Science.gov

Sample records for jointless bridges

  1. Jointless structure and under-actuation mechanism for compact hand exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    In, HyunKi; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Kim, KyuRi; Lee, BumSuk

    2011-01-01

    It is important for a wearable robot to be compact and sufficiently light for use as an assistive device. Since human fingers are arranged in a row in dense space, the concept of traditional wearable robots using a rigid frame and a pin joint result in size and complexity problems. A structure without a conventional pin joint, called a jointless structure, has the potential to be used as a wearable robotic hand because the human skeleton and joint can replace the robot's conventional structure. Another way to reduce the weight of the system is to use under-actuation. Under-actuation enables adaptive grasping with less number of actuators for robotic hands. Differential mechanisms are widely used for multi-finger under-actuation; however, they require additional working space. We propose a design with a jointless structure and a novel under-actuation mechanism to reduce the size and weight of a hand exoskeleton. Using these concepts, we developed a prototype that weighs only 80 grams. To evaluate the prototype, fingertip force and blocked force are measured. Fingertip force is the force that can be applied by the finger of the hand exoskeleton on the object surface. The fingertip force is about 18 N when actuated by a tension force of 35 N from the motor. 18 N is sufficient for simple pinch motion in daily activities. Another factor related to performance of the under-actuation mechanism is blocked force, which is a force required to stop one finger while the other finger keeps on moving. It is measured to be 0.5 N, which is sufficiently small. With these experiments, the feasibility of the new hand exoskeleton has been shown. PMID:22275598

  2. MACROCALYX and JOINTLESS Interact in the Transcriptional Regulation of Tomato Fruit Abscission Zone Development1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Ihashi, Nao; Maeda, Hideo; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Abscission in plants is a crucial process used to shed organs such as leaves, flowers, and fruits when they are senescent, damaged, or mature. Abscission occurs at predetermined positions called abscission zones (AZs). Although the regulation of fruit abscission is essential for agriculture, the developmental mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe a novel transcription factor regulating the development of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pedicel AZs. We found that the development of tomato pedicel AZs requires the gene MACROCALYX (MC), which was previously identified as a sepal size regulator and encodes a MADS-box transcription factor. MC has significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FRUITFULL, which is involved in the regulation of fruit dehiscent zone development. The MC protein interacted physically with another MADS-box protein, JOINTLESS, which is known as a regulator of fruit abscission; the resulting heterodimer acquired a specific DNA-binding activity. Transcriptome analyses of pedicels at the preabscission stage revealed that the expression of the genes involved in phytohormone-related functions, cell wall modifications, fatty acid metabolism, and transcription factors is regulated by MC and JOINTLESS. The regulated genes include homologs of Arabidopsis WUSCHEL, REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON, and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR. These Arabidopsis genes encode well-characterized transcription factors regulating meristem maintenance, axillary meristem development, and boundary formation in plant tissues. The tomato homologs were specifically expressed in AZs but not in other pedicel tissues, suggesting that these transcription factors may play key roles in pedicel AZ development. PMID:22106095

  3. Rapid-to-deploy wireless monitoring systems for static and dynamic load testing of bridges: validation on the Grove Street Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2006-03-01

    Bridge management officials have expressed a keen interest in the use of low-cost and easy-to-install wireless sensors to record bridge responses during short-term load testing. To illustrate the suitability of wireless sensors for short-term monitoring of highway bridges, a wireless monitoring system is installed upon the Grove Street Bridge to monitor structural responses during static and dynamic load testing. Specifically, load testing of the Grove Street Bridge is conducted after its construction to validate the behavior of a novel jointless bridge deck constructed from a high-performance fiber reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC) material. A heterogeneous array of sensing transducers are installed in the bridge including metal foil strain gages, accelerometers and linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). First, the acceleration response of the bridge is monitored by the wireless system during routine traffic loading. Modal parameters (modal frequencies and mode shapes) are calculated by the wireless sensors so that an analytical model of the bridge constructed in a standard commercial finite element package can be updated off-line. Next, the bridge is closed to traffic and trucks of known weight are parked on the bridge to induce static deformations. The installation strategy of the wireless monitoring system during static load testing is optimized to monitor the strain and rotation response of the HPFRCC deck. The measured static response of the deck is compared to that predicted by the updated analytical model.

  4. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, Darin C.; Warpinski, Norman R.

    1996-01-01

    A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

  5. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1996-08-13

    A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

  6. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  7. Making Jointless Dual-Diameter Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Kathleen E.

    1989-01-01

    Welds between sections having different diameters eliminated. Single tube made with integral tapered transition section between straight sections of different diameters and wall thicknesses. Made from single piece; contains no joints, welded or otherwise. Not prone to such weld defects as voids and need not be inspected for them. Tube fabricated by either of two methods: drawing or reduction. Both methods used to fabricate tubes of 316L corrosion-resistant stainless steel for use as heat-exchanger coil.

  8. Myocardial Bridge

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. See also on this site: Ask a Texas Heart Institute Doctor: Search "myocardial bridge" Updated August ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  9. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  10. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  11. Bridge Inspector's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Bureau of Public Roads.

    A guide for the instruction of bridge inspectors is provided in this manual as well as instructions for conducting and reporting on a bridge inspection. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary to become a bridge inspector. The subject areas covered are: The Bridge Inspector, Bridge Structures, Bridge Inspection Reporting System,…

  12. The Belizean Bridge Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)

  13. THE TRUSS BRIDGE SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TRUSS BRIDGE SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND AND THE HELL GATE BRIDGE IN THE BACKGROUND ADJACENT TO THE SUSPENSION SEGMENT OF THE TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE. - Triborough Bridge, Passing through Queens, Manhattan & the Bronx, Queens (subdivision), Queens County, NY

  14. Liquid bridges with thermocapillarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.-J.; Davis, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    An axisymmetric liquid bridge is subjected to an axial temperature gradient. Thermal variations in surface tension drive a motion that is described using lubrication theory for slender bridges. At leading order in aspect ratio, a class of similarity solutions is obtained valid in the core region away from the endwalls of the bridge. These solutions describe the flows, temperature fields, and interfacial shapes of bridges that may sustain substantial interfacial deflections.

  15. LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WNW, CHEVROLET AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING FLINT RIVER. BRIDGE CONNECTED NORTH AND SOUTH PORTIONS OF FACTORY COMPLEX. DANIEL LUTEN DESIGNED THE BRIDGE, AND ILLINOIS BRIDGE COMPANY BUILT IT IN 1918. THE BRIDGE WAS THE SITE OF THE BATTLE OF RUNNING BULLS IN THE 1936-1937 GM SIT DOWN STRIKE. - Delphi Flint West, 300 Chevrolet Avenue, Flint, Genesee County, MI

  16. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  17. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  18. Galactic Bridges in Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierjung, Brianna; Jorge Moreno, Paul Torrey, Phil Hopkins

    2016-01-01

    We employ a suite of 75 simulations of galaxies in idealized major mergers to investigate the bridges formed by interactions. These simulations are based on the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al. 2011). Moreover, unlike past work, we have both the resolution and diversity in merging orbits to make statistically meaningful predictions. We find that very dense, star forming bridges can be characterized as strong bridges. In particular, prograde mergers with high eccentricities and high impact parameters produce the most mass of stars in the bridge.

  19. GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GOETHALS BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OVER ARTHUR KILL. RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND - Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  20. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  1. 2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LONG VIEW NORTHWEST, EASTBOUND BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND, WESTBOUND BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND - Willow Run Expressway Bridge No. R01, Spanning Conrail Railway, eastbound, at US-10, Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, MI

  2. 3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing southwest. Bridge from north shore of Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  3. 4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shoreof Clark Fork River showing 4 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  4. 2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northeast. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  5. 7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing northwest. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River showing 4 1/2 spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  6. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  7. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 11. Southern bridge abutment and arches, taken from old bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Southern bridge abutment and arches, taken from old bridge abutment looking south. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  10. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE STEEL BRIDGE TRUSS AND ROADWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE STEEL BRIDGE TRUSS AND ROADWAY AT PIER 3, EAST SIDE, FROM RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. TWIN SKEWED TRUSS RAILROAD BRIDGES NEAR BRIDGE STREET AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TWIN SKEWED TRUSS RAILROAD BRIDGES NEAR BRIDGE STREET AT THE WEST END OF THE PLANT. THIS VIEW PROBABLY LOOKING NORTHWEST. BRIDGES BUILT OVER ERIE CANAL (WHICH FLOWED RIGHT THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE PLANT) BY AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY IN 1902. SINCE THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN, NEAR BRIDGE HAS BEEN DEMOLISHED; FAR BRIDGE IS STILL IN SERVICE. - Solvay Process Company, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  12. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  13. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  14. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  15. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  16. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  17. Sulphite Railroad Bridge1896, Title Sheet Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sulphite Railroad Bridge-1896, Title Sheet - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  18. 5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing east. Bridge from south shore of Clark Fork River-southernmost span. 1900-era Northern Pacific Railway Bridge in background. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. [The multiple promontory bridge].

    PubMed

    Wysocki, J

    1998-01-01

    Anatomical investigations of one hundred human temporal bones revealed a significant variability of the promontory bridge (ponticulus promontorii). In twelve bones double and in two-triple promontory bridge was observed. The triple promontory bridge had not been previously described in available literature. In all the cases the double or triple promontory bridges were observed only on the temporal bones obtained from cadavers of up to four years of age. It confirms previous statements suggesting that development of this structure is connected with the process of pneumatization of the statements suggesting that development of this structure is connected with the process of pneumatization of the temporal bone, which obviously starts in 3-4 year of life. PMID:9884587

  20. Bridge inspection in Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisler, Don E.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a brief insight into the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Bridge Inspection Program. The State of Kansas has 25,580 bridge length structures within its boundaries used to carry vehicle traffic or pedestrians, excluding railroad. This total ranks third within the nation according to the November issue of 'Better Roads.' The total number of structures listed includes 20,453 structures owned by local governments, 340 structures owned by the Kansas Turnpike Authority, and 4,787 structures owned by the KDOT. This paper will deal specifically with the KDOT structures only.

  1. Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  2. 198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE FROM POTOMAC RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  3. 4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SILVER BRIDGE (ST. MARY'S BRIDGE), CARRYING COUNTY ROAD OVER SOURIS RIVER NEAR SOUTH END OF REFUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  4. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Title Sheet - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  5. Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section AA; Cantilever Truss Spans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge Types: Suspension Bridge Spans, Section A-A; Cantilever Truss Spans, Section B-B; Through Truss Spans, Section C-C; Deck Truss Spans, Section D-D - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  7. Bridging Disciplinary Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Interdisciplinary education promotes the unity of knowledge by bridging the cultural divide between the social constructs of disciplines and encourages the development of knowledge to enhance society. As an inquiry-based and relevant approach that expands and advances knowledge, interdisciplinary education facilitates creativity and flexibility,…

  8. Bridging the Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netzer, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a model water quality monitoring project, Project Bridge, established to train minority girls about to enter eighth grade in scientific procedures followed by hands-on experimentation. Students spent a week monitoring water in an urban stream and analyzing results. (LZ)

  9. Bridging the Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  10. Building a Straw Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  11. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  12. The Bridge to Somewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 2000, Pan-Asian American Community House's (PAACH's) education mission has bridged Asian-American studies to student life. PAACH initiatives have helped spread Asian-American diaspora to thousands of students at the University of Pennsylvania. They have also helped students determine for themselves what it means to be a…

  13. Bridging the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroto, Joseph J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes interdisciplinary activities with real-world applications ranging from science to mathematics to technology. Cites the study and construction of model bridges as a way for students to learn about engineering concepts and some of their relationships. States that the exercise enhanced teacher cooperation between the different fields. (RT)

  14. Virtual Bridge Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisogno, Janet; JeanPierre, Bobby

    2008-01-01

    The West Point Bridge Design (WPBD) building project engages students in project-based learning by giving them a real-life problem to solve. By using technology, students are able to become involved in solving problems that they normally would not encounter. Involvement with interactive websites, such as WPBD, assists students in using…

  15. Bridging the Abyss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Marianina

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the epistemological bases for the two cultures and to show why this disciplinary divide continues to plague American academic culture. Next, we discuss strategies for bridging the two cultures through general education curricula which promote mutual understanding of the two cultures while educating students in basic…

  16. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  17. The Bridges Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnen, Elizabeth; Klie, Judy

    This report describes BRIDGES, an employment equity special measures training program developed by the City of Toronto (Ontario, Canada). It was designed to help women employees move from their traditional jobs into trades, technical or operation (TTO) jobs within their own organization. The program is a combination of classroom sessions, shop…

  18. Bridge the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Mel; Cufaude, Jeffrey B.

    1989-01-01

    This document consists of two paired articles: the first, "Preparing Faculty Out of Class Experiences," by Mel Klein, and the second, "Help Advisers Be More Than Ghost Signatures," by Jeffrey B. Calfaude. Each article shares insights on how faculty advisers "bridge the gap" between students and faculty. When faculty members are asked to advise…

  19. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  20. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  1. Steel bridge retrofit evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prine, David W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of a retrofit design aimed at retarding or eliminating fatigue crack growth in a large bridge can be a very difficult and expensive procedure. Analytical techniques frequently do not provide sufficient accuracy when applied to complex structural details. The Infrastructure Technology Institute (ITI) of Northwestern University, under contract to the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), recently applied experimental state-of-the-art NDE technology to the Interstate 80 bridge over the Sacramento River near Sacramento, California (Bryte Bend). Acoustic emission monitoring was applied in conjunction with strain gage monitoring to aid in characterizing the retrofits' effect on existing active fatigue cracks. The combined test results clearly showed that one retrofit design was superior to the other.

