, A; McWilliams, D F; Okine, B N; Barrett, D A; Hathway, G J; Walsh, D A; Chapman, V

2015-01-01

54

Osteoarthritis: What is Osteoarthritis? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Basics: The Joint and Its Parts Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A Healthy Joint A Healthy Joint. Click for larger view. Illustration: ...

55

Therapeutic effects of segmental resection and decompression combined with joint prosthesis on continuous knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of segmental resection and decompression combined with joint prosthesis on continuous knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A total of 130 patients with knee OA were selected and randomly divided into an observation group and a control group (n=65). The control group was treated by segmental resection in combination with joint prosthesis, and the observation group was treated by segmental resection and decompression combined with joint prosthesis. They were followed-up for three months. Results: All patients underwent successful surgeries during which no severe complications occurred. During the follow-up period, the overall effective rates of the observation group and the control group were 93.8% and 78.5% respectively, which were not statistically significantly different (p < 0.05). The observation group was significantly less prone to patellar instability, infection and deep vein thrombosis compared with the control group (P < 0.05). On the same day after surgery, the knee joint scores and functional scores of the two groups were similar, which evidently increased three months later, with significant intra-group and inter-group differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Combining segmental resection and decompression with joint prosthesis gave rise to satisfactory short-term prognosis by effectively improving the flexion and extension of injured knee and by decreasing complications, thus being worthy of promotion in clinical practice.

Xue, Junlai; Wang, Changhong; Liu, Peng; Xie, Xiangchun; Qi, Shan

2014-01-01

56

Arthroscopy vs. MRI for a detailed assessment of cartilage disease in osteoarthritis: diagnostic value of MRI in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with osteoarthritis, a detailed assessment of degenerative cartilage disease is important to recommend adequate treatment. Using a representative sample of patients, this study investigated whether MRI is reliable for a detailed cartilage assessment in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods In a cross sectional-study as a part of a retrospective case-control study, 36 patients (mean age 53.1 years) with clinically relevant osteoarthritis received standardized MRI (sag. T1-TSE, cor. STIR-TSE, trans. fat-suppressed PD-TSE, sag. fat-suppressed PD-TSE, Siemens Magnetom Avanto syngo MR B 15) on a 1.5 Tesla unit. Within a maximum of three months later, arthroscopic grading of the articular surfaces was performed. MRI grading by two blinded observers was compared to arthroscopic findings. Diagnostic values as well as intra- and inter-observer values were assessed. Results Inter-observer agreement between readers 1 and 2 was good (kappa = 0.65) within all compartments. Intra-observer agreement comparing MRI grading to arthroscopic grading showed moderate to good values for readers 1 and 2 (kappa = 0.50 and 0.62, respectively), the poorest being within the patellofemoral joint (kappa = 0.32 and 0.52). Sensitivities were relatively low at all grades, particularly for grade 3 cartilage lesions. A tendency to underestimate cartilage disorders on MR images was not noticed. Conclusions According to our results, the use of MRI for precise grading of the cartilage in osteoarthritis is limited. Even if the practical benefit of MRI in pretreatment diagnostics is unequivocal, a diagnostic arthroscopy is of outstanding value when a grading of the cartilage is crucial for a definitive decision regarding therapeutic options in patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:20406481

2010-01-01

57

Progress in tissue engineering to repair joint damage in osteoarthritis A/P Cao Tong Medical scientists now have "clear" evidence that the damaged cartilage tissue in osteoarthritis and  

E-print Network

Progress in tissue engineering to repair joint damage in osteoarthritis ­ A/P Cao Tong Medical joint disorders can be encouraged to regrow and regenerate, and are developing tissue engineering of tissue engineering to treat joint damage, the researchers summarized their own work and scanned global

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

58

Reduced rates of primary joint replacement for osteoarthritis in Italian and Greek migrants to Australia: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Racial and ethnic disparities in rates of total joint replacement have been described, but little work has been done in well-established migrant groups. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of primary joint replacement for osteoarthritis for Italian and Greek migrants to Australia and Australian-born individuals. METHODS: Eligible participants (n = 39,023) aged 27 to 75

Yuanyuan Wang; Julie A Simpson; Anita E Wluka; Donna M Urquhart; Dallas R English; Graham G Giles; Stephen Graves; Flavia M Cicuttini

2009-01-01

59

Effect of Low-Level Laser on Healing of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are clinical conditions characterized by pain and sounds of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study was designed to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on healing of osteoarthritis in rats with TMD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats (250–200 g) were housed in standard plastic cages. After injection of Complete Freund’s adjuvant into the TMJ, rats were randomly divided into two groups of 16 (case and control) and anesthetized; then osteoarthritis was induced via intraarticular injection of 50 µl of Complete Freund’s adjuvant; into the bilateral TMJs. In the case group, LLLT was done transcutaneously for 10 minutes daily, starting the day after the confirmation of osteoarthritis. Exposure was performed for 10 minutes at the right side of the TMJ with 880 nm low-level laser with 100 mW power and a probe diameter of 0.8 mm. Control rats were not treated with laser. Results: After three days of treatment the grade of cartilage defects, number of inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, number of cell layers and arthritis in rats in the case group were not significantly different compared with controls (P>0.05). After seven days, the grade of cartilage defects, number of inflammatory cells, number of cell layers, and arthritis in the case group improved compared to controls (P<0.05); angiogenesis in both groups was similar. Conclusion: Treatment of TMD with LLLT after 7 days of irradiation with a wavelength of 880 nm was associated with a greater improvement compared to the control group.

Peimani, Ali; Sardary, Farimah

2014-01-01

60

Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function.

Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

2015-01-01

61

A computer-based image analysis method for assessing the severity of hip joint osteoarthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-based image analysis method was developed for assessing the severity of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Eighteen pelvic radiographs of patients with verified unilateral hip OA, were digitized and enhanced employing custom developed software. Two ROIs corresponding to osteoarthritic and contralateral-physiological radiographic Hip Joint Spaces (HJSs) were determined on each radiograph. Textural features were extracted from the HJS-ROIs utilizing the run-length matrices and Laws textural measures. A k-Nearest Neighbour based hierarchical tree structure was designed for classifying hips into three OA severity categories labeled as "Normal", "Mild/Moderate", and "Severe". Employing the run-length features, the overall classification accuracy of the hierarchical tree structure was 86.1%. The utilization of Laws' textural measures improved the system classification performance, providing an overall classification accuracy of 94.4%. The proposed method maybe of value to physicians in assessing the severity of hip OA.

Boniatis, Ioannis; Costaridou, Lena; Cavouras, Dionisis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Panayiotakis, George

2006-12-01

62

Partial trapeziectomy and pyrocarbon interpositional arthroplasty for trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis: results after minimum 2 years of follow-up.  

PubMed

A prospective study was undertaken to assess the outcomes of a series of patients treated using pyrocarbon implant arthroplasty after partial trapeziectomy for trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. We analysed the results of this procedure in 27 trapeziometacarpal joints of 25 patients. The mean follow-up interval was 34 months (range 26-52). The study showed that pyrocarbon interpositional arthroplasty provided excellent pain relief and high patient satisfaction. Overall function, according to disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score, improved from 48 points preoperatively to 14 points at the last follow-up assessment. Key pinch strength recorded in the operated hands was comparable with the results obtained in the contralateral hand and in healthy individuals from the same population. No further operations were performed in the study group. Partial trapeziectomy with pyrocarbon arthroplasty may prove to be a successful option for the treatment of trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. Further long-term comparative studies are warranted. PMID:24509425

Mariconda, M; Russo, S; Smeraglia, F; Busco, G

2014-02-01

63

Is lifelong knee joint force from work, home, and sport related to knee osteoarthritis?  

PubMed

Purpose. To investigate the association of cumulative lifetime knee joint force on the risk of self-reported medically-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Exposure data on lifetime physical activity type (occupational, household, sport/recreation) and dose (frequency, intensity, duration) were collected from 4,269 Canadian men and women as part of the Physical Activity and Joint Heath cohort study. Subjects were ranked in terms of the "cumulative peak force index", a measure of lifetime mechanical knee force. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to obtain adjusted effects for mean lifetime knee force on the risk of knee OA. Results. High levels of total lifetime, occupational and household-related force were associated with an increased in risk of OA, with odds ratio's ranging from approximately 1.3 to 2. Joint injury, high BMI and older age were related to risk of knee OA, consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. A newly developed measure of lifetime mechanical knee force from physical activity was employed to estimate the risk of self-reported, medically-diagnosed knee OA. While there are limitations, this paper suggests that high levels of total lifetime force (all domains combined), and occupational force in men and household force in women were risk factors for knee OA. PMID:22848225

Ratzlaff, Charles R; Koehoorn, Mieke; Cibere, Jolanda; Kopec, Jacek A

2012-01-01

64

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the joint is a prevalent disease accompanied by chronic, debilitating pain. Recent clinical evidence has demonstrated that central sensitization contributes to OA pain. An improved understanding of how OA joint pathology impacts upon the central processing of pain is crucial for the identification of novel analgesic targets/new therapeutic strategies. Inhibitory cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors attenuate peripheral immune cell function and modulate central neuro-immune responses in models of neurodegeneration. Systemic administration of the CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 attenuated OA-induced pain behaviour, and the changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines exhibited in this model. Electrophysiological studies revealed that spinal administration of JWH133 inhibited noxious-evoked responses of spinal neurones in the model of OA pain, but not in control rats, indicating a novel spinal role of this target. We further demonstrate dynamic changes in spinal CB2 receptor mRNA and protein expression in an OA pain model. The expression of CB2 receptor protein by both neurones and microglia in the spinal cord was significantly increased in the model of OA. Hallmarks of central sensitization, significant spinal astrogliosis and increases in activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the spinal cord were evident in the model of OA pain. Systemic administration of JWH133 attenuated these markers of central sensitization, providing a neurobiological basis for analgesic effects of the CB2 receptor in this model of OA pain. Analysis of human spinal cord revealed a negative correlation between spinal cord CB2 receptor mRNA and macroscopic knee chondropathy. These data provide new clinically relevant evidence that joint damage and spinal CB2 receptor expression are correlated combined with converging pre-clinical evidence that activation of CB2 receptors inhibits central sensitization and its contribution to the manifestation of chronic OA pain. These findings suggest that targeting CB2 receptors may have therapeutic potential for treating OA pain. PMID:24282543

Shao, Pin; Bai, Mingfeng; King, Emma; Brailsford, Louis; Turner, Jenna M.; Hathway, Gareth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Walsh, David A.; Kendall, David A.; Lichtman, Aron; Chapman, Victoria

2013-01-01

65

Developing osteoarthritis treatments through cartilage tissue engineering and molecular imaging  

E-print Network

Tissue engineering can be applied to develop therapeutic techniques for osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease caused by the progressive deterioration of cartilage in joints. An inherent goal in developing cartilage-replacement ...

Casasnovas Ortega, Nicole

2012-01-01

66

Meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is emerging evidence for a beneficial effect of meat consumption on the musculoskeletal system. However, whether it affects the risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis is unknown. We performed a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis. Methods Eligible 35,331 participants were selected from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study recruited during 1990-1994. Consumption of fresh red meat, processed meat, chicken, and fish was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Primary hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis during 2001-2005 was determined by linking the cohort records to the Australian National Joint Replacement Registry. Results There was a negative dose-response relationship between fresh red meat consumption and the risk of hip replacement (hazard ratio (HR) 0.94 per increase in intake of one time/week, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.98). In contrast, there was no association with knee replacement risk (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.02). Consumption of processed meat, chicken and fish were not associated with risk of hip or knee replacement. Conclusion A high level consumption of fresh red meat was associated with a decreased risk of hip, but not knee, joint replacement for osteoarthritis. One possible mechanism to explain these differential associations may be via an effect of meat intake on bone strength and hip shape. Further confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:21235820

2011-01-01

67

THE ROLE OF GLUCOSEAMINE SULFATE ON OSTEOARTHRITIS: AN UPDATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis is an age related degenerative disease of joint cartilage. It is a major cause of disability and is among the most frequent form of musculoskeletal disorder. About 40 million American has been reported to be affected by osteoarthritis. Of these 80% individual are over 50 years with twice as frequent in women as

RASHIDUL HASAN; NAZMUL AHASAN; FAIZUL ISLAM CHOWDHURY; M MATIUR RAHMAN

2006-01-01

68

[Autologous fat injection for treatment of carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb - a promising alternative].  

PubMed

Classical surgical options for osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint irreversibly des-troy the normal anatomy of the wrist. Although overall satisfaction rates with these procedures are high, time to achieve normal hand function and ability to work may take 12-16 weeks. Therefore a non-ablative less invasive surgical option would be interesting. We injected adipose tissue into the thumb carpometacarpal joint in a pilot study. Average preoperative pain according to a VAS was 7.4 in action and 3.8 during rest. It was reduced considerably to 2.2 in action and 0 during rest after 1 month and to 2.4 and 0.8, respectively, 3 months after surgery. The reduction of pain in action was statistically significant 1 month after injection (p=0.042). Average grip strength was 78% and pinch grip strength was 74% in comparison to the healthy side preop-eratively, 89% and 80% one month postoperatively and 93% and 89%, respectively, 3 months postoperatively. An average DASH score of 58 preoperative was reduced to 36 after 1 month and 33 after 3 months. The amelioration of hand function was statistically significant (p=0.042 and p=0.043). There were no side effects and all patients were satisfied. These preliminary results are promising. Adipose tissue injection seems to be an alternative to consider, especially as it does not exclude classical surgical options in cases of failure. PMID:24777461

Herold, C; Fleischer, O; Allert, S

2014-04-01

69

Different thresholds for detecting osteophytes and joint space narrowing exist between the site investigators and the centralized reader in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis study—data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate how the reading of knee radiographs by site investigators differs from that by an expert musculoskeletal radiologist\\u000a who trained and validated them in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis (OA) study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A subset of participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative progression cohort was studied. Osteophytes and joint space narrowing\\u000a (JSN) were evaluated using Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) and Osteoarthritis Research Society

Ali Guermazi; David J. Hunter; Ling Li; Olivier Benichou; Felix Eckstein; C. Kent Kwoh; Michael Nevitt; Daichi Hayashi

70

Disease Progression and Phasic Changes in Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and has multiple risk factors including joint injury. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histologic development of OA in a mouse model where OA is induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM model) and to identify genes regulated during different stages of the disease, using RNA isolated from the joint “organ” and analyzed using microarrays. Histologic changes seen in OA, including articular cartilage lesions and osteophytes, were present in the medial tibial plateaus of the DMM knees beginning at the earliest (2 week) time point and became progressively more severe by 16 weeks. 427 probe sets (371 genes) from the microarrays passed consistency and significance filters. There was an initial up-regulation at 2 and 4 weeks of genes involved in morphogenesis, differentiation, and development, including growth factor and matrix genes, as well as transcription factors including Atf2, Creb3l1, and Erg. Most genes were off or down-regulated at 8 weeks with the most highly down-regulated genes involved in cell division and the cytoskeleton. Gene expression increased at 16 weeks, in particular extracellular matrix genes including Prelp, Col3a1 and fibromodulin. Immunostaining revealed the presence of these three proteins in cartilage and soft tissues including ligaments as well as in the fibrocartilage covering osteophytes. The results support a phasic development of OA with early matrix remodeling and transcriptional activity followed by a more quiescent period that is not maintained. This implies that the response to an OA intervention will depend on the timing of the intervention. The quiescent period at 8 weeks may be due to the maturation of the osteophytes which are thought to temporarily stabilize the joint. PMID:23382930

Loeser, Richard F.; Olex, Amy L.; McNulty, Margaret A.; Carlson, Cathy S.; Callahan, Michael; Ferguson, Cristin; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.

2013-01-01

71

Biomechanical characteristics of iliac crest bone in elderly women according to osteoarthritis grade at the hand joints.  

PubMed

Postmortem iliac crest trabecular bone specimens were tested in compression to determine their mechanical characteristics. Trabecular bone volume and width were evaluated by histomorphometry and radiographic grading of osteoarthritis (OA) of hand joints was also done. Patients were divided into 2 groups: no or low grade OA (Group 1) and manifest OA Grades II-IV (Group 2). From the 27 specimens tested (women 56-80 years old), 17 were in Group 1 and 10 in Group 2. Significant differences in stiffness (E), compressive strength, trabecular bone volume and trabecular width between the 2 groups were found. In the group with manifest OA, bone was significantly stiffer, had a significantly increased compressive strength value, a significantly higher trabecular bone volume and trabecular width, compared to the group with no or low OA grade. Significant correlations were found between elastic modulus and trabecular bone volume and width, and also between compressive strength and trabecular bone volume and width. Our findings support the hypothesis that the primary defect in OA is not in the articular cartilage but in the subchondral bone and that primary OA is part of a more general bone disease. PMID:2754670

Gevers, G; Dequeker, J; Martens, M; Van Audekercke, R; Nyssen-Behets, C; Dhem, A

1989-05-01

72

Grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis severity by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of radiographic hip joint space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image analysis system is proposed for the assessment of hip osteoarthritis (OA) severity. Sixty four hips (18 normal, 46 osteoarthritic), corresponding to 32 patients of unilateral or bilateral hip OA were studied. Employing custom developed software, 64 Region Of Interest (ROI) images of Hip Joint Spaces (HJSs) were delineated on patients' digitized radiographs. The Fourier spectrum of each HJS-ROI was computed and expressed in polar coordinates. Spectral signatures, quantifying the radial and angular distribution of HJS spectral energy were formed. Signature descriptors were generated and utilized in the design of a two-level hierarchical decision tree, used for the grading of the severity of the disease. Accordingly, at Level 1, implemented by a multiple classifier system, the discrimination between normal and osteoarthritic hips was performed. At Level 2, the hips that had been successfully characterized as osteoarthritic at Level 1, were further characterized as of ``Mild / Moderate'' or ``Severe'' OA, by the Bayes classifier. A signature descriptors based regression model was designed, so as to quantify OA-severity. The system graded OA reliably, given that the accomplished classification accuracies for Level 1 and Level 2 were 98.4% and 100%, respectively. OA-severity values, expressed by HJS-narrowing, correlated highly (r = 0.9, p < 0.001) with values predicted by the model. The system may contribute to OA-patient management.

Boniatis, I.; Costaridou, L.; Panagiotopoulos, E.; Panayiotakis, G.

2009-08-01

73

An Orthopedic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of osteoarthritis and whether running and other impact loading sports promote it. Although these sports do not cause arthritis in normal weight bearing limbs, they can accelerate it in damaged joints. It is important to identify people with preeexisting joint disease so they can choose nonimpact-loading aerobic exercise.…

Pascale, Mark; Grana, William A.

1989-01-01

74

Computer-aided grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis severity employing shape descriptors of radiographic hip joint space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-based system was designed for the grading and quantification of hip osteoarthritis (OA) severity. Employing an active-contours segmentation model, 64 hip joint space (HJS) images (18 normal, 46 osteoarthritic) were obtained from the digitized radiographs of 32 unilateral and bilateral OA-patients. Shape features, generated from the HJS-images, and a hierarchical decision tree structure was used for the grading of

Ioannis Boniatis; Dionisis Cavouras; Lena Costaridou; Ioannis Kalatzis; Elias Panagiotopoulos; George Panayiotakis

2007-01-01

75

Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model.  

PubMed

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), which is one of the popular ingredients of so-called health foods in Japan, is expected to relieve inflammation in arthritis and allergies. However, there is no scientific evidence to confirm the efficacy and safety of MSM in detail. In this study, we examined the effects of MSM on cartilage formation in growing rats (G) and cartilage degradation in STR/Ort mice (A), an accepted human osteoarthritis (OA) model. For cartilage formation study, 6-week-old growing male Wister rats were assigned to four groups to receive a control or MSM-containing diet. To examine the efficacy of MSM on the cartilage of OA model mouse, 10-week-old male STR/OrtCrlj mice were assigned to three groups to receive a control or MSM-containing diet. The dosages used were amounts equal to the recommended supplements for humans [0.06 g/kg body weight (BW)/day: MSM1G and MSM1A], 10 fold higher (0.6 g/kg BW/day: MSM10G and MSM10A), and 100 fold higher (6 g/kg BW/day: MSM100G). Intake of MSM for 4 weeks did not affect cartilage formation in the knee joint in growing rats. Body, liver, and spleen weight in the MSM100G group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Intake of MSM for 13 weeks decreased degeneration of the cartilage at the joint surface in the knee joints in STR/Ort mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that appropriate intake of MSM is possibly effective in OA model mice; however, intake of large amounts of MSM induced atrophy of several organs. PMID:23011466

Ezaki, Junko; Hashimoto, Miyuki; Hosokawa, Yu; Ishimi, Yoshiko

2013-01-01

76

The evaluation of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the stifle joint in dogs.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has expanded from the original uses of human urinary calculi treatment to veterinary orthopaedic applications. This paper investigates the feasibility and efficacy of treating dogs with osteoarthritis of the stifle joint with ESWT. In this study, dogs with persistent stifle lameness despite previous surgical or medical treatment were either treated with ESWT or served as untreated controls. The more lame rear limb of each dog was determined by force platform analysis. The range of motion (ROM) of the stifle joints was assessed by goniometry. Force platform gait analysis and goniometry were performed on both groups for four visits at three-week intervals and a final examination four weeks later. Shock wave therapy was performed three times on the treated dogs, once at each of the first three examinations. A placebo treatment consisting of clipping and wetting the hair was performed on the control dogs. The vertical forces were evaluated for objective analysis of treatment response. For peak vertical force (PVF), four of seven treated dogs improved, while only one of five of control dogs improved. The PVF for the within group analysis did not show any significant change for the treated group, however, the control group has a significant decrease (p = 0.05) in PVF consistent with an increase in lameness. The range of motion (ROM) of the stifle joint improved in five of seven treated dogs and three of five controls. Dogs in the treated group had a trend toward increased ROM (p = 0.07) and a 'positive slope' when compared to dogs in the control group which did not have a significant change (p = 0.78) and had a negative slope indicating the dogs were developing a decrease in ROM. The subjective data provided by client questionnaire did not show significant difference between groups. PMID:16594445

Dahlberg, J; Fitch, G; Evans, R B; McClure, S R; Conzemius, M

2005-01-01

77

The joint capsule: structure, composition, ageing and disease.  

PubMed Central

The joint capsule is vital to the function of synovial joints. It seals the joint space, provides passive stability by limiting movements, provides active stability via its proprioceptive nerve endings and may form articular surfaces for the joint. It is a dense fibrous connective tissue that is attached to the bones via specialised attachment zones and forms a sleeve around the joint. It varies in thickness according to the stresses to which it is subject, is locally thickened to form capsular ligaments, and may also incorporate tendons. The capsule is often injured, leading to laxity, constriction and/or adhesion to surrounding structures. It is also important in rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, crystal deposition disorders, bony spur formation and ankylosing spondylitis. This article concentrates on the specialised structures of the capsule--where capsular tissues attach to bone or form part of the articulation of the joint. It focuses on 2 joints: the rat knee and the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the human finger. The attachments to bone contain fibrocartilage, derived from the cartilage of the embryonic bone rudiment and rich in type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The attachment changes with age, when type II collagen spreads into the capsular ligament or tendon, or pathology--type II collagen is lost from PIP capsular attachments in rheumatoid arthritis. Parts of the capsule that are compressed during movement adapt by becoming fibrocartilaginous. Such regions accumulate cartilage-like glycosaminoglycans and may contain type II collagen, especially in aged material.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7928639

Ralphs, J R; Benjamin, M

1994-01-01

78

Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking. PMID:22577565

Esrafilian, Amir; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Eshraghi, Arezoo

2012-01-01

79

Use of dimensionality reduction for structural mapping of hip joint osteoarthritis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A visualization-based, computer-oriented, classification scheme is proposed for assessing the severity of hip osteoarthritis (OA) using dimensionality reduction techniques. The introduced methodology tries to cope with the confined ability of physicians to structurally organize the entire available set of medical data into semantically similar categories and provide the capability to make visual observations among the ensemble of data using low-dimensional biplots. In this work, 18 pelvic radiographs of patients with verified unilateral hip OA are evaluated by experienced physicians and assessed into Normal, Mild and Severe following the Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Two regions of interest corresponding to radiographic hip joint spaces are determined and representative features are extracted using a typical texture analysis technique. The structural organization of all hip OA data is accomplished using distance and topology preservation-based dimensionality reduction techniques. The resulting map is a low-dimensional biplot that reflects the intrinsic organization of the ensemble of available data and which can be directly accessed by the physician. The conceivable visualization scheme can potentially reveal critical data similarities and help the operator to visually estimate their initial diagnosis. In addition, it can be used to detect putative clustering tendencies, examine the presence of data similarities and indicate the existence of possible false alarms in the initial perceptual evaluation.

Theoharatos, C.; Boniatis, I.; Panagiotopoulos, E.; Panayiotakis, G.; Fotopoulos, S.

2009-10-01

80

Management of acquired open bite associated with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using miniscrew anchorage  

PubMed Central

This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a patient with skeletal mandibular retrusion and an anterior open bite due to temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) using miniscrew anchorage. A 46-year-old woman had a Class II malocclusion with a retropositioned mandible. Her overjet and overbite were 7.0 mm and -1.6 mm, respectively. She had limited mouth opening, TMJ sounds, and pain. Condylar resorption was observed in both TMJs. Her TMJ pain was reduced by splint therapy, and then orthodontic treatment was initiated. Titanium miniscrews were placed at the posterior maxilla to intrude the molars. After 2 years and 7 months of orthodontic treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any recurrence of TMJ symptoms. The retropositioned mandible was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension upon lip closure. The maxillary molars were intruded by 1.5 mm, and the mandible was subsequently rotated counterclockwise. Magnetic resonance imaging of both condyles after treatment showed avascular necrosis-like structures. During a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of the open bite. In conclusion, correction of open bite and clockwise-rotated mandible through molar intrusion using titanium miniscrews is effective for the management of TMJ-OA with jaw deformity. PMID:23112945

Yamano, Eizo; Inubushi, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Shingo

2012-01-01

81

Association of Dynamic Joint Power With Functional Limitations in Older Adults With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine which lower-limb joint moments and powers characterize the level of gait performance of older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting University motion analysis laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=60; 27 men, 33 women; age 50–79y) with symptomatic knee OA. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Physical function was measured using the long-distance corridor walk, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI Function). Joint moments and power were estimated using an inverse dynamics solution after 3-dimensional computerized motion analysis. Results Subjects aged 64.2±7.4 years were recruited. Ranges (mean ± SD) for the 400-m walk time and the LLFDI Advanced Lower-Limb Function score were 215.3 to 536.8 (304.1±62.3) seconds and 31.5 to 100 (57.0±14.9) points, respectively. In women, hip abductor moment (loading response), hip abductor power (midstance), eccentric hamstring moment (terminal stance), and power (terminal swing) accounted for 41%, 31%, 14%, and 48% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.61, P<.003). In men, plantar flexor and hip flexor power (preswing) accounted for 19% and 24% of the variance in the 400-m walk time, respectively (model R2=.32, P=.025). Conclusions There is evidence that men and women with higher mobility function tend to rely more on an ankle strategy rather than a hip strategy for gait. In higher functioning men, higher knee extensor and flexor strength may contribute to an ankle strategy, whereas hip abductor weakness may bias women with lower mobility function to minimize loading across the knee via use of a hip strategy. These parameters may serve as foci for rehabilitation interventions aimed at reducing mobility limitations. PMID:19887204

Segal, Neil A.; Yack, H. John; Brubaker, Morgan; Torner, James C.; Wallace, Robert

2010-01-01

82

Subject-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics: application to the study of osteoarthritis and surgical planning.  

PubMed

Advances in computational mechanics, constitutive modeling, and techniques for subject-specific modeling have opened the door to patient-specific simulation of the relationships between joint mechanics and osteoarthritis (OA), as well as patient-specific preoperative planning. This article reviews the application of computational biomechanics to the simulation of joint contact mechanics as relevant to the study of OA. This review begins with background regarding OA and the mechanical causes of OA in the context of simulations of joint mechanics. The broad range of technical considerations in creating validated subject-specific whole joint models is discussed. The types of computational models available for the study of joint mechanics are reviewed. The types of constitutive models that are available for articular cartilage are reviewed, with special attention to choosing an appropriate constitutive model for the application at hand. Issues related to model generation are discussed, including acquisition of model geometry from volumetric image data and specific considerations for acquisition of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. Approaches to model validation are reviewed. The areas of parametric analysis, factorial design, and probabilistic analysis are reviewed in the context of simulations of joint contact mechanics. Following the review of technical considerations, the article details insights that have been obtained from computational models of joint mechanics for normal joints; patient populations; the study of specific aspects of joint mechanics relevant to OA, such as congruency and instability; and preoperative planning. Finally, future directions for research and application are summarized. PMID:23445048

Henak, Corinne R; Anderson, Andrew E; Weiss, Jeffrey A

2013-02-01

83

Joint Pain Undergoes a Transition in Accordance with Signal Changes of Bones Detected by MRI in Hip Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether joint pain is derived from cartilage or bone alterations. Methods: We reviewed 23 hip joints of 21 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis (OA), which were classified into Kellgren–Laurence (KL) grading I to IV. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained from all of the 23 joints. Two of the 21 patients had bilateral hip OA. Pain was assessed based on the pain scale of Denis. A Welch t test was performed for age, height, weight, body mass index, bone mineral density, and a Mann–Whitney U test was performed for KL grading. Results: Four of 8 hip joints with pain and OA showed broad signal changes detected by MRI. Fourteen hip joints without pain, but with OA did not show broad signal changes by MRI. Collectively, MRI analyses showed that broad signal changes in OA cases without joint pain or with a slight degree of joint pain were not observed, while broad signal changes were observed in OA cases with deteriorated joint pain. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hip joint pain might be associated with bone signal alterations in the hips of OA patients. PMID:24133552

Kamimura, Mikio; Nakamura, Yukio; Ikegami, Shota; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

84

Nociceptive tolerance is improved by bradykinin receptor B1 antagonism and joint morphology is protected by both endothelin type A and bradykinin receptor B1 antagonism in a surgical model of osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endothelin-1, a vasoconstrictor peptide, influences cartilage metabolism mainly via endothelin receptor type A (ETA). Along with the inflammatory nonapeptide vasodilator bradykinin (BK), which acts via bradykinin receptor B1 (BKB1) in chronic inflammatory conditions, these vasoactive factors potentiate joint pain and inflammation. We describe a preclinical study of the efficacy of treatment of surgically induced osteoarthritis with ETA and/or BKB1 specific peptide antagonists. We hypothesize that antagonism of both receptors will diminish osteoarthritis progress and articular nociception in a synergistic manner. Methods Osteoarthritis was surgically induced in male rats by transection of the right anterior cruciate ligament. Animals were subsequently treated with weekly intra-articular injections of specific peptide antagonists of ETA and/or BKB1. Hind limb nociception was measured by static weight bearing biweekly for two months post-operatively. Post-mortem, right knee joints were analyzed radiologically by X-ray and magnetic resonance, and histologically by the OARSI histopathology assessment system. Results Single local BKB1 antagonist treatment diminished overall hind limb nociception, and accelerated post-operative recovery after disease induction. Both ETA and/or BKB1 antagonist treatments protected joint radiomorphology and histomorphology. Dual ETA/BKB1 antagonism was slightly more protective, as measured by radiology and histology. Conclusions BKB1 antagonism improves nociceptive tolerance, and both ETA and/or BKB1 antagonism prevents joint cartilage degradation in a surgical model of osteoarthritis. Therefore, they represent a novel therapeutic strategy: specific receptor antagonism may prove beneficial in disease management. PMID:21575197

2011-01-01

85

Targets, models and challenges in osteoarthritis research  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disorder of the joint and represents one of the most common diseases worldwide. Its prevalence and severity are increasing owing to aging of the population, but treatment options remain largely limited to painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, which only provide symptomatic relief. In the late stages of the disease, surgical interventions are often necessary to partially restore joint function. Although the focus of osteoarthritis research has been originally on the articular cartilage, novel findings are now pointing to osteoarthritis as a disease of the whole joint, in which failure of different joint components can occur. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field, including data from novel ‘omics’ technologies and from a number of preclinical and clinical trials. We describe different in vitro and in vivo systems that can be used to study molecules, pathways and cells that are involved in osteoarthritis. We illustrate that a comprehensive and multisystem approach is necessary to understand the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease and to better guide the development of novel therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis. PMID:25561745

Thysen, Sarah; Luyten, Frank P.; Lories, Rik J. U.

2015-01-01

86

Emerging drugs for osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent form of joint disease, affecting as much as 13% of the world’s population. In the United States, it is the leading cause of disability in people over age 65 and is characterized by progressive cartilage loss, bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial inflammation with resultant joint pain and disability. There are no treatments marketed for structural disease modification; current treatments mainly target symptoms, with >75% of patients reporting need for additional symptomatic treatment. Areas covered Drugs in later development (Phase II-III) for osteoarthritis pain and joint structural degeneration are reviewed. Not covered are procedural (e.g. arthrocentesis, physical therapy), behavioral (e.g. weight loss, pain coping techniques) or device (e.g. knee braces, surgical implants) based treatments. Expert opinion More in depth understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, as well as elucidation of the link between clinical symptomatology and structural changes in the joint will likely lead to development of novel target classes with promising efficacy in the future. Efficacy notwithstanding, there remain significant hurdles to overcome in clinical development of these therapeutics, inherent in the progression pattern of the disease as well as challenges with readouts for both pain and structure modification trials. PMID:21542666

Matthews, Gloria

2013-01-01

87

Altered swelling and ion fluxes in articular cartilage as a biomarker in osteoarthritis and joint immobilization: a computational analysis.  

PubMed

In healthy cartilage, mechano-electrochemical phenomena act together to maintain tissue homeostasis. Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative diseases disrupt this biological equilibrium by causing structural deterioration and subsequent dysfunction of the tissue. Swelling and ion flux alteration as well as abnormal ion distribution are proposed as primary indicators of tissue degradation. In this paper, we present an extension of a previous three-dimensional computational model of the cartilage behaviour developed by the authors to simulate the contribution of the main tissue components in its behaviour. The model considers the mechano-electrochemical events as concurrent phenomena in a three-dimensional environment. This model has been extended here to include the effect of repulsion of negative charges attached to proteoglycans. Moreover, we have studied the fluctuation of these charges owning to proteoglycan variations in healthy and pathological articular cartilage. In this sense, standard patterns of healthy and degraded tissue behaviour can be obtained which could be a helpful diagnostic tool. By introducing measured properties of unhealthy cartilage into the computational model, the severity of tissue degeneration can be predicted avoiding complex tissue extraction and subsequent in vitro analysis. In this work, the model has been applied to monitor and analyse cartilage behaviour at different stages of OA and in both short (four, six and eight weeks) and long-term (11 weeks) fully immobilized joints. Simulation results showed marked differences in the corresponding swelling phenomena, in outgoing cation fluxes and in cation distributions. Furthermore, long-term immobilized patients display similar swelling as well as fluxes and distribution of cations to patients in the early stages of OA, thus, preventive treatments are highly recommended to avoid tissue deterioration. PMID:25392400

Manzano, Sara; Manzano, Raquel; Doblaré, Manuel; Doweidar, Mohamed Hamdy

2015-01-01

88

Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce the personal and societal burden of this increasing public health problem. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000288325 PMID:18793446

Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S

2008-01-01

89

Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

2015-02-01

90

Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis).  

PubMed

Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss' Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies. PMID:25575100

Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

2015-02-01

91

The Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis: A Mechanical Perspective on the Knee Joint  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of disability in the United States, with the medial compartment of the knee being the most commonly affected.1 The initiation and progression of knee OA is influenced by many factors including kinematics. In response to loading during weight bearing, cartilage in healthy knees demonstrates spatial adaptations in morphology and mechanical properties. These adaptations allow certain regions of the cartilage to respond to loading while other regions are less well suited to accommodate loading. Alterations in normal knee kinematics shift loading from those cartilage regions adapted for loading to regions less well suited. This leads to the initiation and progression of degenerative processes consistent with knee OA. Kinematic variables associated with the development, progression and severity of knee OA are the adduction moment (Madd) and tibiofemoral rotation. Due to its strong correlation with disease progression and pain, the peak Madd during gait has been identified as a target for treatment design. Gait modification offers a non-invasive option for seeking significant reductions. Gait modification has the potential to reduce pain and slow the progression of medial compartment knee OA. PMID:22632700

Vincent, Kevin R.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Vincent, Heather K.

2013-01-01

92

What Is Osteoarthritis?  

MedlinePLUS

... goals: ? Improve joint function. ? Keep a healthy body weight. ? Control pain. ? Achieve a healthy lifestyle. Osteoarthritis treatment plans can involve: ? Exercise. ? Weight control. ? Rest and joint care. ? Nondrug pain relief techniques ...

93

Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is a leading cause of disability in the elderly. Given the anticipated\\u000a increase in osteoarthritis prevalence, the need to identify risk factors for incident osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis progression,\\u000a osteoarthritis-associated physical function decline, and disability is an especially high priority. Findings have implicated\\u000a several factors, including genetic factors, aging, joint deformity and injury,

Sakeba N. Issa; Leena Sharma

2006-01-01

94

Ultrasound in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US) is a valuable imaging modality in the evaluation of joint and periarticular abnormalities in osteoarthritis (OA). It is able to image structural lesions as well as inflammatory changes in early and late disease. US is a relatively inexpensive, safe and quick-to-perform tool that can be used as a bedside procedure in the assessment of patients with OA. US shows abnormalities at different peripheral joint sites that can be assessed for variable aspects during the same scanning session. The easy accessibility of equipment facilitates its use and applications in the clinical practice. US is helpful in guiding local procedures (i.e. aspirations of joint and periarticular fluid collections, drug injections, biopsy) that can be easily and safely performed with optimal patient's tolerance. In addition, US allows for a monitoring of the disease process and follow-up of local and systemic treatments. PMID:24528550

Iagnocco, Annamaria

2014-01-01

95

Nutraceutical Therapies for Degenerative Joint Diseases: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing recognition of the importance of nutritional factors in the maintenance of bone and joint health, and that nutritional imbalance combined with endocrine abnormalities may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Despite this, dietary programs have played a secondary role in the management of these connective tissue disorders. Articular cartilage is critically

Robert Goggs; Anne Vaughan-Thomas; Peter D. Clegg; Stuart D. Carter; John F. Innes; Ali Mobasheri; Mehdi Shakibaei; Wolfgang Schwab; Carolyn A. Bondy

2005-01-01

96

[At-risk situations for knee osteoarthritis].  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease in the world, and the knee is the most affected joint. It is a multifactorial disease in which degenerative factors, genetics, hormonal and mechanical factors are involved. Several at-risk situations are particularly well identified: the anterior cruciate ligament rupture, meniscectomy, knee injuries, varus or valgus knee malalignment and obesity. The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is intended to limit the risk of secondary meniscal lesion. No long-term study found any evidence that surgery would prevent knee osteoarthritis. The extent of the meniscectomy should be kept to a minimum to prevent the risk of secondary osteoarthritis. It is essential to promote programs against obesity by targeting priority patients who have other risk factors such as a history of meniscectomy or knee injury, or knee malalignment. PMID:22730787

Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri

2012-05-01

97

Osteoarthritis-like damage of cartilage in the temporomandibular joints in mice with autoimmune inflammatory arthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To study temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in an autoimmune murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a disease characterized by inflammatory destruction of the synovial joints. Although TMJ dysfunction is frequently found in RA, TMJ involvement in RA remains unclear, and TMJ pathology has not been studied in systemic autoimmune animal models of RA. Methods Proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan-induced arthritis (PGIA) was generated in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice. TMJs and joint tissues/cartilage were harvested for histological and immunohistochemical analyses and RNA isolation for quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum cytokine levels were measured in mice with acute or chronic arthritis, and in non-arthritic control animals. Results Despite the development of destructive synovitis in the limbs, little or no synovial inflammation was found in the TMJs of mice with PGIA. However, the TMJs of arthritic mice showed evidence of aggrecanase- and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated loss of glycosaminoglycan-containing aggrecan, and in the most severe cases, structural damage of cartilage. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1?, were elevated in arthritic animals. Expression of the IL-1? gene was also high in the inflamed limbs, but essentially normal in the TMJs. Local expression of genes encoding matrix-degrading enzymes (aggrecanases and stromelysin) was upregulated to a similar degree in both the limbs and the TMJs. Conclusion We propose that constantly elevated levels of catabolic cytokines, such as IL-1?, in the circulation (released from inflamed joints) create a pro-inflammatory milieu within the TMJ, causing local upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and subsequent loss of aggrecan from cartilage. PMID:21262368

Ghassemi-Nejad, S.; Kobezda, T.; Rauch, T.A.; Matesz, C.; Glant, T.T.; Mikecz, K.

