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1

Exploration consequences of divergent strike-slip motion on Mexia fault zone of central Texas  

SciTech Connect

The several proposed models for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico suggest different types of movement on the Mexia fault zone. One recent model suggests that the Yucatan Peninsula, in the Gulf at the beginning of the Jurassic, moved southwest to its present position during the Jurassic. This requires major right-lateral strike-slip movement with minor divergence in the vicinity of the Mexia fault zone. This fault zone trends north-south, consists of en echelon horsts and grabens striking about 30/sup 0/ east of the zone's trend, and was active from the Jurassic through the Eocene. The presence of the grabens, their orientation and en echelon arrangement, and the age of movement are all consistent with divergent strike-slip movement. Hydrocarbons are generally produced from the basin side of the fault zone but have also been produced from fault traps within the grabens. Theoretical models, physical models, and field examples of strike-slip faults suggest the presence of en echelon anticlinal traps along the fault zone, and development of smaller antiformal structures where the en echelon grabens overlap. Such structures have not been described along the Mexia fault and may be important new structural plays, particularly for oil in the Smackover. Post-Jurassic movement on the fault zone enhanced the structural relief of the grabens and probably was related to the mobilization of the Louann salts. Traps in the Cretaceous which produce most of the hydrocarbons are due to this later movement.

Rodgers, D.A.

1984-04-01

2

Effects of best-management practices in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks in the Waumandee Creek Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many watersheds, nonpoint-source contamination is a major contributor to water-quality problems. In response to the recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources, the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program (Nonpoint Program) was enacted in 1978. This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of watershed-management practices for controlling nonpoint-source contamination for the Eagle Creek and Joos Valley Creek Watersheds. Streamflow-gaging stations equipped for automated sample collection and continuous recording of stream stage were installed in July 1990 at Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were operated through September 2007. In October 1990, three rain gages were installed in each watershed and were operated through September 2007. Best-Management Practices (BMPs) were installed during 1993 to 2000 in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were tracked throughout the study period. By the year 2000, a majority of the BMPs were implemented in the two watersheds and goals set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the local Land Conservation Department had been achieved for the two study watersheds (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). The distributions of the rainstorms that produced surface runoff and storm loads were similar in the pre-BMP (1990-93) and post-BMP implementation (2000-07) periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks. The highest annual streamflow occurred at both sites in water year 1993, which corresponded to the greatest above normal nonfrozen precipitation measured at two nearby NOAA weather stations. The minimum streamflow occurred in water year 2007 at both sites. Base-flow and stormwater samples were collected and analyzed for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks the median concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus in base flow were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre-BMP period and were statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. The decrease in median concentrations of ammonia nitrogen at both sites was not statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to remove the effects of climatologic conditions and seasonality from computed storm loads. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks, the median storm loads for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre-BMP period and were statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. The decreases in storm-load regression residuals from the pre- to the post-BMP periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks were statistically significant for all three constituents at the 0.05 significance level and indicated an apparent improvement in water-quality in the post-BMP period. Because the rainfall characteristics for individual storms in the pre- and post-BMP periods are likely to be different, separate pre- and post-BMP regressions were used to estimate the theoretical pre- and post-BMP storm loads to allow estimates of precent reductions between the pre- and post-BMP periods. The estimated percent reductions in storm loads for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were 89, 77, and 66 respectively for Eagle Creek and 84, 67, and 60 respectively for Joos Valley Creek. The apparent improvement in water quality is attributed to the implemented BMPs and to a reduction in the number of cattle in the watersheds.

Graczyk, David J.; Walker, John F.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Rutter, Troy D.

2012-01-01

3

Ynex Mexia, Botanist, 1870-1938  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biography and associated teaching material is part of a book of 20 life sciences modules designed to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Modules are designed to drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula, not to "add on". Each module includes: a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach and/or problem-solving life sciences, activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Role models include both contemporary and historical women, women of color and women with physical disabilities. Each activity is related to the work of the role model. Activity format includes suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

4

Spectroscopic characterization of atmospheric pressure argon plasmas sustained with the Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An argon microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma produced by a microwave plasma torch known as "Torche à Injection Axiale sur Guide d'Ondes" (TIAGO) in air ambience at atmospheric pressure was experimentally characterized. The conditions for appropriate TIAGO torch operation in argon and flame morphology were researched under several experimental conditions of gas flow (0.15-5.00 L · min-1) rates and microwave input powers (100-1000 W). Gas temperature and electron density values were studied by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Besides, the processes inside the discharge and their interaction with the surrounding atmosphere were described according to the recorded spectra.