  2. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

  3. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. To ensure an adequate retention over a number of years different factors have to be considered. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin (Panavia Ex) are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rets, interocclusal clearance of 0.4 mm and cingulum stops is equally important. Care should be taken not to remove all the enamel in the cervical region in preparing a mini chamfer. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Teeth with a different mobility should not be included in the same bridge. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. Only an exact impression, a precise model and a reliable casting technique will provide a metal frame with an optimal marginal adaptation and a close fit. The retention does not depend on one single factor but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 90% can be obtained. PMID:2077574

  4. The active-bridge oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, K.O.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the Active-Bridge Oscillator (ABO), a new concept in high-stability oscillator design. The ABO is ab ridge-type oscillator design that is easly to design and overcomes many of the operational and design difficulties associated with standard bridge oscillator designs. The ABO will oscillate with a very stable output amplitude over a wide range of operating conditions without the use of an automatic-level-control (ALC). A standard bridge oscillator design requires an ALC to maintain the desired amplitude of oscillation. for this and other reasons, bridge oscilaltors are not used in mainstream designs. Bridge oscillators are generally relegated to relatively low-volume, high-performance applications. The Colpitts and Pierce designs are the most popular oscillators but are typically less stable than a bridge-type oscillator.

  5. Bridging the Gap.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The view from the top of Hoover Dam looking south over the Colorado River was breathtaking! My friend and I stood there in silence, taking it all in. I had visited Hoover Dam on many occasions, but this visit was the first time I had seen the arch bridge that carries US Route 93 over the river and joins Nevada and Arizona states. It was a beautiful day, the temperature was perfect, and there was a slight breeze coming from Lake Mead behind us as we took in the view. PMID:27556855

  6. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  7. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  8. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  9. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  10. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  11. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  12. 5. North side of throughtruss bridge over railroad tracks (bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North side of through-truss bridge over railroad tracks (bridge #U182512605). View to southwest. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  13. 16. Little Hell Gate Bridge with Big Hell Gate Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Little Hell Gate Bridge with Big Hell Gate Bridge in background. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.02. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  14. 20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Bronx Kill Bridge with Hell Gate Bridge in background. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  15. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the...

  16. Mathematics in Use: Suspension Bridges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginther, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the mathematics utilized in the design and construction of suspension bridges, in general, then illustrates these mathematical concepts by examining data associated with the Mackinac Bridge, which connects the two peninsulas of Michigan. Emphasizes the strong interest factor these gigantic structures have for students by attaching a sense…

  17. The violin bridge as filter.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, George

    2006-07-01

    The violin bridge filter role was investigated using modal and acoustic measurements on 12 quality-rated violins combined with systematic bridge rocking frequency f(rock) and wing mass decrements deltam on four bridges for two other violins. No isolated bridge resonances were observed; bridge motions were complex (including a "squat" mode near 0.8 kHz) except for low frequency rigid body pivot motions, all more or less resembling rocking motion at higher frequencies. A conspicuous broad peak near 2.3 kHz in bridge driving point mobility (labeled BH) was seen for good and bad violins. Similar structure was seen in averaged bridge, bridge feet, corpus mobilities and averaged radiativity. No correlation between violin quality and BH driving point, averaged corpus mobility magnitude, or radiativity was found. Increasing averaged-over-f(rock) deltam(g) from 0 to 0.12 generally increased radiativity across the spectrum. Decreasing averaged-over-deltam f(rock) from 3.6 to 2.6 kHz produced consistent decreases in radiativity between 3 and 4.2 kHz, but only few-percent decreases in BH frequency. The lowest f(rock) values were accompanied by significantly reduced radiation from the Helmholtz A0 mode near 280 Hz; this, combined with reduced high frequency output, created overall radiativity profiles quite similar to "bad" violins among the quality-rated violins. PMID:16875244

  18. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  19. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  20. Nanoparticle bridge DNA biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Wen

    A new DNA sensing method is demonstrated in which DNA hybridization events lead to the formation of nanoparticle satellites that bridge two electrodes and are detected electrically. The hybridization events are exclusively carried out only on specific locations, the surfaces of C-ssDNA modified 50 nm GNPs. The uniqueness of this work is that only a small number of T-ccDNA molecules (<10) is required to form the nanoparticle satellites, allowing ultra-sensitive DNA sensing. The principle of this new DNA sensing technique has been demonstrated using target DNA and three-base-pair-mismatched DNA in 20nM concentrations. Three single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) system is used in our experiment which includes Capture-ssDNA (C-ssDNA), Target-ssDNA (T-ssDNA) and Probe-ssDNA (P-ssDNA). Both C-ssDNA and P-ssDNA are modified by a thiol group and can hybridize with different portions of T-ssDNA. T-ssDNA requires no modification in three ssDNA system, which is beneficial in many applications. C-ssDNA modified 50nm gold nanoparticle (C-50au) and P-ssDNA modified 30nm gold nanoparticle (P-30au) are prepared through the reaction of thiol-gold chemical bonding between thiolated ssDNA and gold nanoparticle (GNP) (C-ssDNA with 50nm GNP, P-ssDNA with 30nm GNP). We controllably place the C-50au only on the SiO2 band surface (˜ 90nm width) between two gold electrodes (source and drain electrodes) by forming positively- and negatively-charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on SiO2 and gold surface, respectively. DNA modified GNP is negatively charged due to ionization of phosphate group on DNA back bone. C-50au therefore is negatively charged and can only be attracted toward SiO2 area (repelled by negatively charged gold electrode surface). The amine group of positively-charged SAMs on SiO2 surface is then passivated by converting to non-polar methyl functional group after C-50au placement. P-30au is first hybridized with T-ssDNA in the solution phase (T-P- 30au formed) and is introduced

  1. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  2. Anticoagulation After Cardioembolic Stroke: To Bridge or Not to Bridge?

    PubMed Central

    Hallevi, Hen; Albright, Karen C.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Barreto, Andrew D.; Savitz, Sean I.; Escobar, Miguel A.; Gonzales, Nicole R.; Noser, Elizabeth A.; Illoh, Kachi; Grotta, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most patients with cardioembolic stroke require long-term anticoagulation. Still, uncertainty exists regarding the best mode of starting long-term anticoagulation. Design, Setting, and Patients We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with cardioembolic stroke admitted to our center from April 1, 2004, to June 30, 2006, and not treated with tissue plasminogen activator. Patients were grouped by treatment: no treatment, aspirin only, aspirin followed by warfarin sodium, intravenous heparin sodium in the acute phase followed by warfarin (heparin bridging), and full-dose enoxaparin sodium combined with warfarin (enoxaparin bridging). Outcome measures and adverse events were collected prospectively. Laboratory values were captured from the records. Main Outcome Measures Symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation, stroke progression, and discharge modified Rankin Scale score. Results Two hundred four patients were analyzed. Recurrent stroke occurred in 2 patients (1%). Progressive stroke was the most frequent serious adverse event, seen in 11 patients (5%). Hemorrhagic transformation occurred in a bimodal distribution—an early benign hemorrhagic transformation and a late symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. All of the symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation cases were in the enoxaparin bridging group (10%) (P=.003). Systemic bleeding occurred in 2 patients (1%) and was associated with heparin bridging (P=.04). Conclusions Anticoagulation of patients with cardioembolic stroke can be safely started with warfarin shortly after stroke. Heparin bridging and enoxaparin bridging increase the risk for serious bleeding. PMID:18625852

  3. Stability of liquid crystalline bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles

    1999-02-01

    The stability of cylindrical bridges of the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl in an immiscible liquid bath was investigated in the nematic and smectic A phases. In the nematic phase the bridge was found to destabilize at a length-to-diameter (slenderness) ratio R similar to that of ordinary Newtonian fluids. On the other hand, the Bingham behavior of the smectic A phase, i.e., an apparent yield stress, enabled the formation of stable columns with R well in excess of π.

  4. 77 FR 16784 - General Bridge Regulation; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 114, 116, 118 RIN 1625-AB36 General Bridge Regulation; Amendment AGENCY... rulemaking concerning amendments to the general bridge regulations. The rulemaking was initiated to clarify the statutory responsibilities of bridge owners to remove their bridges from navigable waterways...

  5. Bridge diagnosis at 55 mph

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S

    1998-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has helped sponsor a research project at Lawrence Livermore that produced a beneficial new tool as well as an R&D 100 Award. The HERMES Bridge Inspector will provide an invaluable capability to diagnose the problems of deteriorating bridge decks and do it accurately, efficiently, nondestructively, and, perhaps most important to motorists, without closing bridges. Almost 30% of 600,000 large highway bridges in the U.S. are classified "deficient" by the FHWA, and HERMES can make a significant contribution toward solving the problem of infrastructure assessment and repair. With further development, HERMES holds promise for other concrete inspection problems, such as railroads, tunnels, and runways. HERMES, or High-performance Electromagnetic Roadway Mapping and Evaluation System, is a radar-based sensing system mounted in a trailer. It can be pulled by a vehicle at traffic speeds over a bridge deck to collect information about the roadway subsurface -- its sensors gathering data 30 centimeters or more into concrete. An onboard computer system processes the data into three-dimensional images that pinpoint problems in the roadway concrete and give engineers quantitative information about deterioration in the bridge deck. Engineers can then better assess what repairs or reconstruction is necessary and avoid the cost overruns and delays that result from inexact problem diagnoses.

  6. Sacrificial bridges for MEMS fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chao-Min; Chen, Yang-Che; Fong, Chien-Fu; Guu, Yunn-Horng; Chen, Rongshun; Yeh, J. Andrew; Hou, Max T.

    2011-09-01

    This study discusses sacrificial bridges that are used to release MEMS devices. Before being released, sacrificial bridges connect all the component structures into an integral structure. Solder bump bonding is used to mount the MEMS chip on another chip or a printed circuit board (PCB) and to maintain the alignment among all component structures after removal of the sacrificial bridges. Two types of sacrificial bridges were designed, analyzed and fabricated. The fabrication process—which used low resistivity single crystal silicon (SCS) wafers as the device material—was developed to implement the sacrificial bridges. Novel SCS through silicon vias (TSVs), which interconnect stacked chips, was made using the same process. An electrostatic comb drive actuator was fabricated and mounted onto a PCB. The fabricated actuator was tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fabrication process, sacrificial bridges and SCS TSVs. The results show that the actuator worked well. Its maximum displacement and resonant frequency were 69.9 µm and 406 Hz, respectively. This method is promising for the delivery of a novel 3D system in package for MEMS devices.

  7. OVERVIEW OF BRIDGES WITH WAIKELE CANAL BRIDGE IN CENTER, OR&L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF BRIDGES WITH WAIKELE CANAL BRIDGE IN CENTER, OR&L BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. SHOWING THE EARTHEN INCLINE THAT RAISES FARRINGTON HIGHWAY OVER THE FORMER OR&L TRACKS. NOTE THE 1963 WESTBOUND BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING EAST. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  9. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  10. Evaporation dynamics of femtoliter water capillary bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kun; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Lim, Jun; Kim, Joon Heon; Gim, Bopil; Kim, Jung Gu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Capillary bridges are usually formed by a small liquid volume in confined space between two solid surfaces and particularly they have lower internal pressure than 1 atm at femtoliter scales. Femtoliter capillary bridges exhibit rapid evaporation rates. To quantify detailed evaporation kinetics of femtoliter bridges, we present a feasible protocol to directly visualize femtoliter water bridges that evaporate in still air between a microsphere and a flat substrate by utilizing transmission X-ray microscopy. Precise measurements of evaporation kinetics for water bridges indicate that lower water pressure than 1 atm can significantly decelerate evaporation by suppression of vapor diffusion. This finding would provide a consensus to understand evaporation of ultrasmall capillary bridges.

  11. Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

  12. 1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied January 1973 from the Keystone Bridge Company Album, 1874. THE KEYSTONE BRIDGE COMPANY: LUCY FURNACE. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Parkersburg Bridge, Ohio River, Parkersburg, Wood County, WV

  13. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  14. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  15. Substructure Main Bridge, River Piers A & V ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, River Piers A & V - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  16. Bridging: Locating Critical Connectors in a Network

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Fujimoto, Kayo

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes several measures for bridging in networks derived from Granovetter's (1973) insight that links which reduce distances in a network are important structural bridges. Bridging is calculated by systematically deleting links and calculating the resultant changes in network cohesion (measured as the inverse average path length). The average change for each node's links provides an individual level measure of bridging. We also present a normalized version which controls for network size and a network level bridging index. Bridging properties are demonstrated on hypothetical networks, empirical networks, and a set of 100 randomly generated networks to show how the bridging measure correlates with existing network measures such as degree, personal network density, constraint, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and vitality. Bridging and the accompanying methodology provide a family of new network measures useful for studying network structure, network dynamics, and network effects on substantive behavioral phenomenon. PMID:20582157

  17. NASA Now: Operation IceBridge

    NASA Video Gallery

    During this NASA Now program, you'€™ll meet Michael Studinger, Project Scientist for Operation IceBridge. He'€™ll describe the purpose of the IceBridge campaign and how the campaign objectives will...

  18. Instability of the capillary bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pare, Gounseti; Hoepffner, Jerome

    2014-11-01

    Capillary adhesion is a physical mechanism that maintains two bodies in contact by capillarity through a liquid ligament. The capillary bridge is an idealization of this capillary adhesion. In this study we first focus on the classical case of the stability of the capillary bridge. Secondly we study a slightly more complex configuration, imagining a flow in the capillary bridge as in the case of the dynamics of the neck of a liquid ligament, in its withdrawal under the effect of capillarity. Inspired by the experiments on soap films of Plateau, the configuration analyzed consists of an initially axisymmetric, mass of fluid held by surface tension forces between two parallel, coaxial, solid pipes of the same diameter. The results presented are obtained by numerical simulations using the free software, Gerris Flow Solver. We first focus on the capillary Venturi. In the static configuration the stability diagram of the capillary bridge obtained is in perfect agreement with the results of Lev A. Slobozhanin. In the dynamic case we develop a matlab code based on the one dimensional equations of Eggers and Dupont. The comparison of the bifurcation diagram obtained and the numerical simulations shows a good agreement.