2011-01-01

98

Effects of AR7 Joint Complex on arthralgia for patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a three-month study in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis-induced arthralgia is a common cause of morbidity in both men and women worldwide. AR7 Joint Complex is a nutritional supplement containing various ingredients including sternum collagen II and methylsulfonylmethane. The product has been marketed in United States for over a decade, but clinical data measuring the effectiveness of this supplement in relieving arthralgia is lacking. The goal of

Qingwen Xie; Rong Shi; Gang Xu; Lifu Cheng; Liyun Shao; Jianyu Rao

2008-01-01

99

The association between subchondral bone cysts and tibial cartilage volume and risk of joint replacement in people with knee osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: To examine the natural history of subchondral bone cysts and to determine whether knee cartilage loss and risk of joint replacement is higher in knees with cysts, compared with those with bone marrow lesions (BMLs) only or those with neither BMLs nor cysts. METHODS: The symptomatic knee in 132 subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was imaged by using magnetic

Stephanie K Tanamas; Anita E Wluka; Jean-Pierre Pelletier; Johanne Martel-Pelletier; François Abram; Yuanyuan Wang; Flavia M Cicuttini

2010-01-01

100

Effects on osteoclast and osteoblast activities in cultured mouse calvarial bones by synovial fluids from patients with a loose joint prosthesis and from osteoarthritis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseptic loosening of a joint prosthesis is associated with remodelling of bone tissue in the vicinity of the prosthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synovial fluid (SF) from patients with a loose prosthetic component and periprosthetic osteolysis on osteoclast and osteoblast activities in vitro and made comparisons with the effects of SF from patients with osteoarthritis

Martin K Andersson; Pernilla Lundberg; Acke Ohlin; Mark J Perry; Anita Lie; André Stark; Ulf H Lerner

2007-01-01

101

Peripheral Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Activation and Mechanical Sensitization of the Joint in Rat Models of Osteoarthritis Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of the sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in peripheral sensitization in experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Methods Experimental knee OA was induced in rats by intraarticular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) or by transection of the medial meniscus (MMT). Single-unit recordings of joint-innervating nociceptors were obtained in MIA- and saline-treated rats following administration of CGRP or the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP 8–37. Effects of CGRP 8–37 were also examined in rats that underwent MMT and sham operations. Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CGRP receptor components in the L3–L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were investigated following MIA treatment. Results In both the MIA and MMT groups, the mechanical sensitivity of joint nociceptors was enhanced compared to that in the control groups. Exogenous CGRP increased mechanical sensitivity in a greater proportion of joint nociceptors in the MIA-treated rats than in the saline-treated rats. Local blockade of endogenous CGRP by CGRP 8–37 reversed both the MIA- and MMT-induced enhancement of joint nociceptor responses. Joint afferent cell bodies coexpressed the receptor for CGRP, called the calcitonin-like receptor (CLR), and the intracellular accessory CGRP receptor component protein. MIA treatment increased the levels of mRNA for CLR in the L3–L4 DRG and the levels of CLR protein in medium and large joint afferent neurons. Conclusion Our findings provide new and compelling evidence implicating a role of CGRP in peripheral sensitization in experimental OA. Our novel finding of CGRP-mediated control of joint nociceptor mechanosensitivity suggests that the CGRP receptor system may be an important target for the modulation of pain during OA. CGRP receptor antagonists recently developed for migraine pain should be investigated for their efficacy against pain in OA. PMID:24719311

Bullock, Craig M; Wookey, Peter; Bennett, Andrew; Mobasheri, Ali; Dickerson, Ian; Kelly, Sara

2014-01-01

102

Expression of vaspin in the joint and the levels in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the expression of vaspin in the joint and investigate the distribution between paired serum and synovial fluid (SF) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and serum in healthy controls. The gene expression of vaspin was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the OA joint tissues. The vaspin protein expression in the cartilage, synovium and osteophyte from OA patients who required total knee replacement (TKR) were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Levels of vaspin in serum and SF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), including 26 OA patients and 23 healthy controls. All the joint tissues including cartilage, synovium, meniscus, infrapatellar fat pad and osteophyte from OA patients expressed vaspin messenger RNA (mRNA), and the expression of vaspin protein was observed in OA cartilage, synovium and osteophyte. Furthermore, serum vaspin was reduced in OA patients compared to healthy controls, and serum vaspin levels from OA patients exceed those in the paired SF. Serum or SF vaspin were not related to age, gender, or body mass index (BMI). These results suggest that vaspin may be involved in the pathophysiology of OA and may have local effects in the joint during the process of OA. PMID:25419381

Bao, Jia-Peng; Jiang, Li-Feng; Chen, Wei-Ping; Hu, Peng-Fei; Wu, Li-Dong

2014-01-01

103

Ten-year long-term results of total joint arthroplasties with ARPE® implant in the treatment of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Between May 1999 and April 2002 a total of 69 consecutive thumb carpometacarpal joint arthoplasties were performed in a total of 64 patients for carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis using the cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated unconstrained ARPE implant. Clinical, functional and radiological results at 10-year follow-up are presented. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 64 patients, four were lost to follow-up, 60 implants (92.3%) were functional and five (7.7%) were not (two dislocated, two were removed and one with aseptic loosening). Survival estimate for functional implants over 10 years was 93.9% (95% confidence interval 82.3-97.9). The radiographs were satisfactory in 82.4%. There was subsidence of the cup in 15.8%. Thumb carpometacarpal joint arthroplasty with the ARPE implant offers a reliable treatment alternative in patients with Eaton grade III or IV thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis in the presence of good bone stock. PMID:24334554

Martin-Ferrero, M

2014-10-01

104

[Chronic diseases of the ankle joint].  

PubMed

The etiology of chronic diseases of the ankle joint comprises a wide spectrum including chronic inflammatory processes and chronic degenerative, tumorous and neuropathic processes, as well as some specific syndromes based on chronic changes of the ankle joint. Of the inflammatory processes, chronic juvenile arthritis (JVC) is the most common disease. However, also Reiter disease, psoriasis or chronic monoarthritid diseases such as gout, as well as granulomatous diseases (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and fungal infections, may affect the ankle joint in a chronic course. Chronic degenerative changes are usually secondary due to abnormal positioning of the joint constituents or repetitive trauma. Neuropathic changes, as frequently seen in the course of diabetes, present with massive osseous destruction and malposition of the articular constituents. Chronic osseous as well as cartilaginous and synovial changes are seen in hemophilic patients. Chronic traumatic changes are represented by pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), and chondromatosis, both with a predilection for the ankle joint. Due to the possibilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnosis of chronic ankle changes includes chronic ligamentous, tendinous and soft tissue changes. With the use of MRI, specific syndromes can be defined which particularly affect the ankle joint in a chronic way, such as the os trigonum syndrome, the anterolateral impingement syndrome and the sinus tarsi syndrome. Nevertheless, plain film radiographs are still the basic element of any investigation. MRI, however, can be potentially used as a second investigation, saving an unnecessary cascade of investigations with ultrasound and CT. The latter investigations are used only with very specific indications, for instance CT for subtle bone structures and sonography for a limited investigation of tendons or evaluation of fluid. Particularly due to the possibilities of MRI and the development of special gradient-echo imaging or high-resolution coils, the investigation of the ankle joint still offers a wide spectrum of innovation for the next years, which is particularly enforced by the increasing demand for specific diagnosis of chronic diseases in orthopedic medicine. PMID:10065476

Rand, T; Trattnig, S; Breitenseher, M; Kreuzer, S; Wagesreither, S; Imhof, H

1999-01-01

105

Prevalence of generalised osteoarthritis in patients with advanced hip and knee osteoarthritis: The Ulm Osteoarthritis Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Different prevalences of generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) in patients with knee and hip OA have been reported. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate radiographic and clinical patterns of disease in a hospital based population of patient subgroups with advanced hip and knee OA and to compare the prevalence of GOA in patients with hip or knee OA, taking potential confounding factors into account.?METHODS—420 patients with hip OA and 389 patients with knee OA scheduled for unilateral total joint replacement in four hospitals underwent radiographic analysis of ipsilateral and contralateral hip or knee joint and both hands in addition to a standardised interview and clinical examination. According to the severity of radiographic changes in the contralateral joints (using Kellgren-Lawrence ? grade 2 as case definition) participants were classified as having either unilateral or bilateral OA. If radiographic changes of two joint groups of the hands (first carpometacarpal joint and proximal/distal interphalangeal joints defined as two separate joint groups) were present, patients were categorised as having GOA.?RESULTS—Patients with hip OA were younger (mean age 60.4 years) and less likely to be female (52.4%) than patients with knee OA (66.3 years and 72.5% respectively). Intensity of pain and functional impairment at hospital admission was similar in both groups, while patients with knee OA had a longer symptom duration (median 10 years) compared with patients with hip OA (5 years). In 41.7% of patients with hip OA and 33.4% of patients with knee OA an underlying pathological condition could be observed in the replaced joint, which allowed a classification as secondary OA. Some 82.1% of patients with hip and 87.4% of patients with knee OA had radiographic changes in their contralateral joints (bilateral disease). The prevalence of GOA increased with age and was higher in female patients. GOA was observed more often in patients with knee OA than in patients with hip OA (34.9% versus 19.3%; OR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.56, 3.21). Adjustment for the different age and sex distribution in both patient groups, however, takes away most of the difference (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.96).?CONCLUSION—The crude results confirm previous reports as well as the clinical impression of GOA being more prevalent in patients with advanced knee OA than in patients with advanced hip OA. However, these different patterns might be attributed to a large part to a different distribution of age and sex in these hospital based populations.?? Keywords: hip osteoarthritis; knee osteoarthritis; hand osteoarthritis; generalised osteoarthritis PMID:10070270

Gunther, K; Sturmer, T; Sauerland, S; Zeissig, I; Sun, Y; Kessler, S; Scharf, H; Brenner, H; Puhl, W

1998-01-01

106

Effect of a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (Hyal-Joint®) on pain relief and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid represents a substantive addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in knee osteoarthritis. We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with a natural extract of chicken combs with a high content of hyaluronic acid (60%) (Hyal-Joint®) (active test product, AP) on pain and quality of life in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS: Twenty subjects aged ?40

Douglas S Kalman; Maria Heimer; Anita Valdeon; Howard Schwartz; Eric Sheldon

2008-01-01

107

The KineSpring® Knee Implant System: an implantable joint-unloading prosthesis for treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in adults. Therapies intended to unload the medial knee compartment have yielded unsatisfactory results due to low patient compliance with conservative treatments and high complication rates with surgical options. There is no widely available joint-unloading treatment for medial knee OA that offers clinically important symptom alleviation, low complication risk, and high patient acceptance. The KineSpring® Knee Implant System (Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA) is a first-of-its-kind, implantable, extra-articular, extra-capsular prosthesis intended to alleviate knee OA-related symptoms by reducing medial knee compartment loading while overcoming the limitations of traditional joint-unloading therapies. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent prosthesis durability, substantial reductions in medial compartment and total joint loads, and clinically important improvements in OA-related pain and function. The purpose of this report is to describe the KineSpring System, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The KineSpring System has potential to bridge the gap between ineffective conservative treatments and irreversible surgical interventions for medial compartment knee OA. PMID:23717052

Clifford, Anton G; Gabriel, Stefan M; O’Connell, Mary; Lowe, David; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

108

The KineSpring(®) Knee Implant System: an implantable joint-unloading prosthesis for treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in adults. Therapies intended to unload the medial knee compartment have yielded unsatisfactory results due to low patient compliance with conservative treatments and high complication rates with surgical options. There is no widely available joint-unloading treatment for medial knee OA that offers clinically important symptom alleviation, low complication risk, and high patient acceptance. The KineSpring(®) Knee Implant System (Moximed, Inc, Hayward, CA, USA) is a first-of-its-kind, implantable, extra-articular, extra-capsular prosthesis intended to alleviate knee OA-related symptoms by reducing medial knee compartment loading while overcoming the limitations of traditional joint-unloading therapies. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent prosthesis durability, substantial reductions in medial compartment and total joint loads, and clinically important improvements in OA-related pain and function. The purpose of this report is to describe the KineSpring System, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The KineSpring System has potential to bridge the gap between ineffective conservative treatments and irreversible surgical interventions for medial compartment knee OA. PMID:23717052

Clifford, Anton G; Gabriel, Stefan M; O'Connell, Mary; Lowe, David; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

109

Self management, joint protection and exercises in hand osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analyses  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of occupational therapy (OT) approaches in the management of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Joint protection and hand exercises have been proposed by European guidelines, however the clinical and cost effectiveness of each intervention is unknown. This multicentre two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial aims to address the following questions: • Is joint protection delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no joint protection in people with hand OA in primary care? • Are hand exercises delivered by an OT more effective in reducing hand pain and disability than no hand exercises in people with hand OA in primary care? • Which of the four management approaches explored within the study (leaflet and advice, joint protection, hand exercise, or joint protection and hand exercise combined) provides the most cost-effective use of health care resources Methods/Design Participants aged 50 years and over registered at three general practices in North Staffordshire and Cheshire will be mailed a health survey questionnaire (estimated mailing sample n = 9,500). Those fulfilling the eligibility criteria on the health survey questionnaire will be invited to attend a clinical assessment to assess for the presence of hand or thumb base OA using the ACR criteria. Eligible participants will be randomised to one of four groups: leaflet and advice; joint protection (looking after your joints); hand exercises; or joint protection and hand exercises combined (estimated n = 252). The primary outcome measure will be the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria combining hand pain and disability (measured using the AUSCAN) and global improvement, 6 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes will also be collected for example pain, functional limitation and quality of life. Outcomes will be collected at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. The main analysis will be on an intention to treat basis and will assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of joint protection and hand exercises for managing hand OA. Discussion The findings will improve the cost-effective evidence based management of hand OA. Trial registration identifier: ISRCTN33870549 PMID:21745357

2011-01-01

110

Perceptual variation in categorizing individual peripheral joints for the presence or absence of osteoarthritis using a standard homunculus: observations based on an australian twin registry study of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis in the peripheral skeleton is dependent on the skilled examination of several features\\u000a characteristic of the condition. However, we have previously observed that even highly experienced rheumatologists in Australia\\u000a and Canada may not completely agree on the clinical examination in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis,\\u000a ankylosing spondylitis, fibromyalgia, scleroderma and painful shoulder.

Nicholas Bellamy; Alexander Klestov; Kenneth Muirden; Petra Kuhnert; Louise O’gorman; Nicholas Martin

1999-01-01

111

Tibial plateau size is related to grade of joint space narrowing and osteophytes in healthy women and in women with osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the relation of bone size to radiographic severity in knee osteoarthritis. Methods: 149 women (81 healthy and 68 with knee osteoarthritis) underwent knee radiography and magnetic resonance imaging on their symptomatic or dominant knee. Tibial plateau bone area was measured at baseline and at follow up. Results: Women with osteoarthritis had larger medial and lateral tibial plateau bone area (mean (SD): 1850 (240) mm2 and 1279 (220) mm2, respectively) than healthy women (1670 (200) mm2 and 1050 (130) mm2) (p<0.001 for both differences). For each increase in grade of osteophyte, an increase in bone area was seen of 146 mm2 in the medial compartment and 102 mm2 in the lateral compartment. Similarly, for each increase in grade of joint space narrowing, tibial plateau bone area increased by 160 mm2 in the medial compartment and 131 mm2 in the lateral compartment (significance of regression coefficients all p<0.001). These relations persisted after adjusting for potential confounders, with the exception of the association between grade of medial osteophytes and medial plateau area. Conclusions: With increasing severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis, tibial plateau size increases. Whether this bone increase plays a role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains to be determined. PMID:15601742

Wluka, A; Wang, Y; Davis, S; Cicuttini, F

2005-01-01

112

Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc®) for the treatment of osteoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot (hallux limitus): study protocol for a randomised placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) of the foot, termed hallux limitus, is common and painful. Numerous non-surgical interventions have been proposed for this disorder, however there is limited evidence for their efficacy. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronan have shown beneficial effects in case-series and clinical trials for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. However, no

Shannon E Munteanu; Hylton B Menz; Gerard V Zammit; Karl B Landorf; Christopher J Handley; Ayman ElZarka; Jason DeLuca

2009-01-01

113

Effects of AR7 Joint Complex on arthralgia for patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a three-month study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis-induced arthralgia is a common cause of morbidity in both men and women worldwide. AR7 Joint Complex is a nutritional supplement containing various ingredients including sternum collagen II and methylsulfonylmethane. The product has been marketed in United States for over a decade, but clinical data measuring the effectiveness of this supplement in relieving arthralgia is lacking. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of AR7 Joint Complex on osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 100 patients over the age of 50 who had osteoarthritis were recruited to the double-blind study and randomly assigned into either treatment or placebo control groups. The patients in the treatment group were given AR7 Joint Complex orally, 1 capsule daily for 12 weeks, while the patients in the control group were given a placebo for the same period of time. Prior to and at the end of the study, data including Quality of Life questionnaires (SF-36), visual analog scales (1 to 100 mm), and X-rays of affected joints were collected. Results A total of 89 patients completed the study: 44 from the treatment group and 45 from the control group. No significant change in X-ray results was found in either group after the study. However, there was a significant decrease in patients complaining of arthralgia and tenderness (P < 0.01) in the treatment group and there was also a significant difference between the treatment and control groups at the end of the study. In addition, for Quality of Life data, the body pain index (BP) in the treatment group was significantly improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. No significant toxicity was noted in either group. Conclusion AR7 Joint Complex appears to have short-term effects in relieving pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Whether such an effect is long-lasting remains to be seen. PMID:18954461

Xie, Qingwen; Shi, Rong; Xu, Gang; Cheng, Lifu; Shao, Liyun; Rao, Jianyu

2008-01-01

114

Application of Computational Lower Extremity Model to Investigate Different Muscle Activities and Joint Force Patterns in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients during Walking  

PubMed Central

Many experimental and computational studies have reported that osteoarthritis in the knee joint affects knee biomechanics, including joint kinematics, joint contact forces, and muscle activities, due to functional restriction and disability. In this study, differences in muscle activities and joint force patterns between knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and normal subjects during walking were investigated using the inverse dynamic analysis with a lower extremity musculoskeletal model. Extensor/flexor muscle activations and torque ratios and the joint contact forces were compared between the OA and normal groups. The OA patients had higher extensor muscle forces and lateral component of the knee joint force than normal subjects as well as force and torque ratios of extensor and flexor muscles, while the other parameters had little differences. The results explained that OA patients increased the level of antagonistic cocontraction and the adduction moment on the knee joint. The presented findings and technologies provide insight into biomechanical changes in OA patients and can also be used to evaluate the postoperative functional outcomes of the OA treatments. PMID:24302973

Nha, Kyung Wook; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong In; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

2013-01-01

115

High-resolution x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of joint tissues in hand osteoarthritis: Morphological and functional assessments  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of multimodality functional imaging techniques to identify the quantitative optical findings that can be used to distinguish between osteoarthritic and normal finger joints. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, the distal interphalangeal finger joints from 40 female subjects including 22 patients and 18 healthy controls were examined clinically and scanned by a hybrid imaging system. This system integrated x-ray tomosynthetic setup with a diffuse optical imaging system. Optical absorption and scattering images were recovered based on a regularization-based hybrid reconstruction algorithm. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the statistical significance of specific optical features obtained from osteoarthritic and healthy joints groups. Results: The three-dimensional optical and x-ray images captured made it possible to quantify optical properties and joint space width of finger joints. Based on the recovered optical absorption and scattering parameters, the authors observed statistically significant differences between healthy and osteoarthritis finger joints. Conclusions: The statistical results revealed that sensitivity and specificity values up to 92% and 100%, respectively, can be achieved when optical properties of joint tissues were used as classifiers. This suggests that these optical imaging parameters are possible indicators for diagnosing osteoarthritis and monitoring its progression.

Yuan Zhen; Zhang Qizhi; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang Huabei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Rheumatology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2010-08-15

116

Identifying compositional and structural changes in spongy and subchondral bone from the hip joints of patients with osteoarthritis using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman microspectroscopy was used to examine the biochemical composition and molecular structure of extracellular matrix in spongy and subchondral bone collected from patients with clinical and radiological evidence of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip and from patients who underwent a femoral neck fracture, as a result of trauma, without previous clinical and radiological evidence of osteoarthritis. The objectives of the study were to determine the levels of mineralization, carbonate accumulation and collagen quality in bone tissue. The subchondral bone from osteoarthritis patients in comparison with control subject is less mineralized due to a decrease in the hydroxyapatite concentration. However, the extent of carbonate accumulation in the apatite crystal lattice increases, most likely due to deficient mineralization. The alpha helix to random coil band area ratio reveals that collagen matrix in subchondral bone is more ordered in osteoarthritis disease. The hydroxyapatite to collagen, carbonate apatite to hydroxyapatite and alpha helix to random coil band area ratios are not significantly changed in the differently loaded sites of femoral head. The significant differences also are not visible in mineral and organic constituents' content in spongy bone beneath the subchondral bone in osteoarthritis disease.

Buchwald, Tomasz; Niciejewski, Krzysztof; Kozielski, Marek; Szybowicz, Miros?aw; Siatkowski, Marcin; Krauss, Hanna

2012-01-01

117

Ligament Injury, Reconstruction and Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The recent literature on the factors that initiate and accelerate the progression of osteoarthritis following ligament injuries and their treatment is reviewed. Recent Findings The ligament-injured joint is at high risk for osteoarthritis. Current conservative (e.g. rehabilitation) and surgical (e.g. reconstruction) treatment options appear not to reduce osteoarthritis following ligament injury. The extent of osteoarthritis does not appear dependent on which joint is affected, or the presence of damage to other tissues within the joint. Mechanical instability is the likely initiator of osteoarthritis in the ligament-injured patient. Summary The mechanism osteoarthritis begins with the injury rendering the joint unstable. The instability increases the sliding between the joint surfaces and reduces the efficiency of the muscles, factors that alter joint contact mechanics. The load distribution in the cartilage and underlying bone is disrupted, causing wear and increasing shear, which eventually leads to the osteochondral degeneration. The catalyst to the mechanical process is the inflammation response induced by the injury and sustained during healing. In contrast, the inflammation could be responsible for onset, while the mechanical factors accelerate progression. The mechanisms leading to osteoarthritis following ligament injury have not been fully established. A better understanding of these mechanisms should lead to alternative surgical, drug, and tissue-engineering treatment options, which could eliminate osteoarthritis in these patients. Progress is being made on all fronts. Considering that osteoarthritis is likely to occur despite current treatment options, the best solution may be prevention. PMID:17710194

Fleming, Braden C.; Hulstyn, Michael J.; Oksendahl, Heidi L.; Fadale, Paul D.

2007-01-01

118

Mechanisms of quadriceps muscle weakness in knee joint osteoarthritis: the effects of prolonged vibration on torque and muscle activation in osteoarthritic and healthy control subjects  

PubMed Central

Introduction A consequence of knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) is an inability to fully activate the quadriceps muscles, a problem termed arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). AMI leads to marked quadriceps weakness that impairs physical function and may hasten disease progression. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ?-loop dysfunction contributes to AMI in people with knee joint OA. Methods Fifteen subjects with knee joint OA and 15 controls with no history of knee joint pathology participated in this study. Quadriceps and hamstrings peak isometric torque (Nm) and electromyography (EMG) amplitude were collected before and after 20 minutes of 50 Hz vibration applied to the infrapatellar tendon. Between-group differences in pre-vibration torque were analysed using a one-way analysis of covariance, with age, gender and body mass (kg) as the covariates. If the ?-loop is intact, vibration should decrease torque and EMG levels in the target muscle; if dysfunctional, then torque and EMG levels should not change following vibration. One-sample t tests were thus undertaken to analyse whether percentage changes in torque and EMG differed from zero after vibration in each group. In addition, analyses of covariance were utilised to analyse between-group differences in the percentage changes in torque and EMG following vibration. Results Pre-vibration quadriceps torque was significantly lower in the OA group compared with the control group (P = 0.005). Following tendon vibration, quadriceps torque (P < 0.001) and EMG amplitude (P ?0.001) decreased significantly in the control group but did not change in the OA group (all P > 0.299). Hamstrings torque and EMG amplitude were unchanged in both groups (all P > 0.204). The vibration-induced changes in quadriceps torque and EMG were significantly different between the OA and control groups (all P < 0.011). No between-group differences were observed for the change in hamstrings torque or EMG (all P > 0.554). Conclusions ?-loop dysfunction may contribute to AMI in individuals with knee joint OA, partially explaining the marked quadriceps weakness and atrophy that is often observed in this population. PMID:21933392

2011-01-01

119

Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.

Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.

1997-01-01

120

Knee Power Is an Important Parameter in Understanding Medial Knee Joint Load in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the extent to which knee extensor strength and power explain variance in knee adduction moment (KAM) peak and impulse in clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fifty-three adults (mean ± SD age 61.6 ± 6.3 years, 11 men) with clinical knee OA participated. The KAM waveform was calculated from motion and force data and ensemble averaged from 5 walking trials. The KAM peak was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). The mean KAM impulse reflected the mean total medial knee load during stride (Nm × seconds). For strength, the maximum knee extensor moment attained from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). For power, the maximum knee extensor power during isotonic contractions, with the resistance set at 25% of MVIC, was normalized to body mass (W/kg). Covariates included age, sex, knee pain on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, gait speed, and body mass index (BMI). Relationships of the KAM peak and impulse with strength and power were examined using sequential stepwise forward linear regressions. Results Covariates did not explain variance in the KAM peak. While extensor strength did not, peak knee extensor power explained 8% of the variance in the KAM peak (P = 0.02). Sex and BMI explained 24% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P < 0.05). Sex, BMI, and knee extensor power explained 31% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P = 0.02), with power contributing 7% (P < 0.05). Conclusion Knee extensor power was more important than isometric knee strength in understanding medial knee loads during gait. PMID:24920175

Calder, Kristina M; Acker, Stacey M; Arora, Neha; Beattie, Karen A; Callaghan, Jack P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Maly, Monica R

2014-01-01

121

Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Nutritional supplements are commonly used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including knee and hip degenerative joint disease. Although these supplements are occasionally recommended for patients with degenerative disc disease and spinal degenerative joint disease, the evidence supporting this use is unknown. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease. Data Sources: The Index of Chiropractic Literature, AMED, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for randomized controlled trials in English from 1984 to July 2009. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria was extracted and reviewed by three reviewers. The Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. No attempts were made at meta-analysis due to variation in study design. Results: Two articles met the inclusion criteria. One study was found to have good quality but reported negative results for the supplemented group compared with placebo, the other study had low quality but reported significant positive results for the supplemented group when compared with a no intervention control group. Conclusion: There was little literature found to support the use of common nutritional supplements for spinal degeneration, making it difficult to determine whether clinicians should recommend them. PMID:21403782

Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; Kristmanson, Kevyn

2011-01-01

122

Is running associated with degenerative joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)\\/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal

R. S. Panush; C. Schmidt; J. R. Caldwell; N. L. Edwards; S. Longley; R. Yonker; E. Webster; J. Nauman; J. Stork; H. Pettersson

1986-01-01

123

TGF-? signaling and the development of osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint degenerative disease affecting the whole joint structure, including articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial tissue. Although extensive work has been done in recent years to explore the molecular mechanism underlying this disease, the pathogenesis of OA is still poorly understood and currently, there is no effective disease-modifying treatment for OA. Recently, both in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that confirmed (TGF-?)/SMAD pathway plays a critical role during OA development. This short review will focus on the function and signaling mechanisms of TGF-?/SMAD pathway in articular chondrocytes, mesenchymal progenitor cells of subchondral bone and synovial lining cells during OA development.

Shen, Jie; Li, Shan; Chen, Di

2014-01-01

124

A discoidin domain receptor 1 knock-out mouse as a novel model for osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint.  

PubMed

Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR-1)-deficient mice exhibited a high incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) as early as 9 weeks of age. They showed typical histological signs of OA, including surface fissures, loss of proteoglycans, chondrocyte cluster formation, collagen type I upregulation, and atypical collagen fibril arrangements. Chondrocytes isolated from the TMJs of DDR-1-deficient mice maintained their osteoarthritic characteristics when placed in culture. They expressed high levels of runx-2 and collagen type I, as well as low levels of sox-9 and aggrecan. The expression of DDR-2, a key factor in OA, was increased. DDR-1-deficient chondrocytes from the TMJ were positively influenced towards chondrogenesis by a three-dimensional matrix combined with a runx-2 knockdown or stimulation with extracellular matrix components, such as nidogen-2. Therefore, the DDR-1 knock-out mouse can serve as a novel model for temporomandibular disorders, such as OA of the TMJ, and will help to develop new treatment options, particularly those involving tissue regeneration. PMID:23912900

Schminke, Boris; Muhammad, Hayat; Bode, Christa; Sadowski, Boguslawa; Gerter, Regina; Gersdorff, Nikolaus; Bürgers, Ralf; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Rosen, Vicki; Miosge, Nicolai

2014-03-01

125

Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

2008-01-15

126

Burden of Restraint, Disablement and Ethnic Identity: A Case Study of Total Joint Replacement for Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Health disparities in total joint replacement have been documented based on gender and ethnicity in multiple countries. Absent are studies exploring the meaning of the procedures among diverse women, which is necessary to fully understand the impact of the disparity. Drawing on ethnographic data from a life course exploration of disablement among Mexican American women with mobility impairments, one woman’s reasons for forgoing a joint replacement are considered. It is suggested that inequalities in disablement cannot be understood without considering the mulitple cultural conflicts and loyalties that push and pull women in multiple directions. PMID:21767094

Harrison, Tracie

2010-01-01

127

[Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].  

PubMed

The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients. PMID:24467960

Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

2014-01-01

128

Medication and supplement use for managing joint symptoms among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose was to determine the professionally-guided and self-guided medication and supplement use for joint symptom management among patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA) in an urban hospital-based outpatient orthopedic practice. Methods The study design was cross-sectional. Patients diagnosed by radiographs and clinical symptoms with knee and/or hip OA were recruited from an inner-city hospital-based outpatient orthopaedic office. A total of 184 patients were queried for their participation. Four investigator-generated, interview-based questionnaires were used. Sampling error was ± 7.84%. Logistic regression models and Fisher Exact Tests were performed to determine factors that may be associated with negative behaviors related to medication or supplement use (e.g., reporting medication as ineffective, using multiple medications in the same day to manage symptoms). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for significant findings. Results Among the 162 participants, a majority reported professionally-guided recommendations and over 40% reported at least one self-guided intervention. 37 participants reported dual-use during the same day, and among those,15 reported dual-use at the same time. Among participants taking multiple interventions in the same day, 40.5% reported using prescription and over-the-counter medications. Use of multiple medications or supplements in one day was more common among participants who reported OA at multiple joints (OR [95% CI] = 2.48 [1.03 to 5.96]) but less common among participants who did not complete high school (OR [95% CI] = 0.26 [0.08 to 0.83]). Of the 15 participants who reported dual-use at the same time, 11 were professionally-guided, 5 were professional and self-guided, and 1 was solely self-guided. Overall, 28% of participants reported their intervention as ineffective, sought an alternative method to achieve symptomatic relief, or were prescribed a stronger medication. Participants who reported not always taking their medication consistently for 2 weeks were more likely to report their medication as ineffective (OR [95% CI] = 2.87 [1.19 to 6.92]). Conclusions Both professional and self-guided medications and supplements are used by inner city OA patients to manage their joint symptoms. It is important for clinicians to discuss with these patients how to effectively manage multiple joint symptoms, the importance of taking medications as prescribed, and what they should if they believe a treatment is ineffective or their medication runs out. PMID:22458305

2012-01-01

129

Osteoarthritis: From Palliation to Prevention: AOA Critical Issues.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability. The traditional focus on late-stage osteoarthritis has not yielded effective disease-modifying treatments. Consequently, current clinical care focuses on palliation until joint replacement is indicated. A symposium format was used to examine emerging strategies that support the transformation of the clinical approach to osteoarthritis from palliation to prevention. Central to this discussion are concepts for diagnosis and treatment of pre-osteoarthritis, meaning joint conditions that increase the risk of accelerated development of osteoarthritis. The presentation of translational and clinical research on three common orthopaedic conditions-anterior cruciate ligament tear, intra-articular fracture, and hip dysplasia-were used to illustrate these ideas. New information regarding the use of novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to evaluate the potential for articular cartilage to heal subsurface damage in a mechanically sound environment was presented. These data indicate that improved diagnostics can both identify cartilage at risk and evaluate the effectiveness of early treatment strategies. With use of a new mouse model for intra-articular fracture, it was shown that inflammation correlated to fracture severity and that super-healer mice avoided early posttraumatic osteoarthritis in part through an enhanced ability to dampen inflammation. These findings suggest that there is a role for acute and sustained anti-inflammatory treatment in the prevention of osteoarthritis. For long-term treatment, contemporary gene-therapy approaches may offer an effective means for sustained intra-articular delivery of anti-inflammatory and other bioactive agents to restore joint homeostasis. To illustrate the potential of early treatment to prevent or delay the onset of disabling osteoarthritis, the positive clinical effects on articular cartilage and in long-term clinical follow-up after operative correction of structural abnormalities about the hip highlight the role for targeting mechanical factors in delaying the onset of osteoarthritis. Given that orthopaedic surgeons treat the full spectrum of joint problems, ranging from joint trauma to pre-osteoarthritic conditions and end-stage osteoarthritis, an awareness of the paradigm shift toward the prevention of osteoarthritis is critical to the promotion of improved clinical care and participation in clinical research involving new treatment strategies. PMID:25100783

Chu, Constance R; Millis, Michael B; Olson, Steven A

2014-08-01

130

Histological examination of surface repair tissue after successful osteotomy for osteoarthritis of the hip joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study biopsy specimens of the surface repair tissue from the weightbearing area of the hip joint were collected from 15 patients who had undergone successful valgus osteotomy, and these were examined histologically. In 6 of the 15 patients the specimens stained strongly with safranin-O in all three layers of the matrix. However, the repair tissue from another 6

M. Itoman; M. Yamamoto; K. Yonemoto; M. Sekiguchi; H. Kai

1992-01-01

131

Meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence for a beneficial effect of meat consumption on the musculoskeletal system. However, whether it affects the risk of knee and hip osteoarthritis is unknown. We performed a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between meat consumption and risk of primary hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis. METHODS: Eligible 35,331 participants were selected from the

Yuanyuan Wang; Julie Anne Simpson; Anita E Wluka; Dallas R English; Graham G Giles; Stephen Graves; Flavia M Cicuttini

2011-01-01

132

Evolution of semiquantitative whole joint assessment of knee OA: MOAKS (MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score)  

PubMed Central

Objective In an effort to evolve semi-quantitative scoring methods based upon limitations identified in existing tools, integrating expert readers’ experience with all available scoring tools and the published data comparing the different scoring systems, we iteratively developed the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS). The purpose of this report is to describe the instrument and its reliability. Methods The MOAKS instrument refines the scoring of BMLs (providing regional delineation and scoring across regions), cartilage (sub-regional assessment), and refines the elements of meniscal morphology (adding meniscal hypertrophy, partial maceration and progressive partial maceration) scoring. After a training and calibration session two expert readers read MRIs of 20 knees separately. In addition, one reader re-read the same 20 MRIs 4 weeks later presented in random order to assess intra-rater reliability. The analyses presented here are for both intra- and inter-rater reliability (calculated using the linear weighted kappa and overall percent agreement). Results With the exception of inter-rater reliability for tibial cartilage area (kappa=0.36) and tibial osteophytes (kappa=0.49); and intra-rater reliability for tibial BML number of lesions (kappa=0.54), Hoffa-synovitis (kappa=0.42) all measures of reliability using kappa statistics were very good (0.61-0.8) or reached near perfect agreement (0.81–1.0). Only intra-rater reliability for Hoffa-synovitis, and inter-rater reliability for tibial and patellar osteophytes showed overall percent agreement < 75%. Conclusion MOAKS scoring shows very good to excellent reliability for the large majority of features assessed. Further iterative development and research will include assessment of its validation and responsiveness. PMID:21645627

Hunter, David J; Guermazi, Ali; Lo, Grace H; Grainger, Andrew J; Conaghan, Philip G; Boudreau, Robert M; Roemer, Frank W.

2014-01-01

133

The bone marrow lesion in osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered a multifactorial disease whose development and progression may include several structural\\u000a abnormalities aside from cartilage destruction. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) have been reported to be associated with OA pathology,\\u000a and several studies have advocated its close connection to the severity of joint structural alterations and pain, the main\\u000a OA clinical manifestation. Hence, BMLs may not only

Massoud Daheshia; Jian Q. Yao

2011-01-01

134

Phosphocitrate Is Potentially a Disease-Modifying Drug for Noncrystal-Associated Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Phosphocitrate (PC), a calcification inhibitor, inhibits the development of crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its disease-modifying effect remain elusive. This study sought to test the hypothesis that PC has calcium crystal-independent biological activities which are, at least in part, responsible for its disease-modifying activity. We found that PC inhibited the proliferation of OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes in the absence of calcium crystals. Consistent with its effect on cell proliferation, PC downregulated the expression of numerous genes classified in cell proliferation. PC also downregulated the expression of many genes classified in angiogenesis and inflammatory response including prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, interleukin-1 receptor, type I, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In contrast, PC upregulated the expression of many genes classified in musculoskeletal tissue development, including aggrecan, type I collagen, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5. These findings suggest that PC is not only a promising disease-modifying drug for crystal-associated OA but also for noncrystal-associated OA. PMID:23555081

Sun, Yubo; Mauerhan, David R.; Franklin, Atiya M.; Norton, James; Hanley, Edward N.; Gruber, Helen E.

2013-01-01

135

Adipokines: Biomarkers for osteoarthritis?  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative joint diseases in aging population. Obesity is an important risk factor for initiation and progression of OA. It is accepted that excess body weight may lead to cartilage degeneration by increasing the mechanical forces across weight-bearing joints. However, emerging data suggest that additional metabolic factors released mainly by white adipose tissue may also be responsible for the high prevalence of OA among obese people. Adipocyte-derived molecules ‘‘adipokines’’ have prompt much interest in OA pathophysiological research over the past decade since they play an important role in cartilage and bone homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and resistin in OA and their potential to be used as biomarkers for earlier diagnosis, classifying disease severity, monitoring disease progression, and testing pharmacological interventions for OA. In OA patients, leptin, visfatin and resistin showed increased production whereas adiponectin showed decreased production. Leptin and adiponectin are far more studied than visfatin and resistin. Importantly, altered adipokine levels also contribute to a wide range of diseases. Further experiments are still crucial for understanding the relationship between adipokines and OA. PMID:25035835

Poonpet, Thitiya; Honsawek, Sittisak

2014-01-01

136

The association between subchondral bone cysts and tibial cartilage volume and risk of joint replacement in people with knee osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Introduction To examine the natural history of subchondral bone cysts and to determine whether knee cartilage loss and risk of joint replacement is higher in knees with cysts, compared with those with bone marrow lesions (BMLs) only or those with neither BMLs nor cysts. Methods The symptomatic knee in 132 subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was imaged by using magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 2 years later. Tibial cartilage volume, subchondral bone cysts, and BMLs were measured by using validated methods. Knee arthroplasty over a 4-year period was ascertained. Results Bone cysts were present in 47.7% of subjects, 98.1% of whom also had BMLs. Over a 2-year period, 23.9% of subjects had cysts progress, 13.0% developed new cysts, and 11.4% had cysts regress. Bone cysts at baseline were associated with lower medial and lateral tibial cartilage volume compared with those with BMLs only or those with neither (P for trend 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). Annual medial cartilage volume loss was greatest in those with bone cysts compared with those with BMLs only or those with neither (9.3%, 6.3%, and 2.6%, respectively; P for trend, <0.001). As the severity of bone abnormality in the medial compartment increased from no BMLs or cysts present, to BMLs only, to subchondral bone cysts present, the risk of knee replacement was increased (odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 3.90; P = 0.05). Conclusions When cysts are present, cartilage loss and risk of knee replacement are higher than if only BMLs are present, suggesting that cysts identify those most likely to benefit from prevention of disease progression. As cysts can regress, they may also provide therapeutic targets in knee OA. PMID:20356405

2010-01-01

137

Histological examination of surface repair tissue after successful osteotomy for osteoarthritis of the hip joint.  

