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Sample records for jonathan stop global

  1. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  2. Interview: Jonathan Kozol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Mardell

    1998-01-01

    A passionate and persistent advocate for American inner-city children, Jonathan Kozol has spent most of his adult life teaching, speaking, and writing about the conditions and problems of urban youth. In this interview, Kozol discusses his commitment to children who live in the poorest inner-city neighborhoods. (Author/AEF)

  3. NonStop University: Characteristics of a Global Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NonStop University is an online university community application service designed, developed, and deployed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to serve the computer product training needs of 2,500 staff members in more than 50 countries. By identifying a set of learner characteristics that supported a set of key elements while using technology and focusing on…

  4. The challenge of sustaining effectiveness over time: the case of the global network to stop tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Quissell, Kathryn; Walt, Gill

    2016-04-01

    Where once global health decisions were largely the domain of national governments and the World Health Organization, today networks of international organizations, governments, private philanthropies and other entities are actively shaping public policy. However, there is still limited understanding of how global networks form, how they create institutions, how they promote and sustain collective action, and how they adapt to changes in the policy environment. Understanding these processes is crucial to understanding their effectiveness: whether and how global networks influence policy and public health outcomes. This study seeks to address these gaps through the examination of the global network to stop tuberculosis (TB) and the factors influencing its effectiveness over time. Drawing from ∼ 200 document sources and 16 interviews with key informants, we trace the development of the Global Partnership to Stop TB and its work over the past decade. We find that having a centralized core group and a strategic brand helped the network to coalesce around a primary intervention strategy, directly observed treatment short course. This strategy was created before the network was formalized, and helped bring in donors, ministries of health and other organizations committed to fighting TB-growing the network. Adaptations to this strategy, the creation of a consensus-based Global Plan, and the creation of a variety of participatory venues for discussion, helped to expand and sustain the network. Presently, however, tensions have become more apparent within the network as it struggles with changing internal political dynamics and the evolution of the disease. While centralization and stability helped to launch and grow the network, the institutionalization of governance and strategy may have constrained adaptation. Institutionalization and centralization may, therefore, facilitate short-term success for networks, but may end up complicating longer-term effectiveness. PMID

  5. Unexpected events induce motor slowing via a brain mechanism for action-stopping with global suppressive effects.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2013-11-20

    When an unexpected event occurs in everyday life (e.g., a car honking), one experiences a slowing down of ongoing action (e.g., of walking into the street). Motor slowing following unexpected events is a ubiquitous phenomenon, both in laboratory experiments as well as such everyday situations, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that unexpected events recruit the same inhibition network in the brain as does complete cancellation of an action (i.e., action-stopping). Using electroencephalography and independent component analysis in humans, we show that a brain signature of successful outright action-stopping also exhibits activity following unexpected events, and more so in blocks with greater motor slowing. Further, using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability, we show that an unexpected event has a global motor suppressive effect, just like outright action-stopping. Thus, unexpected events recruit a common mechanism with outright action-stopping, moreover with global suppressive effects. These findings imply that we can now leverage the considerable extant knowledge of the neural architecture and functional properties of the stopping system to better understand the processing of unexpected events, including perhaps how they induce distraction via global suppression. PMID:24259571

  6. Savage Inequalities: An Interview with Jonathan Kozol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Theory, 1993

    1993-01-01

    An interview with Jonathan Kozol, author of "Savage Inequalities," documents disparities in spending between African-American and white public school students nationwide. The interview examines the disparities, issues about resegregation and integration in schools, and implications of the book for a progressive view of school reform. (SM)

  7. Digital Learning Network Event with Robotics Engineer Jonathan Rogers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robotics engineer Jonathan Rogers and Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem participate in a Digital Learning Network educational event, answering questions from students at Montgomery Middle School in...

  8. Implementing the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2011–2015 – Optimizing Allocations and the Global Fund’s Contribution: A Scenario Projections Study

    PubMed Central

    Korenromp, Eline L.; Glaziou, Philippe; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Floyd, Katherine; Hosseini, Mehran; Raviglione, Mario; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), including antiretroviral treatment (ART) during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need – an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8–12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa − with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. Conclusions/Significance These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and disease

  9. The Ties that Bind: A Response to Jonathan Jansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In his critique of academic writing about and public consumption of government policy and law, Jonathan Jansen uses his argument of the symbolic functions of education law and education policy as a basis for explaining the lack of progress in achieving equity and justice under "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) in the United States and the lack…

  10. Modeling Civic Engagement: A Student Conversation with Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Peter; Christen, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol's visit to Portland, Oregon, in April 2005 included a dialogue with 55 urban middle and high school students about inequities in American schools. Students left this conversation with a stronger sense of the systemic impediments to equal education. They also felt that their voice had been heard on a topic of national import. This…

  11. On Savage Inequalities: A Conversation with Jonathan Kozol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    1993-01-01

    "Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools" describes the contrasts between rich and poor schools located within a few miles of each other. The author, Jonathan Kozol, claims that contrasts are due to inequitable funding; he would abolish the property tax and replace it with equitable funding for every child deriving from a single federal…

  12. Attacking Apartheid Education: An interview with Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jonathan Kozol. Topics discussed include: (1) On the root causes of school resegregation; (2) On strategies for solving the problem; (3) On guaranteeing education for all; (4) On forcing opponents of integration into the open; (5) On mechanisms for promoting integration; (6) On scripted curricula in…

  13. Savage Exaggerations: Worshiping the Cosmology of Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.

    2006-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has made a good living talking with students. His books chronicle travels among poor, minority children, most of them African Americans in struggling public schools. In the four decades that Kozol, now 70, has been writing books--11 so far--his message has hardly wavered: minority children are unsuccessful because rich, white…

  14. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are…

  15. Stopping Gluinos

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Pierce, A.; Rajendran, S.; Wacker, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-29

    Long lived gluinos are the trademark of split susy. They form R-hadrons that, when charged, efficiently lose energy in matter via ionization. Independent of R-spectroscopy and initial hadronization, a fraction of R-hadrons become charged while traversing a detector. This results in a large number of stopped gluinos at present and future detectors. For a 300 GeV gluino, 10{sup 6} will stop each year in LHC detectors, while several hundred stop in detectors during Run II at the Tevatron. The subsequent decays of stopped gluinos produce distinctive depositions of energy in calorimeters with no activity in either the tracker or the muon chamber.

  16. California: 'the Stem Cell State'. Interview with Jonathan Thomas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    We talked to Jonathan Thomas, newly elected Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), a few weeks into a role he describes as "the opportunity of the lifetime" to find out what he sees as the key goals for the CIRM and why patient advocates are so critical to the future of the Institute. Jonathan Thomas was elected as Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) in June 2011, succeeding the Founder and former Chairman, Bob Klein. Thomas has had a successful career in finance and law and is a Co-Founding Partner at Saybrook Capital, an investment banking and private equity firm. His commitment to patient advocacy and keen interest in biological sciences, developed as a Biology Major at Yale, led him to stand for Chairman. PMID:21999272

  17. The Eastern Space and Missile Center - Jonathan Dickinson Instrumentation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckner, H. E.; Clark, S. R.; Bonner, J. R.; Thomas, C. G.

    The Jonathan Dickinson Instrumentation Facility (JDIF) is an instrumentation station at the Eastern Test Range designed to provide space diversity tracking of all launches from the Eastern Space and Missile Center or Kennedy Space Center. The JDIF includes tracking radar, telemetry, command/control systems, timing, and communication systems and the Navy's Flight Test Support System in one integrated building. Since virtually all of the instrumentation at JDIF is critical to the success of launches, a concept was established to make it possible to run the Eastern Test Range site during mission support from a bank of diesel generators, and to use commercial power for normal day-to-day operations.

  18. The Next Stop of One-Stop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouman, Penny; Gomber, Gerri; Higgs, Ronnie; Westman, Craig

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the migration of the best practices of a one-stop setup to a communication center allowing for a one-stop shop experience via phone. Specifically, the article describes how enrollment managers at Ferris State University chose elements of their one-stop student service center to migrate into the Enrollment Services…

  19. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  20. Stopping movements: when others slow us down.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Catmur, Caroline; Sowden, Sophie; Ianì, Francesco; Becchio, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has shown that performing joint actions can lead to the representation of both one's own and others' actions. In the present study we explored the influence of co-representation on response stopping. Are joint actions more difficult to stop than solo actions? Using a variation of the stop-signal task, we found that participants needed more time to stop a planned joint action compared with a planned solo action (Experiment 1). This effect was not observed when participants performed the task in the presence of a passive observer (Experiment 2). A third transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that joint stopping recruited a more selective suppression mechanism than solo stopping. Taken together, these results suggest that participants used a global inhibition mechanism when acting alone; however, they recruited a more selective and slower suppression mechanism when acting with someone else. PMID:24925378

  1. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  2. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  3. Automobile Stopping Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

  4. Dialysis: Deciding to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    ... will mean. Is stopping dialysis considered suicide? Many religions teach that individuals have the right to stop ... 2016 - 4:00am Columbus, OH Register Now 2016 Eastern Iowa Kidney Walk Sun, 09/25/2016 - 2: ...

  5. The Scholarship of Jonathan Silin: A Reading through the Lens of Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshaber, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While Jonathan Silin's ideas have challenged early childhood educators to think seriously about the relationship between developmentalism and revisioning early education, they have done much more than this. They also challenge us to know who we are and how our identities might be enacted in our teacher-selves, whether in the classroom with young…

  6. A Pragma-Stylistic Analysis of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan Inaugural Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Eromosele John

    2012-01-01

    The study was an examination through the pragma-stylistic approach to meaning of the linguistic acts that manifest in the Inaugural Speech of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan as the democratically elected president in May 2011 General Elections in Nigeria. Hence, the study focused on speech acts type of locution, illocutionary and perlocutionary in the…

  7. Political Identity and Moral Education: A Response to Jonathan Haidt's "The Righteous Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    In "The Righteous Mind," Jonathan Haidt claims that liberals have a narrower moral outlook than conservatives--they are concerned with fairness and relief of suffering, which Haidt sees as individualistic values, while conservatives care about authority and loyalty too, values concerned with holding society together. I question…

  8. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer... River in Orleans County, Vermont. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval....

  9. Outcomes-based Education in South African Curricular Reform: A Response to Jonathan Jansen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Responds to the article "Curriculum Reform in South Africa: A Critical Analysis of Outcomes-Based Education" by Jonathan Jansen. States that "Curriculum 2005" too strongly emphasizes procedural knowledge. Proposes a less radical version of outcomes-based education in which teachers integrate propositional, procedural, and dispositional knowledge…

  10. The Devil in Mr. Smith: A Conversation with Jonathan Z. Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan Z.; Pearson, Thomas; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Jensen, Tim; Fujiwara, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    This interview was recorded in November 2012 in Jonathan Z. Smith's Hyde Park graystone. Professor Smith offers insights into how he thinks about his classroom teaching and his students' learning through descriptions of various assignments and classroom activities he has developed over more than forty years of teaching. The discussion…

  11. 76 FR 58805 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment; Jonathan and Jayne Chase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment; Jonathan and Jayne Chase... Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47879), the Office of Energy Projects has... Environmental Assessment (EA). In the EA, Commission staff analyzed the potential environmental effects of...

  12. Loss, Failure, and an Awful Reputation: A Response to Jonathan Silin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Clare

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author responds to Jonathan Silin's article "At a Loss: Scared and Excited", and in doing so, takes up his ideas around the generative potential of loss. She uses these notions of loss to illuminate how, in one diverse school community in Australia, loss, failure and an "awful reputation" have opened up spaces for re-imagining…

  13. Stopping Speech Suppresses the Task-Irrelevant Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Weidong; Oldenkamp, Caitlin L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    Some situations require one to quickly stop an initiated response. Recent evidence suggests that rapid stopping engages a mechanism that has diffuse effects on the motor system. For example, stopping the hand dampens the excitability of the task-irrelevant leg. However, it is unclear whether this "global suppression" could apply across wider motor…

  14. The light stop window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Antonio; Giudice, Gian F.; Isidori, Gino; Pierini, Maurizio; Strumia, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    We show that a right-handed stop in the 200-400 GeV mass range, together with a nearly degenerate neutralino and, possibly, a gluino below 1.5 TeV, follows from reasonable assumptions, is consistent with present data, and offers interesting discovery prospects at the LHC. Triggering on an extra jet produced in association with stops allows the experimental search for stops even when their mass difference with neutralinos is very small and the decay products are too soft for direct observation. Using a razor analysis, we are able to set stop bounds that are stronger than those published by ATLAS and CMS.

  15. Field trip stop descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen sites within the channeled scabland were selected as stops with the dual aim of visiting locations critical to the arguments for a catastrophic flood origin of the scablands, as well as permitting an examination of the variability in both erosional and depositional features. The stop locations are plotted on a generalized geologic map and their coordinates are given in table form.

  16. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  17. Sneaky light stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this 'stealth stop' scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  18. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    MedlinePlus

    ... can occur with obstructive sleep apnea, for example. Prolonged apnea means a person has stopped breathing. If ... that requires immediate medical attention and first aid. Prolonged apnea with no heart activity in a person ...

  19. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  20. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  1. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    PubMed

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  2. Sneaky light stop

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  3. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  4. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  5. Quick stop device

    DOEpatents

    Hipwell, Roger L.; Hazelton, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    A quick stop device for abruptly interrupting the cutting of a workpiece by a cutter is disclosed. The quick stop device employs an outer housing connected to an inner workpiece holder by at least one shear pin. The outer housing includes an appropriate shank designed to be received in the spindle of a machine, such as a machine tool. A cutter, such as a drill bit, is mounted in a stationary position and the workpiece, mounted to the workpiece holder, is rotated during engagement with the cutter. A trigger system includes at least one spring loaded punch disposed for movement into engagement with the workpiece holder to abruptly stop rotation of the workpiece holder. This action shears the shear pin and permits continued rotation of the spindle and outer housing without substantially disturbing the chip root formed during cutting.

  6. 75 FR 47585 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...: Jonathan and Jayne Chase. e. Name of Project: Troy Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Missisquoi River, in the Town of Troy, Orleans County, Vermont. The project would not occupy lands of the United...., Washington, DC 20426. m. The application is not ready for environmental analysis at this time. n. The...

  7. A Persistent Reformer: Jonathan Kozol's Work to Promote Equality in America. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has been a leading educational critic and social activist since 1967 when "Death at an Early Age," his book about racism in Boston's schools, was published and won a National Book Award. Since then, Kozol has written eleven more books which focus on such issues as segregation in schools and society, poverty, inequitable school…

  8. Teaching Eighteenth-Century Poetic Satire with a Competency-Based Approach: Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modia, María Jesús Lorenzo; Álvarez, Begoña Lasa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to analyse the teaching of literature with a competency-based approach. This is exemplified by means of a thorough study of a poetic duel between two relevant eighteenth-century writers, Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and more specifically, by means of the satires entitled respectively "The Lady's…

  9. Jonathan Rosen: building a dynamic union-based health and safety program.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jonathan; McLaughlin, Kaci; Slatin, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Rosen has spent more than 30 years building union-based health and safety programs. In the 1970s he was a union activist. In 1980 he became a union health and safety committee chair at a Milwaukee manufacturing firm. Following that, he had a nearly 20-year career with the New York State Public Employees Federation (PEF). He trained as an industrial hygienist and developed a highly regarded public sector union-based health and safety program. PEF's Health and Safety Department supported a network of union health and safety committees. Program accomplishments included innovative work on workplace violence prevention, indoor environmental quality, infectious diseases, and ergonomics. Mr. Rosen promoted collaboration among unions, helped support new activists, advocated tirelessly for injured workers, and formed an effective alliance with researchers. Rosen discusses essential strategies for mobilizing union members and gaining commitment to health and safety from unions, employers, and policy makers. PMID:25053608

  10. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  11. Deciding where to Stop Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydgat, Ilse; Stevens, Michael; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether speakers strategically decide where to interrupt their speech once they need to stop. We conducted four naming experiments in which pictures of colored shapes occasionally changed in color or shape. Participants then merely had to stop (Experiment 1); or they had to stop and resume speech (Experiments 2-4). They…

  12. Stop the RIKA BANARE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio

    Children who want to study science & technology are decreasing continuously in Japan. This phenomenon is so called “Rika Banare” meaning literally science apart. Then, the number of students aiming at being engineers is decreasing. This will be a threat for Japanese industry. Many science & technology events are being held everywhere in Japan to overcome Rika Banare. However, most of them leave no sustainable influence over the students who reach to high school age. The reason why Rika Banare takes place is discussed. Then, it is insisted that the promotion of the attractive features of engineering career is important as well as improvement of the education system. In this article, eight proposals to stop Rika Banare are presented. Five of them are related to education system and the rest three to the improvement of social status of engineers.

  13. Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864) and his recognition of conduction aphasia in 1834.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    2011-03-01

    In 1833 an accomplished 26-year-old linguist suffered a non-paralytic stroke. After he recovered, though he could utter a variety of syllables with ease, he spoke an unintelligible jargon that caused him to be mistaken as a foreigner. He was examined repeatedly over the course of a year by Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864), a Dublin physician and professor of materia medica, who found that the patient understood whatever was said to him, that he could read and write fluently, but had difficulty repeating words read to him or in reading aloud. Osborne recommended that he learn to speak English, his natural language, de novo and over 8 months measured his considerable improvement. To explain the patient's singular difficulty in repeating spoken words Osborne argued it was 'highly probable that, having been conversant with five languages, the muscular apparatus ranged among them, forming a kind of polyglot jargon [that was] wholly unintelligible' and the patient was 'unable to penetrate into and select the contents of the store according as the [words] were required'. The discrepancy between comprehension and repetition was later termed conduction aphasia. PMID:21052861

  14. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day. PMID:17028310

  15. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe. PMID:7590563

  16. Understanding Recent Home-Birth Research: An Interview With Drs. Melissa Cheyney and Jonathan Snowden.

    PubMed

    Cheyney, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    In the past month, two new studies have been released-one in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM; Snowden et al., 2015) and the other in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (Hutton et al., 2015)-comparing out-of-hospital birth outcomes to hospital birth outcomes. These studies join a growing body of literature that consistently shows high rates of obstetric intervention in hospitals and also show low risk to neonates regardless of setting. However, the recent NEJM study found a small but statistically significant increase in risk for perinatal mortality for babies born out of hospital. Jeanette McCulloch of BirthSwell (http://www.birthswell.com) interviews Melissa Cheyney, PhD, CPM, LDM, medical anthropologist, chair of the Midwives Alliance Division of Research, and lead author on the largest study of outcomes for planned home births in the United States to date (Cheyney et al., 2014a), and Jonathan Snowden, PhD, epidemiologist and assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and School of Public Health at Oregon Health and Science University. Snowden is also the lead author of the recent NEJM study. PMID:27445445

  17. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  18. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences. PMID:23908778

  19. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  20. The Effects of Prompting and Feedback on Drivers' Stopping at Stop Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John; Hackett, Stacey; Gravina, Nicole; Lebbon, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Complete stops at a high-traffic intersection on the campus of a public university were increased with a prompting and consequence intervention. Data were collected at two opposing stop signs (Stop A and Stop B); however, the intervention was implemented only at Stop A. During the intervention, a volunteer stood next to Stop A holding a poster…

  1. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  2. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  3. Mixing stops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find that they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.

  4. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  5. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  6. Acquisition of Initial /s/-Stop and Stop-/s/ Sequences in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrika, Asimina; Nicolaidis, Katerina; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on children's acquisition of complex sequences points to a tendency for affricates to be acquired before clusters, but there is no clear evidence of a difference in order of acquisition between clusters with /s/ that violate the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP), such as /s/ followed by stop in onset position, and other clusters…

  7. Report on ion stopping at the NSCL's gas stopping station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofy, Patrick; Morrissey, David; Bollen, Georg; Davies, Deborah; Ringle, Ryan; Schury, Peter; Schwarz, Stefan; Sun, Tao; Vanwasshenova, Daniel; Weissman, Leonid; Wiggins, David

    2002-10-01

    We will present results from the first trials of stopping intermediate energy ions in gas at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), as part of the development of a high efficiency, high pressure, gas-filled ion source for radioactive ions. The source incorporates a high-pressure helium gas cell ( 1 bar x 50 cm) which will stop fast ( 100 MeV/nucleon) nuclei produced by in-flight separation. The exotic nuclei are thermalized in the helium and extracted with a combination of electric potentials and gas flow through a supersonic nozzle. The ions are captured in a rf-multipole rod structure in a differentially pumped expansion chamber and transported as a low-energy beam for precision nuclear science experiments. Argon ions with energies in the range of 100-140 MeV/nucleon were degraded in precision absorbers and stopped in helium. Measurements of the residual kinetic energy and the range will be presented and compared to calculations. This work supported by NSF Grant PHY01-10253 and by DOE Grant 00ER41144.

  8. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaneets, Roman Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  9. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  10. Quality of "Glottal" Stops in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; van As-Brooks, C. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of "glottal" stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized "glottal" stops in abutting words that end and begin…

  11. On Predicting the Glottal Stop in Hualapai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folarin, Antonia Y.

    Based on the unsubstantiated conclusion of many Hualapai analysts that the glottal stop is one of the phonemes of the language, this paper argues that the glottal stop is for the most part predictable. Data are presented to show the instability as well as the predictability of the glottal stop, and rules are presented, based on the Sound Pattern…

  12. On the Natural History of Preaspirated Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation makes two contributions, one empirical, the other theoretical. Empirically, the dissertation deepens our understanding of the lifecycle and behavior of the preaspirated stop, an extremely rare phonological feature. I show that in most confirmed cases, preaspirated stops develop from earlier voiceless geminate stops, less commonly…

  13. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  14. Stops in the world's languages.

    PubMed

    Henton, C; Ladefoged, P; Maddieson, I

    1992-01-01

    This account of the great variety of stops in the world's languages shows that, apart from their place of articulation, these sounds can be described principally in terms of the activities that occur at three phases: onset, closure, and release. Other potentially contrastive features discussed include length, and the use of the glottalic airstream mechanism (other airstream mechanisms are not considered here). Phonologically only two phases--closure and release--are exploited; independent distinctions of features such as phonation type or articulatory manner cannot be found in the onset phase. We examine the combinatorial possibilities of the features that are used and discuss implications for phonological feature systems. PMID:1615036

  15. GPM's Last Stop Before Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Art Azarbarzin, NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission project manager, and Mashahiro Kojima, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's GPM/DPR project manager, reflect on the long journey ...

  16. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-10-15

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  17. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  18. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Roy H.; Mazzella, Andrew L.; Martikainen, Anu L.

    2015-01-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing PMID:26379366

  19. Shell corrections in stopping powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichsel, H.

    2002-05-01

    One of the theories of the electronic stopping power S for fast light ions was derived by Bethe. The algorithm currently used for the calculation of S includes terms known as the mean excitation energy I, the shell correction, the Barkas correction, and the Bloch correction. These terms are described here. For the calculation of the shell corrections an atomic model is used, which is more realistic than the hydrogenic approximation used so far. A comparison is made with similar calculations in which the local plasma approximation is utilized. Close agreement with the experimental data for protons with energies from 0.3 to 10 MeV traversing Al and Si is found without the need for adjustable parameters for the shell corrections.

  20. Alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    Three designs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for a 100,000 high earth orbit are considered with particular attention given to the evaluation of the aperture stop position. The choice of aperture stop position will be based on stray light considerations which are being studied concurrently. It is noted that there are advantages in cost, mass, and astronomical aperture to placing the aperture stop at or near the primary mirror, if the stray light circumstances allow.