  19. A Bridge to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) has a promising future at Darlington (WI) High School. In this article, the author describes how a class bridge project became a real-world, project-based learning opportunity involving higher-level thinking skills that are at the core of CTE at his school. It began when a local citizen approached him at the…

  20. Evaluation of Summer Bridge Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Lisa D.; Paz, Chiara C.

    2009-01-01

    Many colleges and universities in the United States offer summer programs for their incoming students. While programs are structured and administered in a variety of ways and target various student populations, the most common type of summer bridge program aims to serve historically underrepresented students and students of low socioeconomic…

  1. Structural Bridges through Fold Space

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Hannah; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2015-01-01

    Several protein structure classification schemes exist that partition the protein universe into structural units called folds. Yet these schemes do not discuss how these units sit relative to each other in a global structure space. In this paper we construct networks that describe such global relationships between folds in the form of structural bridges. We generate these networks using four different structural alignment methods across multiple score thresholds. The networks constructed using the different methods remain a similar distance apart regardless of the probability threshold defining a structural bridge. This suggests that at least some structural bridges are method specific and that any attempt to build a picture of structural space should not be reliant on a single structural superposition method. Despite these differences all representations agree on an organisation of fold space into five principal community structures: all-α, all-β sandwiches, all-β barrels, α/β and α + β. We project estimated fold ages onto the networks and find that not only are the pairings of unconnected folds associated with higher age differences than bridged folds, but this difference increases with the number of networks displaying an edge. We also examine different centrality measures for folds within the networks and how these relate to fold age. While these measures interpret the central core of fold space in varied ways they all identify the disposition of ancestral folds to fall within this core and that of the more recently evolved structures to provide the peripheral landscape. These findings suggest that evolutionary information is encoded along these structural bridges. Finally, we identify four highly central pivotal folds representing dominant topological features which act as key attractors within our landscapes. PMID:26372166

  2. Automation of Resistance Bridge Calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornik, Tadej; Bojkovski, Jovan; Batagelj, Valentin; Drnovšek, Janko

    2008-02-01

    The article addresses the automation of the resistance bridge calibrator (RBC). The automation of the RBC is performed in order to facilitate the operation of the RBC, improve the reliability, and enable several additional possibilities compared to the tedious manual operation, thereby making the RBC a more practical device for routine use. The RBC is used to calibrate AC and DC resistance bridges, which are mainly used in a primary thermometry laboratory. It consists of a resistor network made up from four main resistors from which 35 different resistance values can be realized using toggle switches. Literature shows that the resistors’ non-zero temperature coefficient can influence the measurements, causing difficulties when calibrating resistance bridges with low uncertainty. Placing the RBC in a thermally stable environment can reduce this, but it does not solve the problem of the time-consuming manual selection of the resistance values. To solve this, an automated means to manipulate the switches, while the device is placed within a thermally stable environment, was created. Computer operation completely substitutes for any manual operation during which an operator would normally have to be present. The computer also acquires measurements from the bridge. In this way, repeated and reproducible calibration measurements inside a temperature-stable environment can be carried out with no active involvement of personnel. The automation process itself was divided into several stages. They included the construction of a servo-manipulator to move the switches, the design of a dedicated electronic controller that also provides a serial interface (RS-232) to the computer, and the development of custom computer software to configure the servo-manipulator and control the calibration process. Measurements show that automation does not affect the long-term stability and mechanical repeatability of the RBC. The repeatability and reproducibility of bridge calibration ratios

  3. 76 FR 55160 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways,...

  4. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways,...

  5. 77 FR 53251 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge.... L. 109-59; 119 Stat. 1144) continued the highway bridge program to enable States to improve the condition of their highway bridges over waterways, other topographical barriers, other highways,...

  6. Bridge Programs in Illinois: Results of the 2010 Illinois Bridge Status Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. L.; Harmon, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of major results of the Illinois Bridge Status Survey, administered online between April and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand the extent to which bridge programs are being implemented in Illinois, as well as to build an online directory of bridge programs. Bridge programs are an emerging…

  7. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007...

  8. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.331 Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. (a) Vessels... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80.331 Section 80.331 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...

  9. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. In addition to the watch requirement... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007...

  11. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.163 Section 80.163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. Each ship subject to the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007...

  14. OVERVIEW OF BRIDGES WITH OR&L BRIDGE IN CENTER, WAIKELE CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF BRIDGES WITH OR&L BRIDGE IN CENTER, WAIKELE CANAL BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. SHOWING THE EARTHEN INCLINE THAT RAISES FARRINGTON HIGHWAY OVER THE FORMER OR&L TRACKS. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 1. NORTH HAMMA HAMMA BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGH PORTALS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH HAMMA HAMMA BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGH PORTALS OF BOTH THE NORTH AND SOUTH BRIDGES - North Hamma Hamma River Bridge, Spanning Hamma Hamma River Bridge at U.S. Route 101, Eldon, Mason County, WA

  16. North & South Elevations and Bridge Plan Chickamauga National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & South Elevations and Bridge Plan - Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

  17. 28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Under ninth bridge, view to concrete dam and eighth bridge in background during heavy rain, view to the SW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Melan Arch Bridges, Spanning various tributaries at Confederate Avenue, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  18. 21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  19. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  20. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...

  1. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...

  2. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...

  3. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...

  4. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  5. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Bridge, movable. That section of a structure bridging a navigable waterway so designed that it may...

  6. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  7. Comparison between Modern Violin Bridge and Baroque Violin Bridge by Photoelastic Observation and Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    A comparison between the modern bridge and the baroque bridge of the violin by photoelastic observation was carried out. The relationship between the stress part and the hole is symmetric in the modern and baroque bridges. The measured spectral envelopes of baroque bridges are similar to those of modern bridges in D- or G-strings, and have peaks at a frequency higher than those of modern bridges in E-string. The visualization method as used in this study may provide hints for the design of violin bridges.

  8. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  9. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  10. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  11. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  12. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  13. 49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports....

  14. 49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports....

  15. 49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports. Bridge inspection reports shall be reviewed by railroad bridge supervisors and railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports....

  16. 31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after the 1888-1889 and 1899-1900 reconstructions; also shows profile of bridge before 1888 (Martin Sigvart Grytbak, Wabasha St. Bridge, Formerly St. Paul Bridge, 1919); profile of Wabasha street bridge - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, K

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849

  18. Performance analysis of LAN bridges and routers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajare, Ankur R.

    1991-01-01

    Bridges and routers are used to interconnect Local Area Networks (LANs). The performance of these devices is important since they can become bottlenecks in large multi-segment networks. Performance metrics and test methodology for bridges and routers were not standardized. Performance data reported by vendors is not applicable to the actual scenarios encountered in an operational network. However, vendor-provided data can be used to calibrate models of bridges and routers that, along with other models, yield performance data for a network. Several tools are available for modeling bridges and routers - Network II.5 was used. The results of the analysis of some bridges and routers are presented.

  19. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  20. Diode-quad bridge circuit means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Diode-quad bridge circuit means is described for use as a transducer circuit or as a discriminator circuit. It includes: (1) a diode bridge having first, second, third, and fourth bridge terminals consecutively coupled together by four diodes polarized in circulating relationship; (2) a first impedance connected between the second bridge terminal and a circuit ground; (3) a second impedance connected between the fourth bridge terminal and the circuit ground; (4) a signal source having a first source terminal capacitively coupled to the first and third bridge terminals, and a second source terminal connected to the circuit ground; and (5) an output terminal coupled to the first bridge terminal and at which an output signal may be taken.

  1. New oxa-bridged macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Panten, Johannes; Surburg, Horst; Hölscher, Bernd

    2008-06-01

    In creating new aroma molecules, the fragrance chemist can make use of several tools: receptor or combinatorial research as well as lead structure optimization of existing chemicals or substances from the natural pool. Sometimes, it is also possible to discover new structures via another way: the careful analysis of existing products and their production processes. In analyzing the production process of 1-oxacyclohexadecan-2-one (6), we identified at least two new oxa-bridged macrocyclic molecules. In continuation, these results inspired us to synthesize and evaluate more representatives with similar structures. In this contribution, presented at the RSC/SCI conference 'flavours & fragrances 2007' in London, September 24-26, 2007, the synthesis and olfactory properties of several new oxa-bridged macrocycles will be introduced and discussed. PMID:18618411

  2. Full-bridge capacitive extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Randall D.

    1993-08-01

    Capacitive transducers have proven to be very effective sensors of small displacements, because of inherent stability and noninvasive high resolution. The most versatile ones have been those of a differential type, in which two elements are altered in opposite directions in response to change of the system parameter being monitored. Oftentimes, this differential pair has been incorporated into a bridge circuit, which is a useful means for employing synchronous detection to improve signal to noise ratios. Unlike previous differential capacitive dilatometers which used only two active capacitors, the present sensor is a full-bridge type, which is well suited to measuring low-level thermal expansions. This analog sensor is capable of 0.1 μm resolution anywhere within a range of several centimeters, with a linearity of 0.1%. Its user friendly output can be put on a strip chart recorder or directed to a computer for sophisticated data analysis.

  3. Adsorption of polymeric brushes: Bridging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johner, Albert; Joanny, Jean-François

    1992-04-01

    We study the adsorption of grafted polymer layers on a planar surface parallel to the grafting surface. The layer consists of two types of chains: nonadsorbed chains with a free end and adsorbed chains forming bridges between the two plates. In the limit of strong adsorption a dead zone exists in the vicinity of the adsorbing plate; its size increases with the adsorption strength. Two adsorption mechanisms are possible: adsorption of the last monomer only and adsorption of all the monomers. In both cases the adsorption regimes at equilibrium (when no external force acts on the plates) are discussed within the framework of the self-consistent mean-field theory. We also give scaling laws taking into account excluded volume correlations. Finally, we consider situations where a finite external force, either tangential or normal to the plates, is applied on the adsorbing plate. Pulling and tangential forces both reduce the fraction of bridges and eventually lead to rupture, whereas compressional forces favor bridging. For normal forces, force vs distance profiles between planes and crossed cylinders are given.

  4. Molecular bridging of silicon nanogaps.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Geoffrey J; Phillips, Laurie J; Robinson, Benjamin J; Urasinska-Wojcik, Barbara; Lambert, Colin J; Grace, Iain M; Bryce, Martin R; Jitchati, Rukkiat; Tavasli, Mustafa; Cox, Timothy I; Sage, Ian C; Tuffin, Rachel P; Ray, Shona

    2010-12-28

    The highly doped electrodes of a vertical silicon nanogap device have been bridged by a 5.85 nm long molecular wire, which was synthesized in situ by grafting 4-ethynylbenzaldehyde via C-Si links to the top and bottom electrodes and thereafter by coupling an amino-terminated fluorene unit to the aldehyde groups of the activated electrode surfaces. The number of bridging molecules is constrained by relying on surface roughness to match the 5.85 nm length with an electrode gap that is nominally 1 nm wider and may be controlled by varying the reaction time: the device current increases from ≤1 pA at 1 V following the initial grafting step to 10-100 nA at 1 V when reacted for 5-15 min with the amino-terminated linker and 10 μA when reacted for 16-53 h. It is the first time that both ends of a molecular wire have been directly grafted to silicon electrodes, and these molecule-induced changes are reversible. The bridges detach when the device is rinsed with dilute acid solution, which breaks the imine links of the in situ formed wire and causes the current to revert to the subpicoampere leakage value of the 4-ethynylbenzaldehyde-grafted nanogap structure. PMID:21082817

  5. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  6. Scour assessment at bridges from Flag Point to Million Dollar Bridge, Copper River Highway, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve bridges are located along the Copper River Highway from Flag Point (Mile 27) to lhe Million Dollar Bridge (Mile 48). These bridges cross all or parts of the Copper River. Channel scour at these bridges was assessed by collecting and analyzing discharge and sediment data, analyzing aerial photography for eight different years, surveying and comparing cross sections, and utilizing scour equations. Between 1968 and 1992, scour occurring at Bridge 331 has formed two distinct channels at the bridge. The channel at Bridge 1187 has remained relatively unchanged between 1968 and 1992. During this same time period, the channel at Bridge 332 appears to have gradually filled. However, during the 1992 runoff season, the channel at this bridge scoured significantly, probably because of its unstable nature. The most significant scour has occurred at Bridge 342. A high-water period in 1981 probably shifted much of the flow of the Copper River through this bridge. As a result, severe contraction scour occurred which required major repairs to the bridge. During 1991 and 1992, the approach channel to Bridge 342 has been migrating, causing scour in the left side of the channel. Bed material at the Million Dollar Bridge consists of hard unweathered boulders nested in dense gravel. Because of this type of erosion-resistant material, no significant scour has occurred at this site. Contraction scour equations overestimated the mean depth of flow at Bridge 331 by 2.6 to 5.0 ft, but were within 1.0 ft of the mean depth of flow for Bridge 1187. The local scour equations generally overestimated local scour at both Bridge 331 and Bridge 1187. The accuracy of some equations was probably affected because water velocities could not be obtained upstream from the piers.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  8. Vehicle bridge interaction dynamics and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Lin, C. W.

    2005-06-01

    The dynamic interaction between a moving vehicle and the sustaining bridge is studied. By the method of modal superposition, closed-form solutions are obtained for the vertical responses of both the bridge and moving vehicle, assuming the vehicle/bridge mass ratio to be small. For both the bridge and vehicle responses, it is confirmed that rather accurate solutions can be obtained by considering only the first mode. The displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the bridge are governed at different extents by two sets of frequencies, i.e., the driving frequency of the vehicle and natural frequencies of the bridge. From the spectrum for the bridge displacement, the vehicle speeds can be shown to be associated with some low-frequency pikes. On the other hand, the vehicle responses are governed by five distinct frequencies that appear as driving frequencies, vehicle frequency, and bridge frequencies with shift. From the vehicle's acceleration spectrum, the first bridge frequency (with shift) is shown to have rather high visibility and can be easily identified. The effects of damping of the vehicle and bridge are evaluated in the numerical studies. Potential applications of the present results, as well as further researches required, are also indicated in the paper.