PubMed

In this study biopsy specimens of the surface repair tissue from the weightbearing area of the hip joint were collected from 15 patients who had undergone successful valgus osteotomy, and these were examined histologically. In 6 of the 15 patients the specimens stained strongly with safranin-O in all three layers of the matrix. However, the repair tissue from another 6 patients showed strong staining only in the intermediate and deep layers, while that from 2 patients stained only in the deep layer. Specimens from 5 patients were stained for S-100 protein and positive cells were detected in all cases, demonstrating that the cells in the repair tissue were chondrocytes. However, there was no tide mark in the repair tissue and the arrangement of the cells differed from that in normal cartilage. Discontinuity of the subchondral bone was also noted. These findings make it likely that the repair tissue was of bone marrow origin. PMID:1428306

Itoman, M; Yamamoto, M; Yonemoto, K; Sekiguchi, M; Kai, H

1992-01-01

138

Long-term follow-up of trapeziectomy with abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of trapeziectomy with abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty for moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint (Eaton stages III-IV). Methods We evaluated 13 patients (15 thumbs) who underwent trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint, at an average follow-up of 15 years. Subjective clinical outcomes evaluated included visual analogue scale scores and disability of arm shoulder and hand score questionnaires. Objective clinical evaluation included lateral pinch and grip tests, and a range of active and passive thumb movements. All patients underwent a radiological assessment by two independent senior radiologists. Wherever possible, results obtained from the operated thumbs were compared to the non-operated side. Results At a mean of 15 years post operation (range 15–17 years), there was no statistical difference between the operated and non-operated hands with regards to grip and pinch strength. In all cases CMC and MCPJ range of motion in the operative hand was either equal to or greater than non-operative counterparts. Mean visual analogue scale score was 2.13 and mean DASH score was 16.85. Mean carpal height was 0.52 and mean trapezial space ratio was 0.163. There were no early or late complications recorded and no revision surgery was required. Conclusion It is the opinion of these authors that abductor pollicis longus tendon interposition arthroplasty is able to provide high-quality long-term results for patients who suffer from moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. Level of evidence Therapeutic Level IV. PMID:24403751

Avisar, Erez; Elvey, Michael; Wasrbrout, Ziv; Aghasi, Maurice

2013-01-01

139

Comparative study of the synovial histology in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, and osteoarthritis: influence of disease duration and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo compare the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathy (SpA), and osteoarthritis (OA) after exclusion of possible biases induced by disease duration or activity, or both.METHODSSynovial biopsy specimens were obtained by needle arthroscopy in patients with early RA (n=16), late RA (n=14), early SpA (n=23), and OA (n=12). Macroscopic and microscopic features were scored

D Baeten; P Demetter; C Cuvelier; F Van den Bosch; E Kruithof; N Van Damme; G Verbruggen; H Mielants; E M Veys; F De Keyser

2000-01-01

140

Different thresholds for detecting osteophytes and joint space narrowing exist between the site investigators and the centralized reader in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis study—data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate how the reading of knee radiographs by site investigators differs from that by an expert musculoskeletal radiologist who trained and validated them in a multicenter knee osteoarthritis (OA) study. Materials and methods A subset of participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative progression cohort was studied. Osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were evaluated using Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grading. Radiographs were read by site investigators, who received training and validation of their competence by an expert musculoskeletal radiologist. Radiographs were re-read by this radiologist, who acted as a central reader. For KL and OARSI grading of osteophytes, discrepancies between two readings were adjudicated by another expert reader. Results Radiographs from 96 subjects (49 women) and 192 knees (138 KL grade?2) were included. The site reading showed moderate agreement for KL grading overall (kappa=0.52) and for KL?2 (i.e., radiographic diagnosis of “definite OA”; kappa=0.41). For OARSI grading, the site reading showed substantial agreement for lateral and medial JSN (kappa=0.65 and 0.71), but only fair agreement for osteophytes (kappa=0.37). For KL grading, the adjudicator’s reading showed substantial agreement with the centralized reading (kappa=0.62), but only slight agreement with the site reading (kappa=0.10). Conclusion Site investigators over-graded osteophytes compared to the central reader and the adjudicator. Different thresholds for scoring of JSN exist even between experts. Our results suggest that research studies using radiographic grading of OA should use a centralized reader for all grading. PMID:21479521

Guermazi, Ali; Hunter, David J.; Li, Ling; Benichou, Olivier; Eckstein, Felix; Kwoh, C. Kent; Nevitt, Michael

2011-01-01

141

Mesenchymal stem cells for treating articular cartilage defects and osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis are the most common joint diseases. Joints are prone to damage caused by sports injuries or aging, and such damage regularly progresses to more serious joint disorders, including osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative disease characterized by the thinning and eventual wearing-out of articular cartilage, ultimately leading to joint destruction. Osteoarthritis affects millions of people worldwide. Current approaches to repair of articular cartilage damage include mosaicplasty, microfracture, and injection of autologous chondrocytes. These treatments relieve pain and improve joint function, but the long-term results are unsatisfactory. The long-term success of cartilage repair depends on development of regenerative methodologies that restore articular cartilage to a near-native state. Two promising approaches are (i) implantation of engineered constructs of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded scaffolds, and (ii) delivery of an appropriate population of MSCs by direct intra-articular injection. MSCs may be used as trophic producers of bioactive factors initiating regenerative activities in a defective joint. Current challenges in MSC therapy are the need to overcome current limitations in cartilage cell purity, and to in vitro engineer tissue structures exhibiting the required biomechanical properties. This review outlines the current status of MSCs used in cartilage tissue engineering, and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints. PMID:25197793

Wang, Yu; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Quan-Yi; Lu, Shi-Bi; Peng, Jiang

2014-07-25

142

Radiological aspects of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent indications in musculoskeletal imaging because OA is the most prevalent musculoskeletal disease in developed countries. As the population becomes older and older, the need for adequate imaging techniques also increases. The various forms of osteoarthritis are associated with a high degree of illness-induced physical disability and reduced life quality. In some forms, the pathogenesis is complex and can require the discrimination of a variety of predisposing diseases. The specific forms of osteoarthritis will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the value of each imaging modality will be assessed, with special regard to the most common sites: hand, hip, and knee. PMID:23413010

Sautner, Judith; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia

2013-05-01

143

Imaging the painful osteoarthritic knee joint: what have we learned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in the peripheral joints is an increasingly common problem, resulting in significant patient disability and health-care expenditure. Osteoarthritis (OA), a syndrome of joint pain with associated structural changes, is the most prevalent joint disease, yet the etiology of pain in OA is not entirely clear. Traditional assessment of the structure–pain relationship in knee OA has relied on conventional radiography,

Claire YJ Wenham; Philip G Conaghan

2009-01-01

144

The Diagnostic Performance of Anterior Knee Pain and Activity-related Pain in Identifying Knees with Structural Damage in the Patellofemoral Joint: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the diagnostic test performance of location of pain and activity-related pain in identifying knees with patellofemoral joint (PFJ) structural damage. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a US National Institutes of Health-funded cohort study of older adults with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects identified painful areas around the knee on a knee pain map and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain with stairs and walking on level ground. Cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions were assessed from knee magnetic resonance imaging. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for presence of anterior knee pain (AKP), pain with stairs, absence of pain while walking on level ground, and combinations of tests in discriminating knees with isolated PFJ structural damage from those with isolated tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) or no structural damage. Knees with mixed PFJ/TFJ damage were removed from our analyses because of the inability to determine which compartment was causing pain. Results There were 407 knees that met our inclusion criteria. “Any” AKP had a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 53%; and if AKP was the only area of pain, the sensitivity dropped to 27% but specificity rose to 81%. Absence of moderate pain with walking on level ground had the greatest sensitivity (93%) but poor specificity (13%). The combination of “isolated” AKP and moderate pain with stairs had poor sensitivity (9%) but the greatest specificity (97%) of strategies tested. Conclusion Commonly used questions purported to identify knees with PFJ structural damage do not identify this condition with great accuracy. PMID:24931959

Stefanik, Joshua J.; Neogi, Tuhina; Niu, Jingbo; Roemer, Frank W.; Segal, Neil A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Nevitt, Michael; Guermazi, Ali; Felson, David T.

2014-01-01

145

Tissue engineering in the rheumatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Diseases such as degenerative or rheumatoid arthritis are accompanied by joint destruction. Clinically applied tissue engineering technologies like autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-assisted chondrocyte implantation, or in situ recruitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells target the treatment of traumatic defects or of early osteoarthritis. Inflammatory conditions in the joint hamper the application of tissue engineering during chronic joint diseases.

Jochen Ringe; Michael Sittinger

2009-01-01

146

The Pathophysiology and Progression of Hip Osteoarthritis Accompanied with Joint Pain are Potentially Due to Bone Alterations - Follow-up Study of Hip OA Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives : This study examined hip osteoarthritis (OA) patients with joint pain and accompanying signal changes detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods : A total of 19 hip OA patients with suddenly occurring or worsening pain regardless of Kellgren-Lawrence grading were enrolled. The patients were monitored using MRI, plain radiographs, and the Denis pain scale for a minimum of 6 months. The patients were classified into 2 groups: those whose pain improved during conservative treatment (Group A) and those whose pain persisted (Group B). Results : Joint pain disappeared or was markedly improved in all 10 cases in Group A. Radiographic OA progression occurred in 7 of 8 cases with available radiographs. Hip MRI was performed on 7 of 10 patients, among whom bone signal changes disappeared in 6 patients. One patient exhibited persisting bone signal alterations although joint pain had completely disappeared. In Group B, joint pain remained in all 9 cases. Radiographic OA progression occurred in 8 of 9 cases, and local (4 cases) or broad (5 cases) bone signal alterations were present in end-point MRI examinations. Two patients exhibited different regional MRI bone signal changes (local or broad) at the end of follow-up. The mean age of Group B was significantly higher than that of Group A. Conclusion : This study uncovered the following observations: 1) hip OA with joint pain had bone alterations that were detectable by MRI, 2) these bone alterations disappeared when joint pain improved, 3) bone alterations remained when joint pain continued, and 4) radiographic OA progressed to a more advanced stage over a short time period. These findings indicate that the pathophysiology of OA, joint pain, and OA progression may primarily be due to bone changes. PMID:25317214

Kamimura, Mikio; Nakamura, Yukio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Kato, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

147

Surgical Management of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Relatively few patients develop such severe degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease that they require total joint replacement. Current indications include those conditions involving condylar bone loss such as degenerative (osteoarthritis) or inflammatory joint disease (ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid, and psoriatic). Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) secondary to ankylosing spondylitis remains an under investigated entity. We aim to provide an overview of treatment objectives, surgical procedures, and our experience with total TMJ replacement for this condition. PMID:21547039

Felstead, Andrew M.; Revington, Peter J.

2011-01-01

148

The association of body mass index and osteoarthritis of the knee joint: An examination of genetic and environmental influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the genetic and environ- mental influences on the known association between body mass index (BMI) and knee osteoarthritis (OA), using adult twin data. Methods. Bilateral knee radiographs were ob- tained from 785 pairs of healthy female twins (mean age 54.5 7.8 years) from the St. Thomas' Hospital Adult Twin Registry (261 monozygotic (MZ) and 524 dizygotic (DZ)

Nisha J. Manek; Deborah Hart; Timothy D. Spector; Alexander J. MacGregor

2003-01-01

149

Coxofemoral joint kinematics using video fluoroscopic images of treadmill-walking cats: development of a technique to assess osteoarthritis-associated disability.  

PubMed

The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a video fluoroscopy kinematics method for the assessment of the coxofemoral joint in cats with and without osteoarthritis (OA)-associated disability. Two non-OA cats and four cats affected by coxofemoral OA were evaluated by video fluoroscopy. Video fluoroscopic images of the coxofemoral joints were captured at 120 frames/s using a customized C-arm X-ray system while cats walked freely on a treadmill at 0.4 m/s. The angle patterns over time of the coxofemoral joints were extracted using a graphic user interface following four steps: (i) correction for image distortion; (ii) image denoising and contrast enhancement; (iii) frame-to-frame anatomical marker identification; and (iv) statistical gait analysis. Reliability analysis was performed. The cats with OA presented greater intra-subject stride and gait cycle variability. Three cats with OA presented a left-right asymmetry in the range of movement of the coxofemoral joint angle in the sagittal plane (two with no overlap of the 95% confidence interval, and one with only a slight overlap) consistent with their painful OA joint, and a longer gait cycle duration. Reliability analysis revealed an absolute variation in the coxofemoral joint angle of 2º-6º, indicating that the two-dimensional video fluoroscopy technique provided reliable data. Improvement of this method is recommended: variability would likely be reduced if a larger field of view could be recorded, allowing the identification and tracking of each femoral axis, rather than the trochanter landmarks. The range of movement of the coxofemoral joint has the potential to be an objective marker of OA-associated disability. PMID:24907140

Guillot, Martin; Gravel, Pierre; Gauthier, Marie-Lou; Leblond, Hugues; Tremblay, Maurice; Rossignol, Serge; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; de Guise, Jacques A; Troncy, Eric

2015-02-01

150

Correlation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Levels in Serum and Synovial Fluid with Disease Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to exam its correlation with radiographic and symptomatic severity of the disease. Material/Methods A total of 37 knee OA patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Knee OA radiographic grading was performed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system by evaluating X-ray changes observed in anteroposterior knee radiography. Symptomatic severity of the disease was evaluated according to the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. BMP-2 levels in serum and SF were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum BMP-2 level in patients with knee OA was higher than that in healthy controls. Knee OA patients with KL grade 4 showed significantly elevated BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF compared with those with KL grade 2 and 3. Knee OA patients with KL grade 3 had significant higher SF levels of BMP-2 than those with KL grade 2. BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were both positively correlated with KL grades and WOMAC scores. Conclusions BMP2 levels in serum and SF were closely related to the radiographic and symptomatic severity of knee OA and may serve as an alternative biochemical parameter to determine disease severity of primary knee OA. PMID:25644704

Liu, Yan; Hou, Ruizhi; Yin, Ruofeng; Yin, Weitian

2015-01-01

151

Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin) on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA) created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish) and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish) and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees

Naoshi Ohta; Masato Sato; Kiminori Ushida; Mami Kokubo; Takayuki Baba; Kayoko Taniguchi; Makoto Urai; Koji Kihira; Joji Mochida

2009-01-01

152

Association of hand and knee osteoarthritis: evidence for a polyarticular disease subset  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a community based population. METHODS--Radiographs of 695 participants aged > or = 40 years in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were read for changes of OA, using Kellgren-Lawrence grade > or = 2 as the case definition. RESULTS--Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender and body mass index,

R Hirsch; M Lethbridge-Cejku; W W Scott; R Reichle; C C Plato; J Tobin; M C Hochberg

1996-01-01

153

Taping for knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Taping can be used to reduce pain in knee osteoarthritis. There are different methods of taping, but the common effect is to exert a medially directed force on the patella to increase the patellofemoral contact area, thereby decreasing joint stress and reducing pain. Taping can be performed by a physiotherapist, but self taping can be taught, which enhances self management. Taping for knee osteoarthritis has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy for pain relief and is associated with negligible adverse effects that generally include minor skin irritation. PMID:24130976

2013-10-01

154

Cyst-like lesions of the knee joint and their relation to incident knee pain and development of radiographic osteoarthritis: The MOST study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions of the knee are associated with incident knee pain and incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. Using a nested case-control study design, we investigated the associations of cyst-like lesions (Baker’s, meniscal and proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) cysts, and prepatellar and anserine bursitides) with (a) incident pain at 15- or 30-month follow-up and (b) incident radiographic OA at 30-month follow-up. Baseline cyst-like lesions were scored semiquantitatively using the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between these lesions and the outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors (i.e. cartilage loss, meniscal damage, bone marrow lesions, synovitis and joint effusion, which were also scored using WORMS). Results Incident knee pain study included 157 cases and 336 controls. Prevalence of meniscal and PTFJ cysts in the case group was twice that in the control group (9 (6%) vs. 9 (3%) and 9 (6%) vs. 10 (3%), respectively). Incident radiographic OA study included 149 cases and 298 controls. Prevalence of grade 2 Baker’s cysts and PTFJ cysts in the case group was approximately 4 times that in the control group (16 [11%] vs. 9 [3%] and 6 [4%] vs. 3 [1%], respectively). However, none of the cyst-like lesions was associated with incident pain or radiographic OA after fully adjusted logistic regression analyses and correction of p-values for multiple comparisons. Conclusion None of the analyzed lesions was an independent predictor of incident knee pain or radiographic OA. Intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions are likely to be a secondary phenomenon seen in painful or OA-affected knees, rather than a primary trigger for incident knee pain or radiographic OA. PMID:20816978

Guermazi, Ali; Hayashi, Daichi; Roemer, Frank W; Niu, Jingbo; Yang, Mei; Lynch, John A; Torner, James C; Lewis, Cora E; Sack, Burton; Felson, David T; Nevitt, Michael C

2010-01-01

155

Naturally-occurring osteoarthritis in the domestic rabbit: possible implications for bioengineering research  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteoarthritis affects 1 in 8 American adults over the age of 25 and in the US is a leading cause of chronic disability. Therefore, researchers are pursuing investigations on treating this naturally occurring joint disease. Finding the appropriate animal model for translational purposes is of utmost importance. The aim of the present study is to report the occurrence of naturally-occurring osteoarthritis in the domestic rabbit in the context of an appropriate animal model system. Methods A six-year radiographic retrospective study of domestic rabbits was conducted to assess the presence and severity of naturally occurring osteoarthritis in four major joints: the hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow. Results The rabbit experiences radiographic signs of naturally-occurring osteoarthritis. There was a significant influence of age on the development of the disease. Rabbits begin to have radiographic signs of the disease as early as 1 year of age with older rabbits experiencing over 70% occurrence. The most commonly effected joints were the knee and the hip. In addition, there was certain correlation of weight with the occurrence of osteoarthritis. Conclusion Discovery of new osteoarthritis treatment modalities relies on documenting efficacy in a relevant animal model prior to clinical translation. Despite previous claims on the ability of the rabbit’s cartilage to heal spontaneously and readily repair, we demonstrate that radiographically rabbits demonstrate progressive osteoarthritis. We have found that the rabbit is an excellent spontaneously arising model that may allow a predictable translation of results obtained in bioengineering experiments pertaining to the naturally occurring human disease. PMID:22184086

Arzi, Boaz; Wisner, Erik R.; Huey, Daniel J.; Kass, Philip H.; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2015-01-01

156

Treatment of Nongout Joint Deposition Diseases: An Update  

PubMed Central

This update develops the actual therapeutic options in the management of the joint involvement of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD), basic calcium phosphate (BCP) deposition disease, hemochromatosis (HH), ochronosis, oxalosis, and Wilson's disease. Conventional pharmaceutical treatment provides benefits for most diseases. Anti-interleukine-1 (IL-1) treatment could provide similar results in CPPD than in gout flares. There is only limited evidence about the efficacy of preventive long-term colchicine intake, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine in chronic CPPD. Needle aspiration and lavage have satisfactory short and midterm results in BCP. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy has also proved its efficacy for high-doses regimes. Phlebotomy does not seem to have shown real efficacy on joint involvement in HH so far. Iron chelators' effects have not been assessed on joint involvement either, while IL-1 blockade may prove useful. NSAIDs have limited efficacy on joint involvement of oxalosis, while colchicine and steroids have not been assessed either. The use of nitisinone for ochronotic arthropathy is still much debated, but it could provide beneficial effects on joint involvement. The effects of copper chelators have not been assessed either in the joint involvement of Wilson's disease. NSAIDs should be avoided because of the liver affection they may worsen. PMID:24895535

Richette, Pascal; Flipo, René-Marc

2014-01-01

157

Increased concentrations of proteoglycan components in the synovial fluids of patients with acute but not chronic joint disease.  

PubMed Central

Synovial fluid samples (139) from 121 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, pseudogout, chronic pyrophosphate arthritis, gout, and reactive arthritis were analysed for cartilage proteoglycan components. Keratan sulphate (KS) epitope was determined by a competitive radioimmunoassay, and total sulphated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG) were determined after papain digestion by a specific dye binding assay. Increased concentration of both KS epitope and S-GAG were found in synovial fluid from joints with acute inflammatory arthropathy (gout, pseudogout, and reactive arthritis). Analysis of consecutive samples from the same joint at different stages showed that the concentration of KS epitope or total S-GAG varied with acute inflammatory activity. In samples from patients with chronic conditions during active and inactive inflammatory phases concentrations were much lower and not distinguishable among these disease groups. The detection of raised concentration of proteoglycan components may reflect the rapid depletion or greatly increased turnover of proteoglycan in the articular cartilage during acute inflammation in the joint. This did not appear to be sustained in most patients with chronic joint diseases. PMID:2461686

Ratcliffe, A; Doherty, M; Maini, R N; Hardingham, T E

1988-01-01

158

Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

MedlinePLUS

... to protect the joint. Injections can put more hyaluronic acid into your knee joint to help protect it. Hyaluronic acid injections ... restore movement of your knee. Source Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injections for Knee Osteoarthritis by DY Wen, M.D. (American Family ...

159

Treatment and Prevention of Osteoarthritis through Exercise and Sports  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with a high prevalence among older people. To date, the pathogenesis of the disease and the link between muscle function and OA is not entirely understood. As there is no known cure for OA, current research focuses on prevention and symptomatic treatment of the disorder. Recent research has indicated that muscle weakness precedes the onset of OA symptoms. Furthermore, several studies show a beneficial effect of land-based aerobic and strengthening exercises on pain relief and joint function. Therefore, current research focuses on the possibility to employ exercise and sports in the prevention and treatment of OA. PMID:21188091

Valderrabano, Victor; Steiger, Christina

2011-01-01

160

Fractal Analysis of Trabecular Bone in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a More Sensitive Marker of Disease Status than Bone Mineral Density (BMD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether fractal analysis (FSA) of macroradiographs or bone mineral density (BMD) is more sensitive in detecting disease-related cancellous bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Differences in BMD between 11 OA (6 females) and 11 non-OA reference (7 females) tibiae were compared with differences in trabecular organization measured by computerized method of fractal

E. A. Messent; J. C. Buckland-Wright; G. M. Blake

2005-01-01

161

Does high weight loss in older adults with knee osteoarthritis affect bone-on-bone joint loads and muscle forces during walking?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of high weight loss on knee joint loads during walking in participants with knee OA. Design Data were obtained from a subset of participants enrolled in the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial (ADAPT). Complete baseline and 18 month follow-up data were obtained on 76 sedentary, overweight or obese older adults with radiographic knee OA. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used to calculate knee joint forces and moments. The cohort was divided into high (> 5%), low (< 5%), and no (0% or gain) weight loss groups. Results From baseline body weight, the high weight loss group lost an average of 10.2%, the low weight loss group lost an average of 2.7%, and the no weight loss group gained 1.5%. Adjusted 18 month outcome data revealed lower maximum knee compressive forces with greater weight loss (p = 0.05). The difference in compressive forces between the high weight loss and no weight loss groups was due primarily to lower hamstring forces (p = 0.04). Quadriceps forces were similar between the groups at 18 month follow-up. There was no difference between the groups in 18-month joint space width or Kellgren-Lawrence scores. Conclusions These results suggest that a 10% weight loss in an overweight and obese osteoarthritic population elicits positive changes in the mechanical pathway to knee osteoarthritis by having lower knee joint compressive loads during walking compared to low and no weight loss groups. The difference in compressive forces was due, in large part, to reductions in hamstring co-contraction during the initial portion of the stance phase. PMID:21134477

Messier, Stephen P.; Legault, Claudine; Loeser, Richard F.; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J.; Davis, Cralen; Ettinger, Walter H.; DeVita, Paul

2012-01-01

162

Demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To explore demographic and clinical factors associated with radiographic severity of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (OA) (First MTPJ OA). Design Adults aged ?50 years registered with four general practices were mailed a Health Survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12 months were invited to undergo a clinical assessment and weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. Radiographic first MTPJ OA in the most severely affected foot was graded into four categories using a validated atlas. Differences in selected demographic and clinical factors were explored across the four radiographic severity subgroups using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ordinal regression. Results Clinical and radiographic data were available from 517 participants, categorised as having no (n = 105), mild (n = 228), moderate (n = 122) or severe (n = 62) first MTPJ OA. Increased radiographic severity was associated with older age and lower educational attainment. After adjusting for age, increased radiographic first MTPJ OA severity was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dorsal hallux and first MTPJ pain, hallux valgus, first interphalangeal joint (IPJ) hyperextension, keratotic lesions on the dorsal aspect of the hallux and first MTPJ, decreased first MTPJ dorsiflexion, ankle/subtalar joint eversion and ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and a trend towards a more pronated foot posture. Conclusions This cross-sectional study has identified several dose–response associations between radiographic severity of first MTPJ OA and a range of demographic and clinical factors. These findings highlight the progressive nature of first MTPJ OA and provide insights into the spectrum of presentation of the condition in clinical practice. PMID:25450852

Menz, H.B.; Roddy, E.; Marshall, M.; Thomas, M.J.; Rathod, T.; Myers, H.; Thomas, E.; Peat, G.M.

2015-01-01

163

A Combination of Scutellaria Baicalensis and Acacia Catechu Extracts for Short-Term Symptomatic Relief of Joint Discomfort Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Abstract The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446—a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)—decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40–90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500?mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440?mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1? and 6, tumor necrosis factor-?, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA. PMID:24611484

Ormsbee, Lauren T.; Elam, Marcus L.; Campbell, Sara C.; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E.; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P.

2014-01-01

164

A combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu extracts for short-term symptomatic relief of joint discomfort associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.  

PubMed

The extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu have been shown in previous studies to alleviate joint discomfort, reduce stiffness, and improve mobility by reducing the production of proinflammatory molecules over long periods of supplementation. The acute effects of intake of these extracts have not yet been investigated. Thus, we carried out a 1 week clinical trial to examine the extent to which UP446-a natural proprietary blend of S. baicalensis and A. catechu (UP446)-decreases knee joint pain, mobility, and biomarkers of inflammation in comparison to naproxen. Seventy-nine men and women (40-90 years old) diagnosed as having mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) consumed either 500 mg/day of the UP446 supplement or 440 mg/day of naproxen for 1 week in a double-blind randomized control trial. Pain, knee range of motion (ROM), and overall physical activity were evaluated at the start and at the end of treatment. Fasting blood was collected to determine serum interleukins 1? and 6, tumor necrosis factor-?, C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. The UP446 group experienced a significant decrease in perceived pain (P=.009) time dependently. Stiffness was significantly reduced by both treatments (P=.002 UP446, P=.008 naproxen). Significant increases in mean ROM over time (P=.04) were found in the UP446 group. These findings suggest that UP446 is effective in reducing the physical symptoms associated with knee OA. PMID:24611484

Arjmandi, Bahram H; Ormsbee, Lauren T; Elam, Marcus L; Campbell, Sara C; Rahnama, Nader; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Daggy, Bruce P

2014-06-01

165

Effectiveness of diclofenac versus acetaminophen in primary care patients with knee osteoarthritis: [NTR1485], DIPA-Trial: design of a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most frequent chronic joint disease which causes pain and disability of especially hip and knee. According to international guidelines and the Dutch general practitioners guidelines for non-traumatic knee symptoms, acetaminophen should be the pain medication of first choice for osteoarthritis. However, of all prescribed pain medication in general practice, 90% consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs compared

Saskia PJ Verkleij; Pim AJ Luijsterburg; Bart W Koes; Arthur M Bohnen; Sita MA Bierma-Zeinstra

2010-01-01

166

Time to Talk: 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... Time to Talk Tips 6 Things You Should Know About Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is the ... underlying disease. Here are 6 things you should know about dietary supplements for osteoarthritis: The majority of ...

167

Genetics of Osteoarthritis: What a Pain!.  

E-print Network

??abstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a common, chronic disabling disease characterized by pain and disability, affecting mainly the elderly population. The American College of Rheumatology defined OA… (more)

J.M. Kerkhof (Hanneke)

2012-01-01

168

Mechanism of Disease in early Osteoarthritis: Application of modern MR imaging techniques – A technical report  

PubMed Central

The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1 relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MR imaging sequence, T1, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-w sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in-vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. PMID:22902064

Jobke, B.; Bolbos, R.; Saadat, E.; Cheng, J.; Li, X.; Majumdar, S.

2012-01-01

169

Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources,

Iris Contreras-Hernández; Joaquín F Mould-Quevedo; Rubén Torres-González; María Victoria Goycochea-Robles; Reyna L Pacheco-Dominguez; Sergio Sánchez-García; Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré; Juan Garduño-Espinosa

2008-01-01

170

Update on Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis affecting humans. Its clinical features are well recognized, and its diagnosis is easily established. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still poorly understood. The definition and classification of osteoarthritis have only recently been set up by the American Rheumatism Association and the National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop. Management should be four-fold: educational, physiatric, medical, and surgical. The management goal should be individualized and be aimed at symptomatic relief and restoration of function. PMID:21234072

Tsang, Ian K.Y.

1990-01-01

171

The radiology of joint disease. Volume 2. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book explains the diagnostic criteria and radiologic appearance of joint disease - principally arthritis. It covers the soft tissues, alignment abnormalities, bony mineralization, and abnormalities of the cartilage space of the hand; arthritis from head to foot; and the differential diagnosis of arthritis.

Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

1987-01-01

172

Erosive osteoarthritis: a more severe form of radiographic hand osteoarthritis rather than a distinct entity?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether erosive osteoarthritis shares the same pattern of joint involvement and risk profile as increasing grades of non-erosive hand osteoarthritis. Methods Participants were from two population-based cohorts, aged ?50?years, reporting hand symptoms in the previous month. Interphalangeal joints were assessed for erosive osteoarthritis (Verbruggen–Veys erosive or remodelled phase) and radiographic osteoarthritis (sliding cut-offs of K&L?2, K&L?3 and K&L=4). At the joint level, similarities in the frequency and pattern of erosive and non-erosive osteoarthritis were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and generalised estimating equations. At the person level, individuals with erosive osteoarthritis were compared to those with non-erosive osteoarthritis using logistic regression, adjusted for age and gender (aOR), for the following exposures: family history, previous injury, overuse and metabolic factors (BMI, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes). Results In 1076 symptomatic participants the ranked frequency of involvement for erosive joints was comparable to joints with K&L?3 and K&L=4 (r>0.95). Patterns of joint involvement in erosive osteoarthritis were strongest for symmetry (aOR=6.5; 95% CI 3.0 to 14.1), followed by row (2.0; 0.8 to 5.0) and ray (0.3; 0.0 to 2.5), which was similar to joints with K&L?3 and K&L=4. Individuals with erosive osteoarthritis (n=80) had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (2.7; 1.0 to 7.1), notably dyslipidaemia (4.7; 2.1 to 10.6) compared with non-erosive osteoarthritis classed K&L?3 (n=193). Conclusions The similar frequency of radiographic joint involvement and patterning in erosive osteoarthritis and more severe non-erosive osteoarthritis is consistent with prevalent erosive osteoarthritis being a severe form of hand osteoarthritis rather than a distinct entity. Metabolic exposures, dyslipidaemia in particular, may be implicated in erosive osteoarthritis. PMID:24095935

Marshall, Michelle; Nicholls, Elaine; Kwok, Wing-Yee; Peat, George; Kloppenburg, Margreet; van der Windt, Danielle; Myers, Helen; Dziedzic, Krysia

2015-01-01

173

Update on biological therapies for knee injuries: osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease that causes functional impairment of the joints. Chronic forms of knee OA have been increasing worldwide, limiting patients' quality of life. Recent studies have sought to increase effectiveness and quality in the development of new therapies, such as platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, stem cells, and nuclear factor ?B, aimed principally at reducing proinflammatory activity, pain, and degeneration of the knee joints. The goal of this review is to present an update on biological therapies for knee OA and to provide guidance for future OA studies. PMID:24986668

Pintan, Guilherme Figueiredo; de Oliveira, Adilson Sanches; Lenza, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Ferretti, Mario

2014-09-01

174

Knee osteoarthritis related pain: a narrative review of diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a common progressive joint disease, involving not only the joint lining but also cartilage, ligaments, and bone. For the last ten years, majority of published review articles were not specific to osteoarthritis of the knee, and strength of evidence and clinical guidelines were not appropriately summarized. Objectives To appraise the literature by summarizing the findings of current evidence and clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain. Methodology English journal articles that focused on knee osteoarthritis related pain were searched via PubMed (1 January 2002 – 26 August 2012) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, using the terms ‘knee’, ‘osteoarthritis’ and ‘pain’. In addition, reference lists from identified articles and related book chapters were included as comprehensive overviews. Results For knee osteoarthritis, the highest diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by presence of pain and five or more clinical or laboratory criteria plus osteophytes. Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. Generally, paracetamol, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, corticosteroid injections and physical therapy techniques, such as therapeutic exercises, joint manual therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, can help reduce pain and improve function. Patient education programs and weight reduction for overweight patients are important to be considered. Conclusions Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. However, it is likely that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments is most effective in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24899883

Alshami, Ali M.

2014-01-01

175

Presence of MRI-detected joint effusion and synovitis increases the risk of cartilage loss in knees without osteoarthritis at 30-month follow-up: the MOST study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate if two different measures of synovial activation, baseline Hoffa-synovitis and effusion-synovitis, assessed by MRI, predict cartilage loss in the tibiofemoral joint at 30 months follow-up in subjects with neither cartilage damage nor tibiofemoral radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods Non-contrast enhanced MRI was performed using proton density-weighted fat-suppressed sequences in the axial and sagittal planes and a STIR sequence in the coronal plane. Hoffa-synovitis, effusion-synovitis and cartilage status were assessed semiquantitatively according to the WORMS scoring system. Included were knees that had neither radiographic OA nor MRI-detected tibio-femoral cartilage damage at the baseline visit. Presence of Hoffa-synovitis was defined as any grade ?2 (range from 0–3) and effusion-synovitis as any grade ?2 (range from 0–3). We performed logistic regression to examine the relation of presence of either measure to the risk of cartilage loss at 30 months adjusting for other potential confounders of cartilage loss. Results Of 514 knees included in the analysis, prevalence of Hoffa-synovitis and effusion-synovitis at the baseline visit was 8.4% and 10.3%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, baseline effusion-synovitis was associated with an increased risk for cartilage loss (odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence intervals 1.4–5.1, p=0.002); however, no such an association was observed for baseline Hoffa-synovitis (OR =1.0, 95% confidence intervals 0.5–2.0). Conclusions Baseline effusion-synovitis, but not Hoffa-synovitis, predicted cartilage loss. Our findings suggest that effusion-synovitis, a reflection of inflammatory activity including joint effusion and synovitic thickening, may play a role in future development of cartilage lesions in knees without OA. PMID:21791448

Roemer, Frank W.; Guermazi, Ali; Felson, David T.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.; Crema, Michel D.; Lynch, John A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Zhang, Yuqing

2012-01-01

176

Rapid, automated imaging of mouse articular cartilage by microCT for early detection of osteoarthritis and finite element modelling of joint mechanics  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Mouse articular cartilage (AC) is mostly assessed by histopathology and its mechanics is poorly characterised. In this study: (1) we developed non-destructive imaging for quantitative assessment of AC morphology and (2) evaluated the mechanical implications of AC structural changes. Methods Knee joints obtained from naïve mice and from mice with osteoarthritis (OA) induced by destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) for 4 and 12 weeks, were imaged by phosphotungstic acid (PTA) contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (PTA-CT) and scored by conventional histopathology. Our software (Matlab) automatically segmented tibial AC, drew two regions centred on each tibial condyle and evaluated the volumes included. A finite element (FE) model of the whole mouse joint was implemented to evaluate AC mechanics. Results Our method achieved rapid, automated analysis of mouse AC (structural parameters in <10 h from knee dissection) and was able to localise AC loss in the central region of the medial tibial condyle. AC thickness decreased by 15% at 4 weeks and 25% at 12 weeks post DMM surgery, whereas histopathology scores were significantly increased only at 12 weeks. FE simulations estimated that AC thinning at early-stages in the DMM model (4 weeks) increases contact pressures (+39%) and Tresca stresses (+43%) in AC. Conclusion PTA-CT imaging is a fast and simple method to assess OA in murine models. Once applied more extensively to confirm its robustness, our approach will be useful for rapidly phenotyping genetically modified mice used for OA research and to improve the current understanding of mouse cartilage mechanics. PMID:25278053

Das Neves Borges, P.; Forte, A.E.; Vincent, T.L.; Dini, D.; Marenzana, M.