  1. All in One Stop? The Accessibility of Work Support Programs at One-Stop Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Elise; Kubo, Hitomi; Frank, Abbey

    The accessibility of work support programs at one-stop centers was examined in a study during which 33 telephone directors or managers of one-stop centers in 22 states were interviewed by telephone. The interviews established the existence of extensive differences between one-stop centers from the standpoint of all aspects of their operation,…

  2. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  3. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stop request. 1192.37 Section 1192.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.37 Stop request....

  4. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  5. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  6. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  7. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  8. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  9. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  10. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  11. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  12. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  13. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  14. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its hinge points; and (2) There must be means to keep the blade from hitting the droop stops during...

  15. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation. PMID:25313953

  16. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; O’Doherty, John P.; Berkebile, Michael M.; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification – the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli – could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In two experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders, and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation. PMID:25313953

  17. Antiproton stopping at low energies: confirmation of velocity-proportional stopping power.

    PubMed

    Møller, S P; Csete, A; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, U I; Andersen, H H

    2002-05-13

    The stopping power for antiprotons in various solid targets has been measured in the low-energy range of 1-100 keV. In agreement with most models, in particular free-electron gas models, the stopping power is found to be proportional to the projectile velocity below the stopping-power maximum. Although a stopping power proportional to velocity has also been observed for protons, the interpretation of such measurements is difficult due to the presence of charge exchange processes. Hence, the present measurements constitute the first unambiguous support for a velocity-proportional stopping power due to target excitations by a pointlike projectile. PMID:12005631

  18. A light stop with a heavy gluino: enlarging the stop gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin F.; Terning, John

    2016-05-01

    It is widely thought that increasing bounds on the gluino mass, which feeds down to the stop mass through renormalization group running, are making a light stop increasingly unlikely. Here we present a counter-example. We examine the case of the Minimal Composite Supersymmetric Standard Model which has a light composite stop. The large anomalous dimension of the stop from strong dynamics pushes the stop mass toward a quasi-fixed point in the infrared, which is smaller than standard estimates by a factor of a large logarithm. The gluino can be about three times heavier than the stop, which is comparable to hierarchy achieved with supersoft Dirac gluino masses. Thus, in this class of models, a heavy gluino is not necessarily indicative of a heavy stop.

  19. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  20. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  1. Inhibitory motor control based on complex stopping goals relies on the same brain network as simple stopping

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; Aron, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has modeled action-stopping using the stop-signal task (SST), in which an impending response has to be stopped when an explicit stop-signal occurs. A limitation of the SST is that real-world action-stopping rarely involves explicit stop-signals. Instead, the stopping-system engages when environmental features match more complex stopping goals. For example, when stepping into the street, one monitors path, velocity, size, and types of objects; and only stops if there is a vehicle approaching. Here, we developed a task in which participants compared the visual features of a multidimensional go-stimulus to a complex stopping-template, and stopped their go-response if all features matched the template. We used independent component analysis of EEG data to show that the same motor inhibition brain network that explains action-stopping in the SST also implements motor inhibition in the complex-stopping task. Furthermore, we found that partial feature overlap between go-stimulus and stopping-template lead to motor slowing, which also corresponded with greater stopping-network activity. This shows that the same brain system for action-stopping to explicit stop-signals is recruited to slow or stop behavior when stimuli match a complex stopping goal. The results imply a generalizability of the brain’s network for simple action-stopping to more ecologically valid scenarios. PMID:25270603

  2. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on how to stop Why is it hard to quit using smokeless tobacco? Like cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) contains ...

  3. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  4. What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Before the ... City and Texas – mainly among groups with low vaccination rates. If vaccination rates dropped to low levels ...

  5. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Return to: What Communities Can Do What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? A variety of ... Prosecution of offenders Assistance with obtaining restitution Support Services When abuse or neglect is related to the ...

  6. Scientists Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus Junin, an Ebola-like disease in Argentina, has a death rate ... companies that developed a similar treatment against the Ebola virus during the 2014-2015 outbreak. That drug, ...

  7. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #16: POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE FOR THE UNITED STATES, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORT OF THE HEALTH SECTOR OF THE U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health sector assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with EPA's Global Change Research Program. The report was produced by a Health Sector Work Group, co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan Patz (Johns Hopkins University) and Dr. Michael McGeehin (CDC), and this report ...

  8. Galvanic etch stop for Si in KOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, E. J.; French, P. J.; Xia, X. H.; Kelly, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    Etch stops and etch-stopping techniques are essential 'tools' for 2D and 3D MEMS devices. Until now, use of a galvanic etch stop (ES) for micromachining in alkaline solutions was usually prohibited due to the large Au:Si area needed and/or high oxygen content required to achieve the ES. We report a new galvanic ES which requires a Au:exposed silicon area ratio of only ~1. Thus for the first time a practical galvanic ES for KOH has been achieved. The ES works by adding small amounts of sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, to KOH solutions. Essentially the NaOCl increases the oxygen content in the KOH etchant. The dependancy of the galvanic ES on KOH concentration and temperature is investigated. Also, we report on the effects of the added NaOCl on etch rates. SEM images are used to examine the galvanically etch-stopped membranes and their surface morphology. For 33% KOH solutions the galvanic etch stop worked well, producing membranes with uniform thickness ~6 µm (i.e. slightly greater than the deposited epilayer). For 20% KOH solutions, the galvanic etch stop still worked, but the resulting membranes were a little thicker (~10 µm).

  9. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  10. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  11. Why does continental convergence stop

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.

  12. Medical ethics--when to stop treatment.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J M

    1995-12-01

    Several misunderstandings regarding the question of when to stop treatment are examined by considering two frameworks for sorting out the different dimensions of the question. One framework addresses what is meant, and what is not meant, by 'stopping treatment'. The other plots various strategies of stopping treatment on a continuum of increasing degrees of invasiveness. While significant disagreements remain at important points, there is evidence of an emerging consensus in Western medicine: (1) that palliative care and counselling through the dying process should be increased whenever curative or life-sustaining treatment is curtailed; (ii) that any treatment that is not curative, but merely life-sustaining, should be stopped whenever a patient makes an authentic request to have it stopped; (iii) that genuinely futile treatment should not be offered even if requested; (iv) that much more thought and discussion is required to achieve a workable agreement about the definitions of 'futile' and 'inappropriate' treatment; and (v) that assistance in dying, although profoundly problematic, is no longer unthinkable. PMID:9422041

  13. Stopping is not an option: the evolution of unstoppable motion elements (primitives).

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Ronen; Chaim, Eliyahu; Flash, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Stopping performance is known to depend on low-level motion features, such as movement velocity. It is not known, however, whether it is also subject to high-level motion constraints. Here, we report results of 15 subjects instructed to connect four target points depicted on a digitizing tablet and stop "as rapidly as possible" upon hearing a "stop" cue (tone). Four subjects connected target points with straight paths, whereas 11 subjects generated movements corresponding to coarticulation between adjacent movement components. For the noncoarticulating and coarticulating subjects, stopping performance was not correlated or only weakly correlated with motion velocity, respectively. The generation of a straight, point-to-point movement or a smooth, curved trajectory was not disturbed by the occurrence of a stop cue. Overall, the results indicate that stopping performance is subject to high-level motion constraints, such as the completion of a geometrical plan, and that globally planned movements, once started, must run to completion, providing evidence for the definition of a motion primitive as an unstoppable motion element. PMID:26041827

  14. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  15. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  16. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  17. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  18. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  20. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  1. Metallurgical examination of the LAMPF beam stop

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D.; Cook, J.H.; Romero, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) provides physicists with 800-MeV protons and secondary particles with which to perform nuclear physics and other experiments. The secondary particles are generated by the interaction of the proton beam with graphite targets in the experimental area. Passage through these targets and those of the isotope production facility reduces the proton energy to approx. 500 MeV and spreads the beam out. At the face of the beam stop, the beam is believed to have a roughly Gaussian profile, with a full-width at half-maximum of approx. 60 mm. Allowing for beam attenuation in upstream targets, the power deposition in the beam stop is approx. 375 kW. In this paper, we report the results of metallographic examination of a beam stop that was used at LAMPF for approx. 3 yr. Examination of the copper plates and the Alloy 718 front plate shows that while both materials have become less ductile, only the copper plates have been sufficiently embrittled (along the grain boundaries) to lead to the breakup of the plates. The integrity of the beam stop system depends primarily on the condition of the front plate, which is the area of the pressure vessel most exposed to radiation damage. The tensile properties of the Alloy 718 sample tested indicate that the front plant of the beam stop should remain intact at similar proton doses. At present beam currents, this requires replacement of the beam stop approximately every 2 yr.

  2. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of lubricating plugs are disposed in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are disposed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  3. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1988-01-01

    A series of lubricating plugs is located in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are placed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  4. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  5. Evaluating the Effects of Traffic on Driver Stopping and Turn Signal Use at a Stop Sign: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela R.; Austin, John; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, Louis E.

    2007-01-01

    The current analyses of observational data found that oncoming traffic substantially affected driver stopping patterns and turn signal use at the target stop sign. The percentage of legal stops and turn signal use by drivers in the presence and absence of traffic was analyzed using a multi-element design. The results showed that legal stops were…

  6. Effects of Stop-Signal Probability in the Stop-Signal Paradigm: The N2/p3 Complex Further Validated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramautar, J.R.; Kok, A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of frequency of occurrence of stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Presenting stop signals less frequently resulted in faster reaction times to the go stimulus and a lower probability of inhibition. Also, go stimuli elicited larger and somewhat earlier P3 responses when stop signals occurred…

  7. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Plum, Michael A; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lu, Wei; McTeer, Stephen Mark

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  8. The Mathematics of Stopping your Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In addition to looking for applications that can be profitably examined algebraically, numerically and geometrically it is also helpful to use ideas that typical students might find interesting. Most secondary students are eager to obtain their driving license and part of becoming a good driver is understanding how long it takes to stop your…

  9. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  10. Proton stopping data from experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbitzer, S.

    2005-10-01

    Proton stopping cross-sections in several solid and gaseous targets have been calculated by applying the Bethe-Bloch formalism to each electron shell. In addition, binary collision kinetics for both proton and electron in motion have been taken into account. The calculations closely match experimental data on C and Si by us and on He and Ne by TRIM.

  11. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  12. Adolescents and AIDS: Stopping the Time Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yondorf, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading rapidly among teenagers. To stop this spread of HIV infection, experts agree that states need to include HIV/AIDS prevention and education as an integral part of comprehensive health education programs for…

  13. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Brownian Optimal Stopping and Random Walks

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberton, D.

    2002-06-05

    One way to compute the value function of an optimal stopping problem along Brownian paths consists of approximating Brownian motion by a random walk. We derive error estimates for this type of approximation under various assumptions on the distribution of the approximating random walk.

  15. Proton Stopping Power in Warm Dense Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew; Chen, Sophia; Atzeni, Stefano; Gauthier, Maxence; Mangia, Feliciana; Marquès, Jean-Raphaël; Riquier, Raphaël; Fuchs, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) research is fundamental to many fields of physics including fusion sciences, and astrophysical phenomena. In the WDM regime, particle stopping-power differs significantly from cold matter and ideal plasma due to free electron contributions, plasma correlation effects and electron degeneracy. The creation of WDM with temporal duration consistent with the particles probes is difficult to achieve experimentally. The short-pulse laser platform allows for the production of WDM along with relatively short bunches of protons compatible of such measurements, however, until recently, the intrinsic broadband proton spectrum was not well suited to investigate the stopping power directly. This difficulty has been overcome using a novel magnetic particle selector (ΔE/E = 10%) to select protons (in the range 100-1000 keV) as demonstrated with the ELFIE laser in LULI, France. These protons bunches probe high-density (5 × 1020 cm-3) gases (H, He) heated by a nanosecond laser to reach estimated temperatures above 100 eV. Measurement of the proton energy loss within the heated gas allows the stopping power to be determined quantitatively. The experimental results in cold matter are compared to preexisting models to give credibility to the measurement technique. The results from heated matter show that the stopping power of 450 keV protons is dramatically reduced within heated hydrogen plasma.

  16. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  17. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-05-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking.

  18. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  19. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  20. The light stop quark with small stop-neutralino difference in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Carena, Marcela S.; Freitas, A.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Kluge, Hannelies

    2005-12-01

    The MSSM can explain electro-weak symmetry breaking if one scalar top quark (stop) is light. In addition, in this framework, the neutralino is a good dark matter candidate and for small stop-neutralino mass differences dm{sub i} = 30 GeV, co-annihilation plays an important role to match the results from WMAP and SDSS for the relic density in the universe. In this scenario, the stops mainly decays into charm and neutralino, making its discovery difficult at hadron colliders due to background and trigger limitations. They present results for the discovery reach of the ILC for a DM candidate as low as 0(5 GeV) based on a realistic experimental simulation. Moreover, the stop parameters could be measured with high precision.

  1. A simplified piping support system with seismic limit stops: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H.; McLean, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    An innovative method has been developed for providing seismic support to nuclear power plant piping. The method, called the Simplified Pipe Support System (SPSS), is based on the concept of permitting free thermal expansion but limiting seismic displacement through the use of pipe support stops with large clearances (Seismic Stops). The Seismic Stops are simple passive supports and are intended to replace the active snubbers that currently used through the nuclear industry. The development program reported here consisted of establishing a practical analytical method for determining the global nonlinear impact response; characterizing the local impact behavior; evaluating its applicability to current ASME Code criteria; demonstrating the concept through full-scale shake table testing; and lastly; verificating analysis methods by comparison to test data and to analyses of actual piping systems. 19 refs., 43 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. An active emergency stop design and protocol for unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Gary L.

    2006-05-01

    Emergency stop systems are an integral and lifesaving component of large unmanned vehicles. Some E-stop designs may require their own separate data radio link, and passive listening designs can fail due to false carrier signals, or be delayed by buffering of data if no protocol handshake is required. This paper describes an active emergency stop architecture with data handshake that can share a radio data link with primary command and control communications such as using JAUS. Given a data link where packet delivery latency is well below E-stop timeout time, the OCU and vehicle can exchange E-stop keepalive messages actively, with sequence numbers to guard against the possibility of old data deceiving the vehicle and keeping the E-stop from triggering. Since the vehicle and OCU are addressing each other and not merely looking for a carrier signal, E-stop communications can coexist with other data traffic so long as packet delivery time is well below E-stop timeout time. An example implementation is over a computer network link supporting TCP/IP, such as using common off-the-shelf 802.11 equipment, or similar radios that might achieve longer range with somewhat lower data rate. With 802.11, round-trip delivery times are generally below 10 milliseconds, providing margin for many retransmissions within a typical 500 millisecond E-stop timeout time. Another benefit of this active E-stop design is immediate triggering of a stop using an E-stop button. Rather than waiting for an E-stop timeout time to expire, an explicit message triggering a stop can be sent from the OCU-side E-stop button device to the vehicle E-stop circuitry (which can still be independent from the VCU). This will trigger a stop within the packet network delivery time, just 10 milliseconds in our example.

  3. Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.

  4. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  5. Pattern playback revisited: unvoiced stop consonant perception.

    PubMed

    Kiefte, Michael; Kluender, Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Among the most influential publications in speech perception is Liberman, Delattre, and Cooper's [Am. J. Phys. 65, 497-516 (1952)] report on the identification of synthetic, voiceless stops generated by the Pattern Playback. Their map of stop consonant identification shows a highly complex relationship between acoustics and perception. This complex mapping poses a challenge to many classes of relatively simple pattern recognition models which are unable to capture the original finding of Liberman et al. that identification of /k/ was bimodal for bursts preceding front vowels but otherwise unimodal. A replication of this experiment was conducted in an attempt to reproduce these identification patterns using a simulation of the Pattern Playback device. Examination of spectrographic data from stimuli generated by the Pattern Playback revealed additional spectral peaks that are consistent with harmonic distortion characteristic of tube amplifiers of that era. Only when harmonic distortion was introduced did bimodal /k/ responses in front-vowel context emerge. The acoustic consequence of this distortion is to add, e.g., a high-frequency peak to midfrequency bursts or a midfrequency peak to a low-frequency burst. This likely resulted in additional /k/ responses when the second peak approximated the second formant of front vowels. Although these results do not challenge the main observations made by Liberman et al. that perception of stop bursts is context dependent, they do show that the mapping from acoustics to perception is much less complex without these additional distortion products. PMID:16266180

  6. Ion Stopping Powers and CT Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, Michael F.; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W.

    2010-10-01

    One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed.

  7. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: New Hope for Stopping HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.27 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips New Hope for Stopping HIV Testing and Medical Care ... AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and early death. There's new hope today for stopping HIV in the US. ...

  9. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  10. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or leave... or leave their vehicle off the roadway. In any case, parking or standing the vehicle upon the...

  11. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or leave... or leave their vehicle off the roadway. In any case, parking or standing the vehicle upon the...

  12. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  13. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... wet runway accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from the wheel brakes may never exceed: (i) The wheel brakes stopping force determined in meeting the requirements of § 25.101(i) and paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of...

  14. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... wet runway accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from the wheel brakes may never exceed: (i) The wheel brakes stopping force determined in meeting the requirements of § 25.101(i) and paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of...

  15. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... wet runway accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from the wheel brakes may never exceed: (i) The wheel brakes stopping force determined in meeting the requirements of § 25.101(i) and paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of...

  16. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... wet runway accelerate-stop distance, the stopping force from the wheel brakes may never exceed: (i) The wheel brakes stopping force determined in meeting the requirements of § 25.101(i) and paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) The force resulting from the wet runway braking coefficient of...

  17. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  18. Some New Results on Stopping Power for Fast Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Helmut

    2009-03-10

    Using our large collection of experimental stopping power data, we compare these data with various theories and stopping codes, in order to judge the quality of both data and theories. We discuss the influence of the state of aggregation of the target upon stopping power, and the importance of choosing the best value of the ionization potential of water for medical applications.

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  20. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  1. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  3. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  4. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  5. Post-Stop-Signal Adjustments: Inhibition Improves Subsequent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Performance in the stop-signal paradigm involves a balance between going and stopping, and one way that this balance is struck is through shifting priority away from the go task, slowing responses after a stop signal, and improving the probability of inhibition. In 6 experiments, the authors tested whether there is a corresponding shift in…

  6. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  7. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  10. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  11. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  12. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  13. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  14. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  16. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section 398.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted...

  17. A Class of Solvable Stopping Games

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Luis H. R.

    2008-12-15

    We consider a class of Dynkin games in the case where the underlying process evolves according to a one-dimensional but otherwise general diffusion. We establish general conditions under which both the value and the saddle point equilibrium exist and under which the exercise boundaries characterizing the saddle point strategy can be explicitly characterized in terms of a pair of standard first order necessary conditions for optimality. We also analyze those cases where an extremal pair of boundaries exists and investigate the overall impact of increased volatility on the equilibrium stopping strategies and their values.

  18. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  19. Basal forebrain neuronal inhibition enables rapid behavioral stopping

    PubMed Central

    Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Avila, Irene; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive inhibitory control, the ability to rapidly suppress responses inappropriate for the context, is essential for flexible and adaptive behavior. While most studies on inhibitory control have focused on the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit, here we explore a novel hypothesis and show that rapid behavioral stopping is enabled by neuronal inhibition in the basal forebrain (BF). In rats performing the stop signal task, putative noncholinergic BF neurons with phasic bursting responses to the go signal were inhibited nearly completely by the stop signal. The onset of BF neuronal inhibition was tightly coupled with and temporally preceded the latency to stop, the stop signal reaction time. Artificial inhibition of BF activity in the absence of the stop signal was sufficient to reproduce rapid behavioral stopping. These results reveal a novel subcortical mechanism of rapid inhibitory control by the BF, which provides bidirectional control over the speed of response generation and inhibition. PMID:26368943

  20. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi-Hsin Lee, Meng-Jung Hung, Weilun Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fan

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  1. Sex between men in the context of HIV: The AIDS 2008 Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture in health and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been among the most affected populations by HIV since the AIDS pandemic was first identified in the 1980s. Evidence from a wide range of studies show that these men remain at the highest risk for HIV acquisition in both developed and developing countries, and that despite three decades of evidence of their vulnerability to HIV, they remain under-served and under-studied. Prevention strategies targeted to MSM are markedly under-funded in most countries, leading to limited access to health services including prevention, treatment, and care. We explore the global epidemic among MSM in 2008, the limited funding available globally to respond to these epidemics, and the human rights contexts and factors which drive HIV spread and limit HIV responses for these men. What do we mean by the term MSM? MSM is a construct from the 1990s that tries to capture behavior and not identity. It was crafted to avoid stigmatizing and culturally laden terms such as gay or bisexual, which do not capture the wide diversity of orientations, sexual practices, cultures, and contextual settings in which male same-sex behaviors occur, and where HIV transmission and acquisition risks are centered. MSM includes both gay and non-gay identified men, bisexual men, and MSM who identify themselves as heterosexuals. It also includes men engaging in "situational" sex between men, such as can occur in prisons, schools, militaries or other environments; and it includes male sex workers who may be of any orientation but are often at very high risk for HIV. MSM may include some biologically male transgender persons, though some do not identify as male. And MSM includes a wide array of traditional and local terms worldwide–with enormous cultural diversity in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere. We use the term MSM here at its most inclusive. PMID:19108725

  2. Sex between men in the context of HIV: The AIDS 2008 Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture in health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jorge; Izazola-Licea, Jose Antonio; Beyrer, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been among the most affected populations by HIV since the AIDS pandemic was first identified in the 1980s. Evidence from a wide range of studies show that these men remain at the highest risk for HIV acquisition in both developed and developing countries, and that despite three decades of evidence of their vulnerability to HIV, they remain under-served and under-studied. Prevention strategies targeted to MSM are markedly under-funded in most countries, leading to limited access to health services including prevention, treatment, and care. We explore the global epidemic among MSM in 2008, the limited funding available globally to respond to these epidemics, and the human rights contexts and factors which drive HIV spread and limit HIV responses for these men.What do we mean by the term MSM? MSM is a construct from the 1990s that tries to capture behavior and not identity. It was crafted to avoid stigmatizing and culturally laden terms such as gay or bisexual, which do not capture the wide diversity of orientations, sexual practices, cultures, and contextual settings in which male same-sex behaviors occur, and where HIV transmission and acquisition risks are centered. MSM includes both gay and non-gay identified men, bisexual men, and MSM who identify themselves as heterosexuals. It also includes men engaging in "situational" sex between men, such as can occur in prisons, schools, militaries or other environments; and it includes male sex workers who may be of any orientation but are often at very high risk for HIV. MSM may include some biologically male transgender persons, though some do not identify as male. And MSM includes a wide array of traditional and local terms worldwide-with enormous cultural diversity in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere. We use the term MSM here at its most inclusive. PMID:19108725

  3. To Stop or Not to Stop--Kinematics and the Yellow Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, J. Fred

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exercise involving the use of kinematics to decide if one should stop or try and get through an intersection when the traffic light turns yellow. Gives students' experience in recording data, doing simple calculations and connecting classroom studies to real world experiences. (Author/SK)

  4. Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the National Stop Transmission of Polio program, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46,437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere. PMID:25316824

  5. Remune trial will stop; new trials planned.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-05-21

    A clinical trial using remune, the anti-HIV vaccine developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, has been ended. The study is a clinical-endpoint trial which looks for statistically significant differences in AIDS sickness or death between patients who add remune to their treatment regimens versus those who use a placebo. Agouron Pharmaceuticals and the Immune Response Corporation who were conducting the trial announced their decision to stop it after an analysis by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. No differences in clinical endpoints were found and it was projected that continuing the trial would likely not find any. The companies are now planning two new Phase III trials using viral load testing rather than clinical endpoints as study criteria. PMID:11366461

  6. Stop motion microphotography of laser driven plates

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    Laser driven plates have been used for several years for high velocity shock wave and impact studies. Recent questions about the integrity and ablation rates of these plates coupled with an improved capability for microscopic stop motion photography led to this study. For these experiments, the plates were aluminum, coated on the ends of optical fibers. A high power laser pulse in the fiber ionizes the aluminum at the fiber/coating interface. The plasma thus created accelerates the remaining aluminum to high velocities, several kilometers per second. We defined {open_quotes}thick{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}thin{close_quotes} coatings as those where a flying plate (flyer) was launched vs. the material being completely ionized. Here we were specifically interested in the thick/thin boundary to develop data for the numerical models attempting to predict flyer behavior.