  9. Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.

  10. Dynamics and Statics of Nonaxisymmetric Liquid Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Slobozhanin, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of the stability of nonaxisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric bridges contained between equal and unequal radii disks as a function of Bond and Weber number with emphasis on the transition from unstable axisymmetric to stable nonaxisymmetric shapes, are conducted. Numerical analysis of the stability of nonaxisymmetric bridges between unequal disks for various orientations of the gravity vector is performed. Experimental and theoretical investigation of large (nonaxisymmetric) oscillations and breaking of liquid bridges are also conducted.

  11. Boundary Stability of a Nematic Liquid Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, William; Santangelo, Chris

    2014-03-01

    We consider a nematic liquid crystal droplet in air confined between two parallel plates with homeotropic boundary conditions. The boundary conditions at the nematic-plate and nematic-air interfaces induce either a hedgehog or planar ring disclination within the nematic bridge, depending on the plate separation and bridge radius. We study the stability of the liquid crystal-air boundary of a nearly cylindrical nematic bridge by minimizing the Frank elastic energy.

  12. The breaking of axisymmetric slender liquid bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer, J.

    1983-05-01

    Liquids held by surface tension forces can bridge the gap between two solid bodies placed not too far apart from each other. The equilibrium conditions and stability criteria for static, cylindrical liquid bridges are well known. However, the behaviour of an unstable liquid bridge, regarding both its transition toward breaking and the resulting configuration, is a matter for discussion. The dynamical problem of axisymmetric rupture of a long liquid bridge anchored at two equal coaxial disks is treated in this paper through the adoption of one-dimensional theories which are widely used in capillary jet problems.

  13. Relationship between myocardial bridging and coronary arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian Ling; Huang, Wei Min; Guo, Ji Hong; Li, Xiao Ying; Ma, Xian Lin; Wang, Chong Yu

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in patients who underwent coronary angiography and to also evaluate the correlation between bridged coronary segments and atherosclerosis. For this purpose, clinical materials of 1,500 patients who had received coronary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. The location and length of the myocardial bridge were recorded as well as the extent and location of coronary artery stenosis was described. Segments proximal and distal to the bridging were evaluated for coronary arteriosclerosis as were the remaining coronary segments. We found that myocardial bridging was present in 179 (11.9 %) patients. Bridges were frequently (84.9 %) localized in the mid-distal segment of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Myocardial bridging was not considered a significant risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio 0.58) compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The incidence of coronary arteriosclerosis in the distal segments was significantly less affected than the proximal segments (P < 0.01). It was, therefore, concluded that myocardial bridging frequently localized in the mid-distal segment of the LAD artery. The presence of myocardial bridging promotes proximal atherosclerosis but it is not an additional risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:23076634

  14. A data management infrastructure for bridge monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongwoon; Byun, Jaewook; Kim, Daeyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In Hwan; Law, Kincho H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses a data management infrastructure framework for bridge monitoring applications. As sensor technologies mature and become economically affordable, their deployment for bridge monitoring will continue to grow. Data management becomes a critical issue not only for storing the sensor data but also for integrating with the bridge model to support other functions, such as management, maintenance and inspection. The focus of this study is on the effective data management of bridge information and sensor data, which is crucial to structural health monitoring and life cycle management of bridge structures. We review the state-of-the-art of bridge information modeling and sensor data management, and propose a data management framework for bridge monitoring based on NoSQL database technologies that have been shown useful in handling high volume, time-series data and to flexibly deal with unstructured data schema. Specifically, Apache Cassandra and Mongo DB are deployed for the prototype implementation of the framework. This paper describes the database design for an XML-based Bridge Information Modeling (BrIM) schema, and the representation of sensor data using Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The proposed prototype data management framework is validated using data collected from the Yeongjong Bridge in Incheon, Korea.

  15. Bridges to sustainable tropical health

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Burton H.; de Castro, Marcia Caldas

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring sustainable health in the tropics will require bridge building between communities that currently have a limited track record of interaction. It will also require new organizational innovation if much of the negative health consequences of large-scale economic development projects are to be equitably mitigated, if not prevented. We focus attention on three specific contexts: (i) forging linkages between the engineering and health communities to implement clean water and sanitation on a broad scale to prevent reworming, after the current deworming-only programs, of people by diverse intestinal parasites; (ii) building integrated human and animal disease surveillance infrastructure and technical capacity in tropical countries on the reporting and scientific evidence requirements of the sanitary and phytosanitary agreement under the World Trade Organization; and (iii) developing an independent and equitable organizational structure for health impact assessments as well as monitoring and mitigation of health consequences of economic development projects. Effective global disease surveillance and timely early warning of new outbreaks will require a far closer integration of veterinary and human medicine than heretofore. Many of the necessary surveillance components exist within separate animal- and human-oriented organizations. The challenge is to build the necessary bridges between them. PMID:17913894

  16. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  18. 23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...

  19. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  20. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  1. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  2. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Approval of plans. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable...

  3. 23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...

  4. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Application. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable waters...

  5. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...

  6. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  7. 23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...

  8. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  9. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...

  10. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Application. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable waters...

  11. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...

  12. 23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...

  13. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  14. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  15. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  16. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  17. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  18. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Application. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable waters...

  19. 23 CFR 650.307 - Bridge inspection organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bridge inspection organization. 650.307 Section 650.307... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.307 Bridge inspection... bridges located on public roads that are fully or partially located within the State's boundaries,...

  20. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  1. 33 CFR 115.50 - Application for bridge permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for bridge permits... BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.50 Application for bridge permits. (a) Application. An application for authorization to construct a bridge across navigable waters...

  2. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges....

  3. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  4. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program § 650.409 Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the...

  5. 33 CFR 118.65 - Lights on fixed bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on fixed bridges. 118.65 Section 118.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.65 Lights on fixed bridges. (a) Each fixed bridge span over a...

  6. 49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a designated... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used for... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used for... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section...

  9. 49 CFR 237.109 - Bridge inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.109 Bridge inspection records... possible to the person who controls the operation of trains on the bridge in order to protect the safety of... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bridge inspection records. 237.109 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 237.109 - Bridge inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.109 Bridge inspection records... possible to the person who controls the operation of trains on the bridge in order to protect the safety of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge inspection records. 237.109 Section...

  11. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program to... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs....

  12. 49 CFR 237.109 - Bridge inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.109 Bridge inspection records... possible to the person who controls the operation of trains on the bridge in order to protect the safety of... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge inspection records. 237.109 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a designated... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge management program shall specify the procedure to be used for... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling an... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101...

  16. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling an... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101...

  17. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each bridge management program shall include a provision for scheduling an... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101...

  18. 49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section 237.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall...

  19. 49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge...

  20. 49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section 237.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall...

  1. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program to... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs....

  2. 49 CFR 237.103 - Bridge inspection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge inspection procedures. 237.103 Section 237.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.103 Bridge inspection procedures. (a) Each bridge...

  3. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs....

  4. 49 CFR 237.107 - Conduct of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.107 Conduct of bridge inspections. Bridge inspections shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a designated... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of bridge inspections. 237.107 Section...

  5. 23 CFR 650.409 - Evaluation of bridge inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of bridge inventory. 650.409 Section 650.409... Evaluation of bridge inventory. (a) Sufficiency rating of bridges. Upon receipt and evaluation of the bridge inventory, a sufficiency rating will be assigned to each bridge by the Secretary in accordance with...

  6. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  7. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  8. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  9. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  10. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of...

  11. FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FROM "CANAL BRIDGE, F.A.P. 4-C, MAR. 1938." SHOWING WAIKELE BRIDGE PLAN AND ELEVATION. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Design Branch, Project ID 7101-001, drawing 4449.27. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 5. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 02700268X00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 027-00268X-00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING THE DATE OF CONSTRUCTION AND THE BUILDER. - GDOT Bridge No. 027-00268X-00678N, County Road 268-Empress Road span Piscola Creek, Quitman, Brooks County, GA

  13. 6. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 02700268X00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF GDOT BRIDGE NO. 027-00268X-00678N BRIDGE PLATE IDENTIFYING COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AT THE TIME OF CONSTRUCTION. - GDOT Bridge No. 027-00268X-00678N, County Road 268-Empress Road span Piscola Creek, Quitman, Brooks County, GA

  14. Salt-Bridge Energetics in Halophilic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K.

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are −3.0 kcal mol−1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of −5.0 kcal mol−1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (−10 kcal mol−1) exceeds than that of bridge term (−7 kcal mol−1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  15. Paul Dirac:. Building Bridges of the Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie M.

    2003-12-01

    Paul Dirac was a brilliant and original thinker. He used his physical intuition and his ideal of mathematical beauty to construct bridges between major areas of physics. This article discusses several such important works, including the bridge between quantum mechanics and relativity that led to his prediction of the existence of antimatter.

  16. Structural identification of Commodore Barry Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catbas, Fikret N.; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Aktan, A. Emin

    2000-06-01

    The Commodore Barry Bridge is a major long-span bridge across the Delaware River connecting the cities of Bridgeport, New Jersey and Chester, Pennsylvania. A Structural Identification (St-Id) study of Commodore Barry Bridge is presented. The objective of this structural identification approach is to characterize the as-is structural condition and the loading environment of the bridge through experimental information and analytical modeling. The attributes that make long-span bridges different for utilization of experimental and analytical applications as compared to short-span bridges are presented. Some of the experimental, analytical and information tools which are utilized for this research are discussed. The details of constructing a preliminary analytical model after conceptualization of the structural characteristics are presented. Development of the 3D analytical model, and the model characteristics such as elements used, boundary and continuity representations are summarized. The experimental techniques that are necessary for the structural identification of a long span bridge are defined and application examples are provided from the Commodore Barry Bridge. Experiences gained during the applications of different forms of dynamic tests, instrumented monitoring and controlled static and crawl speed load tests are presented with example experimental data. Correlation of experimental results and analytical simulations are presented. Immediate and possible future uses of information generated are summarized.

  17. Teaching Elements and Principles of Bridge Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Bridge construction is a popular classroom activity. However, the basic principles of tension, compression, and counterbalance are not always clearly represented and defined. The common materials used to construct model bridges, such as straws, toothpicks, Legos[TM], and building blocks, are often too flexible or stationary to demonstrate the…

  18. Small Schools: Bridging the Need for Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the experience of teaching in a small school in New York City. It is observed that this offers opportunities for individuals to grow independently and to understand their impact on community and society. As they bridge the gap between becoming a teacher and understanding how to build bridges for children that are moving…

  19. 6. DRAWING OF ORIGINAL K STREET BRIDGE, LEONARD HARBAUGH ARCHITECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DRAWING OF ORIGINAL K STREET BRIDGE, LEONARD HARBAUGH ARCHITECT, 28TH MARCH, 1792. USED IN OCTAGON BRIDGE EXHIBIT, NOVEMBER 1975; SOURCE, COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS. - K Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 5. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING FROM PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE BRIDGE SOUTH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING FROM PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE BRIDGE SOUTH TO OLD (1907 STEEL-GIRDER) K STREET BRIDGE. MLK LIBRARY. - K Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EARLY MORNING VIEW OF BOTH JOSO HIGH BRIDGE (UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD) IN BACKGROUND AND LYONS FERRY BRIDGE IN THE FOREGROUND - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 2. Long view east, with bridge in foreground, showing length ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Long view east, with bridge in foreground, showing length of Carquinez Strait with Benecia Martinez Bridge in background. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST OF DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 64. VIEW SHOWING SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW SHOWING SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM ATOP M STREET BRIDGE, January 30, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. 11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF SACRAMENTO RIVER - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST ALONG SIDEWALK ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST ALONG SIDEWALK ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE. TYPICAL ORIGINAL ELECTROLIER IS AT RIGHT, CENTER. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 9. View of bridge looking west. A fundraising marathon is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of bridge looking west. A fund-raising marathon is in prgress. The traffic levels outside the main arch were added in 1965 when the bridge underwent extensive rehabilitation. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and Ralph Modjeski railroad bridge in foreground - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  12. 1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 8. OVERALL VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OVERALL VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE FROM SOUTHEAST LOOKING NORTHWEST. LOW TIDE REVEALS FOUNDATIONS OF BRIDGE. - Ducktrap Bridge, Spanning Ducktrap River at U.S. Route 1, Lincolnville, Waldo County, ME

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  15. Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique perspective of portal, due north. Bridge has gable roof clad with wood shingles and has board and batten siding. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  16. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, THROUGH CENTER SPAN OF EASTBOUND BRIDGE, WESTBOUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, THROUGH CENTER SPAN OF EASTBOUND BRIDGE, WESTBOUND BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND - Willow Run Expressway Bridge No. R01, Spanning Conrail Railway, eastbound, at US-10, Ypsilanti, Washtenaw County, MI

  17. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM ROADBED WITH 4' RANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM ROADBED WITH 4' RANGE POLE NEAR NORTHWEST CORNER OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH - North Fork Bridge, Spans North Fork of White River at State Highway 5, Norfork, Baxter County, AR

  18. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING SOUTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  20. 2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Contextual view of bridge in setting, from northwest end of bridge, view to south-southeast with Rawson Road in foreground. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  1. 11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking easterly, showing horizontal beams for deck and cross beams (reflection of steel grating on deck). Also shows bridge guardrail. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  2. Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the Ten Mile Creek Bridge decorative concrete arched balustrade at southeast corner of bridge, view looking east. - Ten Mile Creek Bridge, Spanning Ten Mile Creek on Oregon Coast Highway, Yachats, Lincoln County, OR