Rincón, R.; Muñoz, J.; Sáez, M.; Calzada, M. D.

2013-03-01

5

Seismic fracture identification and horizontal drilling: Keys to optimizing productivity in fractured reservoir, Giddings Field, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies on conventional seismic data and seismic attributes data have been successfully used to identify fracture swarms in the Austin Chalk. Wells drilled to intersect seismic fracture indicators are proven superior producers. Seismic and geologic data demonstrate fracture swarms separated 100-300 ft by impermeable section. Fractures trend northeast-southwest, on strike with the regional Mexia-Talco and Balcones fault trends. Horizontal drilling

Nanette M. Kuich

1989-01-01

6

Two-Functional Direct Current Sputtered Silver-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports on structure, mechanical, optical, photocatalytic and biocidal properties of Ti–Ag–O films. The Ti–Ag–O\\u000a films were reactively sputter-deposited from a composed Ti\\/Ag target at different partial pressures of oxygen $$ p_{{\\\\rm O}_{2}} $$ on unheated glass substrate held on floating potential U\\u000a fl. It was found that addition of ~2 at.% of Ag into TiO2 film has no

J. Musil; M. Louda; R. Cerstvy; P. Baroch; I. B. Ditta; A. Steele; H. A. Foster

2009-01-01

7

Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 ?g/g extract and 12644 ?g/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 ?g/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23603383

Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ay?egül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

2013-04-18

8

Quantitative multiplex detection of biomarkers on a waveguide-based biosensor using quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative, simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical for biomedical diagnostics, drug discovery and biomarker characterization [Wilson 2006, Tok 2006, Straub 2005, Joos 2002, Jani 2000]. Detection systems relying on optical signal transduction are, in general, advantageous because they are fast, portable, inexpensive, sensitive, and have the potential for multiplex detection of analytes of

Hongzhi Xie; Harshini Mukundan; Jennifer S Martinez; Basil I Swanson; Aaron S Anderson; Kevin Grace

2009-01-01

9

Style in English. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The thesis that style through the manner of expression provides the writer or speaker with the matter of his discourse is the subject of these eight essays. Articles are by (1) Louis T. Milic, who explores the implication of stylistic theory for the teaching of composition, (2) Martin Joos, who relates style theories to the national enthusiasm…

Nist, John, Ed.

10

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Communication Theory & Methodology Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Communication Theory & Methodology Division of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Interaction As a Unit of Analysis for Interactive Media Research: A Conceptualization" (Joo-Hyun Lee and Hairong Li); "Towards a Network Approach of Human Action: Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Observations in Media Organizations" (Thorsten…

2003

11

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Communication Theory & Methodology Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Communication Theory & Methodology Division of the proceedings contains the following 14 papers: "Interaction As a Unit of Analysis for Interactive Media Research: A Conceptualization" (Joo-Hyun Lee and Hairong Li); "Towards a Network Approach of Human Action: Theoretical Concepts and Empirical Observations in Media Organizations" (Thorsten…

2003

12

Distractor effect and saccade amplitudes: Further evidence on different modes of processing in free exploration of visual images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of a variety of everyday tasks, it is highly implausible that all visual fixations fulfil the same role. Earlier we demonstrated that a combination of fixation duration and amplitude of related saccades strongly correlates with the probability of correct recognition of objects and events both in static and in dynamic scenes (Velichkovsky, Joos, Helmert, & Pannasch, 2005; Velichkovsky,

Sebastian Pannasch; Boris M. Velichkovsky

2009-01-01

13

Efficient and accurate carbon cycle model for use in simple climate models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication describes a simple but accurate model for calculating CO(sub 2) concentration levels in the atmosphere. the model is based on extracts from Joos, F., Bruno, M., Fink, T., Siegenthaler, U. and Stocker, T.F. (1996): An efficient and accurate...