  7. Stop outbreak of SARS with infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yigang M.

    2004-04-01

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as Atypical Pneumonia in mainland China) caused 8422 people affected and resulting in 918 deaths worldwide in half year. This disease can be transmitted by respiratory droplets or by contact with a patient's respiratory secretions. This means it can be spread out very rapidly through the public transportations by the travelers with the syndrome. The challenge was to stop the SARS carriers traveling around by trains, airplanes, coaches and etc. It is impractical with traditional oral thermometers or spot infrared thermometers to screen the tens of travelers with elevated body temperature from thousands of normal travelers in hours. The thermal imager with temperature measurement function is a logical choice for this special application although there are some limitations and drawbacks. This paper discusses the real SARS applications of industrial infrared cameras in China from April to July 2003.

  8. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H. James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Rubin, Edward

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  9. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Geynisman et al.

    2003-09-15

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype.

  10. CALCULATION OF STOPPING POWER VALUES AND RANGES OF FAST IONS.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-18

    STOPOW calculates a set of stopping power values and ranges of fast ions in matter for any materials. Furthermore STOPOW can calculate a set of values for one special auxiliary function (e.g. kinematic factors, track structure parameters, time of flight or correction factors in the stopping function) . The user chooses the physical units for stopping powers and ranges and the energy range for calculations.

  11. Barkas effect for antiproton stopping in H2.

    PubMed

    Lodi Rizzini, E; Bianconi, A; Bussa, M P; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Venturelli, L; Bargiotti, M; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Fabbri, L; Faccioli, P; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vagnoni, V; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Gorchakov, O E; Pontecorvo, G B; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Guaraldo, C; Petrascu, C; Balestra, F; Busso, L; Denisov, O Y; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Piragino, G; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Margagliotti, G; Santi, L; Tessaro, S

    2002-10-28

    We report the stopping power of molecular hydrogen for antiprotons of kinetic energy above the maximum (approximately 100 keV) with the purpose of comparing with the proton one. Our result is consistent with a positive difference in antiproton-proton stopping powers above approximately 250 keV and with a maximum difference between the stopping powers of 21%+/-3% at around 600 keV. PMID:12398596

  12. Stopping of energetic light ions in elemental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, J. F.

    1999-02-01

    The formalism for calculating the stopping of energetic light ions (H, He, and Li) at energies above 1 MeV/u, has advanced to the point that stopping powers may now be calculated with an accuracy of a few percent for all elemental materials. Although the subject has been of interest for a century, only recently have the final required corrections been understood and evaluated. The theory of energetic ion stopping is reviewed with emphasis on those aspects that pertain to the calculation of accurate stopping powers.

  13. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEZLER,P.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  15. Implementation of Seismic Stops in Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Simos, N.; Wang, Y.K.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station-Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent Linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  16. Legal briefing: voluntarily stopping eating and drinking.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; West, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). Over the past decade, clinicians and bioethicists have increasingly recognized VSED as a medically and ethically appropriate means to hasten death. Most recently, in September 2013, the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO) called on its 2,000 member hospices to develop policies and guidelines addressing VSED. And VSED is getting more attention not only in healthcare communities, but also in the general public. For example, VSED was recently highlighted on the front page of the New York Times and in other national and local media. Nevertheless, despite the growing interest in VSED, there remains little on-point legal authority and only sparse bioethics literature analyzing its legality.This article aims to fill this gap. Specifically, we focus on new legislative, regulatory, and judicial acts that clarify the permissibility of VSED. We categorize these legal developments into the following seven categories: 1. Definition of VSED. 2. Uncertainty Whether Oral Nutrition and Hydration Are Medical Treatment. 3. Uncertainty Regarding Providers' Obligations to Patients Who Choose VSED. 4. Judicial Guidance from Australia. 5. Judicial Guidance from the United Kingdom. PMID:24779321

  17. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.692 Remote stop stations. In lieu of the remote...

  18. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section 636.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing...

  19. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytema, A.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Chernowitz, D.; Dijck, E. A.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Mathavan, S. C.; Meinema, C.; Mohanty, A.; Müller, S. E.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pijpker, C.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive beam of 20Na is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenological model.

  20. Stopping for School Buses. Traffic Laws Commentary Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaw, E. Eugene

    The degree of uniformity among State laws requiring drivers to stop for school buses receiving or discharging children is not such that drivers could reasonably be expected to know these laws. Because of the wide variation of State laws and the inherent vulnerability of school children and of any vehicle stopping on a highway, there can be no…

  1. [Loosening of a Calcaneo-Stop Screw after Trampolining].

    PubMed

    Trieb, K; Fingernagel, T; Petershofer, A; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common malalignment in the paediatric population. Arthroereisis with a calcaneo-stop screw is an effective surgical procedure for treating juvenile flexible flatfoot after conservative measures have been fully exploited. In the present report, we describe the case of a loosening of a calcaneo-stop screw in a 12-year-old youth after excessive trampolining. PMID:25710392

  2. The Glottal Stop in Siamese: Predictability in Phonological Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandour, Jack

    1974-01-01

    It is asserted that the glottal stop in Thai must be present in underlying forms, even though it could be derived by phonological rule. It is argued that unless the glottal stop is present in the underlying form, certain linguistically significant generalizations are either obscured or lost altogether. (RM)

  3. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.692 Remote stop stations. In lieu of the remote...

  4. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... However, if the operator does not make the stop, the operator shall explain to the passenger making the request the reason for its decision not to do so. ... making an express run of three hours or more without a rest stop, and a passenger with a disability...

  5. Putting it All Together: Has One-Stop Shopping Arrived?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the current state of "one-stop shopping" for telecom services. Discusses regulatory obstacles; administrative problems with single billing; and resistance of telecom providers to change. Concludes that the leading one-stop shopping providers will be individual carriers who offer cost savings. (AEF)

  6. Stopping supersonic beams with atomic and molecular coilguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narevicius, Edvardas

    2008-05-01

    We report a method that enables the stopping and trapping of any paramagnetic atom or molecule using a series of pulsed electromagnetic coils. Results of stopping metastable neon and molecular oxygen with a 64 stage coilgun will be presented and applications to fundamental problems in physics and chemistry discussed.

  7. Solenoid permits remote control of stop watch and assures restarting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodai, C.

    1964-01-01

    Stop watch which may be remotely controlled by the use of a solenoid mechanism is described. When the solenoid is energized, the coil spring pulls the lever arm and starts the balance wheel. When it is not energized, the spring pulls the lever and stops the watch.

  8. One-Stop Career Centers. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    In an effort to shift the focus of employment programs from unemployment to reemployment, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) is funding the development and implementation of a one-stop employment system. The DOL has largely left states free to design their one-stop systems provided programs have these features: (1) universality, (2) customer…

  9. One-Stop Career Centers. ERIC Digest No. 208.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Since the introduction of one-stop employment systems, many states have attempted to merge traditional employment and training services to provide consolidated programs and easier customer access to services. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), passed in 1998, requires the formation of locally based one-stop service delivery systems to deliver…

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  11. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  12. 77 FR 25788 - Request for Information Regarding Stop Loss Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Loss Insurance AGENCIES: Internal Revenue Service, Department of the Treasury; Employee Benefits... information regarding the use of stop loss insurance by group health plans and their plan sponsors, with a focus on the prevalence and consequences of stop loss insurance at low attachment points. Given...

  13. Nuclear stopping power in high-energy collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    1987-01-01

    We study the degree of nuclear stopping from the viewpoint of the slowing down of a nucleon as it passes through a nucleus. The analysis of the p + A ..-->.. p + X data of Bailey shows that the degree of nuclear stopping is large. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  15. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fixed-price or cost-reimbursement supply, research and development, or service contract if work stoppage... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay...

  16. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fixed-price or cost-reimbursement supply, research and development, or service contract if work stoppage... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay...

  17. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  18. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  19. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  20. Stop codons in bacteria are not selectively equivalent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution and genomic stop codon frequencies have not been rigorously studied with the exception of coding of non-canonical amino acids. Here we study the rate of evolution and frequency distribution of stop codons in bacterial genomes. Results We show that in bacteria stop codons evolve slower than synonymous sites, suggesting the action of weak negative selection. However, the frequency of stop codons relative to genomic nucleotide content indicated that this selection regime is not straightforward. The frequency of TAA and TGA stop codons is GC-content dependent, with TAA decreasing and TGA increasing with GC-content, while TAG frequency is independent of GC-content. Applying a formal, analytical model to these data we found that the relationship between stop codon frequencies and nucleotide content cannot be explained by mutational biases or selection on nucleotide content. However, with weak nucleotide content-dependent selection on TAG, -0.5 < Nes < 1.5, the model fits all of the data and recapitulates the relationship between TAG and nucleotide content. For biologically plausible rates of mutations we show that, in bacteria, TAG stop codon is universally associated with lower fitness, with TAA being the optimal for G-content < 16% while for G-content > 16% TGA has a higher fitness than TAG. Conclusions Our data indicate that TAG codon is universally suboptimal in the bacterial lineage, such that TAA is likely to be the preferred stop codon for low GC content while the TGA is the preferred stop codon for high GC content. The optimization of stop codon usage may therefore be useful in genome engineering or gene expression optimization applications. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Michail Gelfand, Arcady Mushegian and Shamil Sunyaev. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers’ Comments section. PMID:22974057

  1. Stopping power of light ions near the maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Some of the most interesting recent results are reviewed: in the regime of high ion velocities, there is large progress in the understanding of the stopping process beyond the first Born approximation (Bethe theory) due to theoretical and experimental investigations of the Barkas effect. Both investigations show that close collisions contribute to the Z31 correction, the importance of which becomes larger at lower ion velocities. For stopping measurements in metals and in semiconductors, the cooperation of two labs using different techniques has increased the attainable precision. The data may be compared to BEA calculations. The physical and chemical state of the material is of importance for ion stopping near the maximum on targets whose valence electrons dominate the stopping process. Ziegler has recently given a systematic treatment of the stopping of He and Li ions in hydrocarbons, using a core-and-bonds model. We have shown that, also for heavier compounds (Al 2O 3 and SiO 2), large chemical effects are found. The stopping properties of these compounds can be well described by BEA calculations. Sabin et al. (1985) have predicted large phase effects for alkalis: for lithium and sodium targets and protons as projectiles they find a stopping ratio (vapor to solid) which exceeds a factor of 2 near the stopping maximum. The concept of an "effective charge" is useful to predict stopping powers for heavier ions from proton stopping data. For low ion velocities (near the velocity proportional region) and for some substances, the value of the He effective charge may exceed the value suggested by Ziegler et al. considerably.

  2. Resources on Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; Czarra, Frederick R.; Smith, Andrew F.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a selective list of 19 associations that offer resources for teachers. Includes contact and Internet information, and a list of selected publications for each association. Incorporates a review essay by Ron Herring and Jonathan Weil entitled, "The Contemporary World History Project for Culturally Diverse Students." (DSK)

  3. Brain networks subserving fixed versus performance-adjusted delay stop trials in a stop signal task.

    PubMed

    Fauth-Bühler, Mira; de Rover, Mischa; Rubia, Katya; Garavan, Hugh; Abbott, Sanja; Clark, Luke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Mann, Karl; Schumann, Gunter; Robbins, Trevor W

    2012-11-01

    The stop signal task is a widely used tool for assessing inhibitory motor control. Two main task variants exist: (1) a fixed delay version, where all volunteers complete the same trials, resulting in performance differences due to individual variation in inhibitory capacity, and (2) a performance-adjusted version that uses a tracking algorithm to equate performance and task difficulty across subjects, leading to ∼50% successful inhibition for every participant. Our aim was to investigate commonalities, mean differences and between-subject variability in brain activation for successful response inhibition between the performance-adjusted and fixed delay version. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in 18 healthy individuals, using a within-subject, within-task design where both adjusting and fixed delay trials were analysed separately. Conjunction analyses identified a network of areas involved in successful response inhibition in both task versions. In comparing the fixed and performance-adjusted versions, we found no significant differences between delay conditions during successful inhibition. While activation measures in the inhibitory networks of both delay variants were highly comparable, the neural responses to fixed delay trials were more variable across participants. This suggests that performance-adjusted stop signal tasks may be more suitable for studies in which the performance differences need to be controlled for, such as for developmental or clinical studies. Fixed delay stop signal tasks may be more appropriate in studies assessing the neural basis of individual differences in performance, such as studies of personality traits or genetic associations. PMID:22820235

  4. Electromyographic activity of lower limbs to stop baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of the lower limbs for the stopping motion of baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. First, muscle activities for 'Swing' and 'Stopping' trials were examined in 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. Second, the characteristics of EMG activities for 'Stopping' were compared between the 2 groups. The peak latencies of EMG were significantly shorter in 'Stopping' than in 'Swing' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG between both groups. The peak amplitudes of EMG activity were significantly larger in 'Swing' than in 'Stopping' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG in both groups. In addition, the peak amplitudes of EMG activity for 'Stopping' were significantly larger in the players than in novices at the right-RF and right-TA. The characteristics of EMG activity clearly differed between 'Swing' and 'Stopping,' and between baseball players and nonplayers, indicating that evaluating the EMG activity in batting enables the understanding of proficiency. Our findings should help players, novices, and coaches to optimize batting performance. PMID:22614137

  5. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381

  6. Light stops and observation of supersymmetry at LHC run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Bryan; Nath, Pran; Nelson, Brent D.; Spisak, Andrew B.

    2015-11-01

    Light stops consistent with the Higgs boson mass of ˜126 GeV are investigated within the framework of minimal supergravity. It is shown that models with light stops which are also consistent with the thermal relic density constraints require stop coannihilation with the neutralino LSP. The analysis shows that the residual set of parameter points with light stops satisfying both the Higgs mass and the relic density constraints lie within a series of thin strips in the m0-m1 /2 plane for different values of A0/m0. Consequently, this region of minimal supergravity parameter space makes a number of very precise predictions. It is found that light stops of mass down to 400 GeV or lower can exist consistent with all constraints. A signal analysis for this class of models at LHC run II is carried out and the dominant signals for their detection identified. Also computed is the minimum integrated luminosity for 5 σ discovery of the models analyzed. If supersymmetry is realized in this manner, the stop masses can be as low as 400 GeV or lower, and the mass gap between the lightest neutralino and lightest stop will be approximately 30-40 GeV. We have optimized the ATLAS signal regions specifically for stop searches in the parameter space and find that a stop with mass ˜375 GeV can be discovered with as little as ˜60 fb-1 of integrated luminosity at run II of the LHC; the integrated luminosity needed for discovery could be further reduced with more efficient signature analyses. The direct detection of dark matter in this class of models is also discussed. It is found that dark matter cross sections lie close to, but above, coherent neutrino scattering and would require multiton detectors such as LZ to see a signal of dark matter for this class of models.

  7. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation. PMID:26188262

  8. Start/stop codon like trinucleotides extensions in primate alpha satellites.

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Glunčić, Matko; Paar, Vladimir

    2013-01-21

    The centromeres remain "the final frontier" in unexplored segments of genome landscape in primate genomes, characterized by 2-5 Mb arrays of evolutionary rapidly evolving alpha satellite (AS) higher order repeats (HORs). Alpha satellites as specific noncoding sequences may be also significant in light of regulatory role of noncoding sequences. Using the Global Repeat Map (GRM) algorithm we identify in NCBI assemblies of chromosome 5 the species-specific alpha satellite HORs: 13mer in human, 5mer in chimpanzee, 14mer in orangutan and 3mers in macaque. The suprachromosomal family (SF) classification of alpha satellite HORs and surrounding monomeric alpha satellites is performed and specific segmental structure was found for major alpha satellite arrays in chromosome 5 of primates. In the framework of our novel concept of start/stop Codon Like Trinucleotides (CLTs) as a "new DNA language in noncoding sequences", we find characteristics and differences of these species in CLT extensions, in particular the extensions of stop-TGA CLT. We hypothesize that these are regulators in noncoding sequences, acting at a distance, and that they can amplify or weaken the activity of start/stop codons in coding sequences in protein genesis, increasing the richness of regulatory phenomena. PMID:23026763

  9. Optimal Stopping Rules For Some Blackjack Type Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej Z.

    2010-03-01

    The paper deals with a class of optimal stopping problems having some features of blackjack type games. A decision maker observes sequentially the values of a finite sequence of non-negative random variables. After each observation he decides whether to stop or to continue. If he decides to stop, he obtains a payoff dependent on the sum of already observed values. The greater the sum, the more the decision maker gains, unless the sum exceeds a positive number T-a limit given in the problem. If so, the decision maker loses all or part of his payoff. A sufficient condition for existence of a simple optimal stopping rule for such problems is formulated. Then some special cases are considered in detail. Some numerical examples and practical questions are discussed as well.

  10. Depth indicator and stop aid machining to precise tolerances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverty, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Attachment for machine tools provides a visual indication of the depth of cut and a positive stop to prevent overcutting. This attachment is used with drill presses, vertical milling machines, and jig borers.

  11. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  12. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  13. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... and answers, and poster materials for schools At Work Flu Prevention at Work Learn more about how ...

  14. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. Stopping mechanism for capsule endoscope using electrical stimulus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Jin Ho

    2010-01-01

    An ingestible capsule, which has the ability to stop at certain locations in the small intestine, was designed and implemented to monitor intestinal diseases. The proposed capsule can contract the small intestine by using electrical stimuli; this contraction causes the capsule to stop when the maximum static frictional force (MSFF) is larger than the force of natural peristalsis. In vitro experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the capsule, and the results showed that the capsule was successfully stopped in the small intestine. Various electrodes and electrical stimulus parameters were determined on the basis of the MSFF. A moderate increment of the MSFF (12.7 +/- 4.6 gf at 5 V, 10 Hz, and 5 ms) and the maximum increment of the MSFF (56.5 +/- 9.77 gf at 20 V, 10 Hz, and 5 ms) were obtained, and it is sufficient force to stop the capsule. PMID:19911212

  17. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  18. Scientists Explore Possible Way to Stop Zika in Its Tracks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159433.html Scientists Explore Possible Way to Stop Zika in Its Tracks Gene pathway that allows virus ... they've identified a potential way to prevent Zika and similar viruses from spreading in the body. ...

  19. 9. DETAIL OF UMBILICAL MAST BASE WITH STEEL STOPS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UMBILICAL MAST BASE WITH STEEL STOPS AT EAST END OF MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE RAIL; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for each propulsion unit, (b) A bilge slop or dirty oil discharge shutdown at the deck discharge, (c) A...

  1. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for each propulsion unit, (b) A bilge slop or dirty oil discharge shutdown at the deck discharge, (c) A...

  2. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for each propulsion unit, (b) A bilge slop or dirty oil discharge shutdown at the deck discharge, (c) A...

  3. Calculation of the relativistic Bloch correction to stopping power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Bloch's technique of joining the nonrelativistic Bethe and Bohr stopping-power expressions by taking into account wave-packet effects for close collisions is extended to the relativistic case. It is found that Bloch's nonrelativistic correction term must be modified and that charge asymmetric terms appear. Excellent agreement is observed by comparing the results of these calculations to recent data on the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions.

  4. One-Stop Career Center Concept. Employer Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the One-Stop Career Center Concept Employer Questionnaire was to provide a model instrument that could be used or adapted by a governing board that wants to go the extra mile in ensuring a customer-driven, one-stop career center system. The survey was distributed to 5,000 businesses in 19 states that received One-Step Implementation…

  5. Why don't we stop tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Platt, A E

    1994-01-01

    Many people think of tuberculosis (TB) as a disease of the past of no current concern to modern society. This is not the case. Despite the medical establishment's ability to treat and cure TB, the disease has reemerged to assume the position as the leading killer worldwide among infectious or communicable diseases. TB threatens more people than AIDS, cholera, dengue fever, and other infectious diseases combined. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global state of emergency against TB in 1993. In 1993, 2.7 million people died from TB and another 8.1 million were infected. Worldwide, an estimated 1.7 billion people had inert TB infections. The current TB epidemic is expected to worsen, especially in the developing world due to the evolution of multi-drug-resistant strains and the emergence of AIDS which compromises human immune systems and makes them more susceptible to infectious diseases. By the year 2000, the global incidence of TB is expected to increase to 10.2 million cases per year, an increase of 36% over 1990's 7.5 million cases. 75% of the increase can be traced to poor TB control programs, population growth, and the advancing age of the population, while the remaining 25% is attributed to the interaction between the TB virus and HIV. More than 95% of TB cases reported in 1990 were in the developing world, with an estimated two thirds in Asia; India accounted for 2.1 million cases. Developing countries have a disproportionate number of cases because AIDS is spreading quickly, health services are inadequate, and little money is available for treatment. WHO points out that adherence to the complete and inexpensive drug regimen of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol every day for six to eight months could reduce the rate of TB transmission and cut the number of TB deaths in half over the next ten years. Worldwide early treatment could prevent almost 12 million deaths over the next decade and save large amounts of money

  6. Structural Basis for Translation Termination on a Pseudouridylated Stop Codon.

    PubMed

    Svidritskiy, Egor; Madireddy, Rohini; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-05-22

    Pseudouridylation of messenger RNA emerges as an abundant modification involved in gene expression regulation. Pseudouridylation of stop codons in eukaryotic and bacterial cells results in stop-codon read through. The structural mechanism of this phenomenon is not known. Here we present a 3.1-Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli release factor 1 (RF1) bound to the 70S ribosome in response to the ΨAA codon. The structure reveals that recognition of a modified stop codon does not differ from that of a canonical stop codon. Our in vitro biochemical results support this finding by yielding nearly identical rates for peptide release from E. coli ribosomes programmed with pseudouridylated and canonical stop codons. The crystal structure also brings insight into E. coli RF1-specific interactions and suggests involvement of L27 in bacterial translation termination. Our results are consistent with a mechanism in which read through of a pseudouridylated stop codon in bacteria results from increased decoding by near-cognate tRNAs (miscoding) rather than from decreased efficiency of termination. PMID:27107638

  7. Arkypallidal Cells Send a Stop Signal to Striatum.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Nicolas; Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel; Chen, Fujun; Amer, Nada; Boraud, Thomas; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-20

    The suppression of inappropriate actions is critical for flexible behavior. Cortical-basal ganglia networks provide key gating mechanisms for action suppression, yet the specific roles of neuronal subpopulations are poorly understood. Here, we examine Arkypallidal (‘‘Arky’’) and Prototypical (‘‘Proto’’) globus pallidus neurons during a Stop task, which requires abrupt cancellation of an imminent action. We first establish that Arky neurons can be identified by their firing properties across the natural sleep/wake cycle. We then show that Stop responses are earlier and stronger in the Arky compared to the Proto subpopulation. In contrast to other basal ganglia neurons, pallidal Stop responses are selective to Stop, rather than Go, cues. Furthermore, the timing of these Stop responses matches the suppression of developing striatal Go-related activity. Our results support a two-step model of action suppression: actions-inpreparation are first paused via a subthalamic-nigral pathway, then cancelled via Arky GABAergic projections to striatum. PMID:26777273

  8. Efficient data association for move-stop-move target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, T.; McDonald, Mike; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient data association algorithm for tracking ground targets that perform move-stop-move maneuvers using ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar. A GMTI radar does not detect the targets whose radial velocity falls below a certain minimum detectable velocity. Hence, to avoid detection enemy targets deliberately stop for some time before moving again. When targets perform move-stop-move maneuvers, a missed detection of a target by the radar leads to an ambiguity as to whether it is because the target has stopped or due to the probability of detection being less than one. A solution to track move-stop-move target tracking is based on the variable structure interacting multiple model (VS-IMM) estimator in an ideal scenario (single target tracking with no false measurements) has been proposed. This solution did not consider the data association problem. Another solution, called two-dummy solution, considered the data association explicitly and proposed a solution based on the multiframe assignment algorithm. This solution is computationally expensive, especially when the scenario is complex (e.g., high target density) or when one wants to perform high dimensional assignment. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiframe assignment-based solution that considers the second dummy measurement as a real measurement than a dummy. The proposed algorithm builds a less complex assignment hypothesis tree, and, as a result, is more efficient in terms of computational resource requirement.