  3. 2. VIEW OF NORTH TOWER, COUNTERWEIGHT, AND BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH TOWER, COUNTERWEIGHT, AND BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, FROM SOUTH SIDE OF THE RIVER LOOKING NORTH. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  5. 1. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER AT BRIDGE SURFACE. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. STEEL ERECTION. View of upstream side of bridge, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL ERECTION. View of upstream side of bridge, looking north from the old suspension bridge at unjoined cantilever arms - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  7. OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE LINED UP WITH MANHATTAN SKYLINE IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE LINED UP WITH MANHATTAN SKYLINE IN MIDDLE OF HORIZON, VERRAZANO NARROWS BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT - Outerbridge Crossing Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GROTON BRIDGE (FOREGROUND) AND HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING GROTON BRIDGE (FOREGROUND) AND HIGHWAY BRIDGE (BACKGROUND) - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Groton Bridge, Spanning Thames River between New London & Groton, New London, New London County, CT

  9. 7. VIEW ACROSS BRIDGE FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH WIDE ANGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW ACROSS BRIDGE FROM NORTHWEST CORNER WITH WIDE ANGLE LENS SHOWING BRIDGE IN LANDSCAPE. - Wildcat Creek Bridge, Spanning Wildcat Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation, west portal. Sign on portal reads Watson Mill Bridge, est. 1885. - Watson Mill Bridge, Spanning South Fork Broad River, Watson Mill Road, Watson Mill Bridge State Park, Comer, Madison County, GA

  11. 1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Panorama showing the entire span of bridge from north shore of the Clark Fork River. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  12. 26. Photocopy of drawing, Draw for L Street Bridge, Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of drawing, Draw for L Street Bridge, Sheet 4: Girder D, Girder F, July 1892. City of Boston Public Works Department Bridge files. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 10. Detail of bridge underside showing gears for locking mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of bridge underside showing gears for locking mechanism at south end of bridge. View to east. - Locke Avenue Bridge, Locke Avenue (County Route 671) Spanning Raccoon Creek, Swedesboro, Gloucester County, NJ

  14. APPROACH VIADUCTS TO TRIBOROUGH SUSPENSION BRIDGE (AT RIGHT), AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH VIADUCTS TO TRIBOROUGH SUSPENSION BRIDGE (AT RIGHT), AND THE HELL GATE BRIDGE (AT LEFT), OVER RANDALL'S ISLAND. - Triborough Bridge, Passing through Queens, Manhattan & the Bronx, Queens (subdivision), Queens County, NY

  15. 12. Interior detail of bridge operator's house showing generator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior detail of bridge operator's house showing generator and bridge operator, Mr. Gene Amonette, facing west. - Palm Valley Bridge, County Road 210 spanning Intracoastal Waterway, Ponte Vedra Beach, St. Johns County, FL

  16. 19. COPY OF ENGRAVING OF 'WROUGHT IRON ARCH TRUSS BRIDGE,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. COPY OF ENGRAVING OF 'WROUGHT IRON ARCH TRUSS BRIDGE,' PAT. DEC. 10, 1867 BY OHIO BRIDGE COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. (COURTESY OF OHIO HISTORICAL SOCIETY ARCHIVES, COLUMBUS, OHIO) - Tioronda Bridge, South Avenue spanning Fishkill Creek, Beacon, Dutchess County, NY

  17. 2. Elevation of bridge taken from the southwest looking northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevation of bridge taken from the southwest looking northeast. Shows west side of bridge. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PLAQUE ON WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PLAQUE ON WEST SIDE OF SOUTH POST AT WEST APPROACH TO BRIDGE, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  19. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PIER 3 SHOWING LOWER PEDESTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE PIER 3 SHOWING LOWER PEDESTAL AND FRAMING OF STEEL BRIDGE TRUSS, EAST SIDE, FROM RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  20. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people. PMID:17358316

  1. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  2. Posterior osseous bridging of C1.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Serkan; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Comert, Ayhan; Acar, Halil I; Seckin, Hakan; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Elhan, Alaittin

    2008-06-01

    The sulcus of the vertebral artery is located behind the lateral mass of the atlas and in some cases is converted into a foramen by anomalous ossification known as the posterior ponticulus (osseous bridge). This study involved anatomical observations of 158 isolated anatomical specimens of dry C1 vertebrae. The incidence and types of posterior osseous bridging were identified for the 158 dry samples of atlas vertebrae. In nine (5.6%) dry C1 vertebrae, partial osseous bridging was detected (bilaterally in eight vertebrae and unilaterally on the left in one). Complete osseous bridging (arcuate foramen) was observed in six (3.8%) dry C1 vertebrae (bilaterally in one vertebra, unilaterally on the left in three, and on the right in two). Awareness of the types of posterior osseous bridging of C1 in craniocervical junction surgery is essential, and may be helpful in surgical interventions in this region. PMID:18378457

  3. Seismic response of steel suspension bridge

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.B.; Astaneh-Asl, A.

    1996-11-01

    Performing accurate, realistic numerical simulations of the seismic response of long-span bridges presents a significant challenge to the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology. Suspension bridges in particular represent some of the largest and most important man-made structures and ensuring the seismic integrity of these mega-structures is contingent on accurate estimations of earthquake ground motions and accurate computational simulations of the structure/foundation system response. A cooperative, multi-year research project between the Univ. of California and LLNL was recently initiated to study engineering and seismological issues essential for simulating the response of major structures. Part of this research project is focused on the response of the long-span bridges with the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge serving as a case study. This paper reports on the status of this multi-disciplinary research project with emphasis on the numerical simulation of the transient seismic response of the Bay Bridge.

  4. Stability of axisymmetric liquid bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Rubinstein, Boris Y.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the Weierstrass representation of second variation, we develop a non-spectral theory of stability for isoperimetric problem with minimized and constrained two-dimensional functionals of general type and free endpoints allowed to move along two given planar curves. We establish the stability criterion and apply this theory to the axisymmetric liquid bridge between two axisymmetric solid bodies without gravity to determine the stability of menisci with free contact lines. For catenoid and cylinder menisci and different solid shapes, we determine the stability domain. The other menisci (unduloid, nodoid and sphere) are considered in a simple setup between two plates. We find the existence conditions of stable unduloid menisci with and without inflection points.

  5. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 9. RENDERING OF PROPOSED FALLS BRIDGE Photocopy of historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. RENDERING OF PROPOSED FALLS BRIDGE Photocopy of historic photograph (photographer unknown, December 1894) - Falls Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, connecting East & West River Drives, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRIDGE BEARING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING WELDED REINFORCEMENT - Perkins Corner Bridge, Spanning Willimantic River at Flanders & Cider Mill Roads, Coventry, Tolland County, CT

  8. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 5. VIEW OF MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION. Historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  11. EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAGLE CREEK BRIDGE, WEST ELEVATION LOOKING 55 DEGREES NORTHEAST - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Bridge, Spanning Eagle Creek on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 2. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTH ELEVATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MOSIER CREEK BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTH ELEVATION. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Mosier Creek Bridge, Spanning Mosier Creek carrying Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter pole); VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Auwaiakeakua Bridge, Spanning Auwaiakekua Gulch at Mamalahoa Highway, Waikoloa, Hawaii County, HI

  14. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE WEST APPROACH (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHEAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  15. Controlled impact demonstration airframe bending bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of the KRASH and DYCAST models for transport aircraft is discussed. The FAA uses computer analysis techniques to predict the response of controlled impact demonstration (CID) during impact. The moment bridges can provide a direct correlation between the predictive loads or moments that the models will predict and what was experienced during the actual impact. Another goal is to examine structural failure mechanisms and correlate with analytical predictions. The bending bridges did achieve their goals and objectives. The data traces do provide some insight with respect to airframe loads and structural response. They demonstrate quite clearly what's happening to the airframe. A direct quantification of metal airframe loads was measured by the moment bridges. The measured moments can be correlated with the KRASH and DYCAST computer models. The bending bridge data support airframe failure mechanisms analysis and provide residual airframe strength estimation. It did not appear as if any of the bending bridges on the airframe exceeded limit loads. (The observed airframe fracture was due to the fuselage encounter with the tomahawk which tore out the keel beam.) The airframe bridges can be used to estimate the impact conditions and those estimates are correlating with some of the other data measurements. Structural response, frequency and structural damping are readily measured by the moment bridges.

  16. Evaporation and instabilities of microscopic capillary bridges

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Nobuo; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Kohonen, Mika M.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and disappearance of liquid bridges between two surfaces can occur either through equilibrium or nonequilibrium processes. In the first instance, the bridge molecules are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding vapor medium. In the second, chemical potential gradients result in material transfer; mechanical instabilities, because of van der Waals force jumps on approach or a Rayleigh instability on rapid separation, may trigger irreversible film coalescence or bridge snapping. We have studied the growth and disappearance mechanisms of laterally microscopic liquid bridges of three hydrocarbon liquids in slit-like pores. At rapid slit-opening rates, the bridges rupture by means of a mechanical instability described by the Young–Laplace equation. Noncontinuum but apparently reversible behavior is observed when a bridge is held at nanoscopic surface separations H close to the thermodynamic equilibrium Kelvin length, 2rKcosθ, where rK is the Kelvin radius and θ is the contact angle. During the course of slow evaporation (at H > 2rKcosθ) and subsequent regrowth by capillary condensation (at H < 2rKcosθ), the refractive index of the bridge may vary continuously and reversibly between that of the bulk liquid and vapor. The evaporation process becomes irreversible only at the very final stage of evaporation, when the refractive index of the fluid attains virtually that of the vapor. Measured refractive index profiles and the time-dependence of evaporating neck diameters also seem to differ from predictions based on a continuum picture of bridge evaporation far from the critical point. We discuss these findings in terms of the probable density profiles in evolving liquid bridges. PMID:12538868

  17. Calculations in bridge aeroelasticity via CFD

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, P.S.; Raul, R.; Scanlan, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    The central focus of the present study is the numerical calculation of flutter derivatives. These aeroelastic coefficients play an important role in determining the stability or instability of long, flexible structures under ambient wind loading. A class of Civil Engineering structures most susceptible to such an instability are long-span bridges of the cable-stayed or suspended-span variety. The disastrous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge in the recent past, due to a flutter instability, has been a big impetus in motivating studies in flutter of bridge decks.

  18. Asymptotics of a horizontal liquid bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, M.; O'Brien, S. B. G.; Benilov, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper uses asymptotic techniques to find the shape of a two dimensional liquid bridge suspended between two vertical walls. We model the equilibrium bridge shape using the Laplace-Young equation. We use the Bond number as a small parameter to deduce an asymptotic solution which is then compared with numerical solutions. The perturbation approach demonstrates that equilibrium is only possible if the contact angle lies within a hysteresis interval and the analysis relates the width of this interval to the Bond number. This result is verified by comparison with a global force balance. In addition, we examine the quasi-static evolution of such a two dimensional bridge.

  19. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  20. Bridge mediated ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, S.; Willig, F.; May, V.

    2002-01-01

    Bridge mediated photoinduced ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) from a molecularly anchored chromophore to a semiconductor surface is modelled theoretically. The continuum levels of the semiconductor substrate are taken into account in the numerical calculations via a polynomial expansion. Electron transfer for the direct injection case in the strong coupling limit is studied and compared with cases where intermediate bridging states are successively introduced to weaken the effective electronic coupling. The role of vibronic coherences in the strong electronic coupling limit as well as in off-resonant bridge mediated electron transfer is also discussed.

  1. MECHANICS OF CRACK BRIDGING UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    N. SRIDHAR; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A bridging law for fiber reinforced composites under dynamic crack propagation conditions has been derived. Inertial effects in the mechanism of fiber pullout during dynamic propagation of a bridged crack are critically examined for the first time. By reposing simple shear lag models of pullout as problems of dynamic wave propagation, the effect of the frictional coupling between the fibers and the matrix is accounted for in a fairly straightforward way. The solutions yield the time-dependent relationship between the crack opening displacement and the bridging traction. Engineering criteria and the role of material and geometrical parameters for significant inertial effects are identified.

  2. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  3. Bridge and brick motifs in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsieh, Ji-Lung

    2007-04-01

    Acknowledging the expanding role of complex networks in numerous scientific contexts, we examine significant functional and topological differences between bridge and brick motifs for predicting network behaviors and functions. After observing similarities between social networks and their genetic, ecological, and engineering counterparts, we identify a larger number of brick motifs in social networks and bridge motifs in the other three types. We conclude that bridge and brick motif content analysis can assist researchers in understanding the small-world and clustering properties of network structures when investigating network functions and behaviors.

  4. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  5. Transformation of the bridge during drop separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry of flows during separation of pendant drops of liquids with significantly different physical properties (alcohol, water, glycerin, oil) has been studied by high-speed video recording. The dynamics of the processes involving the formation of bridges of two characteristic shapes—slightly nonuniform in thickness and with thinning of the upper and lower ends—has been investigated. It has been shown that the shape change of the separated bridge has a number of stages determined by the properties of the liquid. As a result, the bridge is transformed into a small drop—a satellite drop.

  6. NASA Antarctic Mission Operation ICE Bridge 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Operation ICE Bridge is the most recent success for the Airborne Science Program, NASA scientists and climate researchers. This six minute video summarizes NASA's research mission over west ...

  7. Diode-quad bridge circuit means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A transducer and frequency discriminator circuit is described including a four-terminal circulating diode bridge, a first pair of capacitors connected in series across two terminals of the bridge, and a second pair of capacitors, or other impedance elements, connected in series across the other two terminals of the bridge. A source of balanced alternating electrical energy for energizing the circuit is coupled between the commonly connected plates of the first pair of capacitors and the commonly connected plates of the second pair of capacitors. Due to the operation of the diode bridge, the sum of the resultant charges developed on the first pair of capacitors is proportional to the relationship between the respective capacitors of the second pair, and consequently, an output voltage taken across the first pair of capacitors will be proportional to that relationship.