2014-01-01

177

New horizons in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most frequent chronic musculoskeletal disease and the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. There are currently at least 27 million persons afflicted with OA in the United States, and the annual cost to society in medical care and wage loss is expected to reach nearly $100 billion dollars by 2020, with consequent increased spending on its diagnosis and treatment, side effect prevention, and loss of productivity. Despite this enormous burden, many aspects of OA are still unknown, with implications not only in terms of diagnosis and assessment but also with regard to therapy. Awareness of this state of affairs has attracted many researchers to this field, making OA one of the most actively studied sectors of rheumatology. Although some clinicians are unaware of recent advances, there is a large body of publications indicating that much has been achieved. Major progress has been made in formulating better definitions of risk factors, in particular in indicating the responsibility of biomechanical and genetic factors, and, with regard to pathogenesis, underlining the role of subchondral bone, cytokines and proteinases. Assessment of OA activity and its progression has been improved with the advent of biomarkers and new imaging procedures, in particular sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also of better clinical instruments, including more reliable patient questionnaires. Information from ongoing studies may improve the to some extent incomplete definition of OA phenotypes. Finally, promising new horizons have been opened up even with regard to the treatment of OA, which is still for the most part unsatisfactory except for surgical replacement therapy. Numerous new substances have been formulated and the findings of trials studying their effects are encouraging, although much has yet to be done. PMID:20458653

Oliviero, F; Ramonda, R; Punzi, L

2010-01-01

178

A Variant in MCF2L Is Associated with Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent, heritable degenerative joint disease with a substantial public health impact. We used a 1000-Genomes-Project-based imputation in a genome-wide association scan for osteoarthritis (3177 OA cases and 4894 controls) to detect a previously unidentified risk locus. We discovered a small disease-associated set of variants on chromosome 13. Through large-scale replication, we establish a robust association with SNPs in MCF2L (rs11842874, combined odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.17 [1.11–1.23], p = 2.1 × 10?8) across a total of 19,041 OA cases and 24,504 controls of European descent. This risk locus represents the third established signal for OA overall. MCF2L regulates a nerve growth factor (NGF), and treatment with a humanized monoclonal antibody against NGF is associated with reduction in pain and improvement in function for knee OA patients. PMID:21871595

Day-Williams, Aaron G.; Southam, Lorraine; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Rayner, Nigel W.; Esko, Tonu; Estrada, Karol; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Hofman, Albert; Ingvarsson, Throvaldur; Jonsson, Helgi; Keis, Aime; Kerkhof, Hanneke J.M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Arden, Nigel K.; Carr, Andrew; Chapman, Kay; Deloukas, Panos; Loughlin, John; McCaskie, Andrew; Ollier, William E.R.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Spector, Timothy D.; Wallis, Gillian A.; Wilkinson, J. Mark; Aslam, Nadim; Birell, Fraser; Carluke, Ian; Joseph, John; Rai, Ashok; Reed, Mike; Walker, Kirsten; Doherty, Sally A.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Maciewicz, Rose A.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Metspalu, Andres; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Stefansson, Kari; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Zhang, Weiya; Valdes, Ana M.; Doherty, Michael; Zeggini, Eleftheria

2011-01-01

179

Can a disease-specific education program augment self-management skills and improve Health-Related Quality of Life in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patient education and self-management programs are offered in many countries to people with chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA). The most well-known is the disease-specific Stanford Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP). While Australian and international clinical guidelines promote the concept of self-management for OA, there is currently little evidence to support the use of the ASMP. Several meta-analyses have reported

Richard H Osborne; Rachelle Buchbinder; Ilana N Ackerman

2006-01-01

180

The effect of ranitidine on NSAID related dyspeptic symptoms with and without peptic ulcer disease of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of ranitidine in the treatment of NSAID-related dyspeptic symptoms with and without peptic ulcer disease (PUD) was investigated in 124 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). The patients, who continued the use of NSAIDs were investigated by gastroduodenoscopy. Patients with PUD received open label ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. and the patients without PUD were randomly allocated

J. H. L. M. VAN GROENENDAEL; H. M. Markusse; B. A. C. Dijkmans; F. C. Breedveld

1996-01-01

181

The identification of temporomandibular joint disease through the masticatory cycle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine, by analyzing the masticatory cycle, the presence of TMJ disease prior to initiating any orthodontic treatment. Masticatory data from 80 pre-orthodontic patients were recorded in the frontal and sagittal planes and then analyzed and compared with the pre-established healthy masticatory data of Maruyama et al. 40% of the sample group presented with signs and/or symptoms of masticatory dysfunction and/or temporomandibular joint abnormalities (TMJA). Using Student's t test we found significant differences in the means for all seven parameters measured. Patients with TMJA exhibited significantly slower closing, occlusal and total cycle times, but faster opening. It was usually possible to determine which joint was compromised by the disease from the data. PMID:15839580

Learreta, Jorge A; Bono, Andrea E; Maffia, Graciela; Beas, Jorge

2005-01-01

182

Biomarkers and proteomic analysis of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Our friend and colleague, Dr. Dick Heinegård, contributed greatly to the understanding of joint tissue biochemistry, the discovery and validation of arthritis-related biomarkers and the establishment of methodology for proteomic studies in osteoarthritis (OA). To date, discovery of OA-related biomarkers has focused on cartilage, synovial fluid and serum. Methods, such as affinity depletion and hyaluronidase treatment have facilitated proteomics discovery research from these sources. Osteoarthritis usually involves multiple joints; this characteristic makes it easier to detect OA with a systemic biomarker but makes it hard to delineate abnormalities of individual affected joints. Although the abundance of cartilage proteins in urine may generally be lower than other tissue/sample sources, the protein composition of urine is much less complex and its collection is non-invasive thereby facilitating the development of patient friendly biomarkers. To date however, relatively few proteomics studies have been conducted in OA urine. Proteomics strategies have identified many proteins that may relate to pathological mechanisms of OA. Further targeted approaches to validate the role of these proteins in OA are needed. Herein we summarize recent proteomic studies related to joint tissues and the cohorts used; a clear understanding of the cohorts is important for this work as we expect that the decisive discoveries of OA-related biomarkers rely on comprehensive phenotyping of healthy non-OA and OA subjects. Besides the common phenotyping criteria that include, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI), it is essential to collect data on symptoms and signs of OA outside the index joints and to bolster this with objective imaging data whenever possible to gain the most precise appreciation of the total burden of disease. Proteomic studies on systemic biospecimens, such as serum and urine, rely on comprehensive phenotyping data to unravel the true meaning of the proteomic results. PMID:25179675

Hsueh, Ming-Feng; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Kraus, Virginia Byers

2014-10-01

183

Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin) on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA) created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish) and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish) and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C) group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA)-only group (H group); two qniumucin-only groups (M groups); and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups). One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA. PMID:19995451

2009-01-01

184

Cytokines as biochemical markers for knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating degenerative joint disease particularly affecting weightbearing joints within the body, principally the hips and knees. Current radiographic techniques are insufficient to show biochemical changes within joint tissue which can occur many years before symptoms become apparent. The need for better diagnostic and prognostic tools is heightened with the prevalence of OA set to increase in aging and obese populations. As inflammation is increasingly being considered an important part of OAs pathophysiology, cytokines are being assessed as possible candidates for biochemical markers. Cytokines, both pro- and anti-inflammatory, as well as angiogenic and chemotactic, have in recent years been studied for relevant characteristics. Biochemical markers show promise in determination of the severity of disease in addition to monitoring of the efficacy and safety of disease-modifying OA drugs, with the potential to act as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Currently, the diagnostic power of interleukin (IL)-6 and the relationship to disease burden of IL-1?, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-?, and vascular endothelial growth factor make these the best candidates for assessment. Grouping appropriate cytokine markers together and assessing them collectively alongside other bone and cartilage degradation products will yield a more statistically powerful tool in research and clinical applications, and additionally aid in distinguishing between OA and a number of other diseases in which cytokines are known to have an involvement. Further large scale studies are needed to assess the validity and efficacy of current biomarkers, and to discover other potential biomarker candidates. PMID:25621214

Mabey, Thomas; Honsawek, Sittisak

2015-01-01

185

Individuals with Primary Osteoarthritis Have Different Phenotypes Depending on the Affected Joint - A Case Control Study from Southern Sweden Including 514 Participants  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether primary osteoarthritis (OA), independent of affected joint, is associated with a phenotype that is different from the phenotype in a normative cohort. Material and Methods: We included 274 patients with primary OA, 30 women and 32 men (mean age 66 years, range 42-84) with primary hip OA, 38 women and 74 men (mean age 61 years; range 34-85) with primary knee OA, 42 women and 19 men (men age 64 years, range 42-87) with primary ankle or foot OA and 20 women and 19 men (mean age 66 years, range 47-88) with primary hand or finger OA. Of all patients included with OA, 23% had hip OA, 41% knee OA, 22% ankle or foot OA and 14% hand or finger OA. Serving as references were 122 women and 118 men of the same ages who were population-based, included as a control cohort. We measured total body BMD (g/cm2) and proportion of fat and lean mass (%) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight and BMI (kg/m2) were also assessed. We then calculated Z-scores (number of standard deviations difference from the mean value of the control cohort) in the OA patients and compared these between the groups. Results: Individuals with hand OA and controls had similar phenotype. Individuals with lower extremity OA, irrespective of the affected joint, had similar weight, BMI and BMD, but higher than in individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.05). Individuals with lower extremity OA had higher fat and lower lean mass than individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.001). Conclusion: Individuals with primary OA in the lower extremity have a phenotype with higher BMD, higher BMI, proportionally higher fat content and lower lean body mass content. The different skeletal phenotypes in our patients with OA in the lower extremity and patients with hand OA indicate that separate pathophysiologic pathways may be responsible for primary OA in different joints

Karlsson, Magnus K; Karlsson, Caroline; Magnusson, Håkan; Cöster, Maria; von Schewelov, Tord; Nilsson, Jan Åke; Brudin, Lars; Rosengren, Björn E

2014-01-01

186

Autophagy and cartilage homeostasis mechanisms in joint health, aging and OA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease, but neither preventive measures nor disease-modifying drugs are available and a continuing need exists for safe and effective symptom-modifying therapies. Clinical trials of candidate disease-modifying OA drugs in patients with established or advanced disease have not demonstrated their efficacy, but these failed trials have motivated investigation into the mechanisms that maintain joint

Beatriz Caramés; Martin K. Lotz

2011-01-01

187

The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis (CC) of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint on chest radiographs and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease.  

PubMed

Digital imaging combined with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) access allows detailed image retrieval and magnification. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages, the cartilage of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint being one such structure. We sought to determine if examination of the AC joints on magnified PACS imaging of chest films would be useful in identifying chondrocalcinosis (CC). Retrospective radiographic readings and chart reviews involving 1,920 patients aged 50 or more who had routine outpatient chest radiographs over a 4-month period were performed. Knee radiographs were available for comparison in 489 patients. Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographics, chest film reports, and diagnoses. AC joint CC was identified in 1.1 % (21/1,920) of consecutive chest films. Patients with AC joint CC were 75 years of age versus 65.4 in those without CC (p?joint CC, and of these, five also had knee CC (83 %). Of the 483 without AC joint CC, 62 (12 %) had knee CC (p?=?0.002). Patients with AC joint CC were more likely to have a recorded history of CPPD crystal deposition disease than those without AC joint CC (14 versus 1 %, p?=?0.0017). The prevalence of AC joint CC increases with age and is associated with knee CC. A finding of AC joint CC should heighten suspicion of pseudogout or secondary osteoarthritis in appropriate clinical settings and, in a young patient, should alert the clinician to the possibility of an associated metabolic condition. PMID:23609408

Parperis, Konstantinos; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mautz, Alan; Dubois, Melissa; Cerniglia, Ross; Ryan, Lawrence M

2013-09-01

188

Development and validation of a computational model of the knee joint for the evaluation of surgical treatments for osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

A three-dimensional (3D) knee joint computational model was developed and validated to predict knee joint contact forces and pressures for different degrees of malalignment. A 3D computational knee model was created from high-resolution radiological images to emulate passive sagittal rotation (full-extension to 65°-flexion) and weight acceptance. A cadaveric knee mounted on a six-degree-of-freedom robot was subjected to matching boundary and loading conditions. A ligament-tuning process minimised kinematic differences between the robotically loaded cadaver specimen and the finite element (FE) model. The model was validated by measured intra-articular force and pressure measurements. Percent full scale error between EE-predicted and in vitro-measured values in the medial and lateral compartments were 6.67% and 5.94%, respectively, for normalised peak pressure values, and 7.56% and 4.48%, respectively, for normalised force values. The knee model can accurately predict normalised intra-articular pressure and forces for different loading conditions and could be further developed for subject-specific surgical planning. PMID:24786914

Mootanah, R.; Imhauser, C.W.; Reisse, F.; Carpanen, D.; Walker, R.W.; Koff, M.F.; Lenhoff, M.W.; Rozbruch, S.R.; Fragomen, A.T.; Dewan, Z.; Kirane, Y.M.; Cheah, Pamela A.; Dowell, J.K.; Hillstrom, H.J.

2014-01-01

189

Cost-effectiveness analysis for joint pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS): Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) vs. cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the main causes of disability worldwide, especially in persons >55 years of age. Currently, controversy remains about the best therapeutic alternative for this disease when evaluated from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. For Social Security Institutions in developing countries, it is very important to assess what drugs may decrease the subsequent use of medical care resources, considering their adverse events that are known to have a significant increase in medical care costs of patients with OA. Three treatment alternatives were compared: celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), non-selective NSAIDs (naproxen, 500 mg twice daily; diclofenac, 100 mg twice daily; and piroxicam, 20 mg/day) and acetaminophen, 1000 mg twice daily. The aim of this study was to identify the most cost-effective first-choice pharmacological treatment for the control of joint pain secondary to OA in patients treated at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods A cost-effectiveness assessment was carried out. A systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain transition probabilities. In order to evaluate analysis robustness, one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Estimations were done for a 6-month period. Results Treatment demonstrating the best cost-effectiveness results [lowest cost-effectiveness ratio $17.5 pesos/patient ($1.75 USD)] was celecoxib. According to the one-way sensitivity analysis, celecoxib would need to markedly decrease its effectiveness in order for it to not be the optimal treatment option. In the probabilistic analysis, both in the construction of the acceptability curves and in the estimation of net economic benefits, the most cost-effective option was celecoxib. Conclusion From a Mexican institutional perspective and probably in other Social Security Institutions in similar developing countries, the most cost-effective option for treatment of knee and/or hip OA would be celecoxib. PMID:19014495

Contreras-Hernández, Iris; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquín F; Torres-González, Rubén; Goycochea-Robles, María Victoria; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan

2008-01-01

190

Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that vitamin E (VE) has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in human osteoarthritis (OA). This double-blinded and randomized pilot study used a broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory parameters to investigate whether such beneficial effects could be detected in a canine experimental OA model. Dogs were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 8), which received a placebo, and test group (n = 7), which received 400 IU/animal per day of VE for 55 d, starting the day after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Lameness and pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and electrodermal activity (EDA) at day 0, day 28, and day 55. Cartilage and synovial inflammation lesions were assessed. One-side comparison was conducted at an alpha-threshold of 10%. At day 56, dogs were euthanized and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) were measured in synovial fluid. Concentrations of NOx and PGE2 in synovial fluid were lower in the test group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Values of VAS, NRS, and EDA showed a consistent trend to be lower in the test group than in the control, while statistical significance was reached for VAS at day 55 and for EDA at day 28 (adjusted P = 0.07 in both cases). Histological analyses of cartilage showed a significant reduction in the scores of lesions in the test group. This is the first time that a study in dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain. PMID:24101795

Rhouma, Mohamed; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis; Chorfi, Younès

2013-01-01

191

Jacob's disease associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a case report.  

PubMed

Jacob's disease is regarded a rare condition in which a joint formation is established between an enlarged mandibular coronoid process and the inner aspect of the zygomatic body. Chronic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk displacement has been proposed as etiological factor of coronoid process enlargement. We present a 23-year-old woman with long-standing TMJ dysfunction and restricted interincisal opening, who developed a progressive zygomatic asymmetry. The patient underwent treatment by intraoral coronoidectomy and homolateral TMJ arthroscopy in the same surgery. The histopathological diagnosis of the coronoid sample was cartilage-capped exostoses with presence of articular fibrous cartilage. Although the low prevalence of this entity, it should be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with progressive limitation of mouth opening, although a TMJ syndrome may be present as a cause of this entity. PMID:15876963

Capote, Ana; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Blasco, Ana; Muñoz, Mario F

2005-01-01

192

The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST): Opportunities for Rehabilitation Research  

PubMed Central

The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) is a longitudinal observational study of the effects of biomechanical, bone and joint structural, and nutritional factors on the incidence and progression of knee symptoms and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to focus on symptomatic knee OA in a community-based sample of adultswith or at high risk for knee OA, based on thepresence of knee symptoms, history of knee injury or surgery or being overweight. Beginning in 2003, 3026 individuals (60.1% women) age 50-79 years were enrolled. Examinations at baseline, and 15, 30, 60, 72 and 84 months later included assessment of risk factors, disease characteristics, body functions and structure, and measures of physical activity and participation. The wealth of data from this longitudinal cohort of community-dwelling older adults affords valuable opportunities for rehabilitation researchers. PMID:23953013

Segal, Neil A.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Gross, K. Douglas; Hietpas, Jean; Glass, Natalie A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James C.

2013-01-01

193

The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed  

SciTech Connect

The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

1987-01-01

194

Unicompartmental and bicompartmental knee osteoarthritis show different patterns of mononuclear cell infiltration and cytokine release in the affected joints.  

PubMed

It is still controversial which cell types are responsible for synovial inflammation in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. The aim of this study was to quantify the mononuclear cell populations and their cytokines in patients with different knee OA subtypes. Synovial membrane (SM), synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB) were harvested from patients with unicompartimental (UC) and bicompartimental (BC) knee OA. Frequencies of mononuclear cells were assessed by flow cytometry in PB and SM. Naïve SF samples were analysed for a broad variety of cytokines by multiplex analysis. SM of both groups displayed a distinct mononuclear cell infiltration with CD14(+) macrophages being the major cell population followed by CD4(+) T cells and only small numbers of CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells and CD16(+) CD56(+) NK cells. Between the two groups, SM of BC OA showed significantly higher amounts of mononuclear cells (135.7 ± 180 vs. 805 ± 675 cells/mg, p = 0.0009) and higher CD4(+) T cell presence (3.4 ± 4.6 vs. 9.1 ± 7.5%, p = 0.0267). SF of BC OA displayed significantly higher concentrations for a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL1, Eotaxin, IFN?, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-12). UC and BC OA show significant differences in their synovial inflammatory pattern. Whereas in UC OA CD14(+) macrophages are the predominant cell population, BC OA has a higher inflammatory profile and seems to be driven by CD14(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells. Inclusion of clinical information into the analysis of cellular and molecular results is pivotal in understanding the pathophysiology of OA. PMID:25393692

Moradi, Babak; Rosshirt, Nils; Tripel, Elena; Kirsch, Johannes; Barié, Alexander; Zeifang, Felix; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Hagmann, Sébastien

2014-11-12

195

Exercising with Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... everyone. In fact, studies show that people with osteoarthritis benefit from regular exercise and physical activity. For people with osteoarthritis, regular exercise can help: l Maintain healthy and ...

196

Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

2014-01-01

197

Constructing osteoarthritis through discourse – a qualitative analysis of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Health service policy in the United Kingdom emphasises the importance of self-care by patients with chronic conditions. Written information for patients about their condition is seen as an important aid to help patients look after themselves. From a discourse analysis perspective written texts such as patient information leaflets do not simply describe the reality of a medical condition and its management but by drawing on some sorts of knowledge and evidence rather than others help construct the reality of that condition. This study explored patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis (OA) to see how OA was constructed and to consider the implications for self-care. Methods Systematic and repeated readings of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis to look for similarities and differences across leaflets, contradictions within leaflets and the resources called on to make claims about the nature of OA and its management. Results Biomedical discourse of OA as a joint disease dominated. Only one leaflet included an illness discourse albeit limited, and was also the only one to feature patient experiences of living with OA. The leaflets had different views on the causes of OA including the role of lifestyle and ageing. Most emphasised patient responsibility for preventing the progression of OA. Advice about changing behaviour such as diet and exercise was not grounded in lived experience. There were inconsistent messages about using painkillers, exercise and the need to involve professionals when making changes to lifestyle. Conclusion The nature of the discourse impacted on how OA and the respective roles of patients and professionals were depicted. Limited discourse on illness meant that the complexity of living with OA and its consequences was underestimated. Written information needs to shift from joint biology to helping patients live with osteoarthritis. Written information should incorporate patient experience and value it alongside biomedical knowledge. PMID:17428315

Grime, Janet C; Ong, Bie Nio

2007-01-01

198

Bradykinin and its role in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common joint disorder, is a disease involving all the articular structures. It presents both degenerative and inflammatory aspects. Recently, the important role of Bradykinin (BK), a phlogistic mediator, has been proposed in the pathophysiology of OA. In our review, we summarized the currently available information on the mechanisms of action of BK in OA by linking its B2 receptors. Then, we analyzed the data about the effects of BK in synoviocytes and chondrocytes cultures. Furthermore, we described the action of B2 receptor antagonists (Icatibant and Fasitibant), presenting them as new promising symptom-anddisease- modifying agents in the treatment of OA. However, more in vitro, animal model and clinical studies, are needed to better understand the mechanisms of action as well as the efficacy and tolerability of the B2 receptor antagonists in OA. PMID:23884024

De Falco, L; Fioravanti, A; Galeazzi, M; Tenti, S

2013-01-01

199

Effects of Diagnostic Label and Disease Information on Emotions, Beliefs, and Willingness to Help Older Parents with Osteoarthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the impact of the diagnostic label of osteoarthritis and educational information on family members' attributions, perceptions, and willingness to help older parents with pain. Undergraduate students (N = 636) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where they read vignettes about an older mother with chronic pain, which varied…

Thomas, Kali S.; McIlvane, Jessica M.; Haley, William E.

2012-01-01

200

Assessment of Marhame-Mafasel Pomade Effect on Knee Osteoarthritis with Non-Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent chronic non-infective joint arthritis. In the present study, the effect of new herbal pomade (Marhame-Mafasel) on knee osteoarthritis was investigated in a randomized trial. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of Marhame- Mafasel pomade, which was consisted of several medic herbs like Arnebia euchroma and Martricaria chamomilla in pri- mary osteoarthritis

Soltanian AR; Faghihzadeh S; Gerami A; Cheng J

2009-01-01

201

Joint Leveling for Advanced Kienbock’s Disease  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The use of joint leveling procedures to treat Kienbock’s disease has been limited by the degree of disease advancement. This study was designed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of wrists with more advanced Kienbock’s disease (stage IIIB) to wrists with less advanced disease (stage II/IIIA) following radius shortening osteotomy. METHODS This retrospective study enrolled 31 adult wrists (30 patients, mean age 39 years), treated by radius shortening osteotomy between two institutions for either stage IIIB (n=14) or stage II/IIIA (n=17) disease. Evaluation was carried out at a mean of 74 months (IIIB, 77 months; II/IIIA, 72 months). Radiographic assessment determined disease progression. Clinical outcomes were determined by validated patient-based and objective measures. RESULTS Patient-based outcome ratings of wrists treated for stage IIIB were similar to those with stage II/IIIA [QuickDASH (15 vs 12:p=.63), MMWS (84 vs 87:p=.59), VAS pain (1.2 vs 1.7:p=.45), VAS function (2.6 vs 2.1:p=.59)]. The average flexion/extension arc was 102° for wrists with stage IIIB and 106° for wrists with stage II/IIIA Kienbock’s (p=.70). Grip strength was 77% of the opposite side for stage IIIB wrists versus 85% for stage II/IIIA (p=.25). Postoperative carpal height ratio and radioscaphoid angle were worse (p<.05) for wrists treated for stage IIIB (0.46:65°) than stage II/IIIA (0.53:53°) disease. Radiographic disease progression occurred in 7 wrists (6 stage II/IIIA: 1 stage IIIB). The one stage IIIB wrist that progressed underwent wrist arthrodesis. CONCLUSIONS In this limited series, clinical outcomes of radius shortening using validated, patient-based assessment instruments and objective measures failed to demonstrate predicted “clinically relevant” differences between stage II/IIIA and IIIB Kienbock’s. Provided the high percentage successful clinical outcomes in this case series of 14 stage IIIB wrists, we believe that static carpal malalignment does not preclude radius shortening osteotomy. Level of Evidence IV; retrospective case series PMID:20971577

Calfee, Ryan P.; Van Steyn, Marlo O.; Gyuricza, Cassie; Adams, Amelia; Weiland, Andrew J.; Gelberman, Richard H.

2010-01-01

202

The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of niacinamide, on selected parameters of osteoarthritis using a double- blind, placebo controlled study design. Methods: Seventy two patients with osteoarthritis were randomized for treatment with niacinamide or an iden- tical placebo for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included global arthritis impact and pain, joint range of motion and flexibility, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, complete blood count,

W. B. Jonas; C. P. Rapoza; W. F. Blair

1996-01-01

203

A neuromuscular mechanism of posttraumatic osteoarthritis associated with ACL injury.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury leads to early-onset osteoarthritis. Quadriceps weakness is a consequence of ACL injury and is considered to result from arthrogenic inhibition (AMI). AMI is the neurological "shutdown" of muscles surrounding an injured joint, preventing full activation, reducing strength, and promoting atrophy. As quadriceps function is critical for energy absorption, its dysfunction may contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis. PMID:19550206

Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; Thomas, Abbey C

2009-07-01

204

Needs and opportunities in the assessment and treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: the view of the rheumatologist.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis represents a major therapeutic challenge to medical and health-care providers. In part, this is related to the limited tools that are available for assessing the structural state of joint tissues and to the lack of effective therapies to alter the natural history of osteoarthritis progression. From a clinical and pathologic perspective, osteoarthritis is not a homogeneous disorder, and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms differ among individuals. Even in the same individual, the pathologic processes and etiologic mechanisms may differ at specific stages of disease progression. In the development of strategies for effective intervention, several issues need to be considered. First, the stage of osteoarthritis progression must be considered. Therapies that are effective prior to the development of structural alterations may have limited utility in later stages. Similarly, treatments for late-stage osteoarthritis need to be adapted and adjusted to target specific symptoms that are amenable to modification. Despite the limited therapeutic options available for the treatment of osteoarthritis, there are interventions that have been shown to be beneficial. These include preventive strategies as well as specific interventions, such as the judicious use of analgesic medications for the control of pain. It is essential to develop an integrated multidisciplinary approach to osteoarthritis; this approach should be one that involves medical and surgical specialists as well as other health-care providers. In addition, further clinical and basic-science research is needed so that improved and more effective therapies for osteoarthritis as well as better methods for monitoring and assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions can be developed. PMID:19182013

Goldring, Steven R

2009-02-01

205

Evidence from Raman Spectroscopy of a Putative Link Between Inherent Bone Matrix Chemistry and Degenerative Joint Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease that results in degeneration of cartilage and bone in the synovial joints. Subtle changes in the molecular structure of the subchondral bone matrix occur and may be associated with cartilage changes. The aim of this study was to explore whether the abnormal molecular changes observed in the matrix of OA subchondral bone can be identified with Raman spectroscopy. Methods Tibial plateaus from patients undergoing total knee replacement for OA (n = 10) were compared with healthy joints from patients undergoing leg amputation (n = 5; sex- and laterality-matched) and with non-OA cadaveric knee specimens (n = 5; age-matched). The samples were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and chemical analysis to compare changes in defined load-bearing sites in both the medial and lateral compartments. Results OA subchondral bone matrix changes were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Within each cohort, there was no spectral difference in bone matrix chemistry between the medial and lateral compartments, whereas a significant spectral difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the non-OA and OA specimens. Type I collagen chain ratios were normal in the non-OA specimens but were significantly elevated in the OA specimens. Conclusion In comparing the results of Raman spectroscopy with those obtained by other standard techniques, these findings show, for the first time, that subchondral bone changes, or inherent differences, exist in both the medial and lateral (beneath intact cartilage) compartments of OA knees. The development of Raman spectroscopy as a screening tool, based on molecular-specific modifications in bone, would facilitate the identification of clinical disease, including early molecular changes. PMID:24470432

Kerns, Jemma G; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Buckley, Kevin; Shepperd, Adam; Birch, Helen L; McCarthy, Ian; Miles, Jonathan; Briggs, Timothy W R; Keen, Richard; Parker, Anthony W; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E

2014-01-01

206

Inhibition of TGF–? signaling in subchondral bone mesenchymal stem cells attenuates osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder. There is no effective medical therapy for osteoarthritis due to limited understanding of osteoarthritis pathogenesis. We show that TGF–?1 is activated in the subchondral bone in response to altered mechanical loading in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis mouse model. TGF–?1 concentrations also increased in human osteoarthritis subchondral bone. High concentrations of TGF–?1 induced formation of nestin+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clusters leading to aberrant bone formation accompanied by increased angiogenesis. Transgenic expression of active TGF–?1 in osteoblastic cells induced osteoarthritis. Inhibition of TGF–? activity in subchondral bone attenuated degeneration of osteoarthritis articular cartilage. Notably, knockout of the TGF–? type II receptor (T?RII) in nestin+ MSCs reduced development of osteoarthritis in ACLT mice. Thus, high concentrations of active TGF–?1 in the subchondral bone initiated the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, inhibition of which could be a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:23685840

Zhen, Gehua; Wen, Chunyi; Jia, Xiaofeng; Li, Yu; Crane, Janet L.; Mears, Simon C.; Askin, Frederic B.; Frassica, Frank J.; Chang, Weizhong; Yao, Jie; Nayfeh, Tariq; Johnson, Carl; Artemov, Dmitri; Chen, Qianming; Zhao, Zhihe; Zhou, Xuedong; Cosgarea, Andrew; Carrino, John; Riley, Lee; Sponseller, Paul; Wan, Mei; Lu, William Weijia; Cao, Xu

2013-01-01

207

Mixture of Arnebia euchroma and Matricaria chamomilla (Marhame-Mafasel) for pain relief of osteoarthritis of the knee – a two-treatment, two-period crossover trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent chronic non-infective joint arthritis. Because of its chronic disease nature, local drugs are preferred due to lower complications. In the present study, the new herbal pomade Marhame-Mafasel for knee osteoarthritis was used in a double-blind crossover trial. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Marhame-Mafasel pomade, which consists of several medical herbs including Arnebia euchroma and Matricaria chamomilla, in osteoarthritis of the knee. Material and methods This study was a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial. Forty-two patients with pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee (diagnosed by criteria of the European League against Rheumatism and physical examination) were drawn from patients attending the Clinic of Mostafa-Khomeini Hospital. In this study we assessed efficacy (analgesic effect and improved function) of herbal pomade Marhame-Mafasel, which was used locally in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee over three weeks. The instrument of the study was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) LK3.1 standard questionnaires. Results The participants in each group were 21 patients; 30 (71.4%) were women and 12 (28.6%) of them were men. The participants were between 40 and 76 years old. Six patients had mild arthritis, 15 had moderate arthritis and 21 had severe arthritis. The positive analgesic effect of the herbal pomade Marhame-Mafasel in primary knee osteoarthritis was proven. The herbal joint pomade Marhame-Mafasel had a significantly greater mean change in score compared to the placebo group for osteoarthritis severity (p < 0.05). Conclusions Herbal pomade Marhame-Mafasel in comparison to placebo has more effect on reduction of pain of primary knee osteoarthritis. PMID:22427772

Soltanian, Ali Reza; Mehdibarzi, Dariush; Naseri, Mohsen; Gerami, Abbas

2010-01-01

208

[Erosive hand osteoarthritis].  

PubMed

Erosive hand osteoarthritis is common and debilitating. Diagnosis is based on the presence of bone erosions which can appear late. Ultrasonography allows earlier diagnosis. The presence of apatite deposits could be of poor prognosis. Non pharmacological treatment includes the explanation of the inflammatory phenomena involved and the use of splints and physical therapy. Drug therapy includes analgesics, NSAIDs and infiltration of a steroid. Chondroitin sulfates have an analgesic and functional effect proven. DMARDs such as hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate have been used successfully. Some patients also benefited from isotope synoviortheses. New therapeutic ways, based on the pathophysiology of the disease, are new under evaluation. PMID:23534244

Van Linthoudt, D; Gabay, C; So, A K L

2013-03-13

209

Treatment of knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended. Opioids are being used more often in patients with moderate to severe pain or diminished quality of life, but patients receiving these drugs must be carefully selected and monitored because of the inherent adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are effective, but evidence for injection of hyaluronic acid is mixed. Arthroscopic surgery has been shown to have no benefit in knee osteoarthritis. Total joint arthroplasty of the knee should be considered when conservative symptomatic management is ineffective. PMID:21661710

Ringdahl, Erika; Pandit, Sandesh

2011-06-01

210

Nanomedicine: AFM tackles osteoarthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current diagnostic tools detect cartilage degeneration only at advanced stages, but the atomic force microscope can now detect structural changes earlier, paving the way for treatment of joint diseases.

Aigner, Thomas; Schmitz, Nicole; Haag, Jochen

2009-03-01

211

What about strontium ranelate in osteoarthritis? Doubts and securities.  

PubMed

Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disabling joint disease worldwide and its treatment is based on a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Commonly prescribed OA medications include symptomatic drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, locally administered corticosteroids, viscosupplementation) and new compounds that are potentially able to reduce or stop the disease progression, called "Disease Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs (DMOADs)". Strontium ranelate (SR) is an anti-osteoporotic treatment that increases bone formation, while decreasing bone resorption and it potentially acts as a new DMOAD. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanism of action of SR in OA. We have examined two post hoc analysis conducted on the large, randomized Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis study and the double-blind, randomized, controlled trial about SR in knee OA. Furthermore, we analyzed three studies in animal models and two in vitro experiments to better understand the mechanism of action of SR in OA. The available data demonstrate that SR could be considered a new promising symptomatic and disease-modifying agent in the treatment of OA and was safe and well tolerated. Additionally, there is a need for further investigations to establish the optimal dosage and to better clarify the mechanism of action of SR in OA. PMID:24645726

Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

2014-11-01

212

Osteoarthritis of the wrist.  

PubMed

This article reviews pathogenesis and treatment of wrist osteoarthritis. Because there is no cure for osteoarthritis, treatment is directed at symptomatic relief. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who have failed nonoperative modalities. This article reviews the surgical treatment of wrist osteoarthritis with an emphasis on selection of the appropriate procedure. Literature guiding surgical treatment with patient outcomes is reviewed. PMID:24572852

Cayci, Cenk; Carlsen, Brian T

2014-03-01

213

The evolving role of biomarkers for osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an increasingly important public health concern as the prevalence of this disease becomes higher and higher due to the ageing population. However, in addition to the absence of disease-modifying treatments, there are no sensitive diagnostic techniques beyond classical radiography, and physicians cannot predict who will progress with the disease. As a result, disease progression cannot be prevented or halted. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective techniques than radiography. Reliable, quantitative and dynamic tests to detect early damage and measure the progress of treatments targeted against joint destruction are required. Biomarkers, in addition to magnetic resonance imaging, are tools that can address these therapeutic shortcomings. Structural molecules and fragments derived from bone, cartilage and the synovium, all of which are affected by OA, have been reported to be potential candidates for biomarkers of OA. As the identification of biomarkers that can be applied more broadly from the very early to the end stages of knee OA is required, advances in the OA biomarker field remain challenging, but steadily progressive. Such advances will come not only from basic, but also preclinical and clinical research. In this review, we highlight recent OA biomarker studies generally published between 2011 and 2012. We classified the studies in this review into the following three categories: unique characteristics of the urinary level of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen; insight into the pathophysiology of OA revealed by biochemical biomarkers; and candidates for novel biomarkers of OA revealed by proteomics. PMID:25342994

Kaneko, Haruka; Kaneko, Kazuo

2014-01-01

214

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

E-print Network

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

Johnson, Pieter

215

An emerging player in knee osteoarthritis: the infrapatellar fat pad  

PubMed Central

The role of inflammation in the development, progression, and clinical features of osteoarthritis has become an area of intense research in recent years. This led to the recognition of synovitis as an important source of inflammation in the joint and indicated that synovitis is intimately associated with pain and osteoarthritis progression. In this review, we discuss another emerging source of inflammation that could play a role in disease development/progression: the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP). The aim of this review is to offer a comprehensive view of the pathology of IFP as obtained from magnetic resonance studies, along with its characterization at both the cellular and the molecular level. Furthermore, we discuss the possible function of this organ in the pathological processes in the knee by summarizing the knowledge regarding the interactions between IFP and other joint tissues and discussing the pro- versus anti-inflammatory functions this tissue could have. We hope that this review will offer an overview of all published data regarding the IFP and will indicate novel directions for future research. PMID:24367915

2013-01-01

216

Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease.  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues Easing Arthritis: Research offers new hope for people with common joint disease Past ... knees, pain plagued her every step. Living in New York City, Saisselin relied on walking and public ...

217

Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

2009-03-01

218

Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc®) for the treatment of osteoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot (hallux limitus): study protocol for a randomised placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) of the foot, termed hallux limitus, is common and painful. Numerous non-surgical interventions have been proposed for this disorder, however there is limited evidence for their efficacy. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronan have shown beneficial effects in case-series and clinical trials for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. However, no study has evaluated the efficacy of this form of treatment using a randomised placebo controlled trial. This article describes the design of a randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc®) to reduce pain and improve function in people with hallux limitus. Methods One hundred and fifty community-dwelling men and women aged 18 years and over with hallux limitus (who satisfy inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited. Participants will be randomised, using a computer-generated random number sequence, to receive a single intra-articular injection of up to 1 ml hyaluronan (Synvisc®) or sterile saline (placebo) into the first MPJ. The injections will be performed by an interventional radiologist using fluoroscopy to ensure accurate deposition of the hyaluronan in the joint. Participants will be given the option of a second and final intra-articular injection (of Synvisc® or sterile saline according to the treatment group they are in) either 1 or 3 months post-treatment if there is no improvement in pain and the participant has not experienced severe adverse effects after the first injection. The primary outcome measures will be the pain and function subscales of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures will be pain at the first MPJ (during walking and at rest), stiffness at the first MPJ, passive non-weightbearing dorsiflexion of the first MPJ, plantar flexion strength of the toe-flexors of the hallux, global satisfaction with the treatment, health-related quality of life (assessed using the Short-Form-36 version two questionnaire), magnitude of symptom change, use of pain-relieving medication and changes in dynamic plantar pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) during walking. Data will be collected at baseline, then 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Discussion This study is the first randomised placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronan (Synvisc®) for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the first MPJ (hallux limitus). The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if this form of treatment is found to be an effective treatment strategy. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12607000654459 PMID:19146707

Munteanu, Shannon E; Menz, Hylton B; Zammit, Gerard V; Landorf, Karl B; Handley, Christopher J; ElZarka, Ayman; DeLuca, Jason

2009-01-01

219

Molecular targets in osteoarthritis: metalloproteinases and their inhibitors.  

PubMed

The debilitating destruction of joint tissues seen in osteoarthritis (OA) is due, in large part, to the degradative activity of metalloproteinase (MP) enzymes that target extracellular matrix (ECM) components within articular cartilage. Although successful in suppressing the pain and inflammation associated with this disease, conventional OA therapeutics do not inhibit the underlying tissue catabolism, allowing the disease to progress into irreversible ECM loss and chronic disability. Therapeutic inhibition of metalloproteinase activity is not a new concept, however, its transfer into clinical use has been frustrating. Disappointing results from clinical trials with small molecule inhibitors of metalloproteinases have highlighted the critical importance of inhibitor specificity, and the need to identify the individual metalloproteinases responsible for joint destruction. We discuss strategies of inhibition using small molecule inhibitors and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) engineered to increase inhibitory specificity, and present new data using of new reagents such as ribozymes and inhibitory RNAs that repress expression of specific enzymes. Recent data has implicated the disease stage-dependent involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3, -9, -13, ADAM-17/TACE (tumor-necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme), and ADAMTS-5 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 1 motifs) as major in vivo mediators of the ECM degradation seen in OA, and as such, they represent promising therapeutic targets. We conclude that the concept of molecular polypharmacy, in which the relevant enzymes are selectively targeted with multiple directed therapies, may offer a new therapeutic strategy that prevents joint destruction and minimizes toxicities. PMID:17305507

Burrage, P S; Brinckerhoff, C E

2007-02-01

220

Clinical, radiographic and MRI findings of the temporomandibular joint in patients with different rheumatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the condition of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with different rheumatic diseases, and report correlations between the clinical, radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The 67 patients were divided into four groups: 16 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 15 with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 18 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and

L. M. J. Helenius; P. Tervahartiala; I. Helenius; J. Al-Sukhun; L. Kivisaari; R. Suuronen; H. Kautiainen; D. Hallikainen; C. Lindqvist; M. Leirisalo-Repo

2006-01-01

221

Genetics of digital osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Genetic factors contribute to the development of digital osteoarthritis, whose heritability has been estimated at 48 to 65%. Among the manifestations of digital osteoarthritis, only Heberden's nodes are transmitted by Mendelian inheritance, as a dominant trait in women and a recessive trait in men. The other forms of digital osteoarthritis are multifactorial, with a major gene and a residual multifactorial component that probably interacts with environmental factors. Hindrances to molecular studies include the absence to date of a universally accepted definition of the phenotype and the late onset of the manifestations. Genetic association studies of selected class I and II HLA genes produced conflicting results. The T303M polymorphism of the MATN3 gene, which was initially described as associated with hand osteoarthritis, may be more closely linked to trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis than to digital osteoarthritis. Genome-wide scans have identified numerous loci linked to digital osteoarthritis. Replication has been achieved for some of these loci, most notably those located at 2p, 2q, 3p, 4q, and 7p. A recently published genome-wide association study showed that an A2BP1 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with hand osteoarthritis. Many candidate-gene studies found associations with AGC1, ASPN, ENPP1, HFE, KL, VDR, IL-1 cluster, and IL-6, although the results were not consistently reproducible. In one study, women with hand osteoarthritis had significant telomere shortening. Telomere shortening has also been reported in other age-related conditions. PMID:20971668

Michou, Laëtitia

2011-07-01

222

Pathobiology of obesity and osteoarthritis: integrating biomechanics and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing osteoarthritis in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. Although the pathogenesis of obesity-associated osteoarthritis is not completely understood, recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory metabolic factors contribute to an increase in osteoarthritis risk. Adipose tissue, and in particular infrapatellar fat, is a local source of pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased with obesity and have been shown to increase cartilage degradation in cell and tissue culture models. One adipokine in particular, leptin, may be a critical mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis via synergistic actions with other inflammatory cytokines. Biomechanical factors may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis by activating cellular inflammation and promoting oxidative stress. However, some types of biomechanical stimulation, such as physiologic cyclic loading, inhibit inflammation and protect against cartilage degradation. A high percentage of obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis are sedentary, suggesting that a lack of physical activity may increase the susceptibility to inflammation. A more comprehensive approach to understanding how obesity alters daily biomechanical exposures within joint tissues may provide new insight into the protective and damaging effects of biomechanical factors on inflammation in osteoarthritis. PMID:22662293

Issa, Rita I.; Griffin, Timothy M.

2012-01-01

223

Stem cell therapy in a caprine model of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the role that implanted mesenchymal stem cells may play in tissue repair or regeneration of the injured joint, by delivery of an autologous preparation of stem cells to caprine knee joints following induction of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Adult stem cells were isolated from caprine bone marrow, expanded in culture, and trans- duced to express green fluorescent protein.

J. Mary Murphy; David J. Fink; Ernst B. Hunziker; Frank P. Barry

2003-01-01

224

Indian Hedgehog, a critical modulator in osteoarthritis, could be a potential therapeutic target for attenuating cartilage degeneration disease.  