  9. Kinetics of Stop Codon Recognition by Release Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Byron; Lee, Kristin; Joseph, Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of stop codons by class I release factors is a fundamental step in the termination phase of protein synthesis. Since premature termination is costly to the cell, release factors have to efficiently discriminate between stop and sense codons. In order to understand the mechanism of discrimination between stop and sense codons, we developed a new, pre-steady state kinetic assay to monitor the interaction of RF1 with the ribosome. Our results show that RF1 associates with similar association rate constants to ribosomes programmed with a stop or sense codons. However, dissociation of RF1 from sense codons is as much as three orders of magnitude faster than from stop codons. Interestingly, the affinity of RF1 for ribosomes programmed with different sense codons does not correlate with the defects in peptide release. Thus, discrimination against sense codons is achieved, both, by increasing the dissociation rates and by decreasing the rate of peptide release. These results suggest that sense codons inhibit conformational changes necessary for RF1 to stably bind to the ribosome and catalyze peptide release. PMID:19874047

  10. Longitudinal predictors of stopping smoking in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to describe the longitudinal individual and environmental predictors of stopping smoking among a group of young adult smokers. Methods From a longitudinal population-based cohort of midwestern youth, semi-annual surveys were analyzed when study participants were between the ages of 18 and 21. Using data from 2001–2008, analyses were restricted to individuals who, at age 18, reported smoking between 1 and 30 days in the previous month (n=1,022). Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to analyze demographic, attitudinal, and social-environmental predictors of stopping smoking over time. Results After adjusting for smoking frequency at baseline, demographic and attitudinal factors that were associated with stopping smoking over time included increased age and attending college; male gender, smoking frequency and agreeing that cigarettes are calming were significantly associated with continued smoking. Social-environmental factors associated with stopping smoking over time included a household ban on smoking and living in a state with a clean indoor air policy; factors associated with continued smoking included living with a smoker and having close friends who smoke. Conclusions Both individual and social-environmental factors can serve as risk and protective factors for stopping smoking between ages 18 and 21. These factors should be used to refine more effective smoking cessation and prevention interventions in young adults. PMID:23763963

  11. Voiced stop prenasalization in two dialects of Greek

    PubMed Central

    Jong Kong, Eun; Syrika, Asimina; Edwards, Jan R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the phonetic realization of voiced stops in the Cretan and Thessalonikan dialects of Modern Greek. Six males and six females of each dialect were recorded in a sentence-reading task. Duration and amplitude were measured to compare the degree of nasality of voiced stops to that of nasals in different phonetic contexts. Results showed that amplitude changes during the voicing bar of the voiced stops varied both within and across speakers. In some instances, there was consistently low amplitude throughout the voicing bar (characteristic of voiced stops), whereas in other instances, there was high amplitude at the closure onset followed by decreasing amplitude toward the burst (characteristic of prenasalization). By contrast, nasals had consistently high amplitude throughout the murmur. The mixed-effects models suggest that there were complex and interactive influences of dialect, gender, prosodic position, and stress in realizing prenasality in the voiced stops. In particular, Cretan male speakers showed the least clear tendency of prenasalization consistent with earlier impressionistic studies. Furthermore, productions of Cretan males showed less prenasalization than those of females in both prosodic positions. The procedures in this study can be used to describe prenasalization in other dialects or languages where prenasalization has been observed. PMID:23145624

  12. Bayesian parametric estimation of stop-signal reaction time distributions.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Logan, Gordon D; Brown, Scott D; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-11-01

    The cognitive concept of response inhibition can be measured with the stop-signal paradigm. In this paradigm, participants perform a 2-choice response time (RT) task where, on some of the trials, the primary task is interrupted by a stop signal that prompts participants to withhold their response. The dependent variable of interest is the latency of the unobservable stop response (stop-signal reaction time, or SSRT). Based on the horse race model (Logan & Cowan, 1984), several methods have been developed to estimate SSRTs. None of these approaches allow for the accurate estimation of the entire distribution of SSRTs. Here we introduce a Bayesian parametric approach that addresses this limitation. Our method is based on the assumptions of the horse race model and rests on the concept of censored distributions. We treat response inhibition as a censoring mechanism, where the distribution of RTs on the primary task (go RTs) is censored by the distribution of SSRTs. The method assumes that go RTs and SSRTs are ex-Gaussian distributed and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to obtain posterior distributions for the model parameters. The method can be applied to individual as well as hierarchical data structures. We present the results of a number of parameter recovery and robustness studies and apply our approach to published data from a stop-signal experiment. PMID:23163766

  13. Microstrip Triband Bandstop Fitler with Sharp Stop Band Skirts and Independently Controllable Second Stop Band Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact planar triband bandstop filter (TBBSF) with compact size and high selectivity. The structure of the filter incorporates two folded trisection stepped-impedance resonators (TSSIRs). One of these resonators is designed to operate at the first and third center frequencies and the other resonator is designed to operate at the second center frequency of the proposed filter. To achieve a compact size filter, alternating impedance lines of the resonators are folded widthwise and also one resonator is embedded within another. Theoretical analysis and design procedures are described, including the synthesis equations for each resonator. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the filter provides flexibility to tune the second center frequency and control the corresponding bandwidth without changing the first and third stop band response. Additionally, several reflection zeros (RZs) are introduced in the pass band to improve its flatness. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design method, both the first and second order TBBSFs were designed, simulated, and fabricated, with center frequencies of 1.92 GHz, 3.55 GHz, and 5.5 GHz. PMID:25019098

  14. Plasma Stopping Power Measurements Relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Aaron; Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Yongho; Hoffman, Nelson; Schmitt, Mark; Rubery, Michael; Garbett, Warren; Horsfield, Colin; Gales, Steve; Zylstra, Alex; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Frenje, Johan; Petrasso, Richard; Marshall, Frederic; Batha, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments may be achieved if the alpha particle energy deposition results in a thermonuclear burn wave induced in the dense DT fuel layer surrounding the hotspot. As such, understanding the physics of particle energy loss in a plasma is of critical importance to designing ICF experiments. Experiments have validated various stopping power models under select ne and Te conditions, however there remain unexplored regimes where models predict differing rates of energy deposition. An upcoming experiment at the Omega laser facility will explore charged particle stopping in CH plastic capsule ablators across a range of plasma conditions (ne between 1024 cm-3 and 1025 cm-3 and Te on the order of hundreds of eV). Plasma conditions will be measured using x-ray and gamma ray diagnostics, while plasma stopping power will be measured using charged particle energy loss measurements. Details on the experiment and the theoretical models to be tested will be presented.

  15. Stopping Power and Range of Ions in Matter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-06-19

    SRIM is a group of programs which calculate the stopping and range of ions (10ev - 2 GeV/amu) into matter. TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) is the most comprehensive program included. Trim will accept complex targets made of compound materials with up to eight layers, each with different materials. It will calculate both the final 3d distribution of the inner ions and also all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion''s energy loss; targetmore » damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production. All targets atom cascades in the target are followed in detail. It can be used for physics of recoil cascades, physics of sputtering, the stopping of ions in compounds and stopping power for ions in gases; This included radiation damage from neutron , electrons, and photons.« less

  16. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  17. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  18. End stopping in V1 is sensitive to contrast

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2009-01-01

    Common situations that result in different perceptions of grouping and border ownership, such as shadows and occlusion, have distinct sign-of-contrast relationships at their edge-crossing junctions. Here we report a property of end stopping in V1 that distinguishes among different sign-of-contrast situations, thereby obviating the need for explicit junction detectors. We show that the inhibitory effect of the end zones in end-stopped cells is highly selective for the relative sign of contrast between the central activating stimulus and stimuli presented at the end zones. Conversely, the facilitatory effect of end zones in length-summing cells is not selective for the relative sign of contrast between the central activating stimulus and stimuli presented at the end zones. This finding indicates that end stopping belongs in the category of cortical computations that are selective for sign of contrast, such as direction selectivity and disparity selectivity, but length summation does not. PMID:16633342

  19. Ab initio electronic stopping power of protons in bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukri, Abdullah Atef; Bruneval, Fabien; Reining, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The electronic stopping power is a crucial quantity for ion irradiation: it governs the deposited heat, the damage profile, and the implantation depth. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. Here we develop a fully ab initio computational scheme based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory to predict the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. We show that the calculated RESP compares well with experimental data, when at full convergence, with the inclusion of the core states and of the exchange correlation. We evaluate the unexpectedly limited magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the RESP by comparing with other approaches based on the time propagation of time-dependent density-functional theory. Finally, we check the validity of a few empirical rules of thumbs that are commonly used to estimate the electronic stopping power.

  20. NNLL resummation for stop pair-production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, Wim; Borschensky, Christoph; Heger, Raphael; Krämer, Michael; Kulesza, Anna; Laenen, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The production of supersymmetric stop-antistop pairs at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is studied including corrections from soft-gluon resummation up to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) accuracy in the Mellin-space approach. Additionally, corrections to the hard-matching coefficient at one-loop and Coulomb contributions at two-loop order are considered. The NNLL corrections enhance the cross section for all stop masses at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV compared to the previously calculated predictions at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. Furthermore, a slight increase in the dependence on the additional stop-mixing parameters is observed.

  1. Mixed stops and the ATLAS on-Z excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Jack H.; Dror, Jeff Asaf; Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recently observed a 3 σ excess in a channel with a leptonically decaying Z , jets, and ETmiss . It is tantalizing to interpret the signal as the first sign of a natural supersymmetric spectrum. We study such a possibility in a minimal model containing light stops and a neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle. The signal is characterized by a novel topology (compared to previous attempts) where the Z is emitted from a colored particle in the first step of a decay chain, namely t˜2→t˜1Z , which is characteristic of mixed stops. We show that the excess is compatible with a compressed stop spectrum and is not excluded by any other relevant search, finding some regions of parameter space with signal strength within 1 σ of that measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. In addition, we notice that the corresponding CMS search could be prone to background contamination in unexpected topologies of this kind.

  2. 20 CFR 662.200 - Who are the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who are the required One-Stop partners? 662... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.200 Who are the required One-Stop partners? (a) WIA section 121(b)(1)...

  3. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  4. A new look at Higgs constraints on stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, JiJi; Reece, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    We present a simple new way to visualize the constraints of Higgs coupling measurements on light stops in natural SUSY scenarios beyond the MSSM, which works directly in the plane of stop mass eigenvalues (with no need to make assumptions about mixing angles). For given stop mass eigenvalues, the smallest value of X t that can bring the correction to the h → gg and h → γγ couplings into agreement with data is computed. Requiring that this X t is consistent — i.e. that the chosen mass eigenvalues can be the outcome of diagonalizing a matrix with a given off-diagonal term — rules out the possibility that both stops have a mass below ≈ 400 GeV. Requiring that X t is not fine-tuned for agreement with the data shows that neither stop can be lighter than ≈ 100 GeV. These constraints are interesting because, unlike direct searches, they apply no matter how stops decay, and suggest a minimum electroweak fine-tuning of between a factor of 5 and 10. We show that a multi-parameter fit can slightly weaken this conclusion by allowing a large Higgs coupling to b-quarks, but only if a second Higgs boson is within reach of experiment. Certain models, like R-symmetric models with Dirac gauginos, are much more strongly constrained because they predict negligible X t . We illustrate how the constraints will evolve given precise measurements at future colliders (HL-LHC, ILC, and TLEP), and comment on the more difficult case of Folded Supersymmetry.

  5. A movable stop mechanism for the SIRE telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, R. E.; Poulsen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A movable stop mechanism (MSM) designed to activate flaps that change the size and shape of a telescope aperture stop on command is described. Operating at the cryogenic temperatures of the optical system, it consists primarily of a rotary solenoid that drives (activates) dual four-bar linkages in synchronism that in turn rotate the butterfly flaps into position. The design, performance characteristics, and testing of this mechanism are discussed. Specific problems that occurred during testing and the solutions that were adopted are also described.

  6. Stopping power of an electron gas with anisotropic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelemelia, O. V.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    A general theory of motion of a heavy charged particle in the electron gas with an anisotropic velocity distribution is developed within the quantum-field method. The analytical expressions for the dielectric susceptibility and the stopping power of the electron gas differs in no way from well-known classic formulas in the approximation of large and small velocities. Stopping power of the electron gas with anisotropic temperature in the framework of the quantum-field method is numerically calculated for an arbitrary angle between directions of the motion of the projectile particle and the electron beam. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the dielectric model approach.

  7. Slowing and Stopping Supersonic Beams with an Atomic Coilgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libson, Adam; Narevicius, Edvardas; Parthey, Christian G.; Chavez, Isaac; Narevicius, Julia; Even, Uzi; Raizen, Mark G.

    2008-05-01

    We report the stopping of a supersonic beam of metastable neon using an atomic coilgun. The coilgun relies on the Zeeman effect, and uses pulsed magnetic fields of up to 5.2 T to bring atoms from 446 m/s to near rest. Additionally, we have implemented the coilgun to slow a supersonic beam of molecular oxygen from 458 m/s to 238 m/s. This method can be applied to stop and trap any paramagnetic atom or molecule. Future applications will be discussed.

  8. Ion-beam-enhanced adhesion in the electronic stopping region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. E.; Qiu, Y.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams in the electronic stopping region to improve the adhesion of insulators to other materials is described. In particular, the bonding of Au films to Teflon, ferrite, and SiO2 was improved by bombarding them with He and Cl, respectively. Improvements in bonding were also observed for Au on glass, Au and Cu on sapphire, and Si3N4 on Si. The mechanism is apparently associated with sputtering and track forming processes occurring in the electronic stopping region. Some applications are discussed.

  9. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section... THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role described...

  10. 66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (left side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (right side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.

    1987-08-03

    Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied through the application of a model incorporating hydrodynamic baryon flow coupled to a self-consistent field calculated in the flux tube model. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are modeled in which the nuclei have passed through each other and as a result are charged and heated.

  13. "STOP Regain": Are There Negative Effects of Daily Weighing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Fava, Joseph L.; Machan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest that daily weighing is important for long-term weight control, but concerns have been raised about possible adverse psychological effects. The "STOP Regain" clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to examine this issue both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Successful weight losers (N = 314) were randomly…

  14. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... elevated structure. (7) On any railroad tracks or within 10 feet of any rail road track. (8) On any... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section 636.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... V1, assuming the critical engine fails at VEF; and (3) Come to a full stop from the point at which V1... if that means— (1) Is safe and reliable; (2) Is used so that consistent results can be expected...

  16. [Please Stop] Hiding behind the Potato Chips in Aisle Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennoni, Drew

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that if those who know most about classrooms are to have any voice in what happens in them, then a teacher's union will have to be an indispensable partner in that process. Argues that teachers need to stop avoiding community contacts and need to aid unions in their efforts to educate the public. (RS)

  17. Design and testing of the LITE Variable Field Stop mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Variable Field Stop (VFS) is a rotary mechanism that reliably positions any of four aperture plates in the optical path of a spaceflight experiment, limiting the amount of light reaching the detectors. This paper discusses the design, operation, and testing of the VFS.

  18. View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue. Buildings No. 36, 37, 38, and 35, from to right. Foothill Avenue at center rear. Looking east-northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  20. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  1. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  2. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  5. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  6. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  7. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  8. Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Ribisl, Kurt M; Emery, Sherry L; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users. PMID:25286168

  9. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Emery, Sherry L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users. PMID:25286168

  10. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    PubMed

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period. PMID:26901663

  11. A Connection between Singular Stochastic Control and Optimal Stopping

    SciTech Connect

    Espen Benth, Fred Reikvam, Kristin

    2003-12-15

    We show that the value function of a singular stochastic control problem is equal to the integral of the value function of an associated optimal stopping problem. The connection is proved for a general class of diffusions using the method of viscosity solutions.

  12. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  13. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  14. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi

    PubMed Central

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring ‘stop locations’ (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants’ GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period. PMID:26901663

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks...

  19. For a light stop, less is more when gluinos mediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachman, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Compressed mass spectra are generally more difficult to identify than spectra with large splittings. In particular, gluino pair production with four high energy top or bottom quarks leaves a striking signature in a detector. However, if any of the mass splittings are compressed, the power of traditional techniques may deteriorate. Searches for direct stop/sbottom pair production can be recast as searches for gluinos in order to extend the sensitivitity. As a demonstration, we show that for g˜ → tt˜1 and mt˜1 mχ˜10, limits on the stop mass at 8 TeV can be extended by least 300 GeV for a 1.1 TeV gluino using a pp →t˜1t˜1 search. At 13 TeV, the effective cross-section for the gluino mediated process is twice the direct stop pair production cross-section, suggesting that direct stop searches could be sensitive to discover new physics earlier than expected.

  20. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (Sec. 12, 80 Stat. 931; 49 U.S.C. 1651 note; 49 U.S.C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; stopping required. 392... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.10 Railroad...

  1. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (Sec. 12, 80 Stat. 931; 49 U.S.C. 1651 note; 49 U.S.C. 304, 1655; 49 CFR 1.48(b) and 301.60) ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad grade crossings; stopping required. 392... REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.10 Railroad...

  2. Proton stopping powers in some low-Z elements.

    PubMed

    Sharada, K S

    1993-12-01

    For some calculations, the proton stopping power in tissue must be known accurately. The composition of tissue was assumed to be constituted of 11 elements; the proton stopping powers were available for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Those for the remaining 7 elements for the energy range 0.5 to 10 MeV at intervals of 0.5 MeV are evaluated and presented in this paper. Corrections such as the Barkas effect correction, Bloch's correction, and shell correction are evaluated and used in the calculation of proton stopping powers. Corrections for the Bethe formula for heavy ions were suggested by Barkas et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 26, 1963) when they observed that the stopping powers for positive ions were larger than those for the negative ions with identical velocities. They suggested that a charge-dependent correction term be incorporated in the Bethe formula. Theoretical estimates of this correction derived by Ashley et al. (Phys. Rev. 85, 2392-2397, 1972) were used in the calculation of the Barkas effect. The Barkas effect correction depends on projectile velocity and Z. It decreases with energy. To account for the discrepancy between the classical and the quantum mechanical treatment of the Bethe formula, Bloch (Ann. Phys. 285, Chap. 18, 1933) suggested a correction to the stopping-power formula; this correction is also evaluated in this paper. Bloch's correction also decreases with energy. The shell correction needed for the binding of the electrons in the target atom is also calculated using Walske's asymptotic formula taking into account the screening effect of the atomic electrons of the K and L shells of the target atom. A computer program was written to calculate the stopping powers of protons with all these corrections for seven low-Z elements which are part of the tissue composition. These values are compared with those of other authors, and fairly good agreement is found. The lack of sufficient experimental information and uncertainty in the mean

  3. Software for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mockus, L.

    1994-12-31

    The interactive graphical software that implements numeric methods and other techniques to solve global optimization problems is presented. The Bayesian approach to the optimization is the underlying idea of numeric methods used. Software is designed to solve deterministic and stochastic problems of different complexity and with many variables. It includes global and local optimization methods for differentiable and nondifferentiable functions. Implemented numerical techniques for global optimization vary from simple Monte-Carlo simulation to Bayesian methods by J. Mockus and extrapolation theory based methods by Zilinskas. Local optimization techniques includes simplex method of Nelder and Mead method of nonlinear programming by Shitkowski, and method of stochastic approximation with Bayesian step size control by J. Mockus. Software is interactive, it allows user to start and stop chosen method of global or local optimization, define and change its parameters and examine the solution process. Out-put from solution process is both numerical and graphical. Currently available graphical features are the projection of the objective function on a chosen plane and convergence plot. Both these features let the user easily observe solution process and interactively modify it. More features can be added in a standard way. It is up to the user how many graphical and numerical output features activate or deactivate at any given time. Software is implemented in C++ using X Windows as graphical platform.

  4. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Muttart, Jeffrey W.; Peck, Louis R.; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P.; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L.; Manning, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  5. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections.

    PubMed

    Muttart, Jeffrey W; Peck, Louis R; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L; Manning, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  6. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  7. Stopping of relativistic electrons in a partially degenerate electron fluid.

    PubMed

    Starikov, K V; Deutsch, C

    2005-02-01

    The stopping mechanisms of relativistic electron beams in superdense and partially degenerate electron fluid targets are investigated in the framework of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion. In order to comply with specific demands in this area, we focus attention on the target partial degeneracy parameter theta= T(e) / T(f) , in terms of the thermal to Fermi temperature ratio. The target electron fluid is thus modeled very accurately with a random phase approximation dielectric function. The stopping results are shown to be very weakly theta dependent. However, a quantum target description is needed to recover their correct increasing trend with increasing projectile energy. The ranges and effective penetration depths in precompressed thermonuclear fuels are shown to be nearly a factor of 2 shorter than earlier classical estimates in the same conditions. The overall conclusions pertaining to the feasibility of fast ignition thus remain unchanged. PMID:15783429

  8. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  9. Cavity-free plasmonic nanolasing enabled by dispersionless stopped light.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Tim; Hamm, Joachim M; Page, A Freddie; Wuestner, Sebastian; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    When light is brought to a standstill, its interaction with gain media increases dramatically due to a singularity in the density of optical states. Concurrently, stopped light engenders an inherent and cavity-free feedback mechanism, similar in effect to the feedback that has been demonstrated and exploited in large-scale disordered media and random lasers. Here we study the spatial, temporal and spectral signatures of lasing in planar gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic structures at near-infrared frequencies and show that the stopped-light feedback mechanism allows for nanolasing without a cavity. We reveal that in the absence of cavity-induced feedback, the subwavelength lasing mode forms dynamically as a phase-locked superposition of quasi dispersion-free waveguide modes. This mechanism proves remarkably robust against interface roughness and offers a new route towards nanolasing, the experimental realization of ultra-thin surface emitting lasers, and cavity-free active quantum plasmonics. PMID:25230337

  10. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm dense plasma.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Grabowski, P E; Li, C K; Collins, G W; Fitzsimmons, P; Glenzer, S; Graziani, F; Hansen, S B; Hu, S X; Johnson, M Gatu; Keiter, P; Reynolds, H; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2015-05-29

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ∼32  eV, corresponding to moderately coupled [(e^{2}/a)/(k_{B}T_{e}+E_{F})∼0.3] and moderately degenerate [k_{B}T_{e}/E_{F}∼2] "warm-dense matter" (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma. PMID:26066441

  11. Electronic Stopping Power in LiF from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, J. M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Artacho, Emilio

    2007-12-07

    Using time-dependent density-functional theory we calculate from first principles the rate of energy transfer from a moving proton or antiproton to the electrons of an insulating material, LiF. The behavior of the electronic stopping power versus projectile velocity displays an effective threshold velocity of {approx}0.2 a.u. for the proton, consistent with recent experimental observations, and also for the antiproton. The calculated proton/antiproton stopping-power ratio is {approx}2.4 at velocities slightly above the threshold (v{approx}0.4 a.u.), as compared to the experimental value of 2.1. The projectile energy loss mechanism is observed to be extremely local.

  12. Snubber replacement with limit stops at Vandellos II

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Billington, A.