  8. Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targ...

  9. Subscapularis Tendon Repair Using Suture Bridge Technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Bok; Park, Young Eun; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Shon, Min Soo; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    The subscapularis tendon plays an essential role in shoulder function. Although subscapularis tendon tears are less common than other rotator cuff tears, tears of the subscapularis tendon have increasingly been recognized with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. A suture bridge technique for the treatment of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears has provided the opportunity to improve the pressurized contact area and mean footprint pressure. However, suture bridge fixation of subscapularis tendon tears appears to be technically challenging. We describe an arthroscopic surgical technique for suture bridge repair of subscapularis tendon tears that obtains ideal cuff integrity and footprint restoration. Surgery using such a suture bridge technique is indicated for large tears, such as tears involving the entire first facet or more, tears with a disrupted lateral sling, and combined medium to large supraspinatus/infraspinatus tears. PMID:26052489

  10. Imaging radar for bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.; Mast, J.; Nelson, S.

    1995-04-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)l is developing a prototype imaging radar for inspecting steel reinforced concrete bridge decks. The system is designed to acquire Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and provide high-resolution images of internal structure, flaws, and defects enabling bridge inspectors to nondestructively evaluate and characterize bridge deck condition. Concrete delamination resulting from corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is an important structural defect that the system is designed to detect. The prototype system uses arrays of compact, low-cost Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) modules, supported by appropriate data acquisition and storage subsystems, to generate and collect the radar data, and unique imaging codes to reconstruct images of bridge deck internals. In this paper, we provide an overview of the prototype system concept, discuss its expected performance, and present recent experimental results showing the capability of this approach to detect thin delamination simulations embedded in concrete.

  11. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  12. 149. Linville Falls Recreation Area. The 309 Linville River Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. Linville Falls Recreation Area. The 309 Linville River Bridge is the parkway's largest stone-faced bridge. This triple span bridge, built in 1940, is an example of a spandrel arch bridge with Roman arches. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. 26. VIEW FROM EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, LEVERS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW FROM EAST IN BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE, LEVERS FOR GASOLINE ENGINE OPERATION FOR BRIDGE AND THEIR CONNECTIONS TO CONTROL RODS ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWING-SPAN; new bridge located in background - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  14. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'ST. FRANCIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'ST. FRANCIS RIOVER, VINCENNES BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION, JAS. R RHYNE, DIRECTOR, W.B. GARVER, BRIDGE ENGINEER, 1934.' - St. Francis River Bridge, Spanning St. Francis River at State Highway 18, Lake City, Craighead County, AR

  15. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....

  16. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....

  17. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  18. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA...

  19. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  20. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  1. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may...

  2. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  3. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....

  4. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  5. 25 CFR 170.507 - Who reviews bridge inspection reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who reviews bridge inspection reports? 170.507 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Bridge Inspection § 170.507 Who reviews bridge inspection reports? The person responsible for the bridge...

  6. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  7. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may...

  8. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may...

  9. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA...

  10. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may...

  11. 25 CFR 170.507 - Who reviews bridge inspection reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who reviews bridge inspection reports? 170.507 Section 170... ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Bridge Inspection § 170.507 Who reviews bridge inspection reports? The person responsible for the bridge...

  12. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  13. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may...

  14. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA...

  15. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  16. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA...

  17. 23 CFR 650.705 - Application for discretionary bridge funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for discretionary bridge funds. 650.705... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.705 Application for discretionary bridge funds. Each year through its field offices, the FHWA...

  18. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  19. 46 CFR 72.04-1 - Navigation bridge visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Navigation bridge visibility. 72.04-1 Section 72.04-1... ARRANGEMENT Navigation Bridge Visibility § 72.04-1 Navigation bridge visibility. Each passenger vessel which... meet the following requirements: (a) The field of vision from the navigation bridge, whether the...

  20. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  1. 25 CFR 170.507 - Who reviews bridge inspection reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who reviews bridge inspection reports? 170.507 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Bridge Inspection § 170.507 Who reviews bridge inspection reports? The person responsible for the bridge...

  2. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....

  3. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  4. 33 CFR 118.80 - Lights on bascule bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on bascule bridges. 118.80 Section 118.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.80 Lights on bascule bridges. (a) Lift span lights. Each lift span...

  5. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed...

  6. 25 CFR 170.507 - Who reviews bridge inspection reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who reviews bridge inspection reports? 170.507 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Bridge Inspection § 170.507 Who reviews bridge inspection reports? The person responsible for the bridge...

  7. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  8. 46 CFR 92.03-1 - Navigation bridge visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Navigation bridge visibility. 92.03-1 Section 92.03-1... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Navigation Bridge Visibility § 92.03-1 Navigation bridge visibility. Each cargo... navigation bridge, whether the vessel is in a laden or unladen condition, must be such that: (1) From...

  9. 33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....

  10. 25 CFR 170.507 - Who reviews bridge inspection reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who reviews bridge inspection reports? 170.507 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Bridge Inspection § 170.507 Who reviews bridge inspection reports? The person responsible for the bridge...

  11. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge....

  12. 46 CFR 92.03-1 - Navigation bridge visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Navigation bridge visibility. 92.03-1 Section 92.03-1... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Navigation Bridge Visibility § 92.03-1 Navigation bridge visibility. Each cargo... navigation bridge, whether the vessel is in a laden or unladen condition, must be such that: (1) From...

  13. 57. VIEW SHOWING SHOOFLY BRIDGE LIFT TOWERS IN PLACE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW SHOWING SHOOFLY BRIDGE LIFT TOWERS IN PLACE, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST FROM I STREET BRIDGE, WITH M STREET BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, January 12, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 11. View of Tombigbee River Bridge facing northeast along center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of Tombigbee River Bridge facing northeast along center of roadway. North pony span is in background center and new bridge is partially shown in background left. Barrels shown are remnants of traffic control devices used for one lane traffic due to reduced weight capacity of bridge before closure. - Tombigbee River Bridge, Spanning Tombigbee River at State Highway 182, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  15. 8. View of bridges looking northeast from Crockett. The 1927 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of bridges looking northeast from Crockett. The 1927 bridge is to the left. Entrance and exit ramps for west-bound 1-80 traffic over the 1927 bridge are visible in the center-right of the image. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE HACKENSACK RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PATH TRANSIT BRIDGE IS IN THE FOREGROUND, WITH THE CONRAIL (HAER No. NJ-43), NEWARK TURNPIKE, AND ERIE & LACKAWANNA RAILROAD (HAER No. NJ-42) BRIDGES BEHIND IT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  18. Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin connection that serves to anchor eye-bar suspension cable after descending below roadway level inside of the compressed lower girder. The bridge is not anchored in the traditional sense. - Three Sisters Bridges, Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream (south). Bridge is on the left side of the photograph. This is similar to other flume bridges in the system and is the only photograph representing these features. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 5, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve from near deck level; Southern Pacific Railroad track passing beneath bridge; Western Pacific Railroad track out of sight behind bridge; photographer unknown; 1933 photo from collection of Office of Structures Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  1. 49 CFR 237.51 - Railroad bridge engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.51 Railroad bridge engineers. (a) A railroad bridge engineer shall be a person who is determined... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad bridge engineers. 237.51 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 237.51 - Railroad bridge engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.51 Railroad bridge engineers. (a) A railroad bridge engineer shall be a person who is determined... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad bridge engineers. 237.51 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71 Section 237.71 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless of... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33... spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for the management of bridge safety... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs....

  7. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33... spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for the management of bridge safety... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs....

  8. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of its... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities....

  9. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33 Section 237.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management...

  10. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33 Section 237.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management...

  11. 49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111 Section 237.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports....

  12. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of its... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities....

  13. 23 CFR 650.807 - Bridges requiring a USCG permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bridges requiring a USCG permit. 650.807 Section 650.807 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.807 Bridges requiring a USCG permit. (a) The USCG has...

  14. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section 237.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each...

  15. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31 Section 237.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management...

  16. 49 CFR 237.111 - Review of bridge inspection reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of bridge inspection reports. 237.111 Section 237.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.111 Review of bridge inspection reports....

  17. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined by... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a) Each track owner shall determine the load capacity of each of its... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities....

  19. 49 CFR 237.109 - Bridge inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge inspection records. 237.109 Section 237.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.109 Bridge inspection records. (a) Each track owner to which...

  20. 23 CFR 650.807 - Bridges requiring a USCG permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bridges requiring a USCG permit. 650.807 Section 650.807 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.807 Bridges requiring a USCG permit. (a) The USCG has...

  1. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of bridge load capacities. 237.71 Section 237.71 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.71 Determination of bridge load capacities. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33... spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for the management of bridge safety... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs....

  3. 49 CFR 237.55 - Railroad bridge supervisors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.55 Railroad bridge supervisors. A railroad bridge supervisor shall be a person, regardless of... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad bridge supervisors. 237.55 Section...

  4. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31 Section 237.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management...

  5. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined by... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section...

  6. 49 CFR 237.53 - Railroad bridge inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.53 Railroad bridge inspectors. A railroad bridge inspector shall be a person who is determined by... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad bridge inspectors. 237.53 Section...

  7. 49 CFR 237.51 - Railroad bridge engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Qualifications and Designations of Responsible Persons § 237.51 Railroad bridge engineers. (a) A railroad bridge engineer shall be a person who is determined... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad bridge engineers. 237.51 Section...

  8. 49 CFR 237.101 - Scheduling of bridge inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scheduling of bridge inspections. 237.101 Section 237.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.101 Scheduling of bridge inspections. (a) Each...

  9. 49 CFR 237.109 - Bridge inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge inspection records. 237.109 Section 237.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Bridge Inspection § 237.109 Bridge inspection records. (a) Each track owner to which...

  10. 20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF STEEL ARCH, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK AT EAST END, TYPICAL FLOOR BEAM DETAILS AND IRVING DECKING, X-BRACING AND PENETRATION OF ARCH LOWER CHORD THROUGH DECK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. GAS LINE IS CARRIED ON FLOOR BEAM OUTRIGGERS. NEW BRIDGE IS AT LEFT - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  11. Building a Bridge between GCSE and "A"-Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Ann

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three types of bridges to determine how best to model each one: (1) drawbridge; (2) balance bridge; and (3) bascule bridge. Describes four experiments with assumptions, analyses, interpretations, and validations. Provides several diagrams and pictures of the bridges, and typical data. (YP)

  12. 12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM ABOVE. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  13. 13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. ELEVATION VIEW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  14. Aerial view of the entire bridge crossing the Tennessee River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of the entire bridge crossing the Tennessee River looking up river. The swing bridge, when open, permits river navigational traffic to ply the river. Construction of a replacement bridge, to be located 93.27 feet down river, has now started. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  15. 20. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY L.% MI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. BLUEPRINT, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY L.% MI. S of MS. 50 Proposed bridge, by Phoenis Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa. 218-foot turn span, with load bearing. 21 May 1914. Act. size: 16X35 in. Credit: Columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sept 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  16. 15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OLD ROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN (EAST ABERDEEN) One mile E of Aberdeen, 1000 ft. N of (1978) U.S. 45 bridge. Oblique view of bridge, in early 1900s. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, MS. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  17. 14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RAILROAD BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, MONROE CO., ABERDEEN Reach by foot from E end of Vine St. St. Louis and San Francisco RR bridge. Bridge built 1887, replaced, 1969. Credit: Evans Memorial Library, Aberdeen, Ms. No date. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  18. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE REX T. BARBER BRIDGE AFTER COMPLETION, VIEW TO WEST WITH CROOKED RIVER HIGH BRIDGE (1926) AND OREGON TRUCK RAILWAY BRIDGE (1911) IN BACKGROUND. - Rex T. Barber Veterans Memorial Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge, Dalles-California Highway (US 97), Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  20. 7. General view of substructure of bridge, taken from hills ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. General view of substructure of bridge, taken from hills to northeast of bridge. Note old stone abutment under existing bridge, detailing of arch and abutments. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  1. Bridge to a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect

    Houlihan, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    In July, 1994, Vice President Al Gore released the report Technology for a Sustainable Future. The report resulted from an interagency effort under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). In each of ten critical policy areas, the participants who prepared the report considered where federal government action could encourage new partnerships that would facilitate the development of US environmental technology products and services. The report initiated a national outreach process that has featured participation by a wide range of individuals from industry, state and local governments, academia and the American public. Over 30 workshops across the nation contributed to the understanding of what new policy actions could be formulated to insure that American environmental technology is dominant in the global market. In December of 1994, a White House Conference was held in washington, DC where a total of 1,200 participants joined Cabinet members and the Vice-President to prepare specific strategic elements that would constitute a National Strategy. The culmination of this policy development was reached by the release of the National Environmental Technology Strategy that is entitled Bridge to a Sustainable Future in April 1995 by Vice-President Gore. The Strategy contains a core set of five theme areas that emerged from the outreach process that could be used to guide future activities. Within each theme area is presented a significant finding that was determined from stakeholder inputs, a goal that was established in response to the finding, and sets of initiatives that together articulate a technological path that will lead the nation toward sustainable development. This paper relates the determinations made in some of these areas. In addition it will delineate the partnership roles that will be necessary to accomplish the goals of the national strategy.

  2. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.163 Section 80.163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements...

  3. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  4. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80.331 Section 80.331 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures §...

  5. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  6. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.163 Section 80.163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements...

  7. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.163 Section 80.163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements...

  8. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  9. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80.331 Section 80.331 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures §...

  10. 47 CFR 80.309 - Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.309 Section 80.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.309 Watch required by...

  11. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80.331 Section 80.331 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures §...

  12. 47 CFR 80.163 - Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Bridge-to-Bridge Act. 80.163 Section 80.163 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.163 Operator requirements...