K. H. Alfsen T. Berntsen

1999-01-01

14

Jimmy Carter and Playboy: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research by Martin Joos and John J. Gumperz to develop a perspective for rhetorical analysis. Carter's final remarks in his Playboy interview are shown to reflect an ineffective sociolinguistic code shift to a stylistic level inappropriate to Carter as public personality and as presidential candidate. (JF)

Solomon, Martha

1978-01-01

15

Teaching to Unlearn Community in Order to Make a Claim to Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay Duck-Joo Kwak explores a moral perfectionist approach to citizenship education, which is distinct from liberal and communitarian models. One of educational challenges to this approach is how to cultivate our students' sense of membership, which is shaped by a thick sense of the good life, while being not merely compatible with but…

Kwak, Duck-Joo

2010-01-01

16

Invited Reaction: Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors of this featured article (Joo, Jeung, & Yoon, 2010) respond to calls for further examination of how individual differences and workplace environment jointly impact organizational behavior. The authors integrate social psychology and management research to examine employee behavior and its relation to human resource development.…

Collins, Brian J.

2010-01-01

17

Invited Reaction: Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this featured article (Joo, Jeung, & Yoon, 2010) respond to calls for further examination of how individual differences and workplace environment jointly impact organizational behavior. The authors integrate social psychology and management research to examine employee behavior and its relation to human resource development.…

Collins, Brian J.

2010-01-01

18

Educational graphic novels: Korean children’s favorite now  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Yeo-Joo Lim introduces us to Korea’s Educational Graphic Novels (EGN) a format that seeks to be both educational and entertaining. We learn about its popularity, its characteristics, and its history as a type of graphic novel from a Korean perspective.

Yeo-Joo Lim

2011-01-01

19

Educational graphic novels: Korean children’s favorite now  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeo-Joo Lim introduces us to Korea’s Educational Graphic Novels (EGN) a format that seeks to be both educational and entertaining. We learn about its popularity, its characteristics, and its history as a type of graphic novel from a Korean perspective.

Yeo-Joo Lim

2011-01-01

20

Mini-shelves in Taylor shale: stratigraphy of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary units, Bastrop County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Several well-log cross sections and isopach maps demonstrate the spatial relationships among the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary stratigraphic units in Bastrop County, Texas. Each of the major structural features that are present partially within the county - the San Marcos arch, Round Rock syncline, East Texas basin, Mexia-Talco and Luling fault systems, and Travis volcanic field - has influenced the units investigated. Most of the stratigraphic units follow normal stratigraphic patterns (i.e., they thin toward the outcrop and toward the San Marcos arch). There are some notable exceptions, however. These exceptions are discussed.

Tucker, D.R.; Hencey, D.

1987-09-01

21

Integration of geothermal data along the Balcones/Ouachita trend, central Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data that address possible controls on warm-water resources. Data are presented on a series of maps, and interpretations appear in the brief text accompanying the maps. It is thought that structural controls provided by the Balcones Fault Zone on the west and by the Luling-Mexia-Talco Fault Zone on the east localize the warm waters. The ultimate controlling attribute is the foundered Ouachita structural belt, which, in turn, has controlled the orientation and magnitude of displacement of the superjacent normal fault systems. This thesis is supported by maps (in pocket) showing the following: distribution of thermal waters measured in wells along the Balcones/Ouachita structural trend showing water temperature in /sup 0/F, total depth of the well measured, water salinity in parts per million, and the geologic formation producing the water; structural contours on the base of the Cretaceous System showing the configuration of the Paleozoic Ouachita basement; structural configuration of the Balcones and Luling Fault Zone, Mexia and Talco Fault Zone, and foreland areas adjacent to the Ouachita Orogen using data from the Buda Limestone, Sligo Formation, and Ellenburger Group; Landsat lineaments and Bouguer gravity contours; and geothermal gradient contours of the Balcones/Ouachita trend based on thermal values from Paleozoic and selected Mesozoic formations.

Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Gever, C.; Snyder, Fred R.; Wuerch, David Robert

1983-01-01

22

Petroleum geology of Woodbine Formation, Freestone County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Cretaceous Woodbine Formation consists of clastics deposited in various southwestward-prograding environments on the margin of the subsiding East Texas basin. Depositional environments range from fluvial (in the north) to deltaic and a shelf strandplain (in the southwest). The Woodbine unconformably overlies the Lower Cretaceous Washita