    1996-12-01

    The paper describes the particularities and reports the results of the single largest project with Limit Stops to date, i.e., a plant-wide snubber replacement at Vandellos II plant in Spain. This modern PWR plant had already undergone a snubber reduction program at the end of the construction stage, taking benefit from relaxation of dynamic loading criteria such as ASME Code Case N411 damping and Leak Before Break. The original analysis criteria were used, except for an innovative modal combination method named Generalized Algebraic Combination. A 100% elimination was achieved for the first package of 19 lines, i.e., removal of all 115 snubbers during the 1995 outage. The Limit Stop is a maintenance free piping support which provides and alternative to unreliable snubbers. It limits the dynamic response of the piping during an earthquake or other dynamic event like hydrodynamic transient, but allows for totally free thermal expansion.

  13. Stopping Muons Study for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Stopping negative muons can be captured by nucleus in various materials in which neutrons and gamma rays can be produced. These energetic secondary particles can be background events for ultra-low background experiments in searching for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. The stopping negative muons captures rates in different materials have been mostly evaluated theoretically. The secondary particles in particular the energy of neutrons is not well understood for heavy elements. Experimental study of the capture rates and secondary particles is of interest of nuclear physics and rare event physics. Two plastic scintillation panels were used to create a muon detection system allowing study of stopping muons. These panels are each made of EJ200 scintillator measuring approximately 100 × 50 × 2.54 cm and attached on one side to EJ280 plastic strip measuring 2.54 × 2.54 × 50 cm. A 1'' Hamamatsu R1924A PMT is affixed to the end of each strip to collect light. The setup measures the lifetime of muons at earth's surface by detecting the time difference between stopped muons and muon decay. Data is collected for 21 hours and a mean muon lifetime of 2.02 +/- .06 microseconds is obtained. The setup will be used at Homestake to measure captures rates and secondary neutron energy spectrum. Stopping negative muons can be captured by nucleus in various materials in which neutrons and gamma rays can be produced. These energetic secondary particles can be background events for ultra-low background experiments in searching for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. The stopping negative muons captures rates in different materials have been mostly evaluated theoretically. The secondary particles in particular the energy of neutrons is not well understood for heavy elements. Experimental study of the capture rates and secondary particles is of interest of nuclear physics and rare event physics. Two plastic scintillation panels were used to create a muon

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  15. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  16. Cavity-free plasmonic nanolasing enabled by dispersionless stopped light

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Tim; Hamm, Joachim M.; Page, A. Freddie; Wuestner, Sebastian; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    When light is brought to a standstill, its interaction with gain media increases dramatically due to a singularity in the density of optical states. Concurrently, stopped light engenders an inherent and cavity-free feedback mechanism, similar in effect to the feedback that has been demonstrated and exploited in large-scale disordered media and random lasers. Here we study the spatial, temporal and spectral signatures of lasing in planar gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic structures at near-infrared frequencies and show that the stopped-light feedback mechanism allows for nanolasing without a cavity. We reveal that in the absence of cavity-induced feedback, the subwavelength lasing mode forms dynamically as a phase-locked superposition of quasi dispersion-free waveguide modes. This mechanism proves remarkably robust against interface roughness and offers a new route towards nanolasing, the experimental realization of ultra-thin surface emitting lasers, and cavity-free active quantum plasmonics. PMID:25230337

  17. Stopping power in insulators and metals without charge exchange.

    PubMed

    Møller, S P; Csete, A; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, U I; Andersen, H H

    2004-07-23

    The slowing-down process of pointlike charged particles in matter has been investigated by measuring the stopping power for antiprotons in materials of qualitatively very different nature. Whereas the velocity-proportional stopping power observed for metal-like targets such as aluminum over a wide energy range of 1-50 keV is in agreement with expectations, it is surprising that the same velocity dependence is seen for a large band-gap insulator such as LiF. The validity of these observations is supported by several measurements with protons and several checks of the target properties. The observations call for both a qualitative explanation and a quantitative theoretical model. PMID:15323754

  18. Martingale Approach to Stochastic Control with Discretionary Stopping

    SciTech Connect

    Karatzas, Ioannis Zamfirescu, Ingrid-Mona

    2006-03-15

    We develop a martingale approach for continuous-time stochastic control with discretionary stopping. The relevant Dynamic Programming Equation and Maximum Principle are presented. Necessary and sufficient conditions are provided for the optimality of a control strategy; these are analogues of the 'equalization' and 'thriftiness' conditions introduced by Dubins and Savage (1976) in a related, discrete-time context. The existence of a thrifty control strategy is established.

  19. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-01

    Searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ˜ 1 and significances often well beyond 5 σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] signature, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb-1. By 300 fb-1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the "stealth" point at {m}_{overline{t}}={m}_t and potentially overlapping with limits from toverline{t} cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  20. Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Flatt, Robert J.; Scherer, George W.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

  1. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  2. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages. PMID:26677644

  3. Sensitivity to Phonological Universals: The Case of Stops and Fricatives.

    PubMed

    Tamási, Katalin; Berent, Iris

    2015-08-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that syllables like bdam (with stop-stop clusters) are less preferred than bzam (with stop-fricative combinations). Here, we demonstrate that English speakers manifest similar preferences despite no direct experience with either structure. Experiment 1 elicited syllable count for auditory materials (e.g., does bzam have one syllable or two?); Experiment 2 examined the AX discrimination of auditory stimuli (e.g., is bzam = bezam?); whereas Experiment 3 repeated this task using printed materials. Results showed that syllables that are dispreferred across languages (e.g., bdam) were prone to misidentification relative to preferred syllables (e.g., bzam). The emergence of this pattern irrespective of stimulus modality--for auditory and printed materials--suggests that misidentification does not solely stem from a phonetic failure. Further, the effect remained significant after controlling for various statistical properties of the materials. These results suggest that speakers possess broad linguistic preferences that extend to syllables they have never encountered before. PMID:24563326

  4. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2001-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  5. Adiabatic perturbation theory of electronic stopping in insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Andrew P.; Lim, Anthony; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Correa, Alfredo A.

    2016-06-01

    A model able to explain the complicated structure of electronic stopping at low velocities in insulating materials is presented. It is shown to be in good agreement with results obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory for the stopping of a channeling Si atom in a Si crystal. If we define the repeat frequency f =v /λ , where λ is the periodic repeat length of the crystal along the direction the channeling atom is traveling, and v is the velocity of the channeling atom, we find that electrons experience a perturbing force that varies in time at integer multiples l of f . This enables electronic excitations at low atom velocity, but their contributions diminish rapidly with increasing values of l . The expressions for stopping power are derived using adiabatic perturbation theory for many-electron systems, and they are then specialized to the case of independent electrons. A simple model for the nonadiabatic matrix elements is described, along with the procedure for determining its parameters.

  6. Signals in limb development: STOP, GO, STAY and POSITION.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, L

    1990-01-01

    Cell-to-cell interactions in early limb development are considered within the framework of the extracellular signals STOP, GO, STAY and POSITION, a classification which emphasises that the signals are elective rather than instructive, and that complexity arises from cells' response. Patterning in the limb is analysed in terms of signals that specify positional values along the anteroposterior axes, and retinoic acid is thought to be a positional morphogen. There is however, evidence for patterning which does not depend on a positional signal. In the early bud the mesenchyme gives POSITION signals to the apical ridge, which in turn provides a STAY signal to the mesenchyme in the progress zone. Non-ridge ectoderm produces a STOP signal with respect to cartilage differentiation. The pattern of cartilage differentiation is specified well before cartilage condensation. Growth factors affect both cartilage and muscle differentiation in culture. Pigment patterns result from feather germs providing STOP or GO signals to the melanoblasts which enter all feather germs. The pathways for the cell-to-cell signals are not known but may involve gap junctions. PMID:2084117

  7. Optimal eradication: when to stop looking for an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tracey J; McCarthy, Michael A; Baxter, Peter W J; Dane Panetta, F; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-07-01

    The notion of being sure that you have completely eradicated an invasive species is fanciful because of imperfect detection and persistent seed banks. Eradication is commonly declared either on an ad hoc basis, on notions of seed bank longevity, or on setting arbitrary thresholds of 1% or 5% confidence that the species is not present. Rather than declaring eradication at some arbitrary level of confidence, we take an economic approach in which we stop looking when the expected costs outweigh the expected benefits. We develop theory that determines the number of years of absent surveys required to minimize the net expected cost. Given detection of a species is imperfect, the optimal stopping time is a trade-off between the cost of continued surveying and the cost of escape and damage if eradication is declared too soon. A simple rule of thumb compares well to the exact optimal solution using stochastic dynamic programming. Application of the approach to the eradication programme of Helenium amarum reveals that the actual stopping time was a precautionary one given the ranges for each parameter. PMID:16796564

  8. Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young LGBT Adults Are Target of FDA Stop-Smoking Campaign Tobacco use is common among these 18- ... and Drug Administration has launched an LGBT stop-smoking campaign. "We know LGBT young adults in this ...

  9. Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160259.html Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth ... 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D levels may drop after women stop using birth ...

  10. How to Stop and Change a Response: The Role of Goal Activation in Multitasking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    Multitasking was studied in the stop-change paradigm, in which the response for a primary GO1 task had to be stopped and replaced by a response for a secondary GO2 task on some trials. In 2 experiments, the delay between the stop signal and the change signal was manipulated to determine which task goals (GO1, GO2, or STOP) were involved in…

  11. Detection of the closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates in continuous speech using the plosion index.

    PubMed

    Ananthapadmanabha, T V; Prathosh, A P; Ramakrishnan, A G

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of the closure-burst transition events of stops and affricates serves many applications in speech processing. A temporal measure named the plosion index is proposed to detect such events, which are characterized by an abrupt increase in energy. Using the maxima of the pitch-synchronous normalized cross correlation as an additional temporal feature, a rule-based algorithm is designed that aims at selecting only those events associated with the closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates. The performance of the algorithm, characterized by receiver operating characteristic curves and temporal accuracy, is evaluated using the labeled closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates of the entire TIMIT test and training databases. The robustness of the algorithm is studied with respect to global white and babble noise as well as local noise using the TIMIT test set and on telephone quality speech using the NTIMIT test set. For these experiments, the proposed algorithm, which does not require explicit statistical training and is based on two one-dimensional temporal measures, gives a performance comparable to or better than the state-of-the-art methods. In addition, to test the scalability, the algorithm is applied on the Buckeye conversational speech corpus and databases of two Indian languages. PMID:24437786

  12. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; stopped commercial motor vehicles. (a) Hazard warning signal flashers. Whenever a commercial motor vehicle... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places...

  13. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; stopped commercial motor vehicles. (a) Hazard warning signal flashers. Whenever a commercial motor vehicle... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places...

  14. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; stopped commercial motor vehicles. (a) Hazard warning signal flashers. Whenever a commercial motor vehicle... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and continue the flashing until the driver places...

  15. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  16. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  17. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  18. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  19. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  20. ADHD and Behavioral Inhibition: A Re-Examination of the Stop-Signal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates two recently identified threats to the construct validity of behavioral inhibition as a core deficit of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the stop-signal task: calculation of mean reaction time from go-trials presented adjacent to intermittent stop-trials, and non-reporting of the stop-signal…

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  4. 20 CFR 662.410 - How is the One-Stop operator selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in accordance with the “sunshine provision” at 20 CFR 661.307. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the One-Stop operator selected? 662... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators §...

  5. The Importance of Spectral Detail in Initial-Final Contrasts of Voiced Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, C. H.; Umeda, N.

    1975-01-01

    Spectral compositions of voiced initial stops reveal that these consonants are longer in intensity than those in medial or final position. In final stops the vocal cords are more closed than they are in initial stops and oscillation is richer. (SC)

  6. Stopping while Going! Response Inhibition Does Not Suffer Dual-Task Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D.; Bissett, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Although dual-task interference is ubiquitous in a variety of task domains, stop-signal studies suggest that response inhibition is not subject to such interference. Nevertheless, no study has directly examined stop-signal performance in a dual-task setting. In two experiments, stop-signal performance was examined in a psychological refractory…

  7. Developing Effective Linkages between Job Corps and One-Stop Systems: A Technical Assistance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Katherine; Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    This document is intended to help Job Corps centers and Office of Acquisition Policy contractors establish linkages with one-stop systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the requirements for linkages between Job Corps and one-stop systems that are specified in the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and compares one-stop delivery systems before and under…

  8. Proactive Adjustments of Response Strategies in the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    In the stop-signal paradigm, fast responses are harder to inhibit than slow responses, so subjects must balance speed is the go task with successful stopping in the stop task. In theory, subjects achieve this balance by adjusting response thresholds for the go task, making proactive adjustments in response to instructions that indicate that…

  9. Post-Stop-Signal Slowing: Strategies Dominate Reflexes and Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Control adjustments are necessary to balance competing cognitive demands. One task that is well-suited to explore control adjustments is the stop-signal paradigm, in which subjects must balance initiation and inhibition. One common adjustment in the stop-signal paradigm is post-stop-signal slowing. Existing models of sequential adjustments in the…

  10. Calculation of stopping power ratios for carbon ion dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geithner, Oksana; Andreo, P.; Sobolevsky, N.; Hartmann, G.; Jäkel, O.

    2006-05-01

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinical carbon ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used, which is a newly developed version where substantial modifications were implemented on its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1 (Gudowska et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1933-58). The code was completely rewritten replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe-Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. In addition, the code includes optionally MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data. The fragmentation model was verified and its parameters were also adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. It has been used to compute the physical quantities needed for the calculation of stopping power ratios, swater,air, of carbon beams. Compared with the recommended constant value given in the IAEA Code of Practice, the differences found in the present investigations varied between 0.5% and 1% at the plateau region, respectively for 400 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u beams, and up to 2.3% in the vicinity of the Bragg peak for 50 MeV/u.

  11. Calculation of stopping power ratios for carbon ion dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Geithner, Oksana; Andreo, P; Sobolevsky, N; Hartmann, G; Jäkel, O

    2006-05-01

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinical carbon ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used, which is a newly developed version where substantial modifications were implemented on its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1 (Gudowska et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1933-58). The code was completely rewritten replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe-Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. In addition, the code includes optionally MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data. The fragmentation model was verified and its parameters were also adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. It has been used to compute the physical quantities needed for the calculation of stopping power ratios, s(water,air), of carbon beams. Compared with the recommended constant value given in the IAEA Code of Practice, the differences found in the present investigations varied between 0.5% and 1% at the plateau region, respectively for 400 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u beams, and up to 2.3% in the vicinity of the Bragg peak for 50 MeV/u. PMID:16625042

  12. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  13. Global Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  14. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  15. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…

  16. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  17. Y sign: clinical indicator to stop trenching and start cracking.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Mathew; Das, Sudeep; Umarani, B; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2013-04-01

    Phacoemulsification is challenging in soft cataracts due to the difficulty in cracking the nucleus by a divide-and-conquer technique or by chopping. We describe another technique, the Y sign for trenching endpoint: a clinical sign that indicates the surgeon should stop trenching and start cracking during classical divide-and-conquer nucleofractis emulsification using proximal downslope trenching. This technique exploits the morphological structure of the lens to precisely gauge the depth of the trench at which the surgeon can split even a soft nucleus into small wedges without instrument cheese-wiring and thus perform safer phacoemulsification while reducing the risk for posterior capsule rupture. PMID:23522581

  18. STOPPING AND BARYON TRANSPORT IN HEAVY ION REACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK, F.

    2005-02-05

    In this report I will give an experimental overview on nuclear stopping in hadron collisions, and relate observations to understanding of baryon transport. Baryon number transport is not only evidenced via net-proton distributions but also by the enhancement of strange baryons near mid-rapidity. Although the focus is on high-energy data obtained from pp and heavy ions from RHIC, relevant data from SPS and ISR will be considered. A discussion how the available data at higher energy relates and gives information on baryon junction, quark-diquark breaking will be made.

  19. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-09-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  20. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  1. Circuit Stops Prelasing In A Q-Switched Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, George E.

    1995-01-01

    Protective shutdown circuit stops prelasing in Q-switched laser operating at pulse-repetition rate of about 10 Hz. During normal operation, Q-switch prevents emission of light from laser cavity during application of Q-switch-trigger pulse. When circuit detects prelasing, it triggers relay turning off laser power supply. Circuit integrated into almost any Q-switched-laser system, provided one gains access to laser light, Q-switch-trigger pulse, and safety-interlock line of laser power supply.

  2. Earth's stopping effect in directional dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We explore the stopping effect that results from interactions between dark matter and nuclei as the dark matter particles travel underground towards the detector. Although this effect is negligible for heavy dark matter particles, there is parameter phase space where the underground interactions of the dark matter particles with the nuclei can create observable differences in the spectrum. Dark matter particles that arrive on the detector from below can have less energy from the ones arriving from above. These differences can be potentially detectable by upcoming directional detectors. This can unveil a large amount of information regarding the type and strength of interactions between nuclei and light dark matter candidates.

  3. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  4. STOP for Science! A School-Wide Science Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, P.; Slane, R.; Arcand, K. K.; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.

    2012-08-01

    Young students are often natural scientists. They love to poke and prod, and they live to compare and contrast. What is the fastest animal? Where is the tallest mountain on Earth (or in the Solar System)? Where do the colors in a rainbow come from? And why do baseball players choke up on their bats? Educators work hard to harness this energy and enthusiasm in the classroom but, particularly at an early age, science enrichment - exposure outside the formal classroom - is crucial to help expand science awareness and hone science skills. Developed under a grant from NASA's Chandra X-ray Center, "STOP for Science!" is a simple but effective (and extensible) school-wide science enrichment program aimed at raising questions about science topics chosen to capture student interest. Created through the combined efforts of an astrophysicist and an elementary school principal, and strongly recommended by NASA's Earth & Space Science product review, "STOP for Science" combines aesthetic displays of science topics accompanied by level-selected questions and extensive facilitator resources to provide broad exposure to familiar, yet intriguing, science themes.

  5. Breaking the Vicious Start-Stop-Restart Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's history is built on a foundation of can-do strength, while pointing to the Apollo Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s as its apex a sentiment that often overshadows the potential in store. The chronicle of America s civil space adventure is scattered with programs that got off to good starts with adequate resources and vocal political support but that never made it past a certain milestone review, General Accountability Office report, or Congressional budget appropriation. Over the decades since the fielding of the Space Shuttle in the early 1980s, a start-stop-restart cycle has intervened due to many forces. Despite this impediment, the workforce has delivered feats such as the International Space Station and numerous Shuttle and science missions, which reflect a trend in the early days of the Exploration Age that called for massive infrastructure and matching capital allocations. In the new millennium, the aerospace industry must respond to transforming economic climates, the public will, national agendas, and international possibilities relative to scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. Two pressing issues workforce transition and mission success are intertwined. As this briefing will show, U.S. aerospace must confront related workforce development and industrial base issues head on to take space exploration to the next level. This briefing also will formulate specific strategies to equip space engineers to move beyond the seemingly constant start-stop-restart mentality to plan and execute flight projects that actually fly.

  6. Quantum stopping times stochastic integral in the interacting Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuanbao

    2015-08-01

    Following the ideas of Hudson [J. Funct. Anal. 34(2), 266-281 (1979)] and Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)], we define a quantum stopping time (QST, for short) τ in the interacting Fock space (IFS, for short), Γ, over L2(ℝ+), which is actually a spectral measure in [0, ∞] such that τ([0, t]) is an adapted process. Motivated by Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)] and Applebaum [J. Funct. Anal. 65, 273-291 (1986)], we also develop a corresponding quantum stopping time stochastic integral (QSTSI, for abbreviations) on the IFS over a subspace of L2(ℝ+) equipped with a filtration. As an application, such integral provides a useful tool for proving that Γ admits a strong factorisation, i.e., Γ = Γτ] ⊗ Γ[τ, where Γτ] and Γ[τ stand for the part "before τ" and the part "after τ," respectively. Additionally, this integral also gives rise to a natural composition operation among QST to make the space of all QSTs a semigroup.

  7. Tunable microwave band-stop filters using ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baolin; Shi, Yu; Zhong, Hui; Wang, Hualei

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present some results on FeCoB-based microwave band-stop filters. These structures, prepared on GaAs substrates, are compatible in size and growth process with on-chip high-frequency electronics. The band-stop filters have been realized with microstrips which incorporate ferromagnetic and dielectric layers to absorb microwave energy at the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The absorption notch in transmission can be tuned to various frequencies by varying an external applied magnitic field. For our devices, which incorporate FeCoB as the ferromagnetic material, the resultant FMR frequencies range from 12-22 GHz for applied fields up to only 1000 Oe. Comparatively, the frequency range of those devices using permalloy and Fe is substantially lower than FeCoB-based devices for applied the same fields. We constructed devices using monocrystalline FeCoB films grown in a sputtering system. Our devices are of different construction than other dielectric microstrips and show much improvement in terms of notch width and depth. The maximum attenuations of 3.5 dB/cm and 90dB/cm are observed respectively in two different structures.

  8. Quantum stopping times stochastic integral in the interacting Fock space

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yuanbao

    2015-08-15

    Following the ideas of Hudson [J. Funct. Anal. 34(2), 266-281 (1979)] and Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)], we define a quantum stopping time (QST, for short) τ in the interacting Fock space (IFS, for short), Γ, over L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}), which is actually a spectral measure in [0, ∞] such that τ([0, t]) is an adapted process. Motivated by Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)] and Applebaum [J. Funct. Anal. 65, 273-291 (1986)], we also develop a corresponding quantum stopping time stochastic integral (QSTSI, for abbreviations) on the IFS over a subspace of L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}) equipped with a filtration. As an application, such integral provides a useful tool for proving that Γ admits a strong factorisation, i.e., Γ = Γ{sub τ]} ⊗ Γ{sub [τ}, where Γ{sub τ]} and Γ{sub [τ} stand for the part “before τ” and the part “after τ,” respectively. Additionally, this integral also gives rise to a natural composition operation among QST to make the space of all QSTs a semigroup.

  9. Stopping power of liquid water for low-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The dielectric function epsilon(q,..omega..) for liquid water is determined from an insulator model with parameters fixed by available optical data. Ionization of the oxygen K shell is described by generalized oscillator strengths. This model dielectric function is used to calculate the stopping power of liquid water for electrons with energies from 10 eV to 10 keV. The results agree well in the common energy range with an existing tabulation for 256 eV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 10.2 MeV and with Bethe-theory predictions down to 200 eV. The peak in stopping power at approx.25% lower than the predictions of R. H. Ritchie, R. N. Hamm, J.E. Turner, and H. A. Wright (in Proceedings, Sixth Symposium on Microdosimetry, Brussels, Belgium (J. Booz and H. G. Ebert, Eds.), pp. 345-354, Commission of the European Communities, Harwood, London, 1978 (EUR 6064 d-e-f)).

  10. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  11. Eradicating polio: how the world's pediatricians can help stop this crippling illness forever.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. This plan was endorsed in November 2012 by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization of the World Health Organization and published by the World Health Organization in April 2013. As a key component of the plan, it will be necessary to stop oral polio vaccine (OPV) use globally to achieve eradication, because the attenuated viruses in the vaccine rarely can cause polio. The plan includes procedures for elimination of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). cVDPVs can proliferate when vaccine viruses are transmitted among susceptible people, resulting in mutations conferring both the neurovirulence and transmissibility characteristics of wild polioviruses. Although there are 3 different types of wild poliovirus strains, the polio eradication effort has already resulted in the global elimination of type 2 poliovirus for more than a decade. Type 3 poliovirus may be eliminated because the wild type 3 poliovirus was last detected in 2012. Thus, of the 3 wild types, only wild type 1 poliovirus is still known to be circulating and causing disease. OPV remains the key vaccine for eradicating wild polioviruses in polio-infected countries because it induces high levels of systemic immunity to prevent paralysis and intestinal immunity to reduce transmission. However, OPV is a rare cause of paralysis and the substantial decrease in wild-type disease has resulted in estimates that the vaccine is causing more polio-related paralysis annually in recent years than the wild virus. The new endgame strategic plan calls for stepwise removal of the type 2 poliovirus component from trivalent oral vaccines, because type 2 wild poliovirus appears to have been eradicated (since 1999) and yet is the main cause of cVDPV outbreaks and approximately 40% of vaccine-associated paralytic

  12. Should I Stop or Should I Go? The Role of Associations and Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following exposure to consistent stimulus–stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatized with practice. What is learned is less clear, even though this has important theoretical and practical implications. A recent analysis indicates that stimuli can become associated with a stop signal or with a stop goal. Furthermore, expectancy may play an important role. Previous studies that have used stop or no-go signals to manipulate stimulus–stop learning cannot distinguish between stimulus-signal and stimulus-goal associations, and expectancy has not been measured properly. In the present study, participants performed a task that combined features of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task in which the stop-signal rule changed at the beginning of each block. The go and stop signals were superimposed over 40 task-irrelevant images. Our results show that participants can learn direct associations between images and the stop goal without mediation via the stop signal. Exposure to the image-stop associations influenced task performance during training, and expectancies measured following task completion or measured within the task. But, despite this, we found an effect of stimulus–stop learning on test performance only when the task increased the task-relevance of the images. This could indicate that the influence of stimulus–stop learning on go performance is strongly influenced by attention to both task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus features. More generally, our findings suggest a strong interplay between automatic and controlled processes. PMID:26322688

  13. Gap-Acoustic Solitons: Slowing and Stopping of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasgal, Richard S.; Shnaiderman, Roman; Band, Yehuda B.

    Solitons are paradigm localized states in physics. We consider here gapacoustic solitons (GASs), which are stable pulses that exist in Bragg waveguides, and which offer promising new avenues for slowing light. A Bragg grating can be produced by doping the waveguide with ions, and imprinting a periodic variation in the index of refraction with ultraviolet light. The Bragg grating in an optical waveguide reflects rightward-moving light to the left, and vice versa, and creates a gap in the allowed frequency spectrum of light. Nonlinearities, though, add complications to this simple picture. While low intensity light cannot propagate at frequencies inside the band gap, more intense fields can exist where low-intensity fields cannot. An optical gap soliton is an intense optical pulse which can exist in a Bragg waveguide because the intensity and nonlinearity let it dig a hole for itself inside the band gap, in which it can then reside. Far from the center of the pulse, the intensity is weak, and drops off exponentially with distance from the center. The optical gap soliton structure can be stable, and can have velocities from zero (i.e., stopped light) up to the group-velocity of light in the medium. When one also considers the system's electrostrictive effects, i.e., the dependence of the index of refraction on the density of the material, which is a universal light-sound interaction in condensed matter, one obtains GASs. These solitons share many of the properties of standard gap solitons, but they show many fascinating new characteristics. GASs have especially interesting dynamics when their velocities are close to the speed of sound, in which range they interact strongly with the acoustic field. GASs which are moving at supersonic velocities may experience instabilities which leave the GAS whole, but bring the velocity abruptly to almost zero. Furthermore, GASs may be made to change velocity by collision with acoustic pulses. Moving GASs may be retarded by the

  14. Stopping powers and ranges for the heaviest atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaidak, Roman N.; Utyonkov, Vladimir K.; Dmitriev, Sergey N.

    2015-12-01

    Slowing down and stopping of the heaviest atoms, products of the fusion-evaporation nuclear reactions, during their passage through the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator has been studied using TRIM simulations. The study is important for experiments on the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) with atomic numbers around ZP = 114 produced with accelerated heavy ion (HI) beams and extracted with a separator for their detection. The average Mylar stopping power (SP) values obtained with the simulations for HIs with 82 ⩽ ZP ⩽ 92 reveal almost the same magnitudes, allowing extrapolation to the region of ZP > 92. Similar extrapolation of the ranges in an He + Ar gas mixture leads to rather small values for the heaviest atoms (ZP ⩾ 102) as compared to the range for U. The extrapolated values have large uncertainties and should be verified with different approaches. Available SP data obtained for HIs with 18 ⩽ ZP ⩽ 92 at energies E < 20 MeV/u have been analysed within various semi-empirical approaches. The analysis has shown that existing parameterizations give Mylar SP values for ZP ⩾ 82 that are very different from each other at energies of interest (around 0.1 MeV/u). We propose to use a general approach based on the HI effective charge parameterization obtained with available SP data for HIs and the hydrogen SP and effective charge corresponding to the same velocity and stopping medium as those for HIs. In this manner, the SPs of the gases H2, He, C4H10, and Ar as well as those of the solids Mylar, C, Al, and Ti have been obtained for any atoms with ZP ⩾ 18 (including the heaviest ones) at their reduced velocities 0.03 ⩽ Vred ⩽ 5.0. The SP values derived in such a way seem to be more reliable compared to the existing semi-empirical calculations and can be used in the conditioning of experiments on the synthesis of SHEs.

  15. Stop and go traffic to tune T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Dustin, Michael L

    2004-09-01

    Adaptive immune responses are initiated by interactions of T cells with antigen-presenting cells, but the basic nature of these interactions during an immune response in vivo has been a matter of speculation. While some in vitro systems provide evidence for stable interactions, referred to as immunological synapses, compelling evidence supports T cell activation through serial transient interactions. Deep tissue intravital and organ culture microscopy studies suggest that both modes of interaction are employed, but new issues have emerged. This review will discuss in vitro results that framed the hypotheses that are currently being tested in vivo. I present a model in which TCR stop signals compete with chemokine-mediated go signals to adjust the duration of immunological synapse formation and tune the immune response between tolerance and full activation. PMID:15357942

  16. Collective Stop-and-Go Dynamics of Active Bacteria Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenšek, Daniel; Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2013-11-01

    We set up a macroscopic model of bacterial growth and transport based on a dynamic preferred direction—the collective velocity of the bacteria. This collective velocity is subject to the isotropic-nematic transition modeling the density-controlled transformation between immotile and motile bacterial states. The choice of the dynamic preferred direction introduces a distinctive coupling of orientational ordering and transport not encountered otherwise. The approach can also be applied to other systems spontaneously switching between individual (disordered) and collective (ordered) behavior and/or collectively responding to density variations, e.g., bird flocks, fish schools, etc. We observe a characteristic and robust stop-and-go behavior. The inclusion of chirality results in a complex pulsating dynamics.

  17. Regression of chronic posterior leukoencephalopathy after stop of methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Gabriella; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Mangiapane, Paola; Erbetta, Alessandra; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Girotti, Floriano

    2009-10-01

    Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy (PRLE) is a neurological disorder caused by a variety of pathological conditions such as high doses or long-term low-doses of immunosuppressive therapy. PRLE associated with methotrexate (MTX) is well known but it was rarely observed in adult patients submitted to long-term low-dose administration via the oral route. Here we report the case of a patient affected by psoriasis, treated by chronic oral low-dose of MTX, who presented with limb ideomotor apraxia. Magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain showed, on T2-weighted images, a diffuse hyperintensity involving bilaterally the white matter of the occipital, parietal and frontal lobes. MTX treatment was stopped and, at the 6-month follow-up, the neuropsychological performances was improved. Two years later, the neuropsychological profile was normal and MRI showed a regression of the white matter abnormalities. PMID:19626273

  18. New stopping power formula for intermediate energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Hasan

    2008-12-01

    This study presents a new stopping power (SP) formula for electrons. In the modified Bethe-Bloch SP expression, analytical expressions for the effective charge and effective mean excitation energies (EMEE) of target atoms are used, while for the effective charge of incoming electrons, Sugiyama's semiempirical formula from Peterson and Green is used. An analytical expression for practical SP calculations is obtained using the Bethe approximation and a Thomas-Fermi model of the atom. The calculated results of the SP for electrons in some materials, such as H(2)O, H(2), CO(2), N(2), and O(2), are compared with experimental data, together with Penelope code results and a number of other semiempirical and analytical calculations. PMID:18586505

  19. NMR and protein folding: equilibrium and stopped-flow studies.

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, C.; Hoeltzli, S. D.; Ropson, I. J.

    1993-01-01

    NMR studies are now unraveling the structure of intermediates of protein folding using hydrogen-deuterium exchange methodologies. These studies provide information about the time dependence of formation of secondary structure. They require the ability to assign specific resonances in the NMR spectra to specific amide protons of a protein followed by experiments involving competition between folding and exchange reactions. Another approach is to use 19F-substituted amino acids to follow changes in side-chain environment upon folding. Current techniques of molecular biology allow assignments of 19F resonances to specific amino acids by site-directed mutagenesis. It is possible to follow changes and to analyze results from 19F spectra in real time using a stopped-flow device incorporated into the NMR spectrometer. PMID:8298453

  20. Stopping of earthquake ruptures at dilational fault jogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    1985-07-01

    Palaeoseismic studies over the past several years have indicated that segments of certain major faults tend to rupture at fairly regular intervals in characteristic earthquakes of about the same size1. This implies the presence of local structural controls which govern the nucleation and stopping of ruptures. Understanding rupture arrest is important, not only because it governs the size of characteristic earthquakes, but also because deceleration of ruptures results in the radiation of high-frequency energy leading to strong ground motion2. I show here that rapid opening of linking extensional fracture systems to allow passage of earthquake ruptures through dilational fault jogs in fluid-saturated crusts is opposed by transient suctional forces induced near the rupture tips3. Rupture arrest may then be followed by delayed slip transfer as fluid pressures re-equilibrate by diffusion.

  1. Completely Stopped and Dispersionless Light in Plasmonic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L.; Pickering, Tim W.; Hamm, Joachim M.; Page, A. Freddie; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a scheme where a time-dependent source excites "complex-frequency" modes in uniform plasmonic heterostructures, enabling complete and dispersionless stopping of light pulses, resilient to realistic levels of dissipative, radiative, and surface-roughness losses. Using transparent conducting oxides at telecommunication wavelengths we show how, without increasing optical losses, multiple light pulses can decay with time precisely at their injection points, unable to propagate despite the complete absence of barriers in front or behind them. Our results theoretically demonstrate extraordinary large light-deceleration factors (of the order of 1.5×107) in integrated nanophotonic media, comparable only to those attainable with ultracold atomic vapors or with quantum coherence effects, such as coherent population oscillations, in ruby crystals.

  2. Self-stopping effects of lithium penetration into silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lang, Li; Dong, Chuanding; Chen, Guohong; Yang, Jihui; Gu, Xiao; Xiang, Hongjun; Wu, Ruqian; Gong, Xingao

    2013-12-21

    Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the penetration of lithium atoms into a silicon nanowire (SiNW) self-stops once a metallic amorphous Li-Si shell forms. This explains the extended life of crystalline Si cores in SiNW battery electrodes observed in experiments. Metallic Li-Si shells grasp Li atoms and prohibit them from directly segregating through interstitial channels toward the crystalline center of SiNWs. Meanwhile, high pressure develops on the core as it shrinks, due to the expansion and tension in the amorphous shell, which eventually frustrate the step-forward amorphization. We also elucidate the reasons why H-passivated SiNWs are not suitable for studies of lithiation processes. PMID:24162503

  3. Optional stopping performance under graphic and numeric CRT formatting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. R.; Howell, W. C.

    1984-06-01

    Two experiments sought to determine whether, and if so how, performance varies as a function of the manner in which a progressively unfolding decision problem is displayed over time. A hurricane-tracking scenario was adapted to the optional-stopping paradigm, such that subjects elected to continue sampling information or to make a terminal decision (evacuate or stay) at successive points in the storm's development based upon cumulative evidence and future expectations. The display manipulation was minimal in that it applied only to non-predictive historical data (position information). Despite this conservative test, display format had a significant effect when time pressure was involved: subjects reached earlier and better terminal decisions under the analog (graphic) than the numerical format (Experiment 2). The differences reduced to nonsignificances under self-pacing (Experiment 1), although significant improvements were obtained by use of a simple aiding device (calculation of worst case probabilities). Results are generally consistent with Hammond's Cognitive Consistency Theory.

  4. Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan; Deutsch, Claude; Fromy, Patrice

    2008-10-15

    Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

  5. Tunneling into microstate geometries: quantum effects stop gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Puhm, Andrea; Vercnocke, Bert

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. We present strong evidence that classical general relativity can indeed break down prematurely, by explicitly computing the quantum tunneling amplitude of a collapsing shell of branes into smooth horizonless microstate geometries. We show that the amplitude for tunneling into microstate geometries with a large number of topologically non-trivial cycles is parametrically larger than e - S BH , which indicates that the shell can tunnel into a horizonless configuration long before the horizon has any chance to form. We also use this technology to investigate the tunneling of M2 branes into LLM bubbling geometries.

  6. Rolling to a stop down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented showing that a ball with a high coefficient of rolling friction can roll to a stop when it rolls without slipping down an inclined plane. The rate at which energy is dissipated is directly proportional to the rolling friction force on the ball, despite the fact that the net work done by the friction force is zero. The energy loss arises from internal friction within the ball due to compression and expansion of the ball in the contact region. Since the compression force is larger than the expansion force, an opposing torque arises that reduces the angular velocity of the ball. The work done by the opposing torque is equal to the energy that is dissipated.

  7. Calculation of runaway electrons stopping power in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.

    2011-08-01

    The energy loss rate of runaway electrons (RE) was analysed for ITER plasma facing components materials (Be and W). The stopping power, the energy deposition profiles, and the material erosion are estimated by using the codes MEMOS and ENDEP. The latter has been updated by including the effect of the target's polarizability. Our calculations show that this effect is significant for high RE energies and low Z materials such as Be. We also find that the conversion of the RE's magnetic energy into heat can explain the temperature rise on dump plate in JET. In the case of ITER, the calculated heat deposition due to RE is almost two times the melting threshold energy of Be but well below that of W.

  8. Stopped object detection by learning foreground model in videos.

    PubMed

    Maddalena, Lucia; Petrosino, Alfredo

    2013-05-01

    The automatic detection of objects that are abandoned or removed in a video scene is an interesting area of computer vision, with key applications in video surveillance. Forgotten or stolen luggage in train and airport stations and irregularly parked vehicles are examples that concern significant issues, such as the fight against terrorism and crime, and public safety. Both issues involve the basic task of detecting static regions in the scene. We address this problem by introducing a model-based framework to segment static foreground objects against moving foreground objects in single view sequences taken from stationary cameras. An image sequence model, obtained by learning in a self-organizing neural network image sequence variations, seen as trajectories of pixels in time, is adopted within the model-based framework. Experimental results on real video sequences and comparisons with existing approaches show the accuracy of the proposed stopped object detection approach. PMID:24808423

  9. Towards model-independent exclusion of light Stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sanz, Verónica; Thomas, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the extent to which experimental searches are sensitive to Light Stops (LST) scenarios is essential to resolve questions about naturalness, electroweak baryo-genesis and Dark Matter. In this paper we characterize the reach on LST scenarios in two ways. We extend experimental searches to cover specific gaps in the LST parameter space, showing for the first time that assuming a single decay channel one can exclude the region of {m}_{tilde{t}}<{m}_{top} , which in its turn excludes electroweak baryogenesis in MSSM. Also, we explore the extent to which searches are weakened in a more generic scenario when more than one decay channel takes place, even after their combination. This study highlights the need for a more comprehensive exploration of the LST parameter space.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF A PARTICLE BED BASED BEAM STOP.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.; LUDEWIG,H.; MONTANEZ,P.; TODOSOW,M.

    2002-06-03

    Accelerator target/beam stop concepts able to withstand the thermal shock induced by intense, undiluted beams are being assessed in this study. Such conditions normally push target materials beyond their limits leading to limited useful life. A number of ingenious options have been attempted to help reduce the level of stress generated. Attention is paid to a very promising option that calls for a target consisting of a cooled particle bed. In such configuration the ability of the particle bed structure to diffuse and attenuate the generated thermal shock waves is being explored by performing comprehensive dynamic analyses that incorporate anticipated energy depositions, thermal diffusion, and wave propagation and attenuation. Further, options of coolant liquid filling the porous structure of the particle bed, including concerns of pressure drop and heat transfer, are evaluated for maximizing particle yield.

  11. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo

    2016-05-01

    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  12. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these “explorative stops” (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. Results: In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory. PMID:24782797

  13. Advantages of p++ polysilicon etch stop layer versus p++ silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charavel, Remy; Laconte, Jean; Raskin, Jean Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Boron highly doped silicon is now widely used as etch stop layer in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices fabrication. The present paper shows the advantages of replacing the p++ Si etch stop layer by a p++ polysilicon layer. The etch rate of Tetramethylammoniunhydroxide (TMAH) is measured for LPCVD polysilicon and silicon doped with Boron at concentrations from 8.1018 up to 4.1020 atoms/cm3 which is the Boron solubility limit into Si. TMAH etch being often used during back-end process, selectivity to aluminium is usually needed. The etch selectivity of various TMAH solutions for p++ Si, p++ Poly and aluminium have been measured, from 25 % to 5 % TMAH pure and mixed with silicon powder and ammonium persulfate. Contrarily to silicon, polysilicon is etched isotropically in TMAH solution which constitutes a great advantage when cavities with vertical walls have to be opened. Although the polysilicon etch rate is higher than the silicon one, the selectivity (doped/undoped) is the same for the both materials, allowing identical uses. Another great advantage of polysilicon is that it can be deposited at any process step and does not require clever epitaxy steps or wafer bonding as for silicon. The surface roughness of the etched Poly region is considerably decreased with TMAH mixed with silicon powder and ammonium persulfate mixture compared to pure 25 % TMAH solution. The definition of buried masks in polysilicon layer through Boron implant is the main foreseen application. The p++ Poly buried mask brings solutions for the fabrication of self-aligned double gate MOS, microfluidic or optical networks in MEMS field.

  14. Synthetic approach to stop-codon scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lihua; Lavinder, Jason J; Sarkar, Mohosin; Stephany, Kimberly; Magliery, Thomas J

    2011-04-27

    A general combinatorial mutagenesis strategy using common dimethoxytrityl-protected mononucleotide phosphoramidites and a single orthogonally protected trinucleotide phosphoramidite (Fmoc-TAG; Fmoc = 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) was developed to scan a gene with the TAG amber stop codon with complete synthetic control. In combination with stop-codon suppressors that insert natural (e.g., alanine) or unnatural (e.g., p-benzoylphenylalanine, Bpa) amino acids, a single DNA library can be used to incorporate different amino acids for diverse purposes. Here, we scanned TAG codons through part of the gene for a model four-helix bundle protein, Rop, which regulates the copy number of ColE1 plasmids. Alanine was incorporated into Rop for mapping its binding site using an in vivo activity screen, and subtle but important differences from in vitro gel-shift studies of Rop function are evident. As a test, Bpa was incorporated using a Phe14 amber mutant isolated from the scanning library. Surprisingly, Phe14Bpa-Rop is weakly active, despite the critical role of Phe14 in Rop activity. Bpa is a photoaffinity label unnatural amino acid that can form covalent bonds with adjacent molecules upon UV irradiation. Irradiation of Phe14Bpa-Rop, which is a dimer in solution like wild-type Rop, results in covalent dimers, trimers, and tetramers. This suggests that Phe14Bpa-Rop weakly associates as a tetramer in solution and highlights the use of Bpa cross-linking as a means of trapping weak and transient interactions. PMID:21452871

  15. Light stop searches at the LHC in events with two b jets and missing energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bornhauser, S.; Drees, M.; Grab, S.; Kim, J. S.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a new method to discover light top squarks (stops) in the co-annihilation region at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The bino-like neutralino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) and the lighter stop is the next-to-LSP. Such scenarios can be consistent with electroweak baryogenesis and also with dark matter constraints. We consider the production of two stops in association with two b-quarks, including pure QCD as well as mixed electroweak-QCD contributions. The stops decay into a charm quark and the LSP. For a higgsino-like light chargino, the electroweak contributions can exceed the pure QCD prediction. We show the size of the electroweak contributions as a function of the stop mass and present the LHC discovery reach in the stop-neutralino mass plane.

  16. Measurement of stopping power ratios for 60 MeV positive or negative pions.

    PubMed

    Nordin, J A; Henkelman, R M

    1979-07-01

    Pion stopping power ratios are essential parameters for pion radiotherapy treatment planning. The validity of scaling proton stopping powers to pions is called into question since the pion mass is intermediate between the electron and proton masses. Direct measurements of stopping power ratios with respect to water were made for 60 MeV pions of both charges in Teflon, Plexiglas, nylon, paraffin, gelatine, tissue-equivalent plastic (Shonka A150), graphite, aluminium, steel and copper. Corrections for multiple scattering and energy dependence of the stopping power are applied. Measured stopping power ratios at an accuracy of 0.6% are in agreement to within the limits of experimental error with stopping power ratios calculated from the Bethe-Bloch equation using elemental I-values and Bragg additivity. PMID:112597

  17. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 124 Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions (Web, free access)   The databases ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, or helium ions. Stopping-power and range tables can be calculated for electrons in any user-specified material and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials.

  18. The roles of electronic and nuclear stopping in the desorption valine negative molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Salehpour, M.; Fishel, D.L.; Tou, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The yield of valine negative molecular ions has been measured as a function of Xe/sup +/, Kr/sup +/, and Ar/sup +/ primary ion velocity. The electronic and nuclear stopping powers are comparable in magnitude and opposite in slope in the experimental velocity region. The yield data are explained in terms of electronic stopping power alone, with no contribution from nuclear stopping power within the experimental error. Low molecular weight atomic species are found to be best described by a nuclear stopping power related process. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Implications of different stopping power models on target heating simulations using HYDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth; Stoltz, Peter; Barnard, John; Henestroza, Enrique; Kerbel, Gary; Marinak, Marty

    2007-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of ion driven Warm Dense Matter experiments requires accurate models of stopping powers for targets with temperatures up to a few eV. For finite temperature targets, energy loss of beam ions is comprised of contributions from nuclear stopping, bound electron stopping, and free electron stopping. We compare two different stopping power algorithms and the implications on target heating for two different beams corresponding to the current Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) and proposed NDCX II experiments. The NDCX I beam has a beam energy much lower than the Bragg peak while the NDCX II beam is designed to enter the target just above the Bragg peak, and exit just below. The first stopping power algorithm is based on the classical Bethe-Bloch formulation as is currently implemented in the HYDRA simulation code. The second algorithm is based on rescaling of experimental protonic stopping powers as developed by Brandt and Kitagawa for nuclear and bound electronic stopping, and free electron stopping following the model developed by Peter and Meyer-ter-Vehn.

  20. Dissociating Two Stages of Preparation in the Stop Signal Task Using fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Andre; Cheyne, Douglas; Graham, Simon; Schachar, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Often we must balance being prepared to act quickly with being prepared to suddenly stop. The stop signal task (SST) is widely used to study inhibitory control, and provides a measure of the speed of the stop process that is robust to changes in subjects’ response strategy. Previous studies have shown that preparation affects inhibition. We used fMRI to separate activity that occurs after a brief (500 ms) warning stimulus (warning-phase) from activity that occurs during responses that follow (response-phase). Both of these phases could contribute to the preparedness to stop because they both precede stop signals. Warning stimuli activated posterior networks that signal the need for top-down control, whereas response phases engaged prefrontal and subcortical networks that implement top-down control. Regression analyses revealed that both of these phases affect inhibitory control in different ways. Warning-phase activity in the cerebellum and posterior cingulate predicted stop latency and accuracy, respectively. By contrast, response-phase activity in fronto-temporal areas and left striatum predicted go speed and stop accuracy, in pre-supplementary motor area affected stop accuracy, and in right striatum predicted stop latency and accuracy. The ability to separate hidden contributions to inhibitory control during warning-phases from those during response-phases can aid in the study of models of preparation and inhibitory control, and of disorders marked by poor top-down control. PMID:26110429

  1. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fontana, Cristiano L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-10

    In our review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5. Moreover, a Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. Finally, the resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  2. Why are Korean tense stops acquired so early: The role of acoustic properties

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eun Jong; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Transcription-based studies have shown that tense stops appear before aspirated or lax stops in most Korean-acquiring children's speech. This order of mastery is predicted by the short lag Voice Onset Time (VOT) values of Korean tense stops, as this is the earliest acquired phonation type across languages. However, the tense stop also has greater motor demands than the other two phonation types, given its pressed voice quality (negative H1-H2) and its relatively high f0 value at vowel onset, word-initially. In order to explain the observed order of mastery of Korean stops, we need a more sensitive quantitative model of the role of multiple acoustic parameters in production and perception. This study explores the relationship between native speakers' transcriptions/categorizations of children's stop productions and three acoustic characteristics (VOT, H1-H2 and f0). The results showed that the primary acoustic parameter that adult listeners used to differentiate tense vs. non-tense stops was VOT. Listeners used VOT and the additional acoustic parameter of f0 to differentiate lax vs. aspirated stops. Thus, the early acquisition of tense stops is explained both by their short-lag VOT values and the fact that children need to learn to control only a single acoustic parameter to produce them. PMID:21643475

  3. Electron emission and electronic stopping in the interaction of slow helium ions with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, P.; Baragiola, R. A.; Dukes, C. A.

    2015-07-01

    We address the question of the nonlinearity of the electronic stopping power of slow helium ions in aluminum by measuring the energy distributions and yields of electron emission under the impact of 0.2 -4.5 keV 3He+ and 4He+ ions. Electron emission experiments can provide an alternative point of view to resolve controversial issues often arising in stopping power measurements. The comparison between two isotopes allows one to distinguish between the energy and velocity dependent emission mechanisms, and indicates that the reported nonlinear velocity dependence of the electronic stopping power can be attributed to residual nuclear stopping effects.

  4. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Cristiano L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    A review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5. A Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. The resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  5. Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional accounts of speech perception generally hold that listeners use isolable acoustic “cues” to label phonemes. For syllable-final stops, duration of the preceding vocalic portion and formant transitions at syllable’s end have been considered the primary cues to voicing decisions. The current experiment tried to extend traditional accounts by asking two questions concerning voicing decisions by adults and children: (1) What weight is given to vocalic duration versus spectral structure, both at syllable’s end and across the syllable? (2) Does the naturalness of stimuli affect labeling? Adults and children (4, 6, and 8 years old) labeled synthetic stimuli that varied in vocalic duration and spectral structure, either at syllable’s end or earlier in the syllable. Results showed that all listeners weighted dynamic spectral structure, both at syllable’s end and earlier in the syllable, more than vocalic duration, and listeners performed with these synthetic stimuli as listeners had performed previously with natural stimuli. The conclusion for accounts of human speech perception is that rather than simply gathering acoustic cues and summing them to derive strings of phonemic segments, listeners are able to attend to global spectral structure, and use it to help recover explicitly phonetic structure. PMID:18177167

  6. A stopping criterion to halt iterations at the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution of radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, G. L.; Silvani, M. I.; Souza, E. S.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Radiographic images, as any experimentally acquired ones, are affected by spoiling agents which degrade their final quality. The degradation caused by agents of systematic character, can be reduced by some kind of treatment such as an iterative deconvolution. This approach requires two parameters, namely the system resolution and the best number of iterations in order to achieve the best final image. This work proposes a novel procedure to estimate the best number of iterations, which replaces the cumbersome visual inspection by a comparison of numbers. These numbers are deduced from the image histograms, taking into account the global difference G between them for two subsequent iterations. The developed algorithm, including a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution procedure has been embodied into a Fortran program capable to plot the 1st derivative of G as the processing progresses and to stop it automatically when this derivative - within the data dispersion - reaches zero. The radiograph of a specially chosen object acquired with thermal neutrons from the Argonauta research reactor at Institutode Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone this treatment with fair results.

  7. Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2008-01-01

    Traditional accounts of speech perception generally hold that listeners use isolable acoustic "cues" to label phonemes. For syllable-final stops, duration of the preceding vocalic portion and formant transitions at syllable's end have been considered the primary cues to voicing decisions. The current experiment tried to extend traditional accounts by asking two questions concerning voicing decisions by adults and children: (1) What weight is given to vocalic duration versus spectral structure, both at syllable's end and across the syllable? (2) Does the naturalness of stimuli affect labeling? Adults and children (4, 6, and 8 years old) labeled synthetic stimuli that varied in vocalic duration and spectral structure, either at syllable's end or earlier in the syllable. Results showed that all listeners weighted dynamic spectral structure, both at syllable's end and earlier in the syllable, more than vocalic duration, and listeners performed with these synthetic stimuli as listeners had performed previously with natural stimuli. The conclusion for accounts of human speech perception is that rather than simply gathering acoustic cues and summing them to derive strings of phonemic segments, listeners are able to attend to global spectral structure, and use it to help recover explicitly phonetic structure. PMID:18177167

  8. Ultraslow, stopped, and compressed light in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Zachary John

    We present theoretical analysis and experimental results of methods to achieve and use ultraslow light (USL), stopped light, and compressed light in sodium Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We present applications of these methods to study and harness both the coherent and superfluid properties of BECs. A description of the propagation of probe and coupling laser fields in three-level Λ configuration atoms is presented in a semiclassical description. This formalism is used to derive how electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and USL arise. We present novel theoretical results on the effect a fourth level, and effects of nonlinearities associated with a strong probe. Experimental demonstration of ultraslow light is presented. A description which includes atomic motion in Bose-condensed samples of alkali atoms is developed in a mean field description and coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations are derived. A numerical code which solves these equations is presented. An analytic and numerical analysis reveal the limits on ultraslow light and compressed light imposed by the external atomic dynamics. We then show that using USL and switching the coupling field off allows storage of the coherent probe pulse information (amplitude and phase) in the atomic fields. Switching the coupling beam back on writes the coherent information back onto the probe field. Experimental demonstration is presented. We present experimental data and theoretical analysis showing how stopping light in a BEC creates an atom laser with the highest reported phase space density flux to date. Alternatively, reviving the probe pulse after significant BEC dynamics can be used to process the information before it is written back onto the probe. Possible applications to quantum processing are discussed. We then present results on a light "roadblock", whereby blocking part of the coupling field spatially compresses probe pulses to sizes on the order of the condensate healing length. The compressed

  9. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Global Images See the Light of Day     View Larger Image ... than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced reflection of light by atmospheric particulates. MISR data are processed at the ...

  10. Stopping Power and Transport in Warm and Hot Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Stopping power is not only of direct relevance to the heating of fusion-burning plasmas and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion, but also serves as a velocity-resolved probe of the many-body response of plasma. The accuracy of a model for a set of plasma conditions and projectile energy and charge serves as a detailed test of collision operators and their predicted transport coefficients. Classical molecular dynamics studies can tell us much about the relative importance of strong scattering, nonlinear screening, and inter-particle correlations of a uniform plasma. The dominant quantum correction for hot dense matter is quantum diffraction, which can be experimentally confirmed. However, the presence of bound states and inhomogeneous electronic structure in warm dense matter requires more sophisticated models. These models fall into two main classes: the local density approximation and bound-free splitting. High-precision experiments (~ 3%) can now confirm such approximations, but a full survey of parameter space must be done. I will put these models in a unified framework and discuss their relationship. Support is gratefully acknowledged from Grant DE14-017426.

  11. Tissue Thermal Property Reconstruction by Stopping Heating And Perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, C.; Uchida, T.; Ooba, T.; Inoue, K.

    In this paper, we report robust noninvasive techniques for reconstructing the thermal properties of living tissues, such as thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and thermal diffusivity, for the diagnosis, monitoring and planning of thermal treatments such as high-intensity focus ultrasound (HIFU). Internal tissue temperature distributions can be measured using ultrasonic imaging or magnetic resonance imaging. Provided that the reference thermal properties of living tissues are given in the region of interest (ROI) as initial conditions, we can determine thermal property distributions by solving bioheat transfer equations as simultaneous first-order partial differential equations having temperature distributions as inhomogeneous coefficients. By using the reported technique, the perfusion by blood flow and thermal sources or sinks can also be reconstructed. However, in this study, we perform reconstruction after stopping heating and perfusion; only the thermal properties of living tissues can be reconstructed under such conditions. Simulations were conducted to verify the feasibility of the reconstruction. A minimally invasive thermal treatment will be realized by using our proposed reconstruction technique.

  12. Stopping Power for Strong Beam-Plasma Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Dirk O.

    2001-10-01

    The slowing down process of charged particles in plasma targets is investigated for the case of strong beam-plasma coupling. Strong beam-plasma correlations can be considered using the collision operator of the quantum Boltzmann equation. As a first step, dynamic screening is included in the first Born approximation. This approach gives good results for moderate beam-plasma coupling (Zb Γ^3/2 < 0.2) but fails for strong coupling. In the latter regime, one has to include dynamic screening effects also in terms beyound the first Born approximation. This can be done approximately applying a velocity dependent screening length. A comparison with other models, e.g. the Bethe-formula, the standard model of the stopping power (Bethe plus Bloch corrections and Barkas terms), the Li & Petrasso formula and simulation data (MD and PIC), is given. This comparison clearly shows the advantage of the proposed model: it smoothly interpolates between the classical low velocity regime, where strong coupling effects occur, and the high velocity quantum regime, where collective modes are important. In the latter case, the experimentally proven Bethe-formula is obtained. Furthermore, it matches the simulation data for moderate as well as strong beam-plasma coupling.

  13. Mean excitation energy for the stopping power of light elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Y.; Inokuti, M.; Karstens, W.; Shiles, E.

    2006-09-01

    We have evaluated the mean excitation energy or I value for Coulomb excitations by swift charged particles passing through carbon, aluminum and silicon. A self-consistent Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to treat X-ray optical spectra now available from synchrotron light sources allowing us to carry out Bethe's original program of evaluating I from the observed dielectric response. We find that the K and L shell are the dominant contributors to I in these light elements and that the contribution of valence electrons is relatively small, primarily because of their low binding energy. The optical data indicate that Si and Al have nearly equal I values, in contrast to Bloch's Thomas-Fermi result, I ∝ Z. The optically based I values for C and Al are in excellent agreement with experiment. However, the dielectric-response I value for Si is 164 ± 2 eV, at variance with the commonly quoted value of 173 ± 3 eV derived from stopping-power measurements.

  14. Analysis and Prediction of Weather Impacted Ground Stop Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2014-01-01

    When the air traffic demand is expected to exceed the available airport's capacity for a short period of time, Ground Stop (GS) operations are implemented by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The GS requires departing aircraft meeting specific criteria to remain on the ground to achieve reduced demands at the constrained destination airport until the end of the GS. This paper provides a high-level overview of the statistical distributions as well as causal factors for the GSs at the major airports in the United States. The GS's character, the weather impact on GSs, GS variations with delays, and the interaction between GSs and Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) are investigated. The machine learning methods are used to generate classification models that map the historical airport weather forecast, schedule traffic, and other airport conditions to implemented GS/GDP operations and the models are evaluated using the cross-validations. This modeling approach produced promising results as it yielded an 85% overall classification accuracy to distinguish the implemented GS days from the normal days without GS and GDP operations and a 71% accuracy to differentiate the GS and GDP implemented days from the GDP only days.

  15. Bubble wall velocity in the minimal supersymmetric light stop scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephan J.; Sopena, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    We build on existing calculations of the wall velocity of the expanding bubbles of the broken symmetry phase in a first-order electroweak phase transition within the light stop scenario (LSS) of the MSSM. We carry out the analysis using the 2-loop thermal potential for values of the Higgs mass consistent with present experimental bounds. Our approach relies on describing the interaction between the bubble and the hot plasma by a single friction parameter, which we fix by matching to an existing 1-loop computation and extrapolate to our regime of interest. For a sufficiently strong phase transition (in which washout of the newly created baryon asymmetry is prevented) we obtain values of the wall velocity, vw≈0.05, far below the speed of sound in the medium, and not very much deviating from the previous 1-loop calculation. We find that the phase transition is about 10% stronger than suggested by simply evaluating the thermal potential at the critical temperature. We also comment on the relevance of our results to extended models, such as the NMSSM.

  16. True stopping of light: a new regime for nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L.; Zhang, Xiang; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-09-01

    The extremely large speed of light is a tremendous asset but also makes it challenging to control, store or shrink beyond its wavelength. Particularly, reducing the speed of light down to zero is of fundamental scientific interest that could usher in a host of important photonic applications, some of which are hitherto fundamentally inaccessible. These include cavity-free, low-threshold nanolasers, novel solar-cell designs for efficient harvesting of light, nanoscale quantum information processing (owing to the enhanced density of states), as well as enhanced biomolecular sensing. We shall here present nanoplasmonic-based schemes where timedependent sources excite "complex-frequency" modes in uniform (plasmonic) heterostructures, enabling complete and dispersion-free stopping of light pulses, resilient to realistic levels of dissipative, radiative and surface-roughness losses. Our theoretical and computational results demonstrate extraordinary large lightdeceleration factors (of the order of 15,000,000) in integrated nanophotonic media, comparable only to those attainable with ultracold atomic vapours or with quantum coherence effects, such as coherent population oscillations, in ruby crystals.

  17. Stopping tuberculosis: a biosocial model for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Salomon, Joshua A; Bärnighausen, Till; Atun, Rifat

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculosis transmission and progression are largely driven by social factors such as poor living conditions and poor nutrition. Increased standards of living and social approaches helped to decrease the burden of tuberculosis before the introduction of chemotherapy in the 1940s. Since then, management of tuberculosis has been largely biomedical. More funding for tuberculosis since 2000, coinciding with the Millennium Development Goals, has yielded progress in tuberculosis mortality but smaller reductions in incidence, which continues to pose a risk to sustainable development, especially in poor and susceptible populations. These at-risk populations need accelerated progress to end tuberculosis as resolved by the World Health Assembly in 2015. Effectively addressing the worldwide tuberculosis burden will need not only enhancement of biomedical approaches but also rebuilding of the social approaches of the past. To combine a biosocial approach, underpinned by social, economic, and environmental actions, with new treatments, new diagnostics, and universal health coverage, will need multisectoral coordination and action involving the health and other governmental sectors, as well as participation of the civil society, and especially the poor and susceptible populations. A biosocial approach to stopping tuberculosis will not only target morbidity and mortality from disease but would also contribute substantially to poverty alleviation and sustainable development that promises to meet the needs of the present, especially the poor, and provide them and subsequent generations an opportunity for a better future. PMID:26515678

  18. Pharmacological adjuncts to stop bleeding: options and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Panteli, M; Pountos, I; Giannoudis, P V

    2016-06-01

    Severe trauma and massive haemorrhage represent the leading cause of death and disability in patients under the age of 45 years in the developed world. Even though much advancement has been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology and management of trauma, outcomes from massive haemorrhage remain poor. This can be partially explained by the development of coagulopathy, acidosis and hypothermia, a pathological process collectively known as the "lethal triad" of trauma. A number of pharmacological adjuncts have been utilised to stop bleeding, with a wide variation in the safety and efficacy profiles. Antifibrinolytic agents in particular, act by inhibiting the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, therefore decreasing the degree of fibrinolysis. Tranexamic acid, the most commonly used antifibrinolytic agent, has been successfully incorporated into most trauma management protocols effectively reducing mortality and morbidity following trauma. In this review, we discuss the current literature with regard to the management of haemorrhage following trauma, with a special reference to the use of pharmacological adjuncts. Novel insights, concepts and treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:26660675

  19. Stop before you saccade: Looking into an artificial peripheral scotoma

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Christian P.; Verghese, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether adults with healthy vision can move their eyes toward an informative target area that is initially hidden by a gaze-contingent scotoma in the periphery when they are under time pressure. In the experimental task, participants had to perform an object-comparison task requiring a same–different judgment about two silhouettes. One silhouette was visible, whereas the other was hidden under the scotoma. Despite time pressure and the presence of the visible silhouette, most participants were able to move their eyes toward the informative region to reveal the hidden silhouette. Saccades to the hidden stimulus occurred when the visible stimulus was presented directly opposite in either fixed or variable locations and when the visible stimulus was presented at an adjacent location. Older participants were also able to perform this task. First saccades in the direction of the hidden stimulus had longer latencies compared with saccades toward the visible stimulus. This suggests the use of a deliberate, nonreflexive saccade strategy (“stop before you saccade”). A subset of participants occasionally made curved saccades that were aimed first toward the visible stimulus and then toward the hidden stimulus. We discuss the implications of our findings for patients who have a biological scotoma, for example, in macular degeneration. PMID:26067525

  20. Relation of Vocal Tract Shape, Formant Transitions, and Stop Consonant Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Brad H.; Bunton, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the relation of formant transitions to place-of-articulation for stop consonants. A speech production model was used to generate simulated utterances containing voiced stop consonants, and a perceptual experiment was performed to test their identification by listeners. Method: Based on a model…

  1. Perception of Stop Onset Spectra in Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra…

  2. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.22 Emergency...

  3. Tongue Palate Contact Patterns of Velar Stops in Normal Adult English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent…

  4. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  5. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  6. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  7. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  8. Investigation of the ratio of proton-stopping cross sections in Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Semrad, D.; Golser, R.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the ratio of stopping cross sections may help in determining best values from measurements. The case of Ag and Au is discussed, where theoretical considerations show that this ratio always has a value smaller than 1. This is confirmed experimentally for proton energies larger than 70 keV, in contradiction to all published stopping-power tabulations.

  9. NOW vs. Stop ERA: Unequal Messages on the Equal Rights Amendment, January-June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study examined the content of direct mail materials, distributed by the National Organization for Women (NOW) and Stop ERA groups, favoring or opposing passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. It was expected that NOW's pieces would concentrate on counteracting or counterattacking Stop ERA's arguments against the amendment (military draft, lesbian…

  10. First- and third-order analysis of aperture stop location in infrared zoom lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Allen

    1995-10-01

    First and third order principles for location of the aperture stop in infrared zoom lens systems are discussed. Factors to be considered include lens diameters, third order aberrations, chromatic correction, and illumination requirements at the image plane. In particular, the importance of aperture stop location in infrared applications is considered. An example illustrating these principles is presented.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations on the water-to-air stopping power ratio for carbon ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Henkner, Katrin; Bassler, Niels; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Jaekel, Oliver

    2009-04-15

    Many papers discussed the I value for water given by the ICRU, concluding that a value of about 80{+-}2 eV instead of 67.2 eV would reproduce measured ion depth-dose curves. A change in the I value for water would have an effect on the stopping power and, hence, on the water-to-air stopping power ratio, which is important in clinical dosimetry of proton and ion beams. For energies ranging from 50 to 330 MeV/u and for one spread out Bragg peak, the authors compare the impact of the I value on the water-to-air stopping power ratio. The authors calculate ratios from different ICRU stopping power tables and ICRU reports. The stopping power ratio is calculated via track-length dose calculation with SHIELD-HIT07. In the calculations, the stopping power ratio is reduced to a value of 1.119 in the plateau region as compared to the cited value of 1.13 in IAEA TRS-398. At low energies the stopping power ratio increases by up to 6% in the last few tenths of a mm toward the Bragg peak. For a spread out Bragg peak of 13.5 mm width at 130 mm depth, the stopping power ratio increases by about 1% toward the distal end.

  12. Tracking move-stop-move targets with state-dependent mode transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for tracking ground moving targets with a GMTI radar. To avoid detection by the GMTI radar, targets can deliberately stop for some time before moving again. The GMTI radar does not detect a target when the radial velocity (along the line-of-sight from the sensor) falls below a certain minimum detectable velocity (MDV). We develop a new approach by using state-dependent mode transition probabilities to track move-stop-move targets. Since in a real scenario, the maximum deceleration is always limited, a target can not switch to the stopped-target model from a high speed. Therefore, with the use of the stopped-target model, the Markov chain of the mode switching has jump probabilities that depend on the target's kinematic state. A mode transition matrix with zero jump probabilities to the stopped-target mode is used when the speed is above a certain "stopping" limit (above which the target cannot stop in one sampling interval, designated as "fast stage") and another transition matrix with non-zero jump probabilities to the stopped-target mode is used when the speed is below this limit (designated as "slow stage"). The stage probabilities are calculated using the kinematic state statistics from the IMM estimator and then used to combine the state-dependent mode transition probabilities (SDP) in the two different transition matrices. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  13. Issues in Education: Epistemology, Phenomenology, and Reflection--A "Stop, Look, and Listen" for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood learning is full of easy-to-remember directions. Recall such advice as "Stop, look, and listen" before one crosses the street and "Stop, drop, and roll" if one's clothes catch on fire. These sayings are clear and concise with specific instruction about what to do in a critical situation. As a teacher educator who has been in the field…

  14. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an eligible couple. 416.1830 Section 416.1830 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple, even if you both remain eligible, at the beginning of whichever...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an eligible couple. 416.1830 Section 416.1830 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple, even if you both remain eligible, at the beginning of whichever...

  16. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Stop Consonant Production in Normal and Down's Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study of four normal children, 18 to 36 months old, and five Down's syndrome (DS) children, 3 to 6 years old, analyzed the development of stop consonants and stop clusters. Although similar sound patterns were observed for the two groups, the DS children showed considerable performance delay. (DB)

  17. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (II-A mines). 57.22219... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22219 Seals and stoppings (II-A mines... fire resistance. (b) Seals shall be of substantial construction. Exposed surfaces on the fresh air...

  2. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... maintenance of a One-Stop delivery system that enhances the range and quality of workforce development... may include: (1) A network of affiliated sites that can provide one or more partners' programs, services and activities at each site; (2) A network of One-Stop partners through which each...

  3. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintenance of a One-Stop delivery system that enhances the range and quality of workforce development... may include: (1) A network of affiliated sites that can provide one or more partners' programs, services and activities at each site; (2) A network of One-Stop partners through which each...

  4. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... maintenance of a One-Stop delivery system that enhances the range and quality of workforce development... may include: (1) A network of affiliated sites that can provide one or more partners' programs, services and activities at each site; (2) A network of One-Stop partners through which each...

  5. Comparing the Performance of Five Multidimensional CAT Selection Procedures with Different Stopping Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Through simulated data, five multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) selection procedures with varying test lengths are examined and compared using different stopping rules. Fixed item exposure rates are used for all the items, and the Priority Index (PI) method is used for the content constraints. Two stopping rules, standard error…

  6. Astrocytes Block Axonal Regeneration in Mammals by Activating the Physiological Stop Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, Francis J.; Lasek, Raymond J.

    1987-08-01

    Regenerating sensory axons in the dorsal roots of adult mammals are stopped at the junction between the root and spinal cord by reactive astrocytes. Do these cells stop axonal elongation by activating the physiological mechanisms that normally operate to stop axons during development, or do they physically obstruct the elongating axons? In order to distinguish these possibilities, the cytology of the axon tips of regenerating axons that were stopped by astrocytes was compared with the axon tips that were physically obstructed at a cul-de-sac produced by ligating a peripheral nerve. The terminals of the physically obstructed axon tips were distended with neurofilaments and other axonally transported structures that had accumulated when the axons stopped elongating. By contrast, neurofilaments did not accumulate in the tips of regenerating axons that were stopped by spinal cord astrocytes at the dorsal root transitional zone. These axo-glial terminals resembled the terminals that axons make on target neurons during normal development. On the basis of these observations, astrocytes appear to stop axons from regenerating in the mammalian spinal cord by activating the physiological stop pathway that is built into the axon and that normally operates when axons form stable terminals on target cells.