  13. 47 CFR 80.331 - Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge communication procedure. 80.331 Section 80.331 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures §...

  14. 4. Approach to throughtruss bridge over railroad tracks (bridge #U182512605). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Approach to through-truss bridge over railroad tracks (bridge #U182512605). View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  15. Corrosion prevention of Oregon's reinforced coastal bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cryer. C.B; Gallardo, M. L.

    2004-06-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) maintains more than 120 coastal bridges; many are reinforced concrete structures over 15 m (50 ft) in length. Twelve of these bridges are historic structures. Oregon DOT is concerned about the ongoing deterioration of these bridges, rising maintenance and repair costs, and the need to protect Oregon’s large investment in coastal bridges. Over 80,000 m2 (850,000 ft2) of coastal bridge surface have been repaired and protected from further chloride-induced corrosion damage by using conductive coating anodes. Most of the anode area is thermal-sprayed (TS) Zn. Other anode materials include TS Ti, Zn-hydrogel, and conductive carbon paint. TS Zn anodes are estimated to have a service life exceeding 25 years but exhibit increasing anode polarization with age. Catalyzed TS Ti anodes develop no significant anode polarization and have exhibited stable long-term performance over 8 years of service. Galvanic Zn-hydrogel anodes produce a stable protection current with no evidence of aging effects over 6 years of service. The conductive carbon paint anode operates at a low anode current density and consumption rate with a low rate of acidification at the anode-concrete interface, which has contributed to a stable protection current over 17 years of service.

  16. Eigenproperties of suspension bridges with damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materazzi, Annibale Luigi; Ubertini, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    The vertical vibration of suspension bridges with a damage in the main cables is studied using a continuum formulation. Starting from a model for damaged suspended cables recently proposed in the literature, an improved expression for the dynamic increment of cable tension is derived. The nonlinear equation of motion of the damaged bridge is obtained by extending this model to include the stiffening girder. The linear undamped modal eigenproperties are then extracted, in closed-form, from the linearized equation of motion, thus generalizing to the presence of an arbitrary damage the expressions known from the literature for undamaged suspension bridges. The linear dynamics of the damaged bridge reveals to be completely described by means of the same two non-dimensional parameters that govern the linear dynamics of undamaged bridges and which account for the mechanical characteristics of both the main cable and the girder, with the addition of three non-dimensional parameters characterizing damage intensity, position and extent. After presenting the mathematical formulation, a parametric analysis is conducted with the purpose of investigating the sensitivity of natural frequencies and mode shapes to damage, which, in fact, is a crucial point concerning damage detection applications using inverse methods. All through the paper, systematic comparisons with finite element simulations are presented for the purpose of model validation.

  17. A probabilistic bridge safety evaluation against floods.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuo-Wei; Muto, Yasunori; Chen, Wei-Lun; Wu, Bang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To further capture the influences of uncertain factors on river bridge safety evaluation, a probabilistic approach is adopted. Because this is a systematic and nonlinear problem, MPP-based reliability analyses are not suitable. A sampling approach such as a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) or importance sampling is often adopted. To enhance the efficiency of the sampling approach, this study utilizes Bayesian least squares support vector machines to construct a response surface followed by an MCS, providing a more precise safety index. Although there are several factors impacting the flood-resistant reliability of a bridge, previous experiences and studies show that the reliability of the bridge itself plays a key role. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze the system reliability of a selected bridge that includes five limit states. The random variables considered here include the water surface elevation, water velocity, local scour depth, soil property and wind load. Because the first three variables are deeply affected by river hydraulics, a probabilistic HEC-RAS-based simulation is performed to capture the uncertainties in those random variables. The accuracy and variation of our solutions are confirmed by a direct MCS to ensure the applicability of the proposed approach. The results of a numerical example indicate that the proposed approach can efficiently provide an accurate bridge safety evaluation and maintain satisfactory variation. PMID:27386269

  18. Bridges in the random-cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elçi, Eren Metin; Weigel, Martin; Fytas, Nikolaos G.

    2016-02-01

    The random-cluster model, a correlated bond percolation model, unifies a range of important models of statistical mechanics in one description, including independent bond percolation, the Potts model and uniform spanning trees. By introducing a classification of edges based on their relevance to the connectivity we study the stability of clusters in this model. We prove several exact relations for general graphs that allow us to derive unambiguously the finite-size scaling behavior of the density of bridges and non-bridges. For percolation, we are also able to characterize the point for which clusters become maximally fragile and show that it is connected to the concept of the bridge load. Combining our exact treatment with further results from conformal field theory, we uncover a surprising behavior of the (normalized) variance of the number of (non-)bridges, showing that it diverges in two dimensions below the value 4cos2 ⁡ (π /√{ 3}) = 0.2315891 ⋯ of the cluster coupling q. Finally, we show that a partial or complete pruning of bridges from clusters enables estimates of the backbone fractal dimension that are much less encumbered by finite-size corrections than more conventional approaches.

  19. Natural vibration dynamics of Rainbow Bridge, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Wood, J. R.; Doyle, S.; Stanfield, E.; White, B.

    2015-12-01

    We measured resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, one of the world's longest rock spans, during a field experiment recording ambient vibration data. Measurements were generated over 20 hours on March 23-24, 2015 using two broadband three-component seismometers placed on the bridge, and compared to concurrent data from nearby reference stations 20 and 220 m distant. We identified seven distinct modes of vibration for Rainbow Bridge between 1 and 6 Hz. Data for each resonant frequency was then analyzed to determine the frequency-dependent polarization vector in an attempt to clarify mode shapes; e.g. the fundamental mode represents out-of-plane horizontal flexure. We compared experimental data to results of 3D numerical modal analysis, using a new photogrammetric model of Rainbow Bridge generated in this study imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Results compare well with measured data for seven of the first eight modeled modes, matching vibrational frequencies and polarization orientations generally within 10%. Only predicted mode 6 was not explicitly apparent in our experimental data. Large site-to-reference spectral ratios resolved from experimental data indicate high amplification on the bridge as compared to nearby bedrock.

  20. Novel perspectives in bridges inspection using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.; Manacorda, G.; Simi, A.; Tosti, F.

    2012-09-01

    Bridge engineers increasingly prefer to use the Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique. GPR can yield data with very high spatial resolution, the data can be acquired rapidly and even during traffic, causing very low interferences. This paper presents a novel GPR system that is designed and developed for bridge applications. In addition it proposes a new algorithm for cracks tracking in a three-dimensional domain. The effectiveness and accuracy of the procedure have been calibrated and validated on four different bridges. In this paper, three-dimensional visualisations of cracks and two-dimensional tomographies and sections are shown to demonstrate the potentialities of the GPR system associated to the signal-processing algorithm.

  1. Mineral bridges of nacre and its effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Song; Yilong, Bai

    2001-08-01

    Nacre, or mother-of-pearl, is a kind of composites of aragonite platelets sandwiched between organic materials. Its excellent mechanical properties are thought to stem from the microarchitecture that is traditionally described as a “brick and mortar” arrangement. In this paper, a new microstructure, referred to as mineral bridge in the biomineralization, is directly observed in the organic matrix layers (mortar) of nacre. This is an indication that the organic matrix layer of nacre should be treated as a three-dimensional interface and the microarchitecture of nacre ought to be considered as a “brick-bridge-mortar” structure rather than the traditional one. Experiments and analyses show that the mineral bridges not only improve the mechanical properties of the organic matrix layers but also play an important role in the pattern of the crack extension in nacre.

  2. Dynamics and statics of nonaxisymmetric liquid bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Resnick, Andy; Zhang, Yiqiang; Fedoseyev, A.

    1994-01-01

    We finished the construction of the experimental apparatus and the design and testing of some of the visualization and data acquisition techniques. Experimental work focused on three areas: force measurements, loss of stability to nonaxisymmetric bridges, and vibration behavior. The experimental work is summarized in section 2. Selected results from our force measurement experiments are outlined in section 3. In addition we worked on the theory of the dynamic stability of axisymmetric bridges and undertook numerical simulation of the effects of inclined gravity vectors on the minimum volume stability limit for static bridges. The results and status of our theoretical work and numerical simulation are described in section 4. Papers published and in preparation, conference presentations, etc., are described in section 5. Work planned for the third year is discussed in section 6. References cited in the report are listed in section 7.

  3. Life prediction for bridged fatigue cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.N.

    1994-08-01

    One of the more promising classes of composites touted for high temperature applications, and certainly the most available, is that of relatively brittle matrices, either ceramic or intermetallic, reinforced by strong, aligned, continuous fibers. Under cyclic loading in the fiber direction, these materials develop matrix cracks that often run perpendicular to the fibers, while the fibers remain intact in the crack wake, supplying bridging tractions across the fracture surfaces. The bridging tractions shield the crack tip from the applied load, dramatically reducing the crack velocity from that expected in an unreinforced material subjected to the same value, {Delta}K{sub a}, of the cyclic applied stress intensity factor. An important issue in reliability is the prediction of the growth rates of the bridged cracks. The growth rates of matrix fatigue cracks bridged by sliding fibers are now commonly predicted by models based on the micromechanics of frictional interfaces. However, there exist many reasons, both theoretical and experimental, for suspecting that the most popular micromechanical models are probably wrong in detail in the context of fatigue cracks. Furthermore, a review of crack growth data reveals that the validity of the micromechanics-based predictive model has never been tested and may never be tested. In this paper, two alternative approaches are suggested to the engineering problem of predicting the growth rates of bridged cracks without explicit recourse to micromechanics. Instead, it is shown that the material properties required to analyze bridging effects can be deduced directly from crack growth data. Some experiments are proposed to test the validity of the proposals.

  4. Oscillations in a sunspot with light bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ding; Su, Jiangtao; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Bo

    2014-09-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode observed a sunspot (AR 11836) with two light bridges (LBs) on 2013 August 31. We analyzed a two-hour Ca II H emission intensity data set and detected strong five-minute oscillation power on both LBs and in the inner penumbra. The time-distance plot reveals that the five-minute oscillation phase does not vary significantly along the thin bridge, indicating that the oscillations are likely to originate from underneath it. The slit taken along the central axis of the wide LB exhibits a standing wave feature. However, at the center of the wide bridge, the five-minute oscillation power is found to be stronger than at its sides. Moreover, the time-distance plot across the wide bridge exhibits a herringbone pattern that indicates a counter-stream of two running waves, which originated at the bridge's sides. Thus, the five-minute oscillations on the wide bridge also resemble the properties of running penumbral waves. The five-minute oscillations are suppressed in the umbra, while the three-minute oscillations occupy all three cores of the sunspot's umbra, separated by the LBs. The three-minute oscillations were found to be in phase at both sides of the LBs. This may indicate that either LBs do not affect umbral oscillations, or that umbral oscillations at different umbral cores share the same source. It also indicates that LBs are rather shallow objects situated in the upper part of the umbra. We found that umbral flashes (UFs) follow the life cycles of umbral oscillations with much larger amplitudes. They cannot propagate across LBs. UFs dominate the three-minute oscillation power within each core; however, they do not disrupt the phase of umbral oscillation.

  5. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  6. Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction PeelAway Great Smoky Mountains National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction Peel-Away - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. Asymmetrical phase-shifted full-bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, A.; Grotstollen, H.

    1995-12-31

    In comparison to forward-converters bridge topologies make use of parasitic components for resonant transition without need of additional clamping circuitry. Thus, they are privileged in building high frequency high power converters, even if high efficiency is required. This paper introduces a new modulation scheme for H-bridges, which combines PWM and phase-modulation. An analysis of the ideal circuit is presented together with design guidelines. Some experimental data for a converter prototype are given for 300V/5V--750W, 250 kHz.

  8. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-05

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  9. Stability of a liquid bridge under vibration.

    PubMed

    Benilov, E S

    2016-06-01

    We examine the stability of a vertical liquid bridge between two vertically vibrating, coaxial disks. Assuming that the vibration amplitude and period are much smaller than the mean distance between the disks and the global timescale, respectively, we employ the method of multiple scales to derive a set of asymptotic equations. The set is then used to examine the stability of a bridge of an almost cylindrical shape. It is shown that, if acting alone, gravity is a destabilizing influence, whereas vibration can weaken it or even eliminate altogether. Thus, counter-intuitively, vibration can stabilize an otherwise unstable capillary structure. PMID:27415369

  10. The Interstate-40 bridge shaker project

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, R.L.; Nusser, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    New Mexico State University organized an effort to perform static and dynamic damage-detection tests on the Interstate-40 bridge over the Rio Grande at Albuquerque. The opportunity was available because the 425-ft-long bridge was soon to be replaced. Sandia National Laboratories was asked to provide and operate a shaker that could exert 1000-lb peak amplitude forces for both sinusoidal and random excitations between 2 and 20 Hz. Two Sandia departments collaborated to design and build the shaker, using existing major components connected with Sandia-designed and -fabricated hardware. The shaker was installed and operated successfully for a series of five modal and sinusoidal response tests.

  11. Seismic design guidelines for highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, R. L.; Sharpe, R. L.

    1981-10-01

    Guidelines for the seismic design of highway bridges are given. The guidelines are the recommendations of a team of nationally recognized experts which included consulting engineers, academicians, State highway, and Federal agency representatives from throughout the United States. The guidelines are comprehensive in nature and they embody several new concepts which are significant departures from existing design provisions. An extensive commentary documenting the basis for the guidelines and an example demonstrating their use are included. A draft of the guidelines was used to seismically redesign twenty-one bridges. A summary of the redesigns is included.

  12. Stability of a liquid bridge under vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the stability of a vertical liquid bridge between two vertically vibrating, coaxial disks. Assuming that the vibration amplitude and period are much smaller than the mean distance between the disks and the global timescale, respectively, we employ the method of multiple scales to derive a set of asymptotic equations. The set is then used to examine the stability of a bridge of an almost cylindrical shape. It is shown that, if acting alone, gravity is a destabilizing influence, whereas vibration can weaken it or even eliminate altogether. Thus, counter-intuitively, vibration can stabilize an otherwise unstable capillary structure.