PubMed

The Hedgehog (Hh) family of proteins consists of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), sonic hedgehog (Shh), and desert hedgehog (Dhh). These proteins serve as essential regulators in a variety of developmental events. Ihh is mainly produced and secreted by prehypertrophic chondrocytes and regulates chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral bone formation during growth plate development. Tissue-specific deletion of the Ihh gene (targeted by Col2a1-Cre) causes early lethality in mice. Transgenic mice with induced Ihh expression exhibit increased chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage damage resembling human osteoarthritis (OA). During OA development, chondrocytes recapitulate the differentiation process that happens during the fetal status and which does not occur to an appreciable degree in adult articular cartilage. Ihh expression is up-regulated in human OA cartilage, and this upregulation correlates with OA progression and changes in chondrocyte morphology. A genetic study in mice further showed that conditional deletion of Ihh in chondrocytes attenuates OA progression, suggesting the possibility that blocking Ihh signaling can be used as a therapeutic approach to prevent or delay cartilage degeneration. However, Ihh gene deletion is currently not a therapeutic option as it is lethal in animals. RNA interference (RNAi) provides a means to knockdown Ihh without the severe side effects caused by chemical inhibitors. The currently available delivery methods for RNAi are nanoparticles and liposomes. Both have problems that need to be addressed. In the future, it will be necessary to develop a safe and effective RNAi delivery system to target Ihh signaling for preventing and treating OA. PMID:24844414

Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Lei

2014-08-01

225

Comparative study of diclofenac sodium and flurbiprofen in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of diclofenac sodium and flurbiprofen both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in osteoarthritis. Forty patients of either sex between the ages of 35-60 years suffering from osteoarthritis of at least one knee joint minimum of eight weeks duration were included in the study. Diclofenac sodium exhibited better results by improving the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis in both high and low doses compared to flurbiprofen. The adverse effects observed were similar in both groups. PMID:9000826

Shaikh, K A; Ali, M; Sharafatullah, T

1996-12-01

226

Blockade of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme inhibits experimental collagenase-induced osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of functional deterioration in the joints of elderly adults and is a significant burden on the health of the aging population. 11??hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11??HSD1), which converts cortisone to cortisol, is known to contribute to a number of inflammatory diseases. However, the role of 11??HSD1 in human OA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the selective 11??HSD1 inhibitor, BVT?2733, in murine collagenase?induced osteoarthritis (CIOA). CIOA mice were treated with BVT?2733 (100 mg/kg, orally) or control vehicle twice daily for five weeks. Cartilage and bone destruction were subsequently examined. The expression of bone markers and STAT3 phosphorylation in joint tissues were detected using western blot analysis. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with BVT?2733 attenuated cartilage and bone destruction, and reduced the expression of bone markers and p?STAT3 in the joints of CIOA mice. BVT?2733 also decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)?1?, IL?6, IL?17 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In conclusion, the present study showed that BVT?2733 inhibits multiple inflammatory signaling pathways in the joints of CIOA mice, suggesting that 11??HSD1 inhibition may have therapeutic potential in human OA. PMID:25412149

Li, Faxin; Qiao, Chuanwu; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Chen, Jian; Guo, Shuya

2015-03-01

227

Joint Genome-Wide Profiling of miRNA and mRNA Expression in Alzheimer's Disease Cortex Reveals Altered  

E-print Network

Joint Genome-Wide Profiling of miRNA and mRNA Expression in Alzheimer's Disease Cortex Reveals in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used microarrays for the first joint profiling and analysis@usc.edu (CEF); xjzhou@usc.edu (XJZ) Introduction Neurodegeneration and dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD

Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

228

Ulnar variance and the role of joint levelling procedure for Kienböck's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with Kienböck's disease were reviewed to determine the relationship between ulnar variance and the development of Kienböck's disease in a Japanese cohort. The joint levelling procedures designed to correct ulnar variance were evaluated in 11 patients after a mean of 9.7 years following surgery. The mean ulnar variance was 0.50±1.67 in patients with Kienböck's disease and 0.56±1.76 in

Keiichi Muramatsu; Koichiro Ihara; Shinya Kawai; Kazuteru Doi

2003-01-01

229

Division of Arthritis & Rheumatic Diseases at Oregon Health & Science University  

E-print Network

Division of Arthritis & Rheumatic Diseases at Oregon Health & Science University Our areas of expertise include: · Osteoarthritis · Rheumatoid Arthritis · Ankylosing Spondylitis · Psoriatic Arthritis · Dermatomyositis · Polymyositis · Early Arthritis · HIV Associated Arthritis · Joint Injections Contact Us Division

Chapman, Michael S.

230

Effectiveness of phototherapy incorporated into an exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease with a multifactor etiology involving changes in bone alignment, cartilage, and other structures necessary to joint stability. There is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) in the same apparatus for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the proposed study is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods/Design A double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial will be conducted involving patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Evaluations will be performed using functional questionnaires before and after the treatment protocols, in a reserved room with only the evaluator and participant present, and no time constraints placed on the answers or evaluations. The following functional tests will also be performed: stabilometry (balance assessment), dynamometry (muscle strength of gluteus medius and quadriceps), algometry (pain threshold), fleximeter (range of motion), timed up-and-go test (functional mobility), and the functional reach test. The participants will then be allocated to three groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: exercise program, exercise program?+?phototherapy, or exercise program?+?placebo phototherapy, all of which will last for eight weeks. Discussion The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to analyze the effect of the incorporation of phototherapy into a therapeutic exercise program for osteoarthritis of the knee. The study will support the practice based on evidence to the use of phototherapy in individuals with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. Data will be published after the study is completed. Trial registration The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials, registration number NCT02102347, on 29 March 2014. PMID:24919587

2014-01-01

231

Alterations in quadriceps and hamstrings coordination in persons with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Altered muscle coordination strategies in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) result in an increase in co-contraction of the quadriceps and hamstrings during walking. While this may increase intersegmental joint contact force and expedite disease progression, it is not currently known whether the magnitude of co-contraction increases with a progressive loss of joint space or whether the level of co-contraction is dependent on walking speed. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine if co-contraction increased with OA severity and (2) discern whether differences in co-contraction were a result of altered freely chosen walking speeds or rather an inherent change associated with disease progression. Forty-two subjects with and without knee osteoarthritis were included in the study. Subjects were divided into groups based on disease severity. When walking at a controlled speed of 1.0 m/s, subjects with moderate and severe knee OA showed significantly higher co-contraction when compared to a healthy control group. At freely chosen walking speeds only the moderate OA group had significantly higher co-contraction values. Increased walking speed also resulted in a significant increase in co-contraction, regardless of group. The results of this study demonstrate that persons with knee OA develop higher antagonistic muscle activity. This occurs despite differences in freely chosen walking speed. Although subjects with OA had higher co-contraction than the control group, co-contraction may not increase with disease severity. PMID:19223203

Zeni, Joseph A.; Rudolph, Katherine; Higginson, Jill S.

2009-01-01

232

Bilateral synovial chondromatosis in the knee joint with both intra and extra-articular diseases  

PubMed Central

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It usually occurs unilaterally in the large joints like the knee, but may occur in the shoulder, elbow, hip, ankle and temporomandibular joints. The disease is usually intracapsular, but can also be extracapsular on rare occasions. The diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis is given after an anamnesis, physical examination and radiographic examination. However, the diagnosis is obtained after histological examination of the synovial tissue. We report an unusual presentation of bilateral synovial chondromatosis in the knee joint, with both intra and extracapsular localization. never described in the literature. Although synovial chondromatosis is described as a benign disease, it can be very destructive and debilitating. These lesions can mimic a malignant tumor and present a diagnostic problem.

Bassir, Rida-Allah; Ismael, Farid; Elbardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Elyaacoubi, Moradh

2014-01-01

233

Post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis in the young patient: therapeutic dilemmas and emerging technologies  

PubMed Central

Traumatic knee injury is common in young adults and strongly contributes to premature development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Post-traumatic knee OA poses a therapeutic dilemma to the physician, since no known therapy has an acceptable safety profile, effectively relieves joint pain, and enjoys reasonable patient acceptance. Consequently, these young patients will ultimately be faced with the decision to either undergo surgical intervention, despite prosthesis durability concerns, or to continue with ineffective nonsurgical treatment. Emerging therapies, such as biologics, disease-modifying drugs, partial joint resurfacings, and minimally invasive joint-unloading implants are currently being studied to fill this therapeutic void in the young patient with post-traumatic knee OA. PMID:24744616

Stiebel, Matthew; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2014-01-01

234

Post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis in the young patient: therapeutic dilemmas and emerging technologies.  

PubMed

Traumatic knee injury is common in young adults and strongly contributes to premature development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Post-traumatic knee OA poses a therapeutic dilemma to the physician, since no known therapy has an acceptable safety profile, effectively relieves joint pain, and enjoys reasonable patient acceptance. Consequently, these young patients will ultimately be faced with the decision to either undergo surgical intervention, despite prosthesis durability concerns, or to continue with ineffective nonsurgical treatment. Emerging therapies, such as biologics, disease-modifying drugs, partial joint resurfacings, and minimally invasive joint-unloading implants are currently being studied to fill this therapeutic void in the young patient with post-traumatic knee OA. PMID:24744616

Stiebel, Matthew; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2014-01-01

235

Lubricin Protects the Temporomandibular Joint Surfaces from Degeneration  

PubMed Central

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a specialized synovial joint essential for the mobility and function of the mammalian jaw. The TMJ is composed of the mandibular condyle, the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone, and a fibrocartilagenous disc interposed between these bones. A fibrous capsule, lined on the luminal surface by the synovial membrane, links these bones and retains synovial fluid within the cavity. The major component of synovial fluid is lubricin, a glycoprotein encoded by the gene proteoglycan 4 (Prg4), which is synthesized by chondrocytes at the surface of the articular cartilage and by synovial lining cells. We previously showed that in the knee joint, Prg4 is crucial for maintenance of cartilage surfaces and for regulating proliferation of the intimal cells in the synovium. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the role of lubricin in the maintenance of the TMJ. We found that mice lacking lubricin have a normal TMJ at birth, but develop degeneration resembling TMJ osteoarthritis by 2 months, increasing in severity over time. Disease progression in Prg4?/? mice results in synovial hyperplasia, deterioration of cartilage in the condyle, disc and fossa with an increase in chondrocyte number and their redistribution in clusters with loss of superficial zone chondrocytes. All articular surfaces of the joint had a prominent layer of protein deposition. Compared to the knee joint, the osteoarthritis-like phenotype was more severe and manifested earlier in the TMJ. Taken together, the lack of lubricin in the TMJ causes osteoarthritis-like degeneration that affects the articular cartilage as well as the integrity of multiple joint tissues. Our results provide the first molecular evidence of the role of lubricin in the TMJ and suggest that Prg4?/? mice might provide a valuable new animal model for the study of the early events of TMJ osteoarthritis. PMID:25188282

Purcell, Patricia

2014-01-01

236

Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a class of medications called ... area four times a day to treat arthritis pain. Topical diclofenac for ... apply to the knee four times a day. Topical diclofenac for osteoarthritis ...

237

Immediate Effects of an Elastic Knee Sleeve on Frontal Plane Gait Biomechanics in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis of the knee affects millions of people. Elastic knee sleeves aim at relieving symptoms. While symptomatic improvements have been demonstrated as a consequence of elastic knee sleeves, evidence for biomechanical alterations only exists for the sagittal plane. We therefore asked what effect an elastic knee sleeve would have on frontal plane gait biomechanics. Methods 18 subjects (8 women, 10 men) with osteoarthritis of the medial tibiofemoral joint walked over ground with and without an elastic knee sleeve. Kinematics and forces were recorded and joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach. Conditions with sleeve and without sleeve were compared with paired t-Tests. Results With the sleeve, knee adduction angle at ground contact was reduced by 1.9±2.1° (P = 0.006). Peak knee adduction was reduced by 1.5±1.6° (P = 0.004). The first peak knee adduction moment and positive knee adduction impulse were decreased by 10.1% (0.74±0.9 Nm•kg-1; P = 0.002) and 12.9% (0.28±0.3 Nm•s•kg-1; P < 0.004), respectively. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that wearing an elastic knee sleeve during walking can reduce knee adduction angles, moments and impulse in subjects with knee osteoarthritis. As a higher knee adduction moment has previously been identified as a risk factor for disease progression in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, we speculate that wearing a knee sleeve may be beneficial for this specific subgroup. PMID:25621488

Schween, Raphael; Gehring, Dominic; Gollhofer, Albert

2015-01-01

238

Prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis and knee cartilage injury in sports.  

PubMed

Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis). There is no strong correlation between symptoms and radiographic findings. The aetiology of knee osteoarthritis is multifactorial. Excessive musculoskeletal loading (at work or in sports), high body mass index, previous knee injury, female gender and muscle weakness are well-known risk factors. The high-level athlete with a major knee injury has a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Cartilage injuries are frequently observed in young and middle-aged active athletes. Often this injury precedes osteoarthritis. Reducing risk factors can decrease the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. The prevention of knee injury, especially anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injury in sports, is important to avoid progression of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:21357577

Takeda, Hideki; Nakagawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Kozo; Engebretsen, Lars

2011-04-01

239

MicroRNAs: Important Epigenetic Regulators in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Multiple mechanisms are implicated in the development of primary osteoarthritis (OA), in which genetic and epigenetic factors appear to interact with environmental factors and age to initiate the disease and stimulate its progression. Changes in expression of microRNAs (miRs) contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Numerous miRs are involved in cartilage development, homeostasis and degradation through targeting genes expressed in this tissue. An important regulator of gene expression in human cartilage is miR-140, which directly targets a gene coding aggrecanase ADAMTS-5, that cleaves aggrecan in cartilage. This miR is considered a biological marker for cartilage and its level significantly decreases in OA cartilage. On the other hand, increased expression of miR-146a in early OA inhibits two other cartilage-degrading enzymes: MMP13 and ADAMTS4, and may provide a useful tool in developing treatments for OA. The COL2A1 gene, encoding collagen type II, which is the most abundant structural protein of the cartilage, is silenced by miR-34a and activated by miR-675. Every year, new targets of cartilage miRs are validated experimentally and this opens new possibilities for new therapies that control joint destruction and stimulate cartilage repair. At the same time development of next-generation sequencing technologies allows to identify new miRs involved in cartilage biology. PMID:25598697

Trzeciak, Tomasz; Czarny-Ratajczak, Malwina

2014-01-01

240

MicroRNAs: Important Epigenetic Regulators in Osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Multiple mechanisms are implicated in the development of primary osteoarthritis (OA), in which genetic and epigenetic factors appear to interact with environmental factors and age to initiate the disease and stimulate its progression. Changes in expression of microRNAs (miRs) contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Numerous miRs are involved in cartilage development, homeostasis and degradation through targeting genes expressed in this tissue. An important regulator of gene expression in human cartilage is miR-140, which directly targets a gene coding aggrecanase ADAMTS-5, that cleaves aggrecan in cartilage. This miR is considered a biological marker for cartilage and its level significantly decreases in OA cartilage. On the other hand, increased expression of miR-146a in early OA inhibits two other cartilage-degrading enzymes: MMP13 and ADAMTS4, and may provide a useful tool in developing treatments for OA. The COL2A1 gene, encoding collagen type II, which is the most abundant structural protein of the cartilage, is silenced by miR-34a and activated by miR-675. Every year, new targets of cartilage miRs are validated experimentally and this opens new possibilities for new therapies that control joint destruction and stimulate cartilage repair. At the same time development of next-generation sequencing technologies allows to identify new miRs involved in cartilage biology. PMID:25598697

Trzeciak, Tomasz; Czarny-Ratajczak, Malwina

2014-12-01

241

New developments in osteoarthritis. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis: pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment options  

PubMed Central

Joint trauma can lead to a spectrum of acute lesions, including osteochondral fractures, ligament or meniscus tears and damage to the articular cartilage. This is often associated with intraarticular bleeding and causes posttraumatic joint inflammation. Although the acute symptoms resolve and some of the lesions can be surgically repaired, joint injury triggers a chronic remodeling process in cartilage and other joint tissues that ultimately manifests as osteoarthritis in a majority of cases. The objective of the present review is to summarize information on pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the acute and chronic consequences of joint trauma and discuss potential pharmacological interventions. The focus of the review is on the early events that follow joint trauma since therapies for posttraumatic joint inflammation are not available and this represents a unique window of opportunity to limit chronic consequences. PMID:20602810

2010-01-01

242

Image-guided optical spectroscopy in diagnosis of osteoarthritis by combining spectral and spatial a-priori information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-modality imaging approach and instrument that integrate optical imaging system and near-infrared spectroscopy into an x-ray tomosynthesis setup have been employed to perform a clinical study of image-guided spectroscopy on osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints. The multiwavelength spectroscopy of the joints using x-ray-guided spatial constraints provides 3D images of oxygen saturation and water content with high resolution and improved quantitative capability. Based on the recovered quantitative results from 18 healthy volunteers and 22 patients, we observed that oxygen saturation and water content were significant discriminators for differentiation of healthy joints from diseased ones. The recovered images appear to show that the OA joints have high water values and decreased oxygen saturation.

Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Huizhu; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

2009-02-01

243

CD4+CD25+/highCD127low/- regulatory T cells are enriched in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis joints—analysis of frequency and phenotype in synovial membrane, synovial fluid and peripheral blood  

PubMed Central

Introduction CD4+CD25+/highCD127low/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. Data about the frequency of Tregs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are contradictory and based on the analysis of peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF). Because Tregs exert their anti-inflammatory activity in a contact-dependent manner, the analysis of synovial membrane (SM) is crucial. Published reports regarding this matter are lacking, so we investigated the distribution and phenotype of Tregs in concurrent samples of SM, SF and PB of RA patients in comparison to those of osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Methods Treg frequency in a total of 40 patients (18 RA and 22 OA) matched for age and sex was assessed by flow cytometry. Functional status was assessed by analysis of cell surface markers representative of activation, memory and regulation. Results CD4+ T cells infiltrate the SM to higher frequencies in RA joints than in OA joints (P?=?0.0336). In both groups, Tregs accumulate more within the SF and SM than concurrently in PB (P?joint compartment is not specific to inflammatory arthritis, as we found that it was similarly enriched in OA. RA pathophysiology might not be due to a Treg deficiency, because Treg concentration in SM was significantly higher in RA. Synovial Tregs represent a distinct phenotype and are activated effector memory cells (CD62L-CD69+), whereas peripheral Tregs are resting central memory cells (CD62L+CD69-). PMID:24742142

2014-01-01

244

The relationship between lateral meniscus shape and joint contact parameters in the knee: a study using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Introduction The meniscus has an important role in force transmission across the knee, but a detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphometric shape analysis of the lateral meniscus to elucidate subject-specific function has not been conducted. The aim of this study was to perform 3D morphometric analyses of the lateral meniscus in order to correlate shape variables with anthropometric parameters, thereby gaining a better understanding of the relationship between lateral meniscus shape and its load-bearing function. Methods The lateral meniscus (LM) was manually segmented from magnetic resonance images randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) non-exposed control subcohort. A 3D statistical shape model (SSM) was constructed to extract the principal morphological variations (PMV) of the lateral meniscus for 50 subjects (25 male and 25 female). Correlations between the principal morphological variations and anthropometric parameters were tested. Anthropometric parameters that were selected included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), femoral condyle width and axial rotation. Results The first principal morphological variation (PMV) was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.569), weight (r?=?0.647), BMI (r?=?0.376), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.622). The third PMV was found to correlate with height (r?=?0.406), weight (r?=?0.312), and femoral condyle width (r?=?0.331). The percentage of the tibial plateau covered by the lateral meniscus decreases as anthropometric parameters relating to size of the subject increase. Furthermore, when the size of the subject increases, the posterior and anterior horns become proportionally longer and wider. Conclusion The correlations discovered suggest that variations in meniscal shape can be at least partially explained by the levels of loads transmitted across the knee on a regular basis. Additionally, as the size of the subject increases and body weight rises, the coverage percentage of the meniscus is reduced, suggesting that there would be an increase in the load-bearing by the cartilage. However, this reduced coverage percentage is compensated by the proportionally wider and longer meniscal horn. PMID:24467794

2014-01-01

245

Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35–80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, relaxation, pranayama and meditation. The control group had physiotherapy exercises. Assessments were done on 15th (post 1) and 90th day (post 2). Results: Resting pain (numerical rating scale) reduced better (P<0.001, Mann–Whitney U test) in yoga group (post 1=33.6% and post 2=71.8%) than control group (post 1=13.4% and post 2=37.5%). Morning stiffness decreased more (P<0.001) in yoga (post 1=68.6% and post 2=98.1%) than control group (post 1=38.6% and post 2=71.6%). State anxiety (STAI-1) reduced (P<0.001) by 35.5% (post 1) and 58.4% (post 2) in the yoga group and 15.6% (post 1) and 38.8% (post 2) in the control group; trait anxiety (STAI 2) reduced (P<0.001) better (post 1=34.6% and post 2=57.10%) in yoga than control group (post 1=14.12% and post 2=34.73%). Systolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?7.93% and post 2=?15.7%) than the control group (post 1=?1.8% and post 2=?3.8%). Diastolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?7.6% and post 2=?16.4%) than the control group (post 1=?2.1% and post 2=?5.0%). Pulse rate reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=?8.41% and post 2=?12.4%) than the control group (post 1=?5.1% and post 2=?7.1%). Conclusion: Integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than physiotherapy exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in reducing pain, morning stiffness, state and trait anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate in patients with OA knees. PMID:22346063

Ebnezar, John; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Yogitha, Bali; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

2012-01-01

246

Proteomic analysis of human osteoarthritis synovial fluid  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized mainly by progressive degradation of the hyaline cartilage. Patients with osteoarthritis often postpone seeking medical help, which results in the diagnosis being made at an advanced stage of cartilage destruction. Sustained efforts are needed to identify specific markers that might help in early diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and in improving therapeutic outcomes. We employed a multipronged proteomic approach, which included multiple fractionation strategies followed by high resolution mass spectrometry analysis to explore the proteome of synovial fluid obtained from osteoarthritis patients. In addition to the total proteome, we also enriched glycoproteins from synovial fluid using lectin affinity chromatography. Results We identified 677 proteins from synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis of which 545 proteins have not been previously reported. These novel proteins included ADAM-like decysin 1 (ADAMDEC1), alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP), CD84, fibulin 1 (FBLN1), matrix remodelling associated 5 (MXRA5), secreted phosphoprotein 2 (SPP2) and spondin 2 (SPON2). We identified 300 proteins using lectin affinity chromatography, including the glycoproteins afamin (AFM), attractin (ATRN), fibrillin 1 (FBN1), transferrin (TF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and vasorin (VSN). Gene ontology analysis confirmed that a majority of the identified proteins were extracellular and are mostly involved in cell communication and signaling. We also confirmed the expression of ANPEP, dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and osteoglycin (OGN) by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis of osteoarthritis synovial fluid samples. Conclusions We present an in-depth analysis of the synovial fluid proteome from patients with osteoarthritis. We believe that the catalog of proteins generated in this study will further enhance our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and should assist in identifying better biomarkers for early diagnosis. PMID:24533825

2014-01-01

247

Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats  

PubMed Central

Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD. PMID:22281125

2012-01-01

248

Posturography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper was to investigate the usefulness of posturographic analysis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). RA is a chronic inflammatory disorder responsible for destruction of active and passive components of joints. It is the most common autoimmune disease, and the second most common form of arthritis after OA. OA is a chronic disorder characterized by irreversible changes in the joint structure developing with advancing age. Both diseases lead to the destruction of many parts of the motor system, cause pain, weakness, and damage of ligaments, muscles, bones, and articular cartilage. The etiology of the diseases remains unknown. In the present study, evaluation of body balance in the standing position was performed by means of Pro-Med force plate system. Three posturographic tests were applied: with eyes open, closed, and with the biofeedback - under conscious visual control of body movements. The following posturographic parameters were measured: the radius of sways, the developed area, and the total length of posturograms, and also two directional components of sways: the length of left-right (in frontal plane) and forward-backward (in sagittal plane) motions. The results demonstrate that the biofeedback test is most useful in the evaluation of instability in rheumatic patients; it is more powerful than the other posturographic tests evaluated. PMID:25298260

Soko?owska, B; Czerwosz, L; Hallay-Suszek, M; Sadura-Sieklucka, T; Ksi??opolska-Or?owska, K

2015-01-01

249

The tissue architecture of synovial membranes in inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing monoclonal reagents directed towards antigens of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and Ia antigens, the tissue architecture of synovial membranes obtained from patients with non-inflammatory joint diseases and patients with rheumatoid arthritis was studied. Emphasis was placed on the localization of the type I, type II and type III synoviocytes that previously had been defined by their cell surface phenotype with

G. R. Burmester; P. Locher; B. Koch; R. J. Winchester; A. Dimitriu-Bona; J. R. Kalden; W. Mohr

1983-01-01

250

Cyclic phosphatidic acid relieves osteoarthritis symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. Natural cPA and its chemically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), inhibit chronic and acute inflammation, and 2ccPA attenuates neuropathic pain. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease frequently associated with symptoms such as inflammation and joint pain. Because 2ccPA has obvious antinociceptive activity, we hypothesized that 2ccPA might relieve the pain caused by OA. We aimed to characterize the effects of 2ccPA on the pathogenesis of OA induced by total meniscectomy in the rabbit knee joint. Results Intra-articular injection of 2ccPA (twice a week for 42 days) significantly reduced pain and articular swelling. Histopathology showed that 2ccPA suppressed cartilage degeneration in OA. We also examined the effects of 2ccPA on the inflammatory and catabolic responses of human OA synoviocytes and chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells in vitro. 2ccPA stimulated synthesis of hyaluronic acid and suppressed production of the metalloproteinases MMP-1, -3, and -13. However, it had no effect on the production of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine. The suppressive effect of 2ccPA on MMP-1 and -3 production in synoviocytes and on MMP-13 production in SW1353 cells was not mediated by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor, LPA1 receptor (LPA1R). Conclusions Our results suggest that 2ccPA significantly reduces the pain response to OA by inducing hyaluronic acid production and suppressing MMP-1, -3, and -13 production in synoviocytes and chondrocytes. PMID:25123228

2014-01-01

251

The role of stem cells in osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressively debilitating disease that affects mostly cartilage, with associated changes in the bone. The increasing incidence of OA and an ageing population, coupled with insufficient therapeutic choices, has led to focus on the potential of stem cells as a novel strategy for cartilage repair. Methods In this study, we used scaffold-free mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow in an experimental animal model of OA by direct intra-articular injection. MSCs were isolated from 2.8 kg white New Zealand rabbits. There were ten in the study group and ten in the control group. OA was induced by unilateral transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint. At 12 weeks post-operatively, a single dose of 1 million cells suspended in 1 ml of medium was delivered to the injured knee by direct intra-articular injection. The control group received 1 ml of medium without cells. The knees were examined at 16 and 20 weeks following surgery. Repair was investigated radiologically, grossly and histologically using haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin-O and toluidine blue staining. Results Radiological assessment confirmed development of OA changes after 12 weeks. Rabbits receiving MSCs showed a lower degree of cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, and subchondral sclerosis than the control group at 20 weeks post-operatively. The quality of cartilage was significantly better in the cell-treated group compared with the control group after 20 weeks. Conclusions Bone marrow-derived MSCs could be promising cell sources for the treatment of OA. Neither stem cell culture nor scaffolds are absolutely necessary for a favourable outcome. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:32–7. PMID:24526748

Singh, A.; Goel, S. C.; Gupta, K. K.; Kumar, M.; Arun, G. R.; Patil, H.; Kumaraswamy, V.; Jha, S.

2014-01-01

252

Minimal detectable change for mobility and patient-reported tools in people with osteoarthritis awaiting arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Thoughtful use of assessment tools to monitor disease requires an understanding of clinimetric properties. These properties are often under-reported and, thus, potentially overlooked in the clinic. This study aimed to determine the minimal detectable change (MDC) and coefficient of variation per cent (CV%) for tools commonly used to assess the symptomatic and functional severity of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Methods We performed a test-retest study on 136 people awaiting knee or hip arthroplasty at one of two hospitals. The MDC95 (the range over which the difference [change] for 95% of patients is expected to lie) and the coefficient of variation per cent (CV%) for the visual analogue scale (VAS) for joint pain, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) subscales were calculated. Results Knee cohort (n?=?75) - The MDC95 and CV% values were as follows: VAS 2.8 cm, 15%; 6MWT 79 m, 8%; TUG +/-36.7%, 13%; KOOS pain 20.2, 19%; KOOS symptoms 24.1, 22%; KOOS activities of daily living 20.8, 17%; KOOS quality of life 26.6, 44. Hip cohort (n?=?61) - The MDC95 and CV% values were as follows: VAS 3.3 cm, 17%; 6MWT 81.5 m, 9%; TUG +/-44.6%, 16%; HOOS pain 21.6, 22%; HOOS symptoms 22.7, 19%; HOOS activities of daily living 17.7, 17%; HOOS quality of life 24.4, 43%. Conclusions Distinguishing real change from error is difficult in people with severe osteoarthritis. The 6MWT demonstrates the smallest measurement error amongst a range of tools commonly used to assess disease severity, thus, has the capacity to detect the smallest real change above measurement error in everyday clinical practice. PMID:25015083

2014-01-01

253

A comparison of radiographic, arthroscopic and histological measures of articular pathology in the canine elbow joint.  

PubMed

Validation of radiographic and arthroscopic scoring of joint pathology requires their comparison with histological measures of disease from the same joint. Fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a naturally occurring disease of the canine elbow joint that results in osteoarthritis, and the objectives of this study were to compare the severity of histopathological changes in the medial coronoid process (MCP) and medial articular synovial membrane with gross radiographic scoring of elbow joint osteophytosis and the arthroscopic assessment of the MCP articular cartilage surface. Radiographic scoring of osteophytosis and the arthroscopic scoring of visual cartilage pathology of the MCP correlated moderately well with the histopathological evaluation of cartilage damage on the MCP and synovial inflammation in the medial part of the joint, but not with bone pathology in the MCP. Marked cartilage pathology on the MCP was identified in joints with either no radiographic evidence of osteophytosis or with mild cartilage damage that was evident arthroscopically. PMID:19716324

Goldhammer, Marc A; Smith, Sionagh H; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Clements, Dylan N

2010-10-01

254

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The medical literature was reviewed from 1968–2002 using Medline and the key words "intra-articular" and "osteoarthritis" to determine the various intra-articular therapies used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are the most frequently used intra-articular therapies in osteoarthritis. Other intra-articular substances such as orgotein, radiation synovectomy, dextrose prolotherapy, silicone, saline lavage, saline injection without lavage, analgesic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucosamine, somatostatin, sodium pentosan polysulfate, chloroquine, mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester, lactic acid solution, and thiotepa cytostatica have been investigated as potentially therapeutic in the treatment of arthritic joints. Despite the lack of strong, convincing, and reproducible evidence that any of the intra-articular therapies significantly alters the progression of osteoarthritis, corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid are widely used in patients who have failed other therapeutic modalities for lack of efficacy or toxicity. As a practical approach for a knee with effusion, steroid injections should be considered while the presence of symptomatic "dry" knees may favour the hyaluronic acid approach. The virtual absence of serious side effects, coupled with the perceived benefits, make these approaches attractive. PMID:12954956

Uthman, I; Raynauld, J; Haraoui, B

2003-01-01

255

Conservative management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a flawed strategy?  

PubMed Central

Conservative management of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a misleading term used to describe the application of medical, orthotic, and/or rehabilitative therapies exclusive of surgical interventions. The implication of this nomenclature is that these therapies offer satisfactory symptom relief, alter disease progression, and have limited side effects. Unfortunately, conservative therapeutic options possesses few, if any, characteristics of an ideal treatment, namely one that significantly alleviates pain, improves knee function, and reduces medial compartmental loading without adverse side effects. As uncompensated mechanical loading is a primary culprit in the development and progression of knee OA, we propose that the therapeutic perspective of conservative treatment should shift from pharmacological treatments, which have no influence on joint loading, minimal potential to alter joint function, substantial associated risks, and significant financial costs, towards minimally invasive load absorbing therapeutic interventions. A safe and effective minimally invasive medical device specifically engineered for symptomatic relief of medial knee OA by limiting joint contact forces has the potential to reduce the clinical and economic knee OA burden. This review characterizes the current standard of care recommendations for conservative management of medial compartment knee OA with respect to treatment efficacy, risk profile, and economic burden. PMID:23705060

Crawford, Dennis C.; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

2013-01-01

256

Comparative Study of Hamstring and Quadriceps Strengthening Treatments in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohsen; Alenazi, Aqeel M.

2014-01-01

257

Osteoarthritis and You  

MedlinePLUS

... Guidelines for Americans and in A National Public Health Agenda for Osteoarthritis. Get Help. CDC and the Arthritis Foundation suggest several physical activity and self-management education programs that are both proven to be effective ...

258

Validating a New Computed Tomography Atlas for Grading Ankle Osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

As the most common joint disease, osteoarthritis (OA) poses a significant source of pain and disability. It can be defined by classic radiographic findings, particular symptoms, or a combination of the 2. Although specific grading scales have been developed to evaluate OA in various joints, such as the shoulder, hip, and knee, no definitive classification system is available for grading OA in the ankle. The purpose of the present study was to create and validate a standardized atlas for grading (or staging) ankle osteoarthritis using computed tomography (CT) and "hallmark" findings noted on coronal, sagittal, and axial views extrapolated from the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic scale. The CT scans of 226 patients at the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center were reviewed. An atlas was derived from a retrospective review of 30 remaining CT scans taken from July 2008 to November 2011. After this review, 3 orthogonal static CT images, obtained from 11 remaining patients, were chosen to represent the various stages on the OA scale and were used to test the validity of the atlas developed by 2 of us (M.M.C. and N.D.V.). A multispecialty panel of 9 examiners, excluding ourselves, independently rated the 11 CT scan subjects. The differences among examiners and specialties were calculated, including an intra-examiner agreement for 2 separate readings spaced 9 months apart. Although the small number of subspecialty examiners made the intraspecialty comparisons difficult to validate, the findings nevertheless indicated excellent agreement among all specialty groups, with good intra-investigational (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.962 and 1) inter-investigational (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.851) values. These results appeared to validate the CT ankle OA atlas, which we believe will be a valuable clinical and research tool, one that will likely be more beneficial than less relevant generalized OA grading scales in use today. PMID:25135101

Cohen, Michael M; Vela, Nathan D; Levine, Jason E; Barnoy, Eran A

2014-08-16

259

Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals—food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease—offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment. PMID:24284399

Leong, Daniel J.; Choudhury, Marwa; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B.

2013-01-01

260

Glenohumeral Joint Injections  

PubMed Central

Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

2013-01-01

261

Knee stabilization in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714

Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.

2005-01-01

262

Joint association discovery and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by supervised heterogeneous multiview learning.  

PubMed

A key step for Alzheimer's disease (AD) study is to identify associations between genetic variations and intermediate phenotypes (e.g., brain structures). At the same time, it is crucial to develop a noninvasive means for AD diagnosis. Although these two tasks-association discovery and disease diagnosis-have been treated separately by a variety of approaches, they are tightly coupled due to their common biological basis. We hypothesize that the two tasks can potentially benefit each other by a joint analysis, because (i) the association study discovers correlated biomarkers from different data sources, which may help improve diagnosis accuracy, and (ii) the disease status may help identify disease-sensitive associations between genetic variations and MRI features. Based on this hypothesis, we present a new sparse Bayesian approach for joint association study and disease diagnosis. In this approach, common latent features are extracted from different data sources based on sparse projection matrices and used to predict multiple disease severity levels based on Gaussian process ordinal regression; in return, the disease status is used to guide the discovery of relationships between the data sources. The sparse projection matrices not only reveal the associations but also select groups of biomarkers related to AD. To learn the model from data, we develop an efficient variational expectation maximization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that our approach achieves higher accuracy in both predicting ordinal labels and discovering associations between data sources than alternative methods. We apply our approach to an imaging genetics dataset of AD. Our joint analysis approach not only identifies meaningful and interesting associations between genetic variations, brain structures, and AD status, but also achieves significantly higher accuracy for predicting ordinal AD stages than the competing methods. PMID:24297556

Zhe, Shandian; Xu, Zenglin; Qi, Yuan; Yu, Peng

2014-01-01

263

Defining a role for fibroblasts in the persistence of chronic inflammatory joint disease  

PubMed Central

The most surprising feature of the inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis is not that it occurs but that it does not resolve. The persistence of the chronic inflammatory response in conjunction with ongoing joint destruction is an all too familiar finding in many patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the use of effective anti-inflammatory agents and disease modifying drugs, a significant proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis continue to have resistant disease. Complete clinical remission is unusual for more than six months and a formal cure of the disease remains elusive. In this report we focus on how attempts to address the question of why rheumatoid arthritis persists have led to a different interpretation of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid disease; one in which alterations in stromal cells such as fibroblasts play an important role in the switch from resolving to persistent disease. PMID:15479882

Buckley, C; Filer, A; Haworth, O; Parsonage, G; Salmon, M

2004-01-01

264

The presence of MEFV gene mutations in patients with primary osteoarthritis who require surgery  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Chronic arthritis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) involves weight-bearing joints and can occur in patients without a history of acute attack. Our aim was to investigate a possible causal relationship between FMF and osteoarthritis in a population in which FMF is quite common. Methods Patients with late stage primary osteoarthritis were enrolled, and five MEFV gene mutations were investigated. The frequency of MEFV gene mutations was compared among patients with osteoarthritis and a previous healthy group from our center. Results One hundred patients with primary osteoarthritis and 100 healthy controls were studied. The frequency of MEFV gene mutations was significantly lower in the osteoarthritis group (9% vs. 19%). M694V was the most frequent mutation (5%) in the osteoarthritis group, whereas in the control group, E148Q was the most common (16%). In subgroup analyses, the mutation frequency of patients with hip osteoarthritis was not different from that of patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls (7.1%, 9.7%, and 19%, respectively). There were no differences among the three groups with respect to MEFV gene mutations other than E148Q (8.1% vs. 3.6%). E148Q was significantly lower in the osteoarthritis group than in the controls (16% vs. 1%), although the mutations did not differ between patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls. Conclusions In a population with a high prevalence of MEFV gene mutations, we did not find an increased mutation rate in patients with primary osteoarthritis. Furthermore, we found that some mutations were significantly less frequent in patients with osteoarthritis. Although the number of patients studied was insufficient to claim that E148Q gene mutation protects against osteoarthritis, the potential of this gene merits further investigation. PMID:24009456

Erdem, Hakan; Tunay, Servet; Torun, Deniz; Genc, Halil; Tunca, Yusuf; Karadag, Omer; Simsek, Ismail; Bahce, Muhterem; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan

2013-01-01

265

A Review of Translational Animal Models for Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Knee osteoarthritis remains a tremendous public health concern, both in terms of health-related quality of life and financial burden of disease. Translational research is a critical step towards understanding and mitigating the long-term effects of this disease process. Animal models provide practical and clinically relevant ways to study both the natural history and response to treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Many factors including size, cost, and method of inducing osteoarthritis are important considerations for choosing an appropriate animal model. Smaller animals are useful because of their ease of use and cost, while larger animals are advantageous because of their anatomical similarity to humans. This evidence-based review will compare and contrast several different animal models for knee osteoarthritis. Our goal is to inform the clinician about current research models, in order to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the “bench” to the “bedside.” PMID:23326663

Gregory, Martin H.; Capito, Nicholas; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M.; Cook, James L.; Sherman, Seth L.

2012-01-01

266

Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually limited to short-term symptom control. We assessed the effects of the specific drug glucosamine sulphate on the long-term progression of osteoarthritis joint structure changes and symptoms. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial, in which 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned 1500 mg sulphate oral glucosamine or placebo once

Jean Yves Reginster; Rita Deroisy; Lucio C Rovati; Richard L Lee; Eric Lejeune; Olivier Bruyere; Giampaolo Giacovelli; Yves Henrotin; Jane E Dacre; Christiane Gossett

2001-01-01

267

The expression of p-ATF2 involved in the chondeocytes apoptosis of an endemic osteoarthritis, Kashin-Beck disease  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was to understand the function and expression of ATF2 by JNK and p38 signal pathways in the chondrocytes apoptosis of articular cartilage of the Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Methods The changes of ATF2, JNK and p38 mRNAs and proteins were investigated between cartilage and chondrocyte as well as KBD and normal. JNK and p38 inhibitors were used as treatments to prevent apoptosis in chondrocytes from KBD patients. Results It was found that the protein levels of p-p38, p-JNK, ATF2 and p-ATF2 increased in KBD human cartilage which is in line with the higher mRNA levels of p38, JNK and ATF2 as compared both with normal cartilage and KBD chondrocytes. In addition, p-ATF2 was only detected in KBD cartilage. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor was more effective than p38 inhibitor in preventing chondrocyte apoptosis at equal concentrations of 10 ?M. Conclusion These findings indicated the expression of p-ATF2 by JNK and p38 signal pathways involved in the chondrocyte apoptosis in cartilage with KBD. PMID:23866832

2013-01-01

268

Tibial and femoral cartilage changes in knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDDespite the increasing interest in using knee cartilage volume as an outcome measure in studies of osteoarthritis (OA), it is unclear what components of knee cartilage will be most useful as markers of structure in the tibiofemoral (TF) joint.OBJECTIVETo compare the changes that occur in femoral and tibial cartilage volume in normal and osteoarthritic knees and how they relate to

F M Cicuttini; A E Wluka; S L Stuckey

2001-01-01

269

Three-dimensional osteochondral microtissue to model pathogenesis of osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent form of arthritis, affects up to 15% of the adult population and is principally characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage component of the joint, often with accompanying subchondral bone lesions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OA is important for the rational development of disease-modifying OA drugs. While most studies on OA have focused on the investigation of either the cartilage or the bone component of the articular joint, the osteochondral complex represents a more physiologically relevant target because the disease ultimately is a disorder of osteochondral integrity and function. In our current investigation, we are constructing an in vitro three-dimensional microsystem that models the structure and biology of the osteochondral complex of the articular joint. Osteogenic and chondrogenic tissue components are produced using adult human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose seeded within biomaterial scaffolds photostereolithographically fabricated with defined internal architecture. A three-dimensional-printed, perfusion-ready container platform with dimensions to fit into a 96-well culture plate format is designed to house and maintain the osteochondral microsystem that has the following features: an anatomic cartilage/bone biphasic structure with a functional interface; all tissue components derived from a single adult mesenchymal stem cell source to eliminate possible age/tissue-type incompatibility; individual compartments to constitute separate microenvironment for the synovial and osseous components; accessible individual compartments that may be controlled and regulated via the introduction of bioactive agents or candidate effector cells, and tissue/medium sampling and compositional assays; and compatibility with the application of mechanical load and perturbation. The consequences of mechanical injury, exposure to inflammatory cytokines, and compromised bone quality on degenerative changes in the cartilage component are examined in the osteochondral microsystem as a first step towards its eventual application as an improved and high-throughput in vitro model for prediction of efficacy, safety, bioavailability, and toxicology outcomes for candidate disease-modifying OA drugs. PMID:24564995

2013-01-01

270

The Role of Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of human joints. The basis of pathologic changes involves all the tissues forming the joint; already, at an early stage, it has the nature of inflammation with varying degrees of severity. An analysis of the complex relationships indicates that the processes taking place inside the joint are not merely a set that (seemingly) only includes catabolic effects. Apart from them, anti-inflammatory anabolic processes also occur continually. These phenomena are driven by various mediators, of which the key role is attributed to the interactions within the cytokine network. The most important group controlling the disease seems to be inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, TNF?, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, and IL-18. The second group with antagonistic effect is formed by cytokines known as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of OA with respect to inter- and intracellular signaling pathways is still under investigation. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge. The cytokine network in OA is put in the context of cells involved in this degenerative joint disease. The possibilities for further implementation of new therapeutic strategies in OA are also pointed. PMID:24876674

Poniatowski, ?ukasz A.

2014-01-01

271

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

272

Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Knee Among Elderly Persons in Urban Slums Using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of osteoarthritis among elderly is high and it majorly affects the quality of life. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis. Timely diagnosis using clinical criteria and effective intervention is of utmost importance. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of osteoarthritis of knee joint among elderly persons residing in an urban slum of Delhi using ACR clinical criteria. Materials and Methods: We did a community-based cross-sectional study among 496 elderly (>= 60 years) persons residing in urban slum of Delhi, India from December 2009 to February 2010. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria was used to clinically diagnose osteoarthritis knee. Statistical Analysis: Bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done to identify the determinants. Sensitivity and specificity of individual factors to diagnose osteoarthritis knee was calculated. Results: The prevalence of osteoarthritis was estimated to be 41.1% (95% C.I., 36.7-45.6). Female sex and age >= 70 y were found to be independent risk factor for osteoarthritis knee. Among those having knee pain, presence of crepitus and tenderness were the most sensitive factors whereas bone overgrowth and bone warmth were most specific factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoarthritis knee was high among this elderly population and increased with age. Overall, individual factors of ACR criteria were both sensitive and specific in diagnosing osteoarthritis knee. In resource constrained setting of urban India, it can be an effective tool in clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis knee. PMID:25386465

Kalaivani, Mani; Krishnan, Anand; Aggarwal, Praveen Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2014-01-01

273

Joint disease, the hallmark of haemophilia: what issues and challenges remain despite the development of effective therapies?  

PubMed

Although effective therapies for haemophilia have been available for decades, the prevention and treatment of joint disease remain major clinical concerns for all haemophilia patients. Early identification of joint disease is vital to initiate or modify treatment, and prevent arthropathy. However, there remains a need for more sensitive and accurate methods, which may also detect improvement in patient outcome with new therapies or different prophylaxis regimens. These topics were explored at the Ninth Zürich Haemophilia Forum. A summary of our shared views on the limitations of current assessment methods, and the potential advantages of more recently developed tools, is provided. Ultrasonography enables more frequent routine monitoring and the early detection of joint disease. In addition, serological markers may provide suitable biomarkers of early arthropathy. To prevent arthropathy, in our opinion, prophylaxis is key to prevent joint bleeds and subsequent initiation of the 'vicious circle of joint disease'. However, issues remain, including when prophylaxis should be started, stopped, and if it is efficacious for inhibitor patients. Once joint bleeding has occurred, enhanced on-demand treatment should be considered. For more advanced stages of joint disease, the issues regarding the treatment options available are explored. Radiosynovectomy should be performed to treat chronic synovitis, and may prevent the need for elective orthopaedic surgery (EOS). Ultimately, however, EOS can be considered once all other treatment options have been explored. While, bypassing agents have facilitated the use of EOS in inhibitor patients, a multidisciplinary approach and careful surveillance is required for good patient outcome. PMID:24613700

Lambert, Thierry; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Hedner, Ulla; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Remor, Eduardo; Santagostino, Elena; Zupan?i? Šalek, Silva

2014-06-01

274

Short-term consolidation of articular cartilage in the long-term context of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Over ten percent of the population are afflicted by osteoarthritis, a chronic disease of diarthrodial joints such as the knees and hips, costing hundreds of billions of dollars every year. In this condition, the thin layers of articular cartilage on the bones degrade and weaken over years, causing pain, stiffness and eventual immobility. The biggest controllable risk factor is long-term mechanical overloading of the cartilage, but the disparity in time scales makes this process a challenge to model: loading events can take place every second, whereas degradation occurs over many months. Therefore, a suitable model must be sufficiently simple to permit evaluation over long periods of variable loading, yet must deliver results sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, conditions unmet by existing models. To address this gap, we construct a two-component poroelastic model endowed with a new flow restricting boundary condition, which better represents the joint space environment compared to the typical free-flow condition. Under both static and cyclic loading, we explore the rate of gradual consolidation of the medium. In the static case, we analytically characterise the duration of consolidation, which governs the duration of effective fluid-assisted lubrication. In the oscillatory case, we identify a region of persistent strain oscillations in otherwise consolidated tissue, and derive estimates of its depth and magnitude. Finally, we link the two cases through the concept of an equivalent static stress, and discuss how our results help explain the inexorable cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritis. PMID:25591888

Woodhouse, Francis G; Gardiner, Bruce S; Smith, David W

2015-03-01

275

Prevalence of radiographic primary hip and knee osteoarthritis in a representative Central European population.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine the radiographic prevalence of hip and knee osteoarthritis and compare our results with prevalence data reported by other studies, as no similar study had been performed in Hungary previously. Our aim was also to investigate the usefulness of the different radiological scoring methods for the definition of osteoarthritis. Patients who earlier reported complaints and gave written consent were asked to participate in a clinical follow-up. In the 682 participants Harris hip score, visual analogue pain scale values for both joints, Knee Society score and knee functional score were calculated. Weight-bearing radiographs were taken of both joints. Kellgren-Lawrence radiological evaluation was performed and osteoarthritis prevalence was defined. Hip osteoarthritis was found in 109 cases (16.49%), and knee osteoarthritis was found in 111 cases (16.54%). Harris hip score, Knee Society score, functional score and visual analogue scale values were significantly worse in people with radiographically proven osteoarthritis compared to the control group (p?osteoarthritis prevalence of both joints was found in those with increased body mass index values. Age also plays a significant role in the development of both hip and knee osteoarthritis. No significant difference was observed between male and female participants regarding osteoarthritis prevalence. The Kellgren-Lawrence score with a cut-off value of 2 or more is a useful evaluation method for the detection of osteoarthritis prevalence in epidemiological studies; according to our observations, in clinical practice a cut-off value of three or more is more relevant. PMID:20556380

Horváth, Gábor; Koroknai, Gabriella; Ács, Barnabás; Than, Péter; Bellyei, Árpád; Illés, Tamás

2011-07-01

276

Meta-analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for

Sarah Brien; Phil Prescott; George Lewith

2009-01-01

277

Relationship between body adiposity measures and risk of primary knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Total joint replacement is considered a surrogate measure for symptomatic end-stage osteoarthritis. It is unknown whether the adipose mass and the distribution of adipose mass are associated with the risk of primary knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis. The aim of the present investigation was to examine this in a cohort study. METHODS: A total of 39,023 healthy volunteers

Yuanyuan Wang; Julie Anne Simpson; Anita E Wluka; Andrew J Teichtahl; Dallas R English; Graham G Giles; Stephen Graves; Flavia M Cicuttini

2009-01-01

278

Patients with peripheral arterial disease exhibit reduced joint powers compared to velocity-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown major deficits in gait for individuals with peripheral arterial disease before and after the onset of pain. However, these studies did not have subjects ambulate at similar velocities and potential exists that the differences in joint powers may have been due to differences in walking velocity. The purpose of this study was to examine the joint moments and powers of peripheral arterial disease limbs for subjects walking at similar self-selected walking velocities as healthy controls prior to onset of any symptoms. Results revealed peripheral arterial disease patients have reduced peak hip power absorption in midstance (p=0.017), reduced peak knee power absorption in early and late stance (p=0.037 and p=0.020 respectively), and reduced peak ankle power generation in late stance (p=0.021). This study reveals that the gait of patients with peripheral arterial disease walking prior to the onset of any leg symptoms is characterized by failure of specific and identifiable muscle groups needed to perform normal walking and that these gait deficits are independent of reduced gait velocity. PMID:22677467

Wurdeman, Shane R.; Koutakis, Panagiotis; Myers, Sara A.; Johanning, Jason M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Stergiou, Nicholas

2012-01-01

279

Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease most commonly occurring in the ageing population. It is a slow progressive condition resulting in the destruction of hyaline cartilage followed by pain and reduced activity. Conventional treatments have little effects on the progression of the condition often leaving surgery as the last option. In the last 10 years tissue engineering utilising mesenchymal stem cells has been emerging as an alternative method for treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells found in various tissues, most commonly bone marrow and adipose tissue. MSCs are capable of differentiating into osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Autologous MSCs can be easily harvested and applied in treatment, but allogenic cells can also be employed. The early uses of MSCs focused on the implantations of cell rich matrixes during open surgeries, resulting in the formation of hyaline-like durable cartilage. More recently, the focus has completely shifted towards direct intra-articular injections where a great number of cells are suspended and injected into affected joints. In this review the history and early uses of MSCs in cartilage regeneration are reviewed and different approaches in current trends are explained and evaluated. PMID:25548573

Honsawek, Sittisak

2014-01-01

280

The sources of pain in osteoarthritis: a pathophysiological review.  

PubMed

The pain of osteoarthritis (OA) has multifaceted etiologies within and outside the joint. It is believed to be driven by both nociceptive and neuropathic mechanisms, as well as abnormal excitability in the pain pathways of the peripheral and central nervous system. Inflammation in the joint triggers a cascade of events that leads to peripheral sensitization, increased sensitivity of nociceptive primary afferent neurons, and hyperexcitability of the nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system. Pain receptors have been found in the synovium, ligaments, capsule, subchondral bone and surrounding tissues, with the exception of articular cartilage. The bone-related causes of pain in OA include subchondral microfractures, bone stretching with elevation of the periosteum due to osteophyte growth, bone remodeling and repair, bone marrow lesions, and bone angina caused by decreased blood flow and increased intra-osseous pressure. Central factors alter pain processing by setting the gain in such a way that, when a peripheral input is present, it is processed against a background of central factors that can enhance or diminish the experience of pain. As a complex phenomenon with a strong subjective component, pain can also be influenced by the nature of the underlying disease, personal predisposition (biological and psychological), and environmental and psychosocial factors. This review examines the current literature regarding the sources and mechanisms of pain in OA. PMID:24938198

Salaffi, F; Ciapetti, A; Carotti, M

2014-01-01

281

Joint Effects of Smoking and Silicosis on Diseases to the Lungs  

PubMed Central

Smokers are subject to being more susceptible to the long-term effects of silica dust, whilst it remains unclear whether the joint effect of smoking and silicosis differs amongst diseases to the lungs; this study aims to address this knowledge gap. This was a historical cohort study comprised of 3202 silicotics in Hong Kong during 1981–2005 who were followed up till 31/12/2006. We estimated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the smoking and never smoking silicotics using the mortality rates of male general population indiscriminately by smoking status, but these SMRs were regarded as biased. We adjusted these biased SMRs using “smoking adjustment factors (SAF)”. We assessed the multiplicative interaction between smoking and silicosis using ‘relative silicosis effect (RSE)’ that was the ratio of SAF-corrected SMR of smoking silicotics to the never smokers. A RSE differs significantly from one implies the presence of multiplicative interaction. A significant excess SMR was observed for respiratory diseases (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [COPD], silicosis) and other diseases to the lungs (pulmonary heart disease, tuberculosis). All the ‘biased-SMRs’ in smokers were higher than those in never smokers, but the SAF-corrected SMRs became higher in never smokers. The RSE was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.37–3.55), 0.94 (95%CI: 0.42–2.60), and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.60–1.19) for lung cancer, COPD, and silicosis; whilst it was 1.21 (95%CI: 0.32–10.26) for tuberculosis and 1.02 (95%CI: 0.16–42.90) for pulmonary heart disease. This study firstly demonstrated the joint effect of smoking and silicosis may differ amongst diseases to the lungs, but power is limited. PMID:25105409

Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Qiu, Hong; Leung, Chi Chiu

2014-01-01

282

Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease that has a major impact on joint function and quality of life. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements derived from herbs have long been used in traditional medicine and there is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals may play an important role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the biological effects of some medicinal fruits and herbs – pomegranate, green tea, cat’s claw, devil’s claw, ginger, Indian olibaum, turmeric and ananas – in an attempt to understand the pivotal molecular targets involved in inflammation and the joint destruction process and to summarize their toxicities and efficacy for OA management. So far there is insufficient reliable evidence on the effectiveness of ginger, turmeric and ananas. Pomegranate and green tea only have preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. In vivo and clinical studies are required to understand their targets and efficacy in OA. Limited in vitro and in vivo evidence is available for cat’s claw and Indian olibaum. More extensive studies are required before long-term controlled trials of whole cat’s claw and Indian olibaum extracts, or isolated active compounds, are carried out in patients with OA to determine their long-term efficacy and safety. Devil’s claw has not been rigorously tested to determine its antiarthritic potential in in vitro and in vivo models. There is strong clinical evidence of the effectiveness of devil’s claw in pain reduction. However, high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness. No serious side effects have been reported for any fruits and herbs. Overall, these studies identify and support the use of nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with OA and to be used as adjunct therapy for OA management. More high-quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention and/or treatment. PMID:22850529

Akhtar, Nahid

2012-01-01

283

Linkage of early-onset osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis to human chromosome 8q  

SciTech Connect

Calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease (CPDD), also called {open_quotes}chondrocalcinosis{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudogout{close_quotes}, is a disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals in joint tissue, which leads to arthritis-like symptoms. The presence of these crystals in joint tissue is a common finding in the elderly, and, in this population, there is a poor correlation with joint pain. In contrast, early-onset CPDD has been described in several large families in which the disease progresses to severe degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). In these families, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is observed, with an age at onset between the 2nd and 5th decades of life. In this report, we describe a large New England family with early-onset CPDD and severe degenerative OA. We found genetic linkage between the disease in this family and chromosome 8q, with a multipoint lod score of 4.06. These results suggest that a defective gene at this location causes the disease in this family. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Baldwin, C.T.; Farrer, L.A.; Adair, R. [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States); Dharmavaram, R.; Jimenez, S. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Anderson, L. [Rheumatology Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

1995-03-01

284

Comparison of the outcomes of three surgical treatments for end-stage temporomandibular joint disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences between condylectomy, rib grafts, and prosthetic joints (Biomet TMJ stock prosthesis) with regard to outcomes for patients with end-stage temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease. Fifty-six of a total 127 patients who presented with category 5 end-stage TMJ disease over 3 years (2010-2013) agreed to participate in this retrospective, comparative, cohort study. Patients were divided into four groups: preoperative (n=16), condylectomy (n=8), rib graft (n=16), and prosthetic joint (n=16). They were assessed for major postoperative complications (i.e., return to theatre) and maximum range of mandibular motion, and all completed a specific quality of life (QOL) questionnaire. Whilst the condylectomy group demonstrated the best mandibular range of motion (P<0.01), rib graft patients were more likely to experience complications (43.8%) necessitating a return to theatre. The prosthesis group recorded the best mean aggregate QOL score, but the difference compared to the rib graft and condylectomy groups was not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that for dentate patients, prosthetic joints are highly dependable with no returns to theatre and favourable QOL outcomes. For edentulous patients, condylectomies alone also appear to work well. Future TMJ prosthetic designs should focus on improving mandibular range of motion, as the current stock prosthesis allows only a restricted range, no better than that achieved with rib graft (P>0.05) and far less than that achieved with condylectomy (P<0.01). PMID:24629849

Dimitroulis, G

2014-08-01

285

Handout on Health: Osteoarthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... that improvement can be made in the self-management of osteoarthritis when spouses provide help. The intervention that was tested used spouse-assisted coping skills training and exercise training to improve physical fitness, pain coping, and self-efficacy in patients with ...

286

What Is Osteoarthritis?  

MedlinePLUS

... publication. To order the Osteoarthritis: Handout on Health full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ... mailed to you? Visit our online order form. Full NIAMS Site NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® ... Comments Moderation Policy Site Map | Viewers and Players

287

Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteo- arthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucos- amine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain

Pharm D

288

Platelet-rich plasma for managing pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease involving joint damage, an inadequate healing response and progressive deterioration of the joint architecture. Autologous blood-derived products, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), are key sources of molecules involved in tissue repair and regeneration. These products can deliver a collection of bioactive molecules that have important roles in fundamental processes, including inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and metabolism in pathological conditions, such as OA. PRP has anti-inflammatory properties through its effects on the canonical nuclear factor ?B signalling pathway in multiple cell types including synoviocytes, macrophages and chondrocytes. PRP contains hundreds of different molecules; cells within the joint add to this milieu by secreting additional biologically active molecules in response to PRP. The net results of PRP therapy are varied and can include angiogenesis, the production of local conditions that favour anabolism in the articular cartilage, or the recruitment of repair cells. However, the molecules found in PRP that contribute to angiogenesis and the protection of joint integrity need further clarification. Understanding PRP in molecular terms could help us to exploit its therapeutic potential, and aid the development of novel treatments and tissue-engineering approaches, for the different stages of joint degeneration. PMID:24080861

Andia, Isabel; Maffulli, Nicola

2013-12-01

289

The potential utility of high-intensity ultrasound to treat osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread musculoskeletal disease that reduces quality of life and for which there is no cure. The treatment of OA is challenging since cartilage impedes the local and systemic delivery of therapeutic compounds (TCs). This review identifies high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) as a non-contact technique to modify articular cartilage and subchondral bone. HIU enables new approaches to overcome challenges associated with drug delivery to cartilage and new non-invasive approaches for the treatment of joint disease. Specifically, HIU has the potential to facilitate targeted drug delivery and release deep within cartilage, to repair soft tissue damage, and to physically alter tissue structures including cartilage and bone. The localized, non-invasive ultrasonic delivery of TCs to articular cartilage and subchondral bone appears to be a promising technique in the immediate future. PMID:25106678

Nieminen, H J; Salmi, A; Karppinen, P; Hæggström, E; Hacking, S A

2014-11-01

290

Multi directional intertrochanteric osteotomy for primary and secondary osteoarthritis—results after 15 to 29 years  

PubMed Central

Between 1974 and 1987, 276 intertrochanteric osteotomies were performed in 217 patients. In 48 hips the osteotomy was done for idiopathic osteoarthritis. In 166 hips the osteoarthritis was secondary to acetabular dysplasia, in 23 to trauma, in 14 to slipped capital femoral epiphysis, in five to Legg–Calvé–Perthes' disease and in 20 to avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Good results were achieved in young females with mild osteoarthritis secondary to acetabular dysplasia, and in patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis. All other indications showed a poorer long-term survival. Our study shows that acetabular dysplasia and posttraumatic arthritis remain valid indications for intertrochanteric osteotomy. PMID:16378166

Eijer, H.; Patt, T. W.; Marti, R. K.

2005-01-01

291

Genomics of pain in osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Summary Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for the majority of the disease burden for musculoskeletal disorders and is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. This disability is the result not of the cartilage loss that defines OA radiographically, but of the chronic pain whose presence defines symptomatic OA. It is becoming clear that many genes, each with a small effect size, contribute to the risk of developing OA. However, the genetics of OA pain are only just starting to be explored. This review will describe the first genes to have been identified in genomic studies of OA pain, as well as the possible dual roles of genes previously identified in genomic studies of OA in the context of pain. Difficulties associated with attempting to characterise the genetics of OA pain will be discussed and promising future avenues of research into genetic and epigenetic factors affecting OA pain described. PMID:23973152

Thakur, M.; Dawes, J.M.; McMahon, S.B.

2013-01-01

292

Joint sparing correction of cavovarus feet in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: what are the limits?  

PubMed

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited neuropathy that results in lower limb muscle imbalance and a resultant cavovarus deformity of the foot. With recognized poor outcomes of triple arthrodeses in the young patient, joint sparing surgery is preferred, which takes the form of osteotomies, soft-tissue releases, and tendon transfers to achieve a plantigrade and balanced foot. Due to the variability in muscle involvement and the presence of both mobile and fixed deformities, surgery must be individualized to each patient. PMID:24215832

Barton, Tristan; Winson, Ian

2013-12-01

293

Hallux rigidus: Joint preserving alternatives to arthrodesis - a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hallux rigidus describes the osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It was first mentioned in 1887. Since then a multitude of terms have been introduced referring to the same disease. The main complaints are pain especially during movement and a limited range of motion. Radiographically the typical signs of osteoarthritis can be observed starting at the dorsal portion of the joint. Numerous classifications make the comparison of the different studies difficult. If non-operative treatment fails to resolve the symptoms operative treatment is indicated. The most studied procedure with reproducible results is the arthrodesis. Nevertheless, many patients refuse this treatment option, favouring a procedure preserving motion. Different motion preserving and joint sacrificing operations such as arthroplasty are available. In this review we focus on motion and joint preserving procedures. Numerous joint preserving osteotomies have been described. Most of them try to relocate the viable plantar cartilage more dorsally, to decompress the joint and to increase dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal bone. Multiple studies are available investigating these procedures. Most of them suffer from low quality, short follow up and small patient numbers. Consequently the grade of recommendation is low. Nonetheless, joint preserving procedures are appealing because if they fail to relief the symptoms an arthrodesis or arthroplasty can still be performed thereafter. PMID:24649409

Polzer, Hans; Polzer, Sigmund; Brumann, Mareen; Mutschler, Wolf; Regauer, Markus

2014-01-18

294

Hallux rigidus: Joint preserving alternatives to arthrodesis - a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hallux rigidus describes the osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It was first mentioned in 1887. Since then a multitude of terms have been introduced referring to the same disease. The main complaints are pain especially during movement and a limited range of motion. Radiographically the typical signs of osteoarthritis can be observed starting at the dorsal portion of the joint. Numerous classifications make the comparison of the different studies difficult. If non-operative treatment fails to resolve the symptoms operative treatment is indicated. The most studied procedure with reproducible results is the arthrodesis. Nevertheless, many patients refuse this treatment option, favouring a procedure preserving motion. Different motion preserving and joint sacrificing operations such as arthroplasty are available. In this review we focus on motion and joint preserving procedures. Numerous joint preserving osteotomies have been described. Most of them try to relocate the viable plantar cartilage more dorsally, to decompress the joint and to increase dorsiflexion of the first metatarsal bone. Multiple studies are available investigating these procedures. Most of them suffer from low quality, short follow up and small patient numbers. Consequently the grade of recommendation is low. Nonetheless, joint preserving procedures are appealing because if they fail to relief the symptoms an arthrodesis or arthroplasty can still be performed thereafter. PMID:24649409

Polzer, Hans; Polzer, Sigmund; Brumann, Mareen; Mutschler, Wolf; Regauer, Markus

2014-01-01

295

Gambling on putative biomarkers of osteoarthritis and osteochondrosis by equine synovial fluid proteomics.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteochondrosis (OC) are two of the main challenges in orthopedics, whose definitive diagnosis is usually based on radiographic/arthroscopic evidences. Their early diagnosis should allow preventive or timely therapeutic actions, which are generally precluded from the poor relationships occurring between symptomatologic and radiographic evidences. These limitations should be overcome by improving the knowledge on articular tissue metabolism and on molecular factors regulating its normal homeostasis, also identifying novel OA and OC biomarkers suitable for their earlier diagnoses, whenever clinical/pathological inflammatory scenarios between these joint diseases seem somewhat related. To identify proteins involved in their aetiology and progression, we undertook a differential proteomic analysis of equine synovial fluid (SF), which compared the protein pattern of OA or OC patients with that of healthy individuals. Deregulated proteins in OA and OC included components related to inflammatory state, coagulation pathways, oxidative stress and matrix damage, which were suggestive of pathological alterations in articular homeostasis, plasma-SF exchange, joint nutritional status and vessel permeability. Some proteins seemed commonly deregulated in both pathologies indicating that, regardless of the stimulus, common pathways are affected and/or the animal joint uses the same molecular mechanisms to restore its homeostasis. On the other hand, the increased number of deregulated proteins observed in OA with respect to OC, together with their nature, confirmed the high inflammatory character of this disease. Some deregulated proteins in OA found a verification by analyzing the SF of injured arthritic joints following autologous conditioned serum treatment, an emergent therapy that provides positive results for both human and equine OA. Being the horse involved in occupational/sporting activities and considered as an excellent animal model for human joint diseases, our data provide suggestive information for tentative biomedical extrapolations, allowing to overcome the limitations in joint size and workload that are typical of other small animal models. PMID:22361695

Chiaradia, Elisabetta; Pepe, Marco; Tartaglia, Micaela; Scoppetta, Fausto; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Renzone, Giovanni; Avellini, Luca; Moriconi, Franco; Gaiti, Alberto; Bertuglia, Andrea; Beccati, Francesca; Scaloni, Andrea

2012-07-19

296

Hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation and osteoarthritis: current uses and future directions.  

PubMed

Intra-articular hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation is gaining popularity as a treatment option in the nonoperative management of patients with osteoarthritis. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory, anabolic, and chondroprotective actions of hyaluronic acid reduce pain and improve patient function. With evidence mounting in support of the efficacy of this treatment modality for patients with osteoarthritis, its potential use in additional patient populations and for other pathologies affecting the knee is being investigated. The current article reviews the use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis and presents the potential for expanding its indications for other joints and alternative patient subpopulations. Additionally, future directions for the use of hyaluronic acid and areas of active research are discussed. PMID:19168804

Strauss, Eric J; Hart, Jennifer A; Miller, Mark D; Altman, Roy D; Rosen, Jeffrey E

2009-08-01

297

Effectiveness of a home-based exercise therapy and walking program on osteoarthritis of the knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a very common rheumatological disease, and there are various treatment modalities for it. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of home-based exercise and walking programs in the treatment of OA. A total of 90 patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. Their ages ranged between 48 and 71 years. The patients

Deniz Evcik; Birkan Sonel

2002-01-01

298

Soluble Mediators in Posttraumatic Wrist and Primary Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: New discoveries about the pathophysiology changed the concept that all forms of osteoarthritis are alike; this lead to the delineation of different phenotypes such as age, trauma or obese related forms. We aim to compare soluble mediator profiles in primary knee and posttraumatic wrist osteoarthritis. Based on the general faster progression rate of wrist osteoarthritis, we hypothesize a more inflammatory profile. Methods: We collected synovial fluid from 20 primary osteoarthritic knee and 20 posttraumatic osteoarthritic wrist joints. 17 mediators were measured by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: chemokine ligand 5, interferon-?, leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin-M, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-?, vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17. Results: Ten mediators were higher in posttraumatic osteoarthritic synovial fluid: tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), IL-1?, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, oncostatin-M, interferon-?, chemokine ligand 5 and leukemia inhibitory factor (P<0.001). IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-7 were not detected, TNF? was not detected in knee osteoarthritic synovial fluid. IL-8, IL-13, osteoprotegerin and vascular endothelial growth factor levels did not differ between the synovial fluid types. Conclusions: In general wrist osteoarthritis seems characterized by a stronger inflammatory response than primary knee osteoarthritis. More pronounced inflammatory mediators might offer a paradigm for the faster progression of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Increase of specific mediators could form a possible target for future mediator modulating therapy in wrist osteoarthritis. PMID:25386573

Teunis, Teun; Beekhuizen, Michiel; Van Osch, Gerjo V.M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Creemers, Laura B.; van Minnen, L. Paul

2014-01-01

299

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 9–26 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects. PMID:18667082

Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

2008-01-01

300

Bone marrow derived stem cells in joint and bone diseases: a concise review.  

PubMed

Stem cells have huge applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their use is currently not restricted to the life-threatening diseases but also extended to disorders involving the structural tissues, which may not jeopardize the patients' life, but certainly influence their quality of life. In fact, a particularly popular line of research is represented by the regeneration of bone and cartilage tissues to treat various orthopaedic disorders. Most of these pioneering research lines that aim to create new treatments for diseases that currently have limited therapies are still in the bench of the researchers. However, in recent years, several clinical trials have been started with satisfactory and encouraging results. This article aims to review the concept of stem cells and their characterization in terms of site of residence, differentiation potential and therapeutic prospective. In fact, while only the bone marrow was initially considered as a "reservoir" of this cell population, later, adipose tissue and muscle tissue have provided a considerable amount of cells available for multiple differentiation. In reality, recently, the so-called "stem cell niche" was identified as the perivascular space, recognizing these cells as almost ubiquitous. In the field of bone and joint diseases, their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lines makes their application ideally immediate through three main modalities: (1) cells selected by withdrawal from bone marrow, subsequent culture in the laboratory, and ultimately transplant at the site of injury; (2) bone marrow aspirate, concentrated and directly implanted into the injury site; (3) systemic mobilization of stem cells and other bone marrow precursors by the use of growth factors. The use of this cell population in joint and bone disease will be addressed and discussed, analysing both the clinical outcomes but also the basic research background, which has justified their use for the treatment of bone, cartilage and meniscus tissues. PMID:25005462

Marmotti, Antonio; de Girolamo, Laura; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Bruzzone, Matteo; Mattia, Silvia; Rossi, Roberto; Montaruli, Angela; Dettoni, Federico; Castoldi, Filippo; Peretti, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

301

Independent and joint effects of the MAPT and SNCA genes in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Objective We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium. Methods Participants of Caucasian ancestry were genotyped for a total of four SNCA (rs2583988, rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074) and two MAPT (rs1052553, rs242557) SNPs. Individual and joint effects of SNCA and MAPT SNPs were investigated using fixed- and random-effects logistic regression models. Interactions were studied both on a multiplicative and an additive scale, and using a case-control and case-only approach. Results Fifteen GEO-PD sites contributed a total of 5302 cases and 4161 controls. All four SNCA SNPs and the MAPT H1-haplotype defining SNP (rs1052553) displayed a highly significant marginal association with PD at the significance level adjusted for multiple comparisons. For SNCA, the strongest associations were observed for SNPs located at the 3? end of the gene. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between any of the four SNCA SNPs and rs1052553 or rs242557, neither on the multiplicative nor on the additive scale. Interpretation This study confirms the association between PD and both SNCA SNPs and the H1 MAPT haplotype. It shows, based on a variety of approaches, that the joint action of variants in these two loci is consistent with independent effects of the genes without additional interacting effects. PMID:21391235

Elbaz, Alexis; Ross, Owen A.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Moisan, Frédéric; Aasly, Jan; Annesi, Grazia; Bozi, Maria; Brighina, Laura; Chartier-Harlin, Marie-Christine; Destée, Alain; Ferrarese, Carlo; Ferraris, Alessandro; Gibson, J. Mark; Gispert, Suzana; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Klein, Christine; Krüger, Rejko; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Lohmann, Katja; van de Loo, Simone; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Lynch, Timothy; Mellick, George D.; Mutez, Eugénie; Nilsson, Christer; Opala, Grzegorz; Puschmann, Andreas; Quattrone, Aldo; Sharma, Manu; Silburn, Peter A.; Stefanis, Leonidas; Uitti, Ryan J.; Valente, Enza Maria; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Maraganore, Demetrius M.; Farrer, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

302

Joint disease mapping using six cancers in the Yorkshire region of England  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to model jointly the incidence rates of six smoking related cancers in the Yorkshire region of England, to explore the patterns of spatial correlation amongst them, and to estimate the relative weight of smoking and other shared risk factors for the relevant disease sites, both before and after adjustment for socioeconomic background (SEB). Methods Data on the incidence of oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, lung, kidney, and bladder cancers between 1983 and 2003 were extracted from the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry database for the 532 electoral wards in the Yorkshire region. Using postcode of residence, each case was assigned an area-based measure of SEB using the Townsend index. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer site and their correlations investigated. The joint analysis of the spatial variation in incidence used a Bayesian shared-component model. Three components were included to represent differences in smoking (for all six sites), bodyweight/obesity (for oesophagus, pancreas and kidney cancers) and diet/alcohol consumption (for oesophagus and stomach cancers). Results The incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, and bladder was relatively evenly distributed across the region. The incidence of stomach and lung cancers was more clustered around the urban areas in the south of the region, and these two cancers were significantly associated with higher levels of area deprivation. The incidence of lung cancer was most impacted by adjustment for SEB, with the rural/urban split becoming less apparent. The component representing smoking had a larger effect on cancer incidence in the eastern part of the region. The effects of the other two components were small and disappeared after adjustment for SEB. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of joint disease modelling using data from six cancer sites. Incidence estimates are more precise than those obtained without smoothing. This methodology may be an important tool to help authorities evaluate healthcare system performance and the impact of policies. PMID:18662387

Downing, Amy; Forman, David; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Edwards, Kimberley L; Manda, Samuel OM

2008-01-01

303

Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Activity in Cartilage of Osteoarthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

The etiology of viruses in osteoarthritis remains controversial because the prevalence of viral nucleic acid sequences in peripheral blood or synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients and that in healthy control subjects are similar. Until now the presence of virus has not been analyzed in cartilage. We screened cartilage and chondrocytes from advanced and non-/early osteoarthritis patients for parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus-1, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, hepatitis C virus, and human endogenous retroviruses transcripts. Endogenous retroviruses transcripts, but none of the other viruses, were detected in 15 out the 17 patients. Sequencing identified the virus as HERV-WE1 and E2. HERV-W activity was confirmed by high expression levels of syncytin, dsRNA, virus budding, and the presence of virus-like particles in all advanced osteoarthritis cartilages examined. Low levels of HERV-WE1, but not E2 envelope RNA, were observed in 3 out of 8 non-/early osteoarthritis patients, while only 3 out of 7 chondrocytes cultures displayed low levels of syncytin, and just one was positive for virus-like particles. This study demonstrates for the first time activation of HERV-W in cartilage of osteoarthritis patients; however, a causative role for HERV-W in development or deterioration of the disease remains to be proven. PMID:25136615

Bendiksen, Signy; Martinez-Zubiavrra, Inigo; Knutsen, Gunnar; Elvenes, Jan; Olsen, Elisabeth; Olsen, Randi

2014-01-01

304

The contribution of the synovium, synovial derived inflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and disabling chronic joint disorders affecting horses, dogs and humans. Synovial inflammation or synovitis is a frequently observed phenomenon in osteoarthritic joints and contributes to the pathogenesis of OA through formation of various catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediators altering the balance of cartilage matrix degradation and repair. Catabolic mediators produced by the inflamed

Saski Sutton; Abigail Clutterbuck; Pat Harris; Thom Gent; Sarah Freeman; Neil Foster; Richard Barrett-Jolley; Ali Mobasheri

2009-01-01

305

Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

306

Quantitative Cartilage Imaging in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measures of cartilage morphology (i.e., thickness) represent potentially powerful surrogate endpoints in osteoarthritis (OA). These can be used to identify risk factors of structural disease progression and can facilitate the clinical efficacy testing of structure modifying drugs in OA. This paper focuses on quantitative imaging of articular cartilage morphology in the knee, and will specifically deal with different cartilage morphology outcome variables and regions of interest, the relative performance and relationship between cartilage morphology measures, reference values for MRI-based knee cartilage morphometry, imaging protocols for measurement of cartilage morphology (including those used in the Osteoarthritis Initiative), sensitivity to change observed in knee OA, spatial patterns of cartilage loss as derived by subregional analysis, comparison of MRI changes with radiographic changes, risk factors of MRI-based cartilage loss in knee OA, the correlation of MRI-based cartilage loss with clinical outcomes, treatment response in knee OA, and future directions of the field. PMID:22046518

Eckstein, Felix; Wirth, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

307

Frontal-Plane Gait Mechanics in People With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Are Different From Those in People With Lateral Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of research on gait mechanics in knee osteoarthritis has focused on people with medial compartment involvement. As a result, little is known about the gait mechanics of people with the less common, lateral compartment disease. Objective The objective of this study was to compare walking mechanics—specifically, differences in frontal-plane lower-extremity kinematics and kinetics—in people with medial knee osteoarthritis, people with lateral knee osteoarthritis, and people who were healthy. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Fifteen people with medial knee osteoarthritis, 15 people with lateral knee osteoarthritis, and 15 people who were healthy (control group) were recruited for the study. All participants underwent a gait analysis at an intentional walking speed. The variables of interest for the study were peak frontal-plane moments and angles and angular excursions of the lower extremity during the stance phase of gait. Data were statistically analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance. Results Participants with lateral knee osteoarthritis exhibited significantly less knee adduction excursion, lower peak knee abduction moment, and lower peak rear-foot eversion compared with the control group and the medial knee osteoarthritis group. Limitations Participants in the control group were approximately 10 years younger than participants with knee osteoarthritis. Despite this difference, neither body mass index nor gait speed, each of which is a factor with a stronger influence on gait mechanics, differed among the groups. Conclusions Participants with lateral knee osteoarthritis exhibited frontal-plane gait mechanics at the knee and rear foot that were different from those of participants with medial knee osteoarthritis. The results of this study may guide the development of interventions specific to treating people with lateral knee osteoarthritis. PMID:21680772

Barrios, Joaquin A.; Royer, Todd; Davis, Irene S.

2011-01-01

308

Osteoarthritis pain and its treatment.  

PubMed

Pain is the most important symptom of osteoarthritis (OA) and the reason why individuals seek medical treatment. The anatomic cause is unclear and is likely to vary between individuals. Recent work confirms the heterogeneity of pain in OA with differences in severity, location, precipitating and relieving factors, and response to intra-articular anesthetic. Nonpharmacologic treatment of OA is important and evidence is now accumulating for interventions such as aerobic exercise, quadriceps exercises, footwear modification, education, and social support. Analgesia remains the first choice drug therapy: compounds more potent than acetaminophen are now available and effective. New cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may have a role in subjects for whom simple analgesia is inadequate. Glucosamine is a simple, safe product that appears to have a weak pain-relieving effect, and intra-articular hyaluronate injections may also have a limited role. Recent community studies confirm the benefit of joint replacement in OA, though a number of questions remain about the timing, indications, and alternatives to surgery. PMID:10990186

Creamer, P

2000-09-01

309

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis after ACL injury.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs as a consequence of joint trauma or occupations or sports that subject joints to excessive loading stresses. Ligament injuries to the knee, particularly tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), often result in PTOA. Approximately half of the individuals with an ACL injury develop PTOA regardless of the reconstruction of the torn ligament. This observation has raised the possibility that other injuries occur to the knee in association with ACL tears that may involve ligamentous capsular structures, articular cartilage, or subchondral bone. Many ACL injuries occur in noncontact sports and are the result of biomechanical abnormalities. Female athletes are more likely than their male counterparts to suffer ACL injuries. This review outlines the epidemiology of ACL tears, its pathology in cartilage and bone, some of the demographic, biomechanical, and neuromuscular factors involved in ACL tears, and PTOA and important information gained from preclinical injury models. PMID:25365816

Racine, Jennifer; Aaron, Roy K

2014-11-01

310

[Perthes disease].  

PubMed

The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. PMID:12149903

Kramer, J; Hofmann, S; Scheurecker, A; Tschauner, C

2002-06-01

311

ACL Injury and posttraumatic osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Continued development and validation of quantitative imaging and biochemical assessment techniques are critical research priorities to lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of PTOA. There is also a compelling need to advance understanding of how mechanical joint injuries lead to joint degeneration, and to define the roles of acute joint damage and post–joint injury incongruity and instability as etiologic factors leading to development of OA.22 As OA occurs more frequently in the military population and ACL tears are endemic to the military, it is essential that the military become more active in funding research and seeking novel research cohorts to help solve some of the most fundamental problems in PTOA. The military population, while deeply affected by PTOA, may also prove to be pivotal in determining improved diagnostic techniques and treatment interventions to help minimize the long-term effects of this disease. PMID:25280613

Svoboda, Steven J

2014-10-01

312

CCR2 chemokine receptor signaling mediates pain in experimental osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of chronic pain, but almost nothing is known about the mechanisms and molecules that mediate osteoarthritis-associated joint pain. Consequently, treatment options remain inadequate and joint replacement is often inevitable. Here, we use a surgical mouse model that captures the long-term progression of knee osteoarthritis to longitudinally assess pain-related behaviors and concomitant changes in the innervating dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We demonstrate that monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (CCL2) and its high-affinity receptor, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2), are central to the development of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. After destabilization of the medial meniscus, mice developed early-onset secondary mechanical allodynia that was maintained for 16 wk. MCP-1 and CCR2 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were temporarily up-regulated in the innervating DRG at 8 wk after surgery. This result correlated with the presentation of movement-provoked pain behaviors, which were maintained up to 16 wk. Mice that lack Ccr2 also developed mechanical allodynia, but this started to resolve from 8 wk onwards. Despite severe allodynia and structural knee joint damage equal to wild-type mice, Ccr2-null mice did not develop movement-provoked pain behaviors at 8 wk. In wild-type mice, macrophages infiltrated the DRG by 8 wk and this was maintained through 16 wk after surgery. In contrast, macrophage infiltration was not observed in Ccr2-null mice. These observations suggest a key role for the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway in establishing osteoarthritis pain. PMID:23185004

Miller, Rachel E.; Tran, Phuong B.; Das, Rosalina; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Ren, Dongjun; Miller, Richard J.; Malfait, Anne-Marie

2012-01-01

313

Influence of Adult Height on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Association with Disease Activity, Impairment of Joint Function and Overall Disability  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether normal variation of adult height is associated with clinical characteristics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including disease activity (DAS28), impairment of joint function (mechanical joint score, MJS) and overall disability (health assessment questionnaire, HAQ). Methods A cohort (134 males, 287 females) of consecutively recruited RA patients of Northern European origin was studied. Height, weight and demographic information were obtained. A core set of disease measurements, including DAS28, MJS and HAQ, were recorded at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Other clinical variables (e.g. disease duration, IgM rheumatoid factor, antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were recorded at baseline. Socioeconomic status, smoking status, comorbid condition, other autoimmune conditions and drug therapy were also recorded. Associations were analyzed using univariate statistics and multivariate linear regression models. Mediation tests were also carried out for evaluating the relationship between gender, height and disease measures. Results In males, height was inversely associated with DAS28, MJS and HAQ (at baseline and over 24 months) independent of other factors (e.g. weight, body mass index, age, disease duration, osteoporosis, autoantibodies, erosive disease, joint replacement, steroid use, smoking status, socioeconomic status and comorbid disease). In females, a similar trend was seen but the relationships were non significant. In the whole population, the association of female gender with more active disease and poor function disappeared after adjustment for height. Mediation analysis indicated that height served as a full mediator in the relationship of gender with disease activity and overall disability. Confirmation of these findings was demonstrated in a second RA population (n?=?288). Conclusion Adult height is inversely associated with disease activity, impairment of joint function and overall disability in RA, particularly in males. The association of female sex with more severe disease activity and disability appears to be mediated by smaller stature. PMID:23705017

Chen, Ying; Yu, Zanzhe; Packham, Jonathan C.; Mattey, Derek L.

2013-01-01

314

Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and immediately following the program. Secondary outcomes include the external knee adduction moment angular impulse, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, knee and hip muscle strength, balance, functional ability, and quality-of-life. Discussion The findings will help determine whether neuromuscular exercise is superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening regarding effects on knee load, pain and physical function in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12610000660088 PMID:22141334

2011-01-01

315

CD8+ T Cell-Induced Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinses-1 Exacerbated Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Despites the fact that T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) little is known about the roles of CD8+ T cells in this disease. We investigated the effects of CD8+ T cells and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) on joint pathology. Using anterior cruciate ligament-transection (ACLT), OA was induced in mice. The knee joints were histologically assessed for manifestations of OA. The CD8+ T cells from splenocytes and synovium were flow-cytometrically and immunochemically evaluated, respectively. Local expression of TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and VEGF were examined. Cartilage degeneration was slower in CD8+ T cell knockout mice than in control mice. CD8+ T cells were activated once OA was initiated and expanded during OA progression. More CD8+ T cells from splenocytes expressed TIMP-1 in ACLT-group mice than in Sham-group mice. The number of TIMP-1-expressing CD8+ T cells in OA mice correlated with the disease severity. TIMP-1 expression in cartilage was co-localized with that of MMP-13 and VEGF. TIMP-1 protein was detected in synovium in which angiogenesis occurred. During the pathogenesis of OA, the expression of TIMP-1, VEGF and MMP-13 accompanying with CD8+ T cells activation were increased. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of TIMP-1 in joints could retard the progression of OA. PMID:24108368

Hsieh, Jeng-Long; Shiau, Ai-Li; Lee, Che-Hsin; Yang, Shiu-Ju; Lee, Bih-O; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Chao-Liang; Chen, Shun-Hua; Shen, Po-Chuan

2013-01-01

316

The anatomical basis for a novel classification of osteoarthritis and allied disorders  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) has historically been classified as ‘primary’ where no discernible cause was evident and ‘secondary’ where a triggering factor was apparent. Irrespective of the triggering events, late-stage OA is usually characterized by articular cartilage attrition and consequently the anatomical basis for disease has been viewed in terms of cartilage. However, the widespread application of magnetic resonance imaging in early OA has confirmed several different anatomical abnormalities within diseased joints. A key observation has been that several types of primary or idiopathic OA show ligament-related pathology at the time of clinical presentation, so these categories of disease are no longer idiopathic – at least from the anatomical perspective. There is also ample evidence for OA initiation in other structures including menisci and bones in addition to articular cartilage. Therefore, a new classification for OA is proposed, which is based on the anatomical sites of earliest discernible joint structural involvement. The major proposed subgroups within this classification are ligament-, cartilage-, bone-, meniscal- and synovial-related, in addition to disease that is mixed pattern or multifocal in origin. We show how such a structural classification for OA provides a useful reference framework for staging the magnitude of disease. For late-stage or end-stage/whole organ disease, the final common pathway of these different scenarios, joint replacement strategies are likely to remain the only viable option. However, for younger subjects in particular, near the time of clinical disease onset, this scheme has implications for therapy targeted to specific anatomical locations. Thus, in the same way that tumours can be classified and staged according to their tissue of origin and extent of involvement, OA can likewise be anatomically classified and staged. This has implications for therapeutic strategies including regenerative medicine therapy development. PMID:20070426

McGonagle, Dennis; Tan, Ai Lyn; Carey, John; Benjamin, Michael

2010-01-01

317

Identification of oral bacterial DNA in synovial fluid of arthritis patients with native and failed prosthetic joints  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial fluids of native or aseptically failed prosthetic joints from patients having periodontal disease and arthritis to determine if there is bacterial spread from the oral cavity to the joints. Methods A total of 36 subjects were enrolled in the study. Among these, 11 were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 25 with osteoarthritis (OA). Eight patients with OA and are with RA had failed prostheses. Synovial fluid was aspirated from the affected hip or knee joint. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected followed by clinical periodontal examination. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the collected synovial fluid and dental plaque samples followed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA genes. Results Of the 36 subjects, bacterial DNA was detected in the synovial fluid samples from five patients (13.9%), two with rheumatoid arthritis (one native and one failed prosthetic joints) and three with osteoarthritis (one native and two failed prosthetic joints). Of these five patients, two were diagnosed with periodontitis and had identical bacterial clones (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Serratia proteamaculans, respectively) detected in both the synovial fluid and dental plaque samples. Conclusions The present findings of this bacterial DNA in synovial fluid suggest the possibility of infection translocating from the periodontal tissue to the synovium. We suggest that patients with arthritis or failed prosthetic joints be examined for the presence of periodontal diseases and that be treated accordingly. PMID:22426587

Témoin, Stéphanie; Chakaki, Alia; Askari, Ali; El-Halaby, Ahmed; Fitzgerald, Steven; Marcus, Randall E.; Han, Yiping W.; Bissada, Nabil F.

2013-01-01

318

Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT.  

PubMed

The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

Larheim, T A; Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

2015-01-01

319

Accurate intra-articular knee joint injection in the obese? 'Fat Chance!'--A clinical lesson and recommendations for secondary referral.  

PubMed

Corticosteroid joint injections are perceived as being an effective treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, with a very low risk of complications. While the procedure is often performed in secondary care by orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists (and trainees in either specialty), the role of general practitioners (GPs) in chronic disease management has long existed with joint injections also frequently performed in primary care. The perception that serious complications from corticosteroid knee joint injections are rare and that their benefits in treating symptomatic knee osteoarthritis significantly outweigh the risks has not been well addressed. We present a case of a 71-year-old obese female who presented to her general practitioner (GP) with worsening left knee pain and radiographic changes consistent with osteoarthritis. She was administered a corticosteroid joint injection, which gave minimal relief, and over the next few days resulted in worsening severe pain, erythema and swelling. She returned to the GP who commenced oral antibiotics and referred her to casualty. A large knee abscess was diagnosed and intravenous antibiotics were commenced. The patient was admitted under the orthopaedic surgeons with her treatment consisting of multiple surgical procedures over a prolonged duration. Although lengthy, her postoperative recovery was unremarkable. Based on this case report and our review of the literature, we highlight the potential complications associated with corticosteroid knee joint injections and suggest certain patients for whom we would recommend secondary referral before any intervention in primary care. PMID:21486119

McGarry, James G; Livingston, Kerr; Daruwalla, Zubin J

2011-06-01

320

Anti-CarP antibodies as promising marker to measure joint damage and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are important serological markers in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are part of the recent disease classification criteria. However, there is a strong need for reliable markers for measuring and predicting joint damage and disease activity. Recently, antibodies directed against carbamylated antigens (anti-CarP antibodies) were identified. A total of 120 RA patients were tested for anti-CCP antibodies using different methods and for anti-CarP antibodies using carbamylated fetal calf serum according to the method described by Shi et al. Additionally, ACPA fine specificities (to three citrullinated peptides) were measured. Disease activity was assessed at baseline using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) in 80 patients. For 40 RA patients, joint erosion score (JES) was established. The median JES was 14.1 with a standard deviation of 11.5. Anti-CarP antibodies were correlated with joint erosion score (? = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.03-0.59; p = 0.0332). No correlation between ACPA and joint erosion score was observed. No individual marker correlated with DAS28. When one ACPA peptide was combined with anti-CarP antibodies in a score (ACPA peptide 1 divided by anti-CarP), a statistically relevant correlation was found (p = 0.0264). In this small cohort, the presence of anti-CarP antibodies, but not ACPA correlate with joint erosion score. Anti-CarP antibodies combined with ACPA fine specificities correlated with DAS28. Therefore, anti-CarP antibodies might represent a promising marker to predict joint damage and disease activity in RA patients. PMID:25391608

Yee, Alvin; Webb, Tyler; Seaman, Andrea; Infantino, Maria; Meacci, Francesca; Manfredi, Mariangela; Benucci, Maurizio; Lakos, Gabriella; Favalli, Ennio; Shioppo, Tommaso; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Mahler, Michael

2015-02-01

321

Joint symptoms and diseases associated with moisture damage in a health center.  

PubMed

Rheumatic diseases do not usually cluster in time and space. It has been proposed that environmental exposures may initiate autoimmune responses. We describe a cluster of rheumatic diseases among a group of health center employees who began to complain of symptoms typically related to moldy houses, including mucocutaneous symptoms, nausea and fatigue, within a year of moving into a new building. Dampness was found in the insulation space of the concrete floor below ground level. Microbes indicating mold damage and actinobacteria were found in the flooring material and in the outer wall insulation. The case histories of the personnel involved were examined. All 34 subjects working at the health center had at least some rheumatic complaints. Two fell ill with a typical rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 10 had arthritis that did not conform to any definite arthritic syndrome (three met the classification criteria for RA). Prior to moving into the problem building one subject had suffered reactive arthritis, which had then recurred. Another employee had undiagnosed ankylosing spondylitis and later developed psoriatic arthritis, and another developed undifferentiated vasculitis. A total of 16 subjects developed joint pains, 11 of these after beginning work at the health center. Three subjects developed Raynaud's symptom. Fourteen cases had elevated levels of circulating immune complexes in 1998, 17 in 1999, but there were only three cases in 2001, when the health center had been closed for 18 months. The high incidence of joint problems among these employees suggests a common triggering factor for most of the cases. As some of the symptoms had tended to subside while the health center was closed, the underlying causes are probably related to the building itself and possibly to the abnormal microbial growth in its structures. PMID:14677010

Luosujärvi, R A; Husman, T M; Seuri, M; Pietikäinen, M A; Pollari, P; Pelkonen, J; Hujakka, H T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O A; Aho, K

2003-12-01

322

Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)  

MedlinePLUS

... JIA, formerly called rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is ... Lyme Disease Risk Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints Lyme Disease Arthritis Word! ...

323

Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

2015-01-01

324

Variations in the pre-operative status of patients coming to primary hip replacement for osteoarthritis in European orthopaedic centres  

PubMed Central

Background Total hip joint replacement (THR) is a high volume, effective intervention for hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, indications and determinants of outcome remain unclear. The 'EUROHIP consortium' has undertaken a cohort study to investigate these questions. This paper describes the variations in disease severity in this cohort and the relationships between clinical and radiographic severity, and explores some of the determinants of variation. Methods A minimum of 50 consecutive, consenting patients coming to primary THR for primary hip OA in each of the 20 participating orthopaedic centres entered the study. Pre-operative data included demographics, employment and educational attainment, drug utilisation, and involvement of other joints. Each subject completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC – Likert version 3.1). Other data collected at the time of surgery included the prosthesis used and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) status. Pre-operative radiographs were read by the same three readers for Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) grading and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas features. Regression analyses were carried out. Results Data from 1327 subjects has been analysed. The mean age of the group was 65.7 years, and there were more women (53.4%) than men. Most (79%) were ASA status 1 or 2. Reported disease duration was 5 years or less in 69.2%. Disease in other joint sites was common. Radiographs were available in 1051 subjects and the K&L grade was 3 or 4 in 95.8%. There was much more variation in clinical severity (WOMAC score); the mean total WOMAC score was 59.2 (SD 16.1). The radiographic severity showed no correlation with WOMAC scores. Significantly higher WOMAC scores (worse disease) were seen in older people, women, those with obesity, those with worse general health, and those with lower educational attainment. Conclusion 1. Clinical disease severity varies widely at the time of THR for OA. 2. In advanced hip OA clinical severity shows no correlation with radiographic severity. 3. Simple scores of pain and disability do not reflect the complexity of decision-making about who should have a THR. PMID:19208230

Dieppe, Paul; Judge, Andrew; Williams, Susan; Ikwueke, Ifeoma; Guenther, Klaus-Peter; Floeren, Markus; Huber, Joerg; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Learmonth, Ian; Lohmander, L Stefan; Nilsdotter, Anna; Puhl, Wofhart; Rowley, David; Thieler, Robert; Dreinhoefer, Karsten

2009-01-01

325

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate the radiographic progression of Spanish patients with osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Not all patients with osteoarthritis (OA) show the same disease progression, as some of them remain relatively stable over time, while others progress to severe structural deterioration of the joint. In this sense, the main goal of both genetic and protein biomarkers in OA is to predict not only the risk of OA at an earlier stage of the disease but also which OA patients are more likely to progress to severe disease. Taking into account the incidence of the mitochondria and the mtDNA haplogroups in the pathogenesis of OA, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups in the radiographic progression of the OA disease in a well-characterized follow-up cohort of Spanish patients. DNA from 281 OA patients from Hospital Universitario A Coruña was isolated to determine the European mtDNA haplogroups. Knee or hip radiographs from all affected joints were obtained at two time points with at least 36 months apart. Radiographs were evaluated using the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) scale; radiographic OA progression was defined as any radiographic worsening of the K/L joint score. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models. Patients belonging to the cluster TJ showed a slower radiographic OA progression than patients in the cluster KU (p = 0.036). Moreover, patients carrying the most common mtDNA haplogroup H are more apt to require total joint replacement surgery than non-H patients (p = 0.049). The inherited mitochondrial variants influence the radiographic progression of OA and could be considered among the genetic variants taken into account when the radiographic progression of OA is analyzed. PMID:25086630

Soto-Hermida, Angel; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Oreiro, Natividad; Fernández-López, Carlos; Blanco, Francisco J; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio

2014-08-01

326

Assessment of cartilage-dedicated sequences at ultra-high-field MRI: comparison of imaging performance and diagnostic confidence between 3.0 and 7.0 T with respect to osteoarthritis-induced changes at the knee joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objectives of the study were to optimize three cartilage-dedicated sequences for in vivo knee imaging at 7.0 T ultra-high-field\\u000a (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare imaging performance and diagnostic confidence concerning osteoarthritis\\u000a (OA)-induced changes at 7.0 and 3.0 T MRI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Optimized MRI sequences for cartilage imaging at 3.0 T were tailored for 7.0 T: an intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w

Robert Stahl; Roland Krug; Douglas A. C. Kelley; Jin Zuo; C. Benjamin Ma; Sharmila Majumdar; Thomas M. Link

2009-01-01

327

Role of Bone Architecture and Anatomy in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

When considering the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), it is important to review the contribution of bone in addition to the contribution of cartilage and synovium. Although bone clearly plays a role in determining the distribution of biomechanical forces across joints, which in turn plays a role in the initiation of OA, it has also more recently been appreciated that bone may contribute in a biological sense to the pathogenesis of OA. Far from being a static structure, bone is a dynamic tissue undergoing constant remodeling, and it is clear from a number of radiographic and biochemical studies that bone and cartilage degradation occur hand in hand. Whether the initial instigating event in OA occurs in cartilage or bone is not known, but it is clear that bony changes occur very early in the pathogenesis of OA and often predate radiographic appearance of the disease. This review focuses on the structural variants of both hip and knee that have been associated with OA and the ultrastructural bone changes in these sites occurring in early OA pathogenesis. PMID:22401752

Baker-LePain, Julie C.

2012-01-01

328

Synovium and the Innate Inflammatory Network in Osteoarthritis Progression  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the recent advancements in the understanding of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, particularly with attention to the roles of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), pattern recognition receptors (PPRs), and complement in synovitis development and cartilage degradation. Endogenous molecular products derived from cellular stress and extracellular matrix disruption can function as DAMPs to induce inflammatory responses and pro-catabolic events in vitro and promote synovitis and cartilage degradation in vivo via PRRs. Some of the DAMPs and PRRs display various capacities in driving synovitis and/or cartilage degradation in different models of animal studies. New findings reveal that the inflammatory complement cascade plays a key in the pathogenesis of OA. Crosstalk between joint tissues such as synovium and cartilage communicated at the cellular level within the innate immune inflammatory network is implicated to play an important role in OA progression. Further studies on how the innate immune inflammatory network impacts the OA disease process at different stages of progression will lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23516014

Liu-Bryan, Ru

2013-01-01

329

Management of Osteoarthritis with Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and life-altering disease that severely limits the daily activity of millions of Americans, and is one of the most common causes of disability in the world. With obesity on the rise and the world’s population living longer, the prevalence of OA is expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades, generating burdensome socioeconomic costs. This review summarizes current pharmaceutical, non-pharmaceutical, and prospective new treatments for OA, with primary focus on the dietary supplement Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables (ASU). ASU modulates OA pathogenesis by inhibiting a number of molecules and pathways implicated in OA. Anticatabolic properties prevent cartilage degradation by inhibiting the release and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2,3,13) and increasing tissue inhibitors of these catabolic enzymes (TIMP-1). ASU also inhibits fibrinolysis by stimulating the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). Anabolic properties promote cartilage repair by stimulating collagen and aggrecan synthesis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines such as IL1, IL6, IL8, TNF, ERK, and PGE2. Chondroprotective effects are mediated by correcting growth factor abnormalities, increasing TGF? while decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid. ASU also inhibits cholesterol absorption and endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, which mediate reactive oxygen species pathology in chondrocytes. At the clinical level, ASU reduces pain and stiffness while improving joint function, resulting in decreased dependence on analgesics.

Christiansen, Blaine A.; Bhatti, Simi; Goudarzi, Ramin; Emami, Shahin

2015-01-01

330

Osteoarthritis pain mechanisms: Basic studies in animal models  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex and painful disease of the whole joint. At present there are no satisfying agents for treating OA. The current standard of care mainly involves managing and alleviating its symptoms. Mechanisms of OA pain have been studied in rodent knee OA models produced by intra-knee injection of the chondrocyte glycolytic inhibitor mono-iodoacetate, surgery, or spontaneous development in some species. These models are clinically relevant in terms of histological damage and functional changes, and are used to study mechanisms underlying mechanical, thermal, ambulatory, body weight supporting-evoked, and ongoing OA pain. Recent peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal biochemical and electrophysiological studies in these models suggest that peripheral pro-inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides sensitize knee nociceptors. Spinal cytokines and neuropeptides promote OA-associated pain, and peripheral and spinal cannabinoids inhibit OA pain respectively through cannabinoid-1 (CB1) and CB1/CB2 receptors. TRPV1 and metalloproteinases contribute and supraspinal descending facilitation of 5-HT/5-HT 3 receptors may also contribute to OA pain. Conditioned place preference tests demonstrate that OA pain induces aversive behaviors suggesting brain involvement in OA pain. During OA, brain functional connectivity is enhanced, but at present it is unclear how this change is related to OA pain. PMID:23973145

Zhang, Rui-Xin; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald

2013-01-01

331

Chondrocyte response to in vitro mechanical injury and co-culture with joint capsule tissue  

E-print Network

Acute traumatic joint injury in young adults leads to an increased risk for the development of osteoarthritis (OA) later in life irrespective of surgical intervention to stabilize the injured joint. Although the mechanism ...

Lee, Jennifer H. (Jennifer Henrica)

2005-01-01

332

In vitro models of cartilage degradation following joint injury : mechanical overload, inflammatory cytokines and therapeutic approaches  

E-print Network

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disorder. Individuals who have sustained an acute traumatic joint injury are at greater risk for the development of OA. The mechanisms by which injury causes cartilage ...

Lu, Yihong C. S

2010-01-01

333

Segmentation of the Knee for Analysis of Osteoarthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteoarthritis changes the load distribution within joints and also changes bone density and structure. Within typical timelines of clinical studies these changes can be very small. Therefore precise definition of evaluation regions which are highly robust and show little to no interand intra-operator variance are essential for high quality quantitative analysis. To achieve this goal we have developed a system for the definition of such regions with minimal user input.

Zerfass, Peter; Museyko, Oleg; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Kalender, Willi A.; Engelke, Klaus

334

In vivo x-ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques have been extensively studied for applications in the biomedical field. Published results demonstrate the high capability of these imaging modalities of improving the image contrast of biological samples with respect to standard absorption-based radiography and routinely used clinical imaging techniques. A clear depiction of the anatomic structures and a more accurate disease diagnosis may be provided by using radiation doses comparable to or lower than those used in current clinical methods. In the literature many works show images of phantoms and excised biological samples proving the high sensitivity of the phase contrast imaging methods for in vitro investigations. In this scenario, the applications of the so-called analyzer-based x-ray imaging (ABI) phase contrast technique are particularly noteworthy. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo x-ray ABI phase contrast imaging for biomedical applications and in particular with respect to joint anatomic depiction and osteoarthritis detection. ABI in planar and tomographic modes was performed in vivo on articular joints of guinea pigs in order to investigate the animals with respect to osteoarthritis by using highly monochromatic x-rays of 52 keV and a low noise detector with a pixel size of 47 × 47 µm2. Images give strong evidence of the ability of ABI in depicting both anatomic structures in complex systems as living organisms and all known signs of osteoarthritis with high contrast, high spatial resolution and with an acceptable radiation dose. This paper presents the first proof of principle study of in vivo application of ABI. The technical challenges encountered when imaging an animal in vivo are discussed. This experimental study is an important step toward the study of clinical applications of phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques.

Coan, Paola; Wagner, Andreas; Bravin, Alberto; Diemoz, Paul C.; Keyriläinen, Jani; Mollenhauer, Juergen

2010-12-01

335

Ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty in a dysvascular below-knee amputee for advanced hip osteoarthritis: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

This retrospective file review outlines a case study of an 84 year-old man with a transtibial amputation for vascular disease who underwent an ipsilateral total hip replacement (THR). The question being addressed was how surgical techniques, rehabilitation processes and outcomes of joint arthroplasty would need to vary in a case of an ipsilateral dysvascular amputees. The surgery and associated rehabilitation was undertaken for groin pain, falls and reduced mobility due to mechanical osteoarthritis of the hip. The surgical technique and post-operative multidisciplinary rehabilitation is described in detail. Information on exercise regimes, length of stay and follow-up data on function, driving and pain management is presented. The literature is reviewed and all known cases of THR in amputees as well as data on survival of dysvascular amputees is presented. In light of advances in secondary prevention of vascular disease and cardiovascular surgical techniques, amputees with vascular disease may be living longer than they were 20 years ago. They may be beginning to experience the issues associated with aging such as osteoarthritis of the large joints. This case review and others in the literature may suggest that survival rates for vascular amputees be reviewed. PMID:18569883

Mak, Jenson; Solomon, Michael; Faux, Steven

2008-06-01

336

Prevalence of abnormalities in knees detected by MRI in adults without knee osteoarthritis: population based observational study (Framingham Osteoarthritis Study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees with no radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to determine the prevalence of structural lesions associated with osteoarthritis and their relation to age, sex, and obesity. Design Population based observational study. Setting Community cohort in Framingham, MA, United States (Framingham osteoarthritis study). Participants 710 people aged >50 who had no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0) and who underwent MRI of the knee. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRI findings that are suggestive of knee osteoarthritis (osteophytes, cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions, subchondral cysts, meniscal lesions, synovitis, attrition, and ligamentous lesions) in all participants and after stratification by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of knee pain. Pain was assessed by three different questions and also by WOMAC questionnaire. Results Of the 710 participants, 393 (55%) were women, 660 (93%) were white, and 206 (29%) had knee pain in the past month. The mean age was 62.3 years and mean BMI was 27.9. Prevalence of “any abnormality” was 89% (631/710) overall. Osteophytes were the most common abnormality among all participants (74%, 524/710), followed by cartilage damage (69%, 492/710) and bone marrow lesions (52%, 371/710). The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of all types of abnormalities detectable by MRI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any of the features between BMI groups. The prevalence of at least one type of pathology (“any abnormality”) was high in both painful (90-97%, depending on pain definition) and painless (86-88%) knees. Conclusions MRI shows lesions in the tibiofemoral joint in most middle aged and elderly people in whom knee radiographs do not show any features of osteoarthritis, regardless of pain. PMID:22932918

2012-01-01

337

The treatment of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed Central

1. The treatment of osteoarthritis is currently purely symptomatic. To enable rational therapy, careful clinical assessment is necessary to identify the origin of symptoms. Often, effective therapy can result from a biomechanical approach such as surgery, orthotics, physiotherapy and dieting. If drugs are required, there is little evidence that the current over-reliance on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is justified. Full dose regular paracetamol should be the first line of analgesic therapy. In the majority of patients, simple analgesics are probably as effective as NSAIDs. If NSAIDs are used it is necessary to review regularly their use and to be aware of potential toxicity. 2. Many alternative strategies of pain management such as topical preparations, intra-articular steroid injections, acupuncture, radiosynovectomy, transcutaneous nerve stimulation and anti-depressants, may be effective but their precise place in the armamentarium is not yet fully established. 3. The realisation that osteoarthritis is not a passive 'wear and tear' phenomenon but an active process that may be potentially modified, has led to interest in 'chondroprotective' agents, which may beneficially affect the osteoarthritic process. To date there are no convincing data available that such agents are, in fact, chondroprotective in humans. PMID:1576063

Jones, A C; Doherty, M

1992-01-01

338

Hip joint disease in psoriatic arthritis: risk factors and natural history  

PubMed Central

Patients and methods: 504 patients with PsA according to ESSG criteria were studied. Mean follow up was 5.7 years (range <1–45). Mean age at onset of psoriasis was 32 years and of PsA, 39 years. The most common pattern of PsA at onset was oligoarticular (49%) and at the latest examination, polyarticular (65%). Sacroiliitis or spondylitis was diagnosed in 94 (18.7%) patients. Results: 32 (6.3%) patients developed psoriatic hip arthropathy, and of these, 26 (81%) also had sacroiliitis or spondylitis. In 7/17 (41%) patients the hip became affected within 1 year after the onset of PsA. Hip disease occurred more often in younger patients. Sex, pattern of peripheral arthritis, duration of psoriasis before arthritis affected the distal interphalangeal joints, dactylitis, or enthesitis were not associated with the risk of hip disease. Seventeen patients were followed up and nine required hip arthroplasty. Sixteen (50%) first had arthroplasty within 5 years after the onset of hip pain. Conclusions: Psoriatic hip arthropathy occurs infrequently in PsA and is associated with earlier onset of arthritis and psoriatic spondylitis. Bilateral hip involvement and rapid progression to hip arthroplasty are common. PMID:15958761

Michet, C; Mason, T; Mazlumzadeh, M

2005-01-01

339

Living Better With Osteoarthritis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Living Better with Osteoarthritis Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents What Is Osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. ...

340

State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States’ population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States’ population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are presently being studied. The goal of developing new treatment strategies for knee OA is to prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty which should be utilized only if other strategies have failed. High tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are potential alternatives if only a single compartment is involved with more data supporting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as a good treatment option in this scenario. Arthroscopy has been commonly used for many years to treat knee OA to address degenerative articular cartilage and menisci, however, several high-quality studies have shown that it is not a very effective treatment for the majority of cases and should generally not be considered when managing knee OA. Improving the management of knee OA requires a multi-faceted treatment approach along with continuing to broaden our understanding of this complex disease so that therapeutic advancements can continue to be developed with the goal of preventing further disease progression and even potentially reversing the degenerative process.

Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

2015-01-01

341

State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States' population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States' population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are presently being studied. The goal of developing new treatment strategies for knee OA is to prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty which should be utilized only if other strategies have failed. High tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are potential alternatives if only a single compartment is involved with more data supporting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as a good treatment option in this scenario. Arthroscopy has been commonly used for many years to treat knee OA to address degenerative articular cartilage and menisci, however, several high-quality studies have shown that it is not a very effective treatment for the majority of cases and should generally not be considered when managing knee OA. Improving the management of knee OA requires a multi-faceted treatment approach along with continuing to broaden our understanding of this complex disease so that therapeutic advancements can continue to be developed with the goal of preventing further disease progression and even potentially reversing the degenerative process. PMID:25685755

Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

2015-02-16

342

Impact of Obesity and Knee Osteoarthritis on Morbidity and Mortality in Older Americans  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity and knee osteoarthritis are among the most frequent chronic conditions affecting Americans aged 50 to 84 years. Objective To estimate quality-adjusted life-years lost due to obesity and knee osteoarthritis and health benefits of reducing obesity prevalence to levels observed a decade ago. Design The U.S. Census and obesity data from national data sources were combined with estimated prevalence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to assign persons aged 50 to 84 years to 4 subpopulations: nonobese without knee osteoarthritis (reference group), nonobese with knee osteoarthritis, obese without knee osteoarthritis, and obese with knee osteoarthritis. The Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a computer simulation model of knee osteoarthritis and obesity, was used to estimate quality-adjusted life-year losses due to knee osteoarthritis and obesity in comparison with the reference group. Setting United States. Participants U.S. population aged 50 to 84 years. Measurements Quality-adjusted life-years lost owing to knee osteoarthritis and obesity. Results Estimated total losses of per-person quality-adjusted life-years ranged from 1.857 in nonobese persons with knee osteoarthritis to 3.501 for persons affected by both conditions, resulting in a total of 86.0 million quality-adjusted life-years lost due to obesity, knee osteoarthritis, or both. Quality-adjusted life-years lost due to knee osteoarthritis and/or obesity represent 10% to 25% of the remaining quality-adjusted survival of persons aged 50 to 84 years. Hispanic and black women had disproportionately high losses. Model findings suggested that reversing obesity prevalence to levels seen 10 years ago would avert 178 071 cases of coronary heart disease, 889 872 cases of diabetes, and 111 206 total knee replacements. Such a reduction in obesity would increase the quantity of life by 6 318 030 years and improve life expectancy by 7 812 120 quality-adjusted years in U.S. adults aged 50 to 84 years. Limitations Comorbidity incidences were derived from prevalence estimates on the basis of life expectancy of the general population, potentially resulting in conservative underestimates. Calibration analyses were conducted to ensure comparability of model-based projections and data from external sources. Conclusion The number of quality-adjusted life-years lost owing to knee osteoarthritis and obesity seems to be substantial, with black and Hispanic women experiencing disproportionate losses. Reducing mean body mass index to the levels observed a decade ago in this population would yield substantial health benefits. Primary Funding Source The National Institutes of Health and the Arthritis Foundation. PMID:21320937

Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Reichmann, William M.; Holt, Holly L.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Solomon, Daniel H.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Hunter, David J.; Suter, Lisa G.; Weinstein, Alexander M.; Paltiel, A. David; Katz, Jeffrey N.

2012-01-01

343

Value of the nuclear medical scan in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disease  

SciTech Connect

A total of 125 patients with temporomandibular joint complaints underwent nuclear medical scans of their joints as part of their diagnostic work-ups. The scan results were compared with the radiographic and arthrogram findings of these patients. The results suggest that the nuclear medical scan is not a highly reliable diagnostic aid for the majority of temporomandibular joint patients.

Craemer, T.D.; Ficara, A.J.

1984-10-01

344

Osteoporotic changes of subchondral trabecular bone in osteoarthritis of the knee: a 3-T MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Subchondral trabecular bone structure was analyzed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients using 3-T MRI to investigate structural\\u000a features of subchondral trabecular bone of knee OA. With OA progression, osteoporotic changes were observed in the lateral\\u000a joint, showing a higher correlation than sclerotic changes in the medial joint.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  To investigate structural features of subchondral trabecular bone of knee osteoarthritis (OA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty

K. Chiba; M. Uetani; Y. Kido; M. Ito; N. Okazaki; K. Taguchi; H. Shindo

345

Translation and validation study of the Persian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee  

PubMed Central

Background The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2) has not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure functional disability and health-related quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate the AIMS2 for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. Methods A consecutive sample of patients with knee osteoarthritis were asked to complete the AIMS2, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and four visual analog scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment. Internal consistency and convergent validity were applied to examine psychometric properties of the AIMS2. In addition, 30 randomly selected patients were asked to complete the questionnaire two days later for the second time for test-retest reliability. Finally factor structure of the Persian AIMS2 was performed using the principal component factor analysis. Results In all 230 patients were entered into the study. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 56.9 (8.7) years and the mean (SD) duration of disease was 7.2 (3.5) years. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Persian AIMS2 scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.92 and 0.85 to 0.96, respectively. The correlation between most of the Persian AIMS2 scales and the physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 and the visual analogue scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment were statistically significant indicating a good convergent validity (p < 0.05). The results obtained from factor analysis indicated three latent factors that jointly accounted for 67.5% of the total variance. Conclusion The results showed that the Persian AIMS2 had reasonably good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in the future studies in Iran. However, its sensitivity to change needs still to be studied. PMID:19646273

Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmad Reza; Hadian, Mohamad Reza; Rostamian, Abdolrahman; Montazeri, Ali

2009-01-01

346

The value of synovial fluid assays in the diagnosis of joint disease: a literature survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To carry out a critical appraisal of the literature in an attempt to assess the current value of synovial fluid (SF) analysis in the diagnosis of joint disease. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using the Medline, Biomed, Bids, Pubmed, and Embase electronic databases using the keywords: synovial fluid (SF) analysis, SF crystals, joint sepsis, acute arthritis, and SF cell counts, cytology, biomarkers, and microbiology. Results: Publications fell into three main categories. Firstly, reports assessing the value of the three traditional assays (microbiology, white blood cell counts, and microscopy for pathogenic crystals). For these quality control evidence was found to be sparse, and tests for sensitivity, specificity, and reliability showed worrying variations. These poor standards in SF analysis may be due to lack of inclusion of some tests within routine pathology services. Secondly, claims for the usefulness of "new" assays (cytology and biochemical markers). For cytology, the supporting evidence was mainly anecdotal and there were no reports on specificity, sensitivity, and reliability. Interpretation difficulties are a major hindrance to the clinical use of biochemical assays, which remain primarily research tools. Finally, work on the diagnostic value of SF analysis in general. The appraisal confirmed that SF analysis remains of major diagnostic value in acute arthritis, where septic arthritis or crystal arthropathy is suspected, and in intercritical gout. Conclusions: Given the importance of SF tests, rationalisation of their use, together with improved quality control, should be immediate priorities. Further investigation is recommended into the contribution of SF inspection and white cell counts to diagnosis, as well as of the specificity and sensitivity of SF microbiological assays, crystal identification, and cytology. PMID:12006320

Swan, A; Amer, H; Dieppe, P

2002-01-01

347

Interleukin-17+CD8+ T Cells Are Enriched in the Joints of Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis and Correlate With Disease Activity and Joint Damage Progression  

PubMed Central

Objective Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is associated with HLA class I genes, in contrast to the association with HLA class II in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since IL-17+ cells are considered important mediators of synovial inflammation, we sought to determine whether IL-17–producing CD8+ T cells may be found in the joints of patients with PsA and whether these cells might contribute to the disease process. Methods Mononuclear cells from paired samples of synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with PsA or patients with RA were stimulated ex vivo, and CD4? T cells were examined by flow cytometry for cytokine expression, cytotoxic markers, and frequencies of ?/? or mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Clinical measures of arthritis activity (C-reactive protein [CRP] level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], Disease Activity Score in 28 joints [DAS28]) and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) scores for the presence of active synovitis in the aspirated knee were recorded and assessed for correlations with immunologic markers. Results Within the CD3+ T cell compartment, both IL-17+CD4? (predominantly CD8+) and IL-17+CD4+ T cells were significantly enhanced in the SF compared to the PB of patients with PsA (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.002, respectively; n = 21), whereas in patients with RA, only IL-17+CD4+ T cells were increased in the SF compared to the PB (P = 0.008; n = 14). The frequency of IL-17+CD4? T cells in PsA SF was positively correlated with the CRP level (r = 0.52, P = 0.01), ESR (r = 0.59, P = 0.004), and DAS28 (r = 0.52, P = 0.01), and was increased in patients with erosive disease (P < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of IL-17+CD4? T cells positively correlated with the PDUS score, a marker for active synovitis (r = 0.49, P = 0.04). Conclusion These results show, for the first time, that the PsA joint, but not the RA joint, is enriched for IL-17+CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the findings reveal that the levels of this T cell subset are correlated with disease activity measures and the radiographic erosion status after 2 years, suggesting a previously unrecognized contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of PsA. PMID:24470327

Menon, Bina; Gullick, Nicola J; Walter, Gina J; Rajasekhar, Megha; Garrood, Toby; Evans, Hayley G; Taams, Leonie S; Kirkham, Bruce W

2014-01-01

348

Radiographic patterns and associations of osteoarthritis of the knee in patients referred to hospital.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To investigate differing patterns and associations of osteoarthritis of the knee in patients referred to hospital. METHODS--Two hundred and fifty two consecutive patients (161 women, 91 men; mean age 70 years, range 34-91 years) referred to hospital with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent clinical, radiographic, and synovial fluid screening. RESULTS--Radiographic changes of osteoarthritis of the knee (definite narrowing with or without osteoarthritic features) were bilateral in 85% of patients. Of 470 knees affected, 277 (59%) were affected in two compartments and 28 (6%) in three compartments. Unilateral and isolated medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis were more common in men. Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition was common (synovial fluid identification in 132 (28%) knees; knee chondrocalcinosis in 76 (30%) patients) and associated with disability, bilateral, multicompartmental and severe radiographic osteoarthritis, marked osteophytosis, attrition, and cysts. Multiple clinical nodes (58 (23%) patients) and radiographic polyarticular interphalangeal osteoarthritis (66 (26%) patients) were associated with a higher frequency of inactivity pain, disability, multicompartmental and severe radiographic change. Forestier's disease predominated in men but showed no other associations. CONCLUSIONS--In a group of patients referred to hospital osteoarthritis of the knee is usually bilateral and affects more than one compartment. Severe and multicompartmental radiographic changes are associated with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition, nodal change, and polyarticular interphalangeal osteoarthritis. PMID:8346979

Ledingham, J; Regan, M; Jones, A; Doherty, M

1993-01-01

349

Isometric Quadriceps Strength in Women with Mild, Moderate, and Severe Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Quadriceps weakness is a common clinical sign in persons with moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis and results in physical disability; however, minimal data exist to establish whether quadriceps weakness is present in early stages of the disease. Therefore, our purpose was to determine whether quadriceps weakness was present in persons with early radiographic and cartilaginous evidence of osteoarthritis. Further, we sought to determine whether quadriceps strength decreases as osteoarthritis severity increases. Design Three hundred forty-eight women completed radiologic and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation, in addition to strength testing. Anterior-posterior radiographs were graded for tibiofemoral osteoarthritis severity using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Scans from magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess medial tibiofemoral and patellar cartilage based on a modification of the Noyes scale. The peak knee extension torque recorded was used to represent strength. Results Quadriceps strength (Nm/kg) was 22% greater in women without radiographic osteoarthritis than in women with osteoarthritis (P < 0.05). Quadriceps strength was also greater in women with Noyes’ medial tibial and femoral cartilage scores of 0 when compared in women with Noyes’ grades 2 and 3–5 (P ? 0.05). Conclusions Women with early evidence of osteoarthritis had less quadriceps strength than women without osteoarthritis as defined by imaging. PMID:20463561

Palmieri-Smith, Riann M.; Thomas, Abbey C.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Sowers, Mary Fran

2012-01-01

350

Angelica sinensis and osteoarthritis: A natural therapeutic link?  

PubMed

The dried root of Angelica sinensis is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine for its beneficial effects against several diseases, including osteoarthritis. In order to understand the mechanism of action, two main components of the plant, the phytochemical, sodium ferulate, and a polysaccharidic fraction have been tested on osteoarthritis animal models or in human chondrocytes stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukine-1?. The results showed that sodium ferulate exhibited marked anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting the TNF/TNFR signal transduction pathway. On the other hand, the polysaccharidic fraction which contains a mixture of various carbohydrates was found to promote proteoglycan biosynthesis in cartilage matrix by stimulating the activity of the UDP-glycosyltransferases that synthesize the chondroitin sulfate chains of aggrecans. It is suggested that the combined action of sodium ferulate and polysaccharidic fraction would prevent cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis and favor cartilage repair. PMID:25538068

Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liao-Bin; Wang, Hui; Qin, Jun; Wen, Yingxian; Li, Xiao-Jun; Shang, Liang; Li, Jing

2015-01-01

351

Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: review and recommendations.  

PubMed

Intraarticular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has emerged as a promising treatment for knee osteoarthritis. Studies to date, including multiple randomized controlled trials, have shown that PRP is a safe and effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis. Intraarticular PRP is similar in efficacy to hyaluronic acid, and seems to be more effective than hyaluronic acid in younger, active patients with low-grade osteoarthritis. Treatment benefits seem to wane after 6-9 mos. There are numerous PRP treatment variables that may be of importance, and the optimal PRP protocol remains unclear. Future investigations should control and analyze the effects of these variables in PRP treatment. High-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to optimize PRP treatment methods and better define the role of PRP in osteoarthritis management in the knee and, potentially, in other joints. PMID:24879553

Pourcho, Adam M; Smith, Jay; Wisniewski, Stephen J; Sellon, Jacob L

2014-11-01

352

Participation in athletic activities may be associated with later development of hip and knee osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Participation in physical activity and recreational sports is critical for maintaining overall health; athletic activities and reduction in the incidence of several "lifestyle" diseases seem to have a dose-dependent relationship. Also, quality of life is enhanced in people who are active and regularly participate in sports. However, sports-related joint loading and strenuous occupational loading have been shown to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), which seems to have a multifactorial etiology. This article reviews the literature on known connections between participation in sports and athletic activities and development of secondary OA in the joints of the major upper and lower limbs (ie, knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder) in athletes without injury. Most studies examining the connection between participation in sports and later development of OA usually provide low-level evidence and have many methodological weaknesses. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, it may be concluded that the connection between participation in athletic activities and development of OA has not been proven; however, the condition is highly likely to occur in the hip and knee joints. Definite conclusions regarding the connection between development of glenohumeral and/or elbow OA and participation in athletic activities cannot be drawn. PMID:22293768

Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Kenanidis, Eustathios I; Potoupnis, Michael E; Kapetanou, Artemis; Sayegh, Fares E

2011-11-01

353

Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in monitoring and prognostication of osteoarthritis and its utility in drug development  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major public concern as it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and lays a huge medical and economic burden on health resources. Early detection of OA has been a clinical challenge as early signs of joint inflammation are often not evidently identifiable on routine radiographic images. This presents a dire unmet medical need for a biomarker, which could detect early signs of joint inflammation much before irreversible joint damage and radiographic changes set in. Besides, the treatment of OA has remained mainly symptomatic. A disease modifying OA drug (DMOAD), which can act as targeted anti-OA therapy has not been able to receive regulatory approval yet. The clinical development of a DMAOD too warrants the need of a biomarker; which can act as a surrogate clinical endpoint used to monitor therapeutic efficacy and to validate a clinically meaningful change within the restricted time frame of a clinical study. In this regard, the current review focuses on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a potential OA biomarker which has shown significant clinical promise as a tool for early detection, therapeutic monitoring, prognostication and drug development for OA. This brief review is pivoted around the findings of selected relevant publications from PubMed indexed journals.

Das, Bibhu R.; Roy, Arnab; Khan, Faisal R.

2015-01-01

354

Medial femoral torsion and osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

We investigated the hypothesis that medial femoral torsion is a predisposing factor to osteoarthritis of the hip. Anteversion was measured by biplane radiography in 44 hips (32 patients) with idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip and a control group of 98 normal hips (49 adults). The mean and range of anteversion measures were similar in both groups. The mean was 22 degrees for osteoarthritic hips (range 3 degrees-49 degrees) and 19 degrees for normal controls (range -2 degrees-49 degrees). This difference was not significant. This study disagrees with others that propose an association between increased anterversion and osteoarthritis of the hip. Prophylactic operative correction of femoral torsion for osteoarthritis is not recommended. PMID:3049668

Hubbard, D D; Staheli, L T; Chew, D E; Mosca, V S

1988-01-01

355

Solid-state temporomandibular joint imaging: accuracy in detecting osseous changes of degenerative joint disease and determining condylar spatial relations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the off-label use of an intraoral charge-coupled device (CCD) for extraoral transcranial radiography of the temporomandibular joint. Corrected linear tomograms and transcranial images made with conventional screen-film combinations and a CCD detector were compared with sectioned cadaver specimens. Radiation dosage, qualitative assessment of condylar degenerative features, and condylar position within the glenoid fossa of the 3 modalities were assessed and compared. The CCD method required special adjustments to achieve adequate quality, and it involved greater exposure than the other methods. This use of this intraoral system for extraoral imaging cannot now be recommended, but future refinements might make it more viable. PMID:14560277

Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G; Silveira, Anibal; Fairbanks, Brandon W; Kelly, Paul J

2003-10-01

356

Diet and Exercise for Obese Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS OA is a common chronic disease and there is a need for treatments that can be provided for the course of the disease with minimal adverse side effects. Exercise is a safe intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with few contraindications or adverse events. Indeed, there are few treatments that, from a public health perspective, can be delivered to a large proportion of those with OA with little associated adverse risk as exercise. Exercise therapy is recommended by all clinical guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and this recommendation is supported by Level 1 evidence. Obesity is the most modifiable risk factor for knee OA. The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. This paper reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity and exercise on older adults with knee OA; the effects of long-term weight-loss and exercise interventions, and the utility and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice. PMID:20699166

Messier, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

357

Gene Expression Analyses of Subchondral Bone in Early Experimental Osteoarthritis by Microarray  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects both cartilage and bone. A better understanding of the early molecular changes in subchondral bone may help elucidate the pathogenesis of OA. We used microarray technology to investigate the time course of molecular changes in the subchondral bone in the early stages of experimental osteoarthritis in a rat model. We identified 2,234 differentially expressed (DE) genes at 1 week, 1,944 at 2 weeks and 1,517 at 4 weeks post-surgery. Further analyses of the dysregulated genes indicated that the events underlying subchondral bone remodeling occurred sequentially and in a time-dependent manner at the gene expression level. Some of the identified dysregulated genes that were identified have suspected roles in bone development or remodeling; these genes include Alp, Igf1, Tgf ?1, Postn, Mmp3, Tnfsf11, Acp5, Bmp5, Aspn and Ihh. The differences in the expression of these genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and the results indicated that our microarray data accurately reflected gene expression patterns characteristic of early OA. To validate the results of our microarray analysis at the protein level, immunohistochemistry staining was used to investigate the expression of Mmp3 and Aspn protein in tissue sections. These analyses indicate that Mmp3 protein expression completely matched the results of both the microarray and real-time PCR analyses; however, Aspn protein expression was not observed to differ at any time. In summary, our study demonstrated a simple method of separation of subchondral bone sample from the knee joint of rat, which can effectively avoid bone RNA degradation. These findings also revealed the gene expression profiles of subchondral bone in the rat OA model at multiple time points post-surgery and identified important DE genes with known or suspected roles in bone development or remodeling. These genes may be novel diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for OA. PMID:22384228

Chen, YuXian; Shen, Jun; Lu, HuaDing; Zeng, Chun; Ren, JianHua; Zeng, Hua; Li, ZhiFu; Chen, ShaoMing; Cai, DaoZhang; Zhao, Qing

2012-01-01

358

Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed) knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex differences in the development and progression of knee OA suggests that a more multifactorial and integrative approach in the study of this disease is needed. We identify gaps in knowledge related to mechanical influences on the sex differences in knee OA. PMID:23259740

2012-01-01

359

Blood Cadmium and Lead and Chronic Kidney Disease in US Adults: A Joint Analysis  

PubMed Central

Environmental cadmium and lead exposures are widespread, and both metals are nephrotoxic at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the associations between low-level cadmium and clinical renal outcomes, particularly with respect to joint cadmium and lead exposure. The geometric mean levels of blood cadmium and lead were 0.41 ?g/L (3.65 nmol/L) and 1.58 ?g/dL (0.076 ?mol/L), respectively, in 14,778 adults aged ?20 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). After adjustment for survey year, sociodemographic factors, chronic kidney disease risk factors, and blood lead, the odds ratios for albuminuria (?30 mg/g creatinine), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), and both albuminuria and reduced eGFR were 1.92 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.43), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.76, 4.81), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest blood cadmium quartiles. The odds ratios comparing participants in the highest with the lowest quartiles of both cadmium and lead were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.72, 3.18) for albuminuria, 1.98 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.10) for reduced eGFR, and 4.10 (95% CI: 1.58, 10.65) for both outcomes. These findings support consideration of cadmium and lead as chronic kidney disease risk factors in the general population and provide novel evidence of risk with environmental exposure to both metals. PMID:19700501

Navas-Acien, Ana; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Muntner, Paul; Silbergeld, Ellen; Jaar, Bernard

2009-01-01

360

Arthroscopic synovial biopsy in definitive diagnosis of joint diseases: An evaluation of efficacy and precision  

PubMed Central

Context: Arthritis is an important cause of morbidity, presenting as monoarticular or polyarticular lesion. Arthroscopic synovial aspiration and biopsy can help in arriving specific etiological diagnosis. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of arthroscopic synovial biopsy as a diagnostic aid and study the characteristics of synovial fluid in various joint diseases. Materials and Methods: Arthroscopic synovial biopsy along with synovial fluid analysis was studied in 30 of the 50 enrolled cases arthritis. The fluid was subjected to physical, biochemical, and cytological analysis. Results: Both rheumatoid (n = 14, 28%) and tubercular (n = 13, 26%) arthritis were found to be more common compared to other etiologies. Next common etiology observed was chronic nonspecific synovitis (n = 10, 20%). Clinicopathological correlation was seen in 34 out of 50 cases. As a diagnostic tool, synovial biopsy had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 62%. Conclusion: Arthroscopic synovial biopsy is a simple and easy to perform technique and is an important useful investigative adjunct that may give conclusive diagnosis where clinical diagnosis is equivocal. PMID:23776821

Singhal, Onis; Kaur, Viplesh; Kalhan, Shivani; Singhal, Manish Kumar; Gupta, Anshu; Machave, YV

2012-01-01

361

Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA) against Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA) gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx) and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05), indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects. PMID:23977111

Zhang, Yani; Fu, Dezhi; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Li, Bichun

2013-01-01

362

Partial Antiviral Activities Detection of Chicken Mx Jointing with Neuraminidase Gene (NA) against Newcastle Disease Virus  

PubMed Central

As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA) gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx) and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05), indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects. PMID:23977111

Zhang, Yani; Fu, Dezhi; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Li, Bichun

2013-01-01

363

Osteoarthritis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Men’s Health Heart & Circulatory Health contact us Osteoarthritis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long ... function? What have you done to treat your osteoarthritis? Have you seen a physical therapist? Do you ...

364

Biomechanical Analysis of Stair Descent in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics. PMID:24926119

Igawa, Tatsuya; Katsuhira, Junji

2014-01-01

365

Self-management approaches for osteoarthritis in the hand: a 2×2 factorial randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of disability in older adults. Evidence of effectiveness for self-management of hand osteoarthritis is lacking. Methods In this randomised, factorial trial, we evaluated the effectiveness of joint protection versus no joint protection, and hand exercise versus no hand exercise in adults, 50?years of age or older, with hand osteoarthritis. Following a population survey (n=12?297), eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to: leaflet and advice; joint protection; hand exercise; joint protection plus hand exercise. Joint protection and hand exercises were delivered by nine occupational therapists, over four group sessions. The primary outcome was the OARSI/OMERACT responder criteria at 6?months. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation (3, 6, 12?m). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Of 257 participants randomised (65:62:65:65) (mean age (SD) 66?years (9.1); female 66%) follow-up was 85% at 6?m (n=212). Baseline characteristics and loss to follow-up were similar between groups. There were no reported treatment side effects. At 6?m 33% assigned joint protection were responders compared with 21% with no joint protection (p=0.03). Of those assigned hand exercises, 28% were responders compared with 25% with no exercises (n.s.). Differences in secondary outcomes were not statistically significant, except for improvement in pain self-efficacy with joint protection (3?m p=0.002; 6?m p=0.001; 12?m p=0.03). Conclusions These findings show that occupational therapists can support self-management in older adults with hand osteoarthritis, and that joint protection provides an effective intervention for medium term outcome. (Funded by the Arthritis Research UK ISRCTN 33870549). PMID:24107979

Dziedzic, Krysia; Nicholls, Elaine; Hill, Susan; Hammond, Alison; Handy, June; Thomas, Elaine; Hay, Elaine

2015-01-01

366

Disease-specific clinical problems associated with the subchondral bone.  

PubMed

The subchondral bone is involved in a variety of diseases affecting both the articular cartilage and bone. Osteochondral defects in distinct locations and of variable sizes are the final results of different etiologies. These include traumatic osteochondral defects, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Traumatic osteochondral defects are caused by osteochondral fractures, separating an osteochondral fragment that includes articular cartilage and both subchondral and trabecular bone from the joint surface. In osteochondritis dissecans, the disease originates in the subchondral bone and secondarily affects the articular cartilage. Location, stage, size, and depth of osteochondral lesions play a role in the treatment of traumatic osteochondral defects and osteochondritis dissecans. Surgical options include fragment refixation, transplantation of osteochondral autografts, or bone restoration by impacted cancellous bone grafts combined with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. An insufficiency fracture of the subchondral bone may be the initiating factor of what was formerly believed to be a spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK). Recent histopathological studies suggest that each stage of SPONK reflects different types of bone repair reactions following a fracture of the subchondral bone plate. Osteoarthritis is a disease that does affect not only the articular cartilage, but also the subchondral bone. Reconstructive surgical techniques aim at preserving joint function, inducing fibrocartilaginous repair, and at correcting malalignment. This review summarizes the current status of the clinical treatment of traumatic osteochondral defects, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis as they affect the subchondral bone region and its adjacent structures. PMID:20151111

Pape, Dietrich; Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elisaveta; van Dijk, C Niek; Madry, Henning

2010-04-01

367

Vastus lateralis/vastus medialis cross-sectional area ratio impacts presence and degree of knee joint abnormalities and cartilage T2 determined with 3T MRI - An analysis from the incidence cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the role of vastus lateralis/vastus medialis cross-sectional area ratio (VL/VM CSA ratio) in preclinical knee osteoarthritis (OA) using MRI-based cartilage T2 mapping technique and morphological analysis at 3.0T in non-symptomatic, middle-aged subjects. Material and Methods 174 non-symptomatic individuals aged 45–55 years with OA risk factors were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative incidence cohort. OA-related knee abnormalities were analyzed using the whole-organ MR imaging score (WORMS). Knee cartilage T2 maps were generated using sagittal 2D multiecho spin echo images of the right knee. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of thigh muscles was measured using axial T1W images of the right mid thigh. Spline-based segmentation of cartilage and muscles was performed on a SUN/SPARC workstation. Muscle measurements were normalized to body size using body surface area. Statistical significance was determined using Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation test, and multiple regression models. To correct for multiple testing, Bonferroni adjustments were applied across all tests within each of the primary results tables (Tables 3 – 7). Results Higher T2 values were associated with increased prevalence and severity of cartilage degeneration. In our study, male and female subjects with higher VL/VM CSA ratio demonstrated significantly lower mean cartilage T2 values (all compartments combined) (mean 44.10 versus 45.17, p = 0.0017), and significantly lower WORMS scores (mean 14.12 versus 18.68, p = 0.0316). Regression analyses of combined mean cartilage T2 using VL/VM CSA ratio as a continuous predictor showed a significant curvilinear relationship between these two variables (p = 0. 0.0082). Conclusion Our results suggested that higher VL/VM CSA ratio is associated with lower T2 values and decreased presence and severity of OA-related morphological changes. Additional studies will be needed to determine causality. PMID:21044692

Pan, Judong; Stehling, Christoph; Muller-Hocker, Christina; Schwaiger, Benedikt J.; Lynch, John; McCulloch, Charles E.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Link, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

368

Multi directional intertrochanteric osteotomy for primary and secondary osteoarthritis—results after 15 to 29 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1974 and 1987, 276 intertrochanteric osteotomies were performed in 217 patients. In 48 hips the osteotomy was done\\u000a for idiopathic osteoarthritis. In 166 hips the osteoarthritis was secondary to acetabular dysplasia, in 23 to trauma, in 14\\u000a to slipped capital femoral epiphysis, in five to Legg–Calvé–Perthes' disease and in 20 to avascular necrosis of the femoral\\u000a head. Good results

D. Haverkamp; H. Eijer; T. W. Patt; R. K. Marti

2006-01-01

369

The Chronic Care Model: congruency and predictors among primary care patients with osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The Chronic Care Model (CCM) and the 5A approach have achieved widespread acceptance and reflect the core elements of patient-centred care in chronic diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). The aim was to assess to what extent current care for patients with osteoarthritis accords with the CCM in Germany and to reveal possible predictors to assess whether certain patients are more likely

T. J. Rosemann; G. Laux; J. Szecsenyi; R. P. T. M. Grol

2008-01-01

370

Osteoarthritis at Young Age, a Diagnostic Challenge: A Case of Stickler Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A young woman presents with severe polyarticular osteoarthritis with relevant family history potentially suggesting a hereditary disease. Previously, the patient’s mother had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and reported to have suffered from some locomotor problems. Careful clinical evaluation with an extensive personal and familial history pointed towards a diagnosis of Stickler syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition with progressive arthro-ophthalmopathy, (early osteoarthritis and myopia). Following this timely diagnosis, genetic counselling was offered.

de Wergifosse, Isabelle; Westhovens, Rene

2014-01-01

371

Fibronectin, cartilage, and osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Fibronectin is a multifunctional glycoprotein present at low levels in the extracellular matrix of normal cartilage. In this tissue, as in others, it may be a component of a cell matrix adhesion complex together with cell-surface proteoglycans but also may play a role in the organization of the extracellular matrix. In osteoarthritis (OA), fibronectin content is markedly increased in the altered matrix because of an increased synthesis by the chondrocytes and accumulation in the extracellular matrix. At least part of the fibronectins synthesized in one degenerated cartilage is composed of isoforms more sensitive to proteolytic cleavage that are absent in normal cartilage. This increased content of fibronectin during osteoarthritic processes might entail several consequences related to the multiple functions of fibronectin and its generated fragments, namely a change in chondrocyte phenotype, a switch in synthesis of collagen type, an increased activity of locally secreted metalloproteases, and induction of self-proteolytic activities against gelatin and fibronectin. However, it is not yet clearly understood whether the early increased synthesis of fibronectin in OA acts as an "agent" in an attempt to repair cartilage by the chondrocytes or whether it acts as a deleterious "agent." PMID:8511595

Chevalier, X

1993-04-01

372

Early decrease of serum biomarkers of type II collagen degradation (Coll2-1) and joint inflammation (Coll2-1 NO? ) by hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a research study part of the Biovisco study.  

PubMed

To measure the evolution of the serum levels of specific Osteoarthritis (OA) biomarker, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO? in knee osteoarthritic patients after viscosupplementation (VS). Fifty-one patients with unilateral symptomatic knee were recruited for this prospective open label study. They received three intra-articular injections of 2 ml of hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF-20) and were followed for 3 months. Walking pain was evaluated and serum samples were taken at each visit. Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO? were measured in the serum using specific immunoassays. Variations over time of each parameter and predictive factor of response were studied. Forty-five patients were analyzed. The serum concentrations of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1 NO? were significantly higher in KL III/IV patients compared to KL I/II patients at baseline and decreased systematically over time after VS. Its effect was ever more pronounced in patients with KL III/IV. The serum concentration of Coll2-1 was significantly lower at baseline in responders than in non-responders. This study suggests a rapid slowdown of type II collagen degradation and joint inflammation after VS with Hylan G-20 and gives additional information for the validation of accurate biomarkers for OA. The serum level of Coll2-1 appeared to be a predictive factor for response to treatment. PMID:23423846

Henrotin, Y; Chevalier, X; Deberg, M; Balblanc, J C; Richette, P; Mulleman, D; Maillet, B; Rannou, F; Piroth, C; Mathieu, P; Conrozier, T

2013-06-01

373

Polymorphisms in the gene encoding estrogen receptor alpha are associated with osteoarthritis in Han Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in the Xba I and Pvu II restriction enzyme recognition sites in the estrogen receptor-alpha gene (ESR1) have been associated with multiple diseases, including osteoarthritis. To determine whether such polymorphisms are associated with osteoarthritis in a Han Chinese population, 98 women with osteoarthritis and 196 healthy women were genotyped by PCR-RFLP of ESR1 with Xba I and Pvu II. Absence of a restriction polymorphism is indicated as an X or P allele; presence of the restriction polymorphism is indicated as an x or p allele. Clinical information was collected on each participant, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), knee radiograms, and bone mineral density (BMD). Body weight and BMI were higher for each Xba I genotype (all P < 0.05) in individuals with osteoarthritis compared to controls (p < 0.05). Femoral BMD was also significantly higher in the osteoarthritis group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the xx genotype for ESR1 was a significant risk factor for osteoarthritis (OR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.13~4.20, p=0.036). Thus, consistent with findings in other populations, the estrogen receptor genotype xx appears to be associated with susceptibility to osteoarthritis among Han Chinese women.

Liu, Wei; Shao, Feng-Min; Yan, Lei; Cao, Hui-Xia; Qiu, Dong

2014-01-01

374

The mechanobiology of osteoarthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In combining biomechanical investigations with microanatomical studies, the authors have found new evidence suggesting a mechanobiological link between the altered microstructural response of degenerate cartilage to load, and the way in which structural changes develop in the early osteoarthritic joint. This paper presents the data and background for a new hypothesis exploring the initiation and progression of mechanically-driven osteoarthritic processes.

Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

2009-08-01

375

The relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.  

PubMed

The relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP), the two most common skeletal disorders related to aging, is controversial. Previous studies suggest that OA is inversely related to OP when studied cross-sectionally and systematically. However, there are differences in the results depending on the parameter used to define OA. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the literature, and derive possible answers to three key questions along with a brief introduction on underlying mechanisms: (1) Is OA correlated to a high bone mineral density (BMD)? (2) Does OA influence the progression of OP or osteoporotic fractures? (3) Does high BMD affect the incidence and progression of OA? A review of the literature suggests that OA is inversely related to OP in general when studied cross-sectionally and systematically. However, when analyzed in individual bones, the BMD of the appendicular skeleton in OA-affected joints may decrease, particularly in the upper extremities. On whether OA influences bone loss or osteoporotic fractures, differences are observed according to the affected joints. The risk for osteoporotic fracture does not seem to decrease despite a high BMD in patients with OA, probably due to postural instability and muscle strength. Low BMD at the lumbar spine is associated with a lower incidence of knee OA although it does not arrest the progression of knee OA. PMID:24196872

Im, Gun-Il; Kim, Min-Kyu

2014-03-01

376

Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking. PMID:22720159

Hügle, Thomas; Geurts, Jeroen; Nüesch, Corina; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Valderrabano, Victor

2012-01-01

377

Simultaneous tissue profiling of eicosanoid and endocannabinoid lipid families in a rat model of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

We describe a novel LC method for the simultaneous and quantitative profiling of 43 oxylipins including eicosanoids, endocannabinoids, and structurally related bioactive lipids with modified acyl groups. The LC-MS/MS method uses switching at a defined time between negative and positive electrospray ionization modes to achieve optimal detection sensitivity for all the lipids. The validated method is linear over a range of 0.01-5 nmol/g (0.1-50 nmol/g for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) with intra- and interday precision and accuracy between 1.38 and 26.76% and 85.22 and 114.3%, respectively. The method successfully quantified bioactive lipids in different tissue types in the rat, including spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), knee joint, brain, and plasma. Distinct regional differences in the pattern of lipid measured between tissue types were observed using principle component analysis. The method was applied to analyze tissue samples from an established preclinical rat model of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and showed that levels of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were significantly increased in the OA rat knee joint compared with controls, and that 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was significantly increased in the DRGs in the model of OA compared with controls. The developed LC-MS/MS method has the potential to provide detailed pathway profiling in tissues and biofluids where the disruption of bioactive oxylipins may be involved in disease states. PMID:25062663

Wong, Amy; Sagar, Devi R; Ortori, Catharine A; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria; Barrett, David A

2014-09-01

378

Therapeutic effect of irradiation of magnetic infrared laser on osteoarthritis rat model.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease caused by articular cartilage loss. Many complementary and alternative medicines for OA have been reported so far, but the effectiveness is controversial. Previously, we have shown anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy with static magnetic field, magnetic infrared laser (MIL), in various animal models. Therefore, the beneficial effects were examined in OA rat model. Rats were divided by six groups; no treatment controls of sham and OA model, three MIL treatment groups of OA model at 6.65, 2.66 and 1.33 J cm(-2), and Diclofenac group of OA model with 2 mg kg(-1) diclofenac sodium. The OA control exhibited typical symptoms of OA, but 4-week MIL treatment improved the functional movement of knee joint with reduced edematous changes. In addition, cartilage GAGs were detected more in all MIL treatment groups than OA control. It suggests that 4-week MIL irradiation has dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects on OA. Histopathological analyses revealed that MIL treatment inhibits the cartilage degradation and enhances chondrocyte proliferation. The fact that MIL has an additional potential for the cartilage formation and no adverse effects can be regarded as great advantages for OA treatment. These suggest that MIL can be useful for OA treatment. PMID:24962501

Moon, Chul-Hwan; Kwon, Ogon; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Hee-Duk; Kwon, Young-Sam; Park, Soo-Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

2014-01-01

379

Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Boswellic acid is a plant-derived molecule with putative anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to determine whether oral or topical administration of boswellic acid can attenuate joint damage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Levels of boswellic acid were measured in the blood and synovium of mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid. OA was generated by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Therapy with oral or topical boswellic acid was initiated one day after surgery and continued for 12 weeks, when knees were harvested and scored histologically for degree of cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. Microdissected OA synovium was stimulated with IL-1? or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of boswellic acid and cytokine production by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or multiplex enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Results Topical treatment resulted in synovial concentrations of boswellic acid 2–6-fold higher than that measured in plasma. Cartilage loss was significantly reduced in mice treated with oral or topical boswellic acid compared with vehicle control (P < 0.01 for both oral and topical therapies). Likewise, treatment with either oral boswellic acid or boswellic acid ointment reduced of synovitis (P = 0.006 and 0.025, respectively) and osteophyte formation (P = 0.009 and 0.030, respectively). In vitro, boswellic acid was able to inhibit IL-1? and TLR4 mediated induction of several inflammatory mediators from OA synovial explant tissue. Conclusions Significant synovial concentration and therapeutic efficacy can be achieved with topical boswellic acid treatment. These findings suggest that boswellic acid has potential as a disease-modifying agent in OA. PMID:24185109

Wang, Q.; Pan, X.; Wong, H.H.; Wagner, C.A.; Lahey, L.J.; Robinson, W.H.; Sokolove, J.

2014-01-01

380

Pathology of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. A review of experience at the Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York.  

PubMed

Pathological examination of the resected femoral heads from approximately 2000 total hip replacement operations carried out at the Hospital for Joint Diseases from 1984 to 1989 identified the presence of osteonecrosis in 345 patients (377 femoral heads). In 232 patients the osteonecrosis, referred to as "idiopathic," had occurred in the absence of a subcapital fracture. The present paper describes the pathology of the necrotic lesions in these 232 patients. The use of undecalcified sections and microradiography provides evidence of bone marrow calcification which, at the margin of the lesion, is sufficient to influence the radiographic features of the lesion significantly. Although a subchondral fracture is an almost constant feature of osteonecrosis when it occurs in a femoral head with a normal articular cartilage, no such fracture was found in cases in which osteonecrosis had occurred in an osteoarthritic joint. PMID:1626289

Sissons, H A; Nuovo, M A; Steiner, G C

1992-01-01

381

Early-Onset Osteoarthritis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Like Neuropathy, Autoimmune Features, Multiple Arterial Aneurysms and Dissections: An Unrecognized and Life Threatening Condition  

PubMed Central

Background Severe osteoarthritis and thoracic aortic aneurysms have recently been associated with mutations in the SMAD3 gene, but the full clinical spectrum is incompletely defined. Methods All SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre and their families were investigated prospectively with a structured panel including standardized clinical workup, blood tests, total body computed tomography, joint X-rays. Electroneuromyography was performed in selected cases. Results Thirty-four SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre were identified and 16 relatives were considered affected because of aortic surgery or sudden death (total 50 subjects). Aortic disease was present in 72%, complicated with aortic dissection, surgery or sudden death in 56% at a mean age of 45 years. Aneurysm or tortuosity of the neck arteries was present in 78%, other arteries were affected in 44%, including dissection of coronary artery. Overall, 95% of mutation carriers displayed either aortic or extra-aortic arterial disease. Acrocyanosis was also present in the majority of patients. Osteoarticular manifestations were recorded in all patients. Joint involvement could be severe requiring surgery in young patients, of unusual localization such as tarsus or shoulder, or mimicking crystalline arthropathy with fibrocartilage calcifications. Sixty eight percent of patients displayed neurological symptoms, and 9 suffered peripheral neuropathy. Electroneuromyography revealed an axonal motor and sensory neuropathy in 3 different families, very evocative of type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, although none had mutations in the known CMT2 genes. Autoimmune features including Sjogren’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, or isolated autoantibodies- were found in 36% of patients. Interpretation SMAD3 gene mutations are associated with aortic dilatation and osteoarthritis, but also autoimmunity and peripheral neuropathy which mimics type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth. PMID:24804794

Aubart, Mélodie; Gobert, Delphine; Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Detaint, Delphine; Hanna, Nadine; d’Indya, Hyacintha; Lequintrec, Janine-Sophie; Renard, Philippe; Vigneron, Anne-Marie; Dieudé, Philippe; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Koch, Pierre; Muti, Christine; Roume, Joelle; Cusin, Veronica; Grandchamp, Bernard; Gouya, Laurent; LeGuern, Eric; Papo, Thomas; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume

2014-01-01

382

Atlantodental Osteoarthritis as a Cause of Upper Cervical Myelopathy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Atlantoaxial instability frequently causes extrinsic cervical myelopathy via anterior displacement of the posterior arch of the atlas. However, upper cervical myelopathy resulting from atlantodental osteo-arthritis with the hypertrophic dens due to atlantoaxial instability is very rare. We present a case of upper cervical myelopathy secondary to atlantoaxial instability and atlantodental osteoarthritis. Although there was no atlantoaxial subluxation on the flexion and extension radiographies, hypertrophic changes of the anterior arch of the atlas with the dens axis and a fusion of the atlanto-dental joint resulting from atlantoaxial instability were determined on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Eren, Suat; Kantarci, Mecit; Deniz, Orhan

2008-01-01

383

Diagnostic accuracy of a short-duration 3 Tesla magnetic resonance protocol for diagnosing stifle joint lesions in dogs with non-traumatic cranial cruciate ligament rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred diagnostic tool to evaluate internal disorders of many joints in humans; however, the usefulness of MR imaging in the context of osteoarthritis, and joint disease in general, has yet to be characterized in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of short-duration 3 Tesla MR imaging for the evaluation of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament, meniscal and cartilage damage, as well as the degree of osteoarthritis, in dogs affected by non-traumatic, naturally-occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Diagnoses made from MR images were compared to those made during surgical exploration. Twenty-one client-owned dogs were included in this study, and one experienced evaluator assessed all images. Results All cranial cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as ruptured. With one exception, all caudal cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as intact. High sensitivities and specificities were obtained when diagnosing meniscal rupture. MR images revealed additional subclinical lesions in both the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and in the menisci. There was a “clear” statistical (kappa) agreement between the MR and the surgical findings for both cartilage damage and degree of osteoarthritis. However, the large 95% confidence intervals indicated that evaluation of cartilage damage and of degree of osteoarthritis is not clinically satisfactory. Conclusions The presence of cruciate ligament damage and meniscal tears could be accurately assessed using the MR images obtained with our protocol. However, in the case of meniscal evaluation, occasional misdiagnosis did occur. The presence of cartilage damage and the degree of osteoarthritis could not be properly evaluated. PMID:23448526

2013-01-01

384

A new CT grading system for hip osteoarthritis  

E-print Network

most popular, although it has evolved into multiple interpretations. For example, grade two knee osteoarthritis has been described in at least five different ways with different threshold criteria for disease(13,14). This is, in part, because Kellgren... JSN 3 Moderate Definite osteophytes, definite JSN, sclerosis, cysts, possible deformity 4 Severe Grade 3 plus definite deformity (with or without severe sclerosis) Table 3 Interpretation of the K&L grading system applied to DRRs. TABLE 4...

Turmezei, T. D.; Fotiadou, A.; Lomas, D. J.; Hopper, M. A.; Poole, K. E. S.

2014-03-15

385

Unloading shoes for osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol for the SHARK randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and disabling condition. Abnormalities in knee loading play an important role in disease pathogenesis, yet there are few non-surgical treatments for knee OA capable of reducing knee load. This two-arm randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy of specially-designed unloading shoes for the treatment of symptoms in people with knee OA. Methods/Design 164 people with symptomatic medial tibiofemoral joint OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to receive either unloading shoes or control shoes. Unloading shoes have a specially-designed triple-density midsole where the medial side is softer than normal and the lateral side harder as well as a lateral wedge between the sole and sock-liner. Control shoes are standard athletic shoes and do not contain these features. Participants will be blinded to shoe allocation and will be instructed to wear the shoes as much as possible every day for 6 months, for a minimum of 4 hours per day. The primary outcomes are knee pain (numerical rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) measured at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, knee stiffness, participant global ratings of change in symptoms, quality-of-life and physical activity. Conclusions The findings from this study will help determine whether specially-designed unloading shoes are efficacious in the management of knee OA. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12613000851763. PMID:24555418

2014-01-01

386

Bracing and orthoses: a review of efficacy and mechanical effects for tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. Bracing of the knee or the foot can be a useful nonoperative and nonpharmacologic treatment for persons with osteoarthritis that predominantly involves either the medial or lateral tibiofemoral compartment. The aim of wedged insoles and realigning knee braces is to reduce articular contact stress in the more involved tibiofemoral compartment. There is evidence that even knee sleeves that do not have an effect on alignment may confer symptomatic relief and enhance joint position sense. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the degree to which bracing at the knee or foot can effectively correct tibiofemoral malalignment, improve knee joint pain, and enhance physical function, and provides clinical recommendations for prescription of these devices to optimize effectiveness. PMID:22632708

Segal, Neil A

2012-05-01

387

Selective lateral muscle activation in moderate medial knee osteoarthritis subjects does not unload medial knee condyle.  

PubMed

There is some debate in the literature regarding the role of quadriceps-hamstrings co-contraction in the onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Does co-contraction during walking increase knee contact loads, thereby causing knee osteoarthritis, or might it be a compensatory mechanism to unload the medial tibial condyle? We used a detailed musculoskeletal model of the lower limb to test the hypothesis that selective activation of lateral hamstrings and quadriceps, in conjunction with inhibited medial gastrocnemius, can actually reduce the joint contact force on the medial compartment of the knee, independent of changes in kinematics or external forces. "Baseline" joint loads were computed for eight subjects with moderate medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) during level walking, using static optimization to resolve the system of muscle forces for each subject's scaled model. Holding all external loads and kinematics constant, each subject's model was then perturbed to represent non-optimal "OA-type" activation based on mean differences detected between electromyograms (EMG) of control and osteoarthritis subjects. Knee joint contact forces were greater for the "OA-type" than the "Baseline" distribution of muscle forces, particularly during early stance. The early-stance increase in medial contact load due to the "OA-type" perturbation could implicate this selective activation strategy as a cause of knee osteoarthritis. However, the largest increase in the contact load was found at the lateral condyle, and the "OA-type" lateral activation strategy did not increase the overall (greater of the first or second) medial peak contact load. While "OA-type" selective activation of lateral muscles does not appear to reduce the medial knee contact load, it could allow subjects to increase knee joint stiffness without any further increase to the peak medial contact load. PMID:24581816

Brandon, Scott C E; Miller, Ross H; Thelen, Darryl G; Deluzio, Kevin J

2014-04-11

388

CD4 T cells in the rheumatoid joint are oligoclonally activated and change during the course of disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the nature of T cell receptor (TCR) utilisation by CD4 T cells in the rheumatoid joint. METHODS--Sequencing of the joining (NDJ) region of TCR beta chain mRNA isolated from synovial fluid CD4 T cells was performed in three patients in order to determine if oligoclonal expansion of particular sequences was present. Two patients were studied longitudinally to determine if these sequences changed over time. RESULTS--A number of dominant clonotypes were found within the TCR transcripts sequenced in each patient. In the two patients who were studied longitudinally, different dominant clonotypes were detected over time. No single clonotype was persistently dominant during the period of study. CONCLUSIONS--The pattern of TCR usage showed multiple oligoclonally expanded CD4 T cells within the rheumatoid joint. The change in clonotypes within the joint over time suggests that different antigens may be able to elicit synovial inflammation during the course of rheumatoid disease. PMID:7763112

Khazaei, H A; Lunardi, C; So, A K

1995-01-01

389

The Role of Changes in Extracellular Matrix of Cartilage in the Presence of Inflammation on the Pathology of Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that affects various tissues surrounding joints such as articular cartilage, subchondral bone, synovial membrane, and ligaments. No therapy is currently available to completely prevent the initiation or progression of the disease par