  7. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  8. Spread the Word: The Stop.Think.Connect.[TM] Community Outreach Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Stop.Think.Connect. Community Outreach Toolkit" was adapted from the Federal Trade Commission's "OnGuardOnline.gov," a project that provides practical tips to help guard against Internet fraud and protect your privacy. The kit will help you offer your community information about protecting kids online. It includes "Stop.Think.Connect.," a…

  9. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; Tonnesen, Alexandra L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014). In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post hoc analyses showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings, as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm. PMID:26579025

  10. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  11. When Do Students Stop-Out? Data Notes. Volume 4, Number 2, March/April 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue of "Data Notes" is the first of a two-part series investigating which academic terms have the highest frequency of stop-outs at Achieving the Dream colleges. In this issue, students who stop out during high-frequency terms are examined by enrollment status, gender, and…

  12. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  13. Nonlinear effects contributing to hand-stopping tones in a horn.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Hand stopping is a technique for playing the French horn while closing the bell relatively tightly using the right hand. The resulting timbre is called "penetrating" and "metallic." The effect of hand stopping on the horn input impedance has been studied, but the tone quality has hardly ever been considered. In the present paper, the dominant physical cause of the stopped-tone quality is discussed in detail. Numerical calculations of the transmission function of the stopped-horn model and the measurements of both sound pressure and wall vibration in hand stopping are carried out. They strongly suggest that the metallicness of the stopped tone is characterized by the generation of higher harmonics extending over 10 kHz due to the rapidly corrugating waveform and that the associated wall vibration on the bell may be responsible for this higher harmonic generation. However, excitation experiments and immobilization experiments performed to elucidate the relationship between sound radiation and wall vibration deny their correlation. Instead, the measurement result of the mouthpiece pressure in hand stopping suggests that minute wave corrugations peculiar to the metallic stopped tones are probably formed by nonlinear sound propagation along the bore. PMID:23654412

  14. Meeting Employers' Needs: How One-Stop Centers Can Attract Business Customers. Business Assistance Note #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri

    The U.S. Department of Labor's One-Stop Career Center initiative is part of the movement of governments to increase the quality and efficiency of their services. One-stop centers bring together public and private resources to meet individuals' and employers' human resource development and labor market needs. In order to meet employers' needs,…

  15. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  16. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  17. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  18. The Intentional Archivist: What Jonathan Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always seeking the meaning behind her educational practice with children, colleagues, and the institution in which she works on a daily basis. Dr. Jonathon Silin's thinking around loss, collective memory and social amnesia resonate strongly with her (Silin, 2011). In this article, the possibilities of intentionally…

  19. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient. PMID:26367826

  20. Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Ken; Ohmae, Takao; Suwaki, Hironori; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests with an idling-stop vehicle. It was found that the improved VRLA battery was suited to idling-stop applications because it had a smaller capacity loss than the conventional flooded battery during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation. The positive grid was corroded in layers, unlike the usual grain boundary corrosion of SLI battery grid. It is because the corrosion proceeded mainly under PSoC conditions. The corrosion rate could be controlled by potential control of positive plates.

  1. Assessing inhibitory control: a revised approach to the stop signal task.

    PubMed

    Carter, J D; Farrow, M; Silberstein, R B; Stough, C; Tucker, A; Pipingas, A

    2003-06-01

    The stop signal task (stop task) is designed to assess inhibitory control and is a frequently used research tool in clinical disorders such as ADHD and schizophrenia. Previous methods of setting stop signal delay and of assessing inhibitory control are problematic. The current study reports two modifications that improve the task as a measure of inhibitory control. The first modification was to set stop signal delays proportional to go mean reaction time (go MRT) to better account for inter-subject variability in go MRT. Twenty-eight normal children were tested, and all standard, stop task dependent measures were obtained when delays were set by this method. The second modification was to calculate a novel dependent measure called the area of inhibition (AOI) which provides a more complete measure of inhibitory control than the slope of the relative finishing time z-scores (ZRFT-slope). Implications for the assessment of inhibitory control in clinical populations are discussed. PMID:12931073

  2. The effect of stopping before turning on the direct observational measure of whole body turning bias.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J D; Strike, S C

    2016-06-01

    Turning bias, the preferential tendency to turn toward a given direction has been reported in both rodents and human participants. The observational gait method of determining turning bias in humans requires a stop prior to turning. This study removed the stop and hypothesised that turning bias would remain the same between stop and non-stop conditions if bias was solely under the control of neurochemical asymmetries. The results showed that statistically turning bias remained the same (to the left) regardless of method used but there was no agreement between the methods thus rejecting the hypothesis. It is likely that when not stopping biomechanical factors related to gait when turning influence the direction of turn rather than solely neurochemical asymmetries. PMID:26974038

  3. Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan

    2014-10-01

    This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier-Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4-5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation.

  4. Stopped light in a cylindrical waveguide with metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yan Ling; Liu, Wei; Gu, Yiwei; School of Information Science; Tech Team

    2016-05-01

    The unique property of the novel type of left-handed material (LHM) is that it can support propagating wave with the group velocity and Poynting vector opposite to the wave vector. We propose a cylindrical waveguide with its core and cladding filled with right-handed material (RHM) and LHM, respectively, to investigate the sign-varying energy fluxes and their cancellation and to explore the new mechanism of stopping light. The normalized total energy flux is introduced as P =P1/+P2 |P1 | + |P2 | where Pi (i = 1,2) is the power confined in the waveguide core and cladding, respectively. There exist three situations: (1) P > 0 means P1 > |P2 | ; the propagation is in the forward mode; (2) P < 0 implies P1 < |P2 | this is the condition for the backward wave; (3) P = 0 means P1 = |P2 | ; the energy fluxes in core and cladding fully cancels each other, the light-wave propagation comes to a complete standstill with the group velocity reducing to zero, and the energy is stored in the waveguide completely. For modes TE0n and TM0n we theoretically derive the expression of the normalized energy fluxes. As μ2 < 0 means the energy flux in the LHM cladding is negative, opposite to the phase velocity, the energy fluxes between the RHM core and LHM cladding may cancel each other. The total energy flux thus becomes zero. The numerical simulation shows that with appropriate electromagnetic frequency and waveguide core radius, the electromagnetic waves can reach a complete standstill. We consider two popularly used Drude models in the microwave and optical domains. This abstract is replacing DAMOP16-2016-000110.

  5. StopApp: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to Develop an App to Increase Uptake and Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Emily Anne; Brown, Katherine E.; Kwah, Kayleigh L.; Wild, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Smokers who attend NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are four times more likely to stop smoking; however, uptake has been in decline. We report the development of an intervention designed to increase uptake of SSS, from a more motivated self-selected sample of smokers. In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and Phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis, as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. Relevant Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) were identified in order to address these, informing the content of the StopApp intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the StopApp. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers to attending SSS, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at SSS (Capability); the belief that SSS is not easy to access (Opportunity); that there would be ’scare tactics’ or ‘nagging’; and not knowing anyone who had been and successfully quit (Motivation). The ‘StopApp’ is in development and will link in with the commissioned SSS booking system. Examples of the content and functionality of the app are outlined. The next phase will involve a full trial to test effectiveness. PMID:27417619

  6. Evidence for interaction between the stop signal and the Stroop task conflict.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai

    2013-04-01

    Performance of the Stroop task reflects two conflicts--informational (between the incongruent word and ink color) and task (between relevant color naming and irrelevant word reading). The task conflict is usually not visible, and is only seen when task control is damaged. Using the stop-signal paradigm, a few studies demonstrated longer stop-signal reaction times for incongruent trials than for congruent trials. This indicates interaction between stopping and the informational conflict. Here we suggest that "zooming in" on task-control failure trials will reveal another interaction--between stopping and task conflict. To examine this suggestion, we combined stop-signal and Stroop tasks in the same experiment. When participants' control failed and erroneous responses to a stop signal occurred, a reverse facilitation emerged in the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and this was eliminated using methods that manipulated the emergence of the reverse facilitation (Experiment 2). Results from both experiments were replicated when all stimuli were used in the same task (Experiment 3). In erroneous response trials, only the task conflict increased, not the informational conflict. These results indicate that task conflict and stop-signal inhibition share a common control mechanism that is dissociable from the control mechanism activated by the informational conflict. PMID:22390293

  7. Global militarization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  8. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  9. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on topics related to global issues. (1) "Recycling for Art Projects" (Wendy Stephenson) gives an argument for recycling in the art classroom; (2) "Winds of Change: Tradition and Innovation in Circumpolar Art" (Bill Zuk and Robert Dalton) includes profiles of Alaskan Yupik artist, Larry Beck, who creates art from recycled…

  10. Campus Global.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sort, Josep

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of the Campus Global portal at a public university in Spain. The project aimed to change the ways in which the university community worked, taught, and learned. Examines how the project was carried out, the transformations it instigated inside the organization, the improvements it has brought about, and the current state…

  11. Electronic stopping power for heavy ions in SiC and SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Grove, David A.; Xue, Haizhou; Xue, Jianming; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information of electronic stopping power is fundamental for broad advances in electronic industry, space exploration, national security, and sustainable energy technologies. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code has been widely applied to predict stopping powers and ion distributions for decades. Recent experimental results have, however, shown considerable errors in the SRIM predictions for stopping of heavy ions in compounds containing light elements, indicating an urgent need to improve current stopping power models. The electronic stopping powers of 35Cl, 80Br, 127I, and 197Au ions are experimentally determined in two important functional materials, SiC and SiO2, from tens to hundreds keV/u based on a single ion technique. By combining with the reciprocity theory, new electronic stopping powers are suggested in a region from 0 to 15 MeV, where large deviations from SRIM predictions are observed. For independent experimental validation of the electronic stopping powers we determined, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are utilized to measure the depth profiles of implanted Au ions in SiC with energies from 700 keV to 15 MeV. The measured ion distributions from both RBS and SIMS are considerably deeper (up to ~30%) than the predictions from the commercial SRIM code. In comparison, the new electronic stopping power values are utilized in a modified TRIM-85 (the original version of the SRIM) code, M-TRIM, to predict ion distributions, and the results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured ion distributions.

  12. Pinning down response inhibition in the brain – conjunction analyses of the Stop-signal task

    PubMed Central

    Boehler, CN; Appelbaum, LG; Krebs, RM; Hopf, JM; Woldorff, MG

    2010-01-01

    Successful behavior requires a finely-tuned interplay of initiating and inhibiting motor programs to react effectively to constantly changing environmental demands. One particularly useful paradigm for investigating inhibitory motor control is the Stop-signal task, where already-initiated responses to Go-stimuli are to be inhibited upon the rapid subsequent presentation of a Stop-stimulus (yielding successful and unsuccessful Stop-trials). Despite the extensive use of this paradigm in functional neuroimaging, there is no consensus on which functional comparison to use to characterize response-inhibition-related brain activity. Here, we utilize conjunction analyses of successful and unsuccessful Stop-trials that are each contrasted against a reference condition. This conjunction approach identifies processes common to both Stop-trial types while excluding processes specific to either, thereby capitalizing on the presence of some response-inhibition-related activity in both conditions. Using this approach on fMRI data from human subjects, we identify a network of brain structures that was linked to both types of Stop-trials, including lateral-inferior-frontal and medial-frontal cortical areas and the caudate nucleus. In addition, comparisons with a reference condition matched for visual stimulation identified additional activity in the right inferior parietal cortex that may play a role in enhancing the processing of the Stop-stimuli. Finally, differences in stopping efficacy across subjects were associated with variations in activity in the left anterior insula. However, this region was also associated with general task accuracy (which furthermore correlated directly with stopping efficacy), suggesting that it might actually reflect a more general mechanism of performance control that supports response inhibition in a relatively nonspecific way. PMID:20452445

  13. Fusion of forward looking infrared and ground penetrating radar for improved stopping distances in landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2014-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a popular sensing modality for buried threat detection that offers low false alarm rates (FARs), but suffers from a short detection stopping or standoff distance. This short stopping distance leaves little time for the system operator to react when a threat is detected, limiting the speed of advance. This problem arises, in part, because of the way GPR data is typically processed. GPR data is first prescreened to reduce the volume of data considered for higher level feature-processing. Although fast, prescreening introduces latency that delays the feature processing and lowers the stopping distance of the system. In this work we propose a novel sensor fusion framework where a forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera is used as a prescreener, providing suspicious locations to the GPRbased system with zero latency. The FLIR camera is another detection modality that typically yields a higher FAR than GPR while offering much larger stopping distances. This makes it well-suited in the role of a zero-latency prescreener. In this framework, GPR-based feature processing can begin without any latency, improving stopping distances. This framework was evaluated using well-known FLIR and GPR detection algorithms on a large dataset collected at a Western US test site. Experiments were conducted to investigate the tradeoff between early stopping distance and FAR. The results indicate that earlier stopping distances are achievable while maintaining effective FARs. However, because an earlier stopping distance yields less data for feature extraction, there is a general tradeoff between detection performance and stopping distance.

  14. Le Coup de glotte et comment s'en debarrasser (The Glottal Stop and how to Overcome It).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozzello, Yvonne Rochette

    1989-01-01

    The phonological phenomenon of the glottal stop in English is explained. Difficulties encountered by native English speakers in avoiding the use of the glottal stop in French pronunciation are discussed, and techniques for helping students overcome it are explained. (MSE)

  15. Long-lived stop at the LHC with or without R-parity

    SciTech Connect

    Covi, L.; Dradi, F. E-mail: federico.dradi@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2014-10-01

    We consider scenarios of gravitino LSP and DM with stop NLSP both within R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry (RPC and RPV SUSY, respectively). We discuss cosmological bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the gravitino abundance and then concentrate on the signals of long-lived stops at the LHC as displaced vertices or metastable particles. Finally we discuss how to distinguish R-parity conserving and R-parity breaking stop decays if they happen within the detector and how to suppress SM backgrounds.

  16. Measurements of Ion Stopping Around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    For the first time, quantitative measurements of ion stopping at energies around the Bragg peak (or peak ion stopping, which occurs at an ion velocity comparable to the average thermal electron velocity), and its dependence on electron temperature (Te ) and electron number density (ne ) in the range of 0.5-4.0 keV and 3 ×1022 to 3 ×1023 cm-3 have been conducted, respectively. It is experimentally demonstrated that the position and amplitude of the Bragg peak varies strongly with Te with ne . The importance of including quantum diffraction is also demonstrated in the stopping-power modeling of high-energy-density plasmas.

  17. Optimization of the muon stopping target for the MU2E collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Zachary Donovan

    2013-01-01

    The Mu2e Experiment utilizes state of the art accelerators, superconducting magnets, detectors, electronics, and other equipment to maximize the sensitivity to such a rare process. Many of the components of the Mu2e hardware are critical to the overall physics capability of the experiment. The muon stopping target, where muons are stopped and may interact via this very rare process, is one such component where any improvements beyond the base design can have a significant impact on the experiment. This thesis explores possible modifications to the geometry of the muon stopping target. The goal is to determine if any modifications can improve the sensitivity of observing the muon conversion process.

  18. Inter-STOP symbol distances for the identification of coding regions.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Carlos A C; Afreixo, Vera; Garcia, Sara P; Pinho, Armando J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential of inter-STOP symbol distances for finding coding regions in DNA sequences. We use the distance between STOP symbols in the DNA sequence and a chi-square statistic to evaluate the nonhomogeneity of the three possible reading frames and the occurrence of one long distance in one of the frames. The results of this exploratory study suggest that inter-STOP symbol distances have strong ability to discriminate coding regions in prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes. PMID:24231144

  19. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  20. The roles of STOP1-like transcription factors in aluminum and proton tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) and proton (H(+)) are 2 coexisting rhizotoxicities limiting plant growth in acid soils. Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity (STOP) 1-like zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in regulating expression of downstream genes involved in tolerance mechanism of either stress. In this mini-review, we summarized recent advances in characterizing STOP1-like proteins with respect to plant Al and H(+) tolerance. The possible involvement of structure-function of STOP1-like proteins in differential regulation of Al and H(+) tolerance are discussed. In addition, we also direct research in this area to protein phosphorylation. PMID:26689896

  1. The roles of STOP1-like transcription factors in aluminum and proton tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aluminum (Al) and proton (H+) are 2 coexisting rhizotoxicities limiting plant growth in acid soils. Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity (STOP) 1-like zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in regulating expression of downstream genes involved in tolerance mechanism of either stress. In this mini-review, we summarized recent advances in characterizing STOP1-like proteins with respect to plant Al and H+ tolerance. The possible involvement of structure-function of STOP1-like proteins in differential regulation of Al and H+ tolerance are discussed. In addition, we also direct research in this area to protein phosphorylation. PMID:26689896

  2. Shielding design of electron beam stop for Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.

    1996-03-01

    An electron beam stop was designed to allow workers to be present in the experimental area while the accelerators are producing electron beam pulses. The beam stop is composed of a graphite region to stop the electron pulses and a surrounding tungsten region to attenuate photons produced by electron transport in the graphite. Radiation-transport dose calculations were performed to set the dimensions of the graphite and tungsten regions. To reduce calculational effort, electron transport in the graphite was calculated separately from photon dose transport to worker locations. The source for photon dose transport was generated by tallying photons emerging from the graphite during electron transport.

  3. Low-reflection region within the stop band of a finite or absorbing periodic multilayer.

    PubMed

    Lekner, John

    2016-09-01

    Nonabsorbing periodic multilayers reflect both the s(TE) and p(TM) polarizations strongly within the respective stop bands. We find that finite or weakly absorbing layers, for which the reflection is usually strong within the stop bands, can have zero or very weak reflection of the p polarization near the middle of the stop band, close to glancing incidence. Approximate expressions are derived for the location (in angle of incidence and frequency) of the reflection minimum and compared with calculated reflectances for specific multilayers. PMID:27607484

  4. Process of stopping atoms with the Zeeman tuning technique with a single laser

    SciTech Connect

    Firmino, M.E.; Faria Leite, C.A.; Zilio, S.C.; Bagnato, V.S. )

    1990-04-01

    We report an observation of atoms stopped by laser light in an experiment using the Zeeman tuning technique. In contrast to previous experiments using the same technique, we are able to stop the atoms outside the slower solenoid using a single laser. The deceleration process is monitored through the measurement of the fluorescence along the deceleration path in such a way that the slower laser is also used for diagnosis. This technique also permits the realization of a few interesting observations on the process such as the position where the atoms stop scattering photons.

  5. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  6. Stop and restart of granular clock in a vibrated compartmentalized bidisperse granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi-Yi; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a bidisperse granular mixture consisting of two species of stainless steel spheres in a vertically vibrated compartmentalized container. The experiments show that with proper vibration acceleration, the granular clock stops when horizontal segregation of the large spheres residing in the far end from the barrier wall occurs. When the segregation is broken, the granular clock restarts. We present the phase diagrams of vibration acceleration versus container width and small particle number, which exhibits three different regions, namely, clustering state, stop-restart of the granular clock, and the granular clock. A generalized flux model is proposed to reproduce the phenomenon of stop and restart of the granular clock.

  7. Stop as a next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle in constrained MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Huitu, Katri; Leinonen, Lasse; Laamanen, Jari

    2011-10-01

    So far the squarks have not been detected at the LHC indicating that they are heavier than a few hundred GeVs, if they exist. The lighter stop can be considerably lighter than the other squarks. We study the possibility that a supersymmetric partner of the top quark, stop, is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle in the constrained supersymmetric standard model. Various constraints, on top of the mass limits, are taken into an account, and the allowed parameter space for this scenario is determined. Observing stop which is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle at the LHC may be difficult.

  8. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Catherine; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Sandy; Caird, Jenny R; Perlen, Susan M; Eades, Sandra J; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    1.15, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.53). In studies comparing counselling and usual care (the largest comparison), it was unclear whether interventions prevented smoking relapse among women who had stopped smoking spontaneously in early pregnancy (eight studies; average RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.21). However, a clear effect was seen in smoking abstinence at zero to five months postpartum (10 studies; average RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.95), a borderline effect at six to 11 months (six studies; average RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.77), and a significant effect at 12 to 17 months (two studies, average RR 2.20, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.96), but not in the longer term. In other comparisons, the effect was not significantly different from the null effect for most secondary outcomes, but sample sizes were small. Incentive-based interventions had the largest effect size compared with a less intensive intervention (one study; RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.84 to 7.23) and an alternative intervention (one study; RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.48 to 11.11). Feedback interventions demonstrated a significant effect only when compared with usual care and provided in conjunction with other strategies, such as counselling (two studies; average RR 4.39, 95% CI 1.89 to 10.21), but the effect was unclear when compared with a less intensive intervention (two studies; average RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.45 to 3.12). The effect of health education was unclear when compared with usual care (three studies; average RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.59) or less intensive interventions (two studies; average RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.31). Social support interventions appeared effective when provided by peers (five studies; average RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.19), but the effect was unclear in a single trial of support provided by partners. The effects were mixed where the smoking interventions were provided as part of broader interventions to improve maternal health, rather than targeted smoking cessation interventions. Subgroup analyses on primary outcome for

  9. Ortho stops marketing Lippes Loop; cites economic factors.

    PubMed

    1985-11-01

    Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation has stopped marketing the Lippes Loop IUD, the only inert IUD currently available in the US. The firm cited "economic considerations" as its reason. Linda Organ, company spokeswoman, told Contraceptive Technology Update (CTU) that the number of women using IUDs has declined in the past few years and, as a result, Ortho's Lippes Loop sales dropped. Most physicians, according to Organ, currently prescribe copper-bearing IUDs. Few devices have been studied as thoroughly before marketing as the Lippes Loop, according to its developer, Dr. Jack Lippes. Lippes told CTU that the Population Council analyzed 40,000 women from 1962 to 1968 and "found no trouble with the Loop." Lippes attributes Ortho's recent decision to 2 factors: the IUD has been only "marginally profitable" and the problems of A.H. Robins with the Dalkon Shield has most likely had an effect; and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a proposed rule in August 1985 that would require any company wanting to manufacture and market IUDs like the Lippes Loop to submit a premarketing approval application to that agency. In effect, the FDA's rule would only apply to the Lippes Loop. Under the proposed rule, any company wanting to market Lippes Loops, or any nondrug IUD, would have to submit an application to the FDA with a detailed discussion and supporting clinical studies addressing the following concerns: pelvic actinomycosis; tubal infertility; duration that the IUD should remain in situ; and safety of leaving the IUD in situ when contraception is no longer indicated. According to Lillian Yin, FDA device evaluation, the clinical effectiveness and most of the safety issues regarding inert IUDs have been thoroughly covered in published data. She told CTU that "most of the information needed is straightforward, but the part that's new involves the long term use infection rate." Yin indicated that the FDA received a letter from Ortho advising the agency of the

  10. Panwapa: Global Kids, Global Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Panwapa, created by the Sesame Street Workshop of PBS, is an example of an initiative on the Internet designed to enhance students' learning by exposing them to global communities. Panwapa means "Here on Earth" in Tshiluba, a Bantu language spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the Panwapa website, www.panwapa.org, children aged four to…

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 180 - Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure..., App. A Appendix A to Part 180—Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases 1. In performing this test, all internal self-closing stop valves must be opened....

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 180 - Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Part 180—Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases 1. In performing this test, all internal self-closing stop valves must be opened. Each emergency discharge control... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22218 - Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22218 Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22218 - Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22218 Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22218 - Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22218 Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22218 - Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22218 Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22218 - Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22218 Seals and stoppings (III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  18. Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Garry

    2010-01-01

    In a move to increase its out-of-state and international student enrollment, officials at the University of Iowa are stepping up their global recruitment efforts--even in the face of criticism that the school may be losing sight of its mission. The goal is to increase enrollment across the board, with both in-state as well as out-of-state and…

  19. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the shared data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).

  20. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less