  13. Germanium-overcoated niobium Dayem bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Peters, P. N.

    1976-01-01

    Overcoating constriction microbridges with semiconducting germanium provides additional thermal conductivity at liquid-helium temperatures to reduce the effects of self-heating in these Josephson junctions. Microwave-induced steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of an overcoated Dayem bridge fabricated in a 15-nm-thick niobium film; at least 20 steps could be counted at 4.2 K. No steps were observed in the I-V characteristics of the bridge prior to overcoating. In addition, the germanium overcoat can protect against electrical disturbances at room temperature.

  14. The seismic response of concrete arch bridges (with focus on the Bixby Creek bridge Carmel, California)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehler, M; McCallen, D; Noble, C

    1999-06-01

    The analysis, and subsequent retrofit, of concrete arch bridges during recent years has relied heavily on the use of computational simulation. For seismic analysis in particular, computer simulation, typically utilizing linear approximations of structural behavior, has become standard practice. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study of the significance of model sophistication (i.e. linear vs. nonlinear) and pertinent modeling assumptions on the dynamic response of concrete arch bridges. The study uses the Bixby Creek Bridge, located in California, as a case study. In addition to presenting general recommendations for analysis of this class of structures, this report provides an independent evaluation of the proposed seismic retrofit for the Bixby Creek Bridge. Results from the study clearly illustrate a reduction of displacement drifts and redistribution of member forces brought on by the inclusion of material nonlinearity. The analyses demonstrate that accurate modeling of expansion joints, for the Bixby Creek Bridge in particular, is critical to achieve representative modal and transient behavior. The inclusion of near-field displacement pulses in ground motion records was shown to significantly increase demand on the relatively softer, longer period Bixby Creek Bridge arch. Stiffer, shorter period arches, however, are more likely susceptible to variable support motions arising from the canyon topography typical for this class of bridges.

  15. Bridge Frost Prediction by Heat and Mass Transfer Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Tina M.; Takle, Eugene S.

    2006-03-01

    Frost on roadways and bridges can present hazardous conditions to motorists, particularly when it occurs in patches or on bridges when adjacent roadways are clear of frost. To minimize materials costs, vehicle corrosion, and negative environmental impacts, frost-suppression chemicals should be applied only when, where, and in the appropriate amounts needed to maintain roadways in a safe condition for motorists. Accurate forecasts of frost onset times, frost intensity, and frost disappearance (e.g., melting or sublimation) are needed to help roadway maintenance personnel decide when, where, and how much frost-suppression chemical to use. A finite-difference algorithm (BridgeT) has been developed that simulates vertical heat transfer in a bridge based on evolving meteorological conditions at its top and bottom as supplied by a weather forecast model. BridgeT simulates bridge temperatures at numerous points within the bridge (including its upper and lower surface) at each time step of the weather forecast model and calculates volume per unit area (i.e., depth) of deposited, melted, or sublimed frost. This model produces forecasts of bridge surface temperature, frost depth, and bridge condition (i.e., dry, wet, icy/snowy). Bridge frost predictions and bridge surface temperature are compared with observed and measured values to assess BridgeT's skill in forecasting bridge frost and associated conditions.

  16. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Lauffer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of a collaborative study between USGS, NC Department of Transportation and URS Corporation to characterize stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams. This investigation measured bridge deck runoff from 15 bridges for 12-15 storms, stream water-quality data for baseflow and storm conditions at four of the bridge deck sites and streambed sediment chemistry upstream and downstream of 30 bridges across North Carolina. Background on why the study was conducted, objectives and scope and a general summary of the major results and conclusions will be presented.

  17. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  18. 10. NORTHEAST CORNER CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, VIEW OF SIDEWALK. TAMARACK BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NORTHEAST CORNER CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, VIEW OF SIDEWALK. TAMARACK BRIDGE IN LEFT REAR. - Cascade Creek Bridge, Spanning Cascade Creek on New Big Oak Flat Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  20. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  1. 14. Fabrication of the Gault Bridge in the Eastern United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Fabrication of the Gault Bridge in the Eastern United States (exact location not known). Source: City Hall, Nevada City, California. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  2. 2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Chicago, Madison & Northern Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, east of Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 11. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11 N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, S tower. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  4. 8. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11, N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, from SW. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  5. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST ABUTMENT AT Lo, SHOWING BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST ABUTMENT AT Lo, SHOWING BRIDGE SEAT, TIMBER PILES, STEEL SILL AND BACKWALL/WlNGWALL BOARDS, LOOKING NORTH - Cottonville Bridge, County Road D-61 at Farmer's Creek, Maquoketa, Jackson County, IA

  6. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR BEAMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LOWER CHORDS AND LATERAL BRACING, WITH TIMBER PILE EAST ABUTMENT IN CENTER BACKGROUND, LOOKING EAST - Cottonville Bridge, County Road D-61 at Farmer's Creek, Maquoketa, Jackson County, IA

  7. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking east along Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  8. General topographic view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General topographic view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking northwest from Crab Creek Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  9. Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north showing road deck, guardrail, and howe truss. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  10. General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view looking southwest from Five Rivers Road. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  11. 18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Bridge over state route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Bridge over State Route 321 on unopened section of Foothills Parkway in wear cove looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYEBAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYE-BAR CONNECTION AND EYE-BAR PIN LOCATION - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE TO THE WEST, FACING EAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  15. 7. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING CONNECTION OF BRIDGE COLUMN, TRUSS, TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING CONNECTION OF BRIDGE COLUMN, TRUSS, TOP BEAM, AND ARCHED CROSS MEMBER. NOTE KNEE BRACE FOR CROSS MEMBER AND DIAGONAL TENSION BAR - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Olmstead Bridge, Spanning Provo River, Provo, Utah County, UT

  16. 9. Detail of east web of bridge, showing end post, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of east web of bridge, showing end post, verticals, diagonals and lateral bracing. View to southwest. - Lupus Bridge, Spanning Splice Creek at Moniteau County Road 4, Lupus, Moniteau County, MO

  17. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING APPROACH OF CARRS MILL ROAD FROM EAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  18. 19. View of interior of bridge operator's control cabin, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of interior of bridge operator's control cabin, with manual control levers at left, and electrical equipment cabinet at right; looking west - India Point Railroad Bridge, Spanning Seekonk River between Providence & East Providence, Providence, Providence County, RI

  19. 11. VIEW SOUTHWARD OF THE PENSTOCK BRIDGE, SHOWING THE SURVIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW SOUTHWARD OF THE PENSTOCK BRIDGE, SHOWING THE SURVIVING UPSTREAM (WEST) WALL STRUCTURE - Wagamon Pond Dam & Bridge, Spanning Broadkill River at State Road No. 197 (Mulberry Street), Milton, Sussex County, DE

  20. 12. VIEW WESTWARD OF THE PENSTOCK (HEADRACE) BRIDGE AND SURVIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WESTWARD OF THE PENSTOCK (HEADRACE) BRIDGE AND SURVIVING GATE STRUCTURE - Wagamon Pond Dam & Bridge, Spanning Broadkill River at State Road No. 197 (Mulberry Street), Milton, Sussex County, DE

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  3. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF CLINTON AVENUE BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF CLINTON AVENUE BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Clinton Avenue/North Clinton Avenue Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Westport, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pilothouse bridge with steering gear at center, ship's wheel has been removed. Vertical shaft is connected to flying bridge steering wheel. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  6. SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND SIDE (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  7. BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 13. Underside Span 1, Hot Metal Bridge on right toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Underside Span 1, Hot Metal Bridge on right toward Pier 1. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. ROADSCAPE LOOKING WEST OF HORSETAIL FALLS BRIDGE. SAME PHOTO AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROADSCAPE LOOKING WEST OF HORSETAIL FALLS BRIDGE. SAME PHOTO AS HAER No. OR-36-62. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Horsetail Falls Bridge, Spanning Horsetail Falls Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 3. Looking West, view of the entire bridge from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Looking West, view of the entire bridge from the downstream side of thomes creek. The ends of structure are concealed by natural vegetation on the stream banks. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  11. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  12. Operation IceBridge: Wheels Down in Thule

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Operation IceBridge begins another season of science over the Arctic with survey flights out of Greenland. For the next several weeks, IceBridge will carry out a research campaign — the re...

  13. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  15. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  16. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, NORTH ELEVATION, FACING SOUTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  17. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST Generals Highway, Lodge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, SOUTH ELEVATION, FACING EAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  18. 10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BRIDGE IN CONTEXT OF DAM, THIRD POWER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH BY 360 DEGREES - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

  19. 6. BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH FROM CROWN POINT STATE PARK SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTH FROM CROWN POINT STATE PARK SHOWING SURROUNDING DEVELOPMENT FROM CONSTRUCTION OF DAM - Columbia River Bridge at Grand Coulee Dam, Spanning Columbia River at State Route 155, Coulee Dam, Okanogan County, WA

  20. 6. VIEW FROM WESTERN ABUTMENT, SHOWING SIDE ELEVATION OF BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM WESTERN ABUTMENT, SHOWING SIDE ELEVATION OF BRIDGE No. Z-6 IN OPEN POSITION. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 3. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM DOWNSTREAM - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  3. 6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING NORTHWEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING NORTHWEST OF UPSTREAM SIDE FROM CHILI BAR SLATE MINE QUARRY - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  4. 22. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE, 1932 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE, 1932 SECTION, SOUTH BANK, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST - Rowdy Creek Bridge, Spanning Rowdy Creek at Fred Haight Drive, Smith River, Del Norte County, CA

  5. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  6. Topographic view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking south - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  7. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southwest - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  8. General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Grande Ronde River Bridge, view looking southeast - Grande Ronde River Bridge, Sprnning Grande Ronde River on Old Oregon Trail Highway (Oregon Route 6), La Grande, Union County, OR

  9. Limestone and bronze "Mississippi River Crossing" Bridge plaque located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Limestone and bronze "Mississippi River Crossing" Bridge plaque located at North corner of Administration Building site - Huey P. Long Bridge, Administration Building, 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  10. Substructure Main Bridge, Pier A Huey P. Long ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, Pier A - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  11. 7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST TOWARD SACRAMENTO, ALONG STATE HIGHWAY 275 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 5. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST FROM ROOF OF CAPITOL BANK OF COMMERCE BUILDING - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 42. 'TOWER BRIDGE, SACRAMENTO, LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINT DRAWN & MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. 'TOWER BRIDGE, SACRAMENTO, LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINT DRAWN & MADE BY DOYT EARLY, CIRCA 1936.' - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 69. VIEW SHOWING SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW SHOWING SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST, 2:00 p.m., Sunday, February 3, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROOF OF CALIFORNIA STATE RAILROAD MUSEUM - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST ALONG CAPITOL MALL - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF RIVER, November 7, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 72. VIEW SHOWING THE CONTINUAL DISMANTLING OF M STREET BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. VIEW SHOWING THE CONTINUAL DISMANTLING OF M STREET BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, February 9, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 5. TIGHTER OVERALL VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE. TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TIGHTER OVERALL VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE. TAKEN FROM CLOSER IN AT LOW TIDE. LOOKING FROM EAST TO THE WEST. - Ducktrap Bridge, Spanning Ducktrap River at U.S. Route 1, Lincolnville, Waldo County, ME

  20. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER SECTION, LOOKING WEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  1. 34. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, Cantilever Span 1888); web details of cantilever arm connecting first span to first pier - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS CANTILEVER PORTAL ON WEST BANK SIDE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. 7. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHWEST END OF BRIDGE FROM UNDERNEATH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD NORTHWEST END OF BRIDGE FROM UNDERNEATH, SHOWING CONCRETE SUPPORTS FOR CANTILEVERED WALKWAY (ON RIGHT) - Lincoln Avenue Viaduct, Spanning Union Pacific Railroad between Baring Cross Bridge & Union Station, Little Rock, Pulaski County, AR

  4. 4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK BEAMS, STRINGERS AND DIAGONAL BRACING OF DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  5. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTION FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CHORD CONNECTION FROM UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING DECK BEAM AND STIRRUP - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  6. 2. General view across bridge and western approach at traffic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view across bridge and western approach at traffic level; view to east. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  7. 1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to west. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  8. 3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view across bridge at traffic level; view to east. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

  9. 13. Roadway view on 1927 bridge looking north from Crockett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Roadway view on 1927 bridge looking north from Crockett at on-coming I80 west-bound traffic. Photo taken from Pier 5. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Perspective view of bridge, looking west. Note that piers are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of bridge, looking west. Note that piers are wide enough to accommodate a second track. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  11. Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Enviroment, from southwest, showing Castle Garden Bridge and alignment of Township Road 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  12. View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve; photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to southwest along bridge alignment, showing reverse curve; photographer unknown; 1933 photo from collection of Office-of Structures Maintenance, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  13. 3. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking southwest - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  14. 1. General view of Tualatin River Railroad Bridge and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Tualatin River Railroad Bridge and north approach trestle, view looking south. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  15. 2. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking southwest - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  16. 4. Approach view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Approach view of the Tualatin River Railroad Bridge, view looking south - Oregon Electric Railroad, Tualatin River Bridge, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 35.3, Wilsonville, Clackamas County, OR

  17. 4. FACING EAST ACROSS BRIDGE AT HALF DOME WITH BICYCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FACING EAST ACROSS BRIDGE AT HALF DOME WITH BICYCLE PATH MARKERS IN FOREGROUND AND ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER FOR CAMPGROUND TO RIGHT. - Ahwahnee Bridge, Spanning Merced River on service road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. 3. VIEW OF SOUTHWESTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SOUTHWESTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  19. 7. DETAIL OF VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  20. 5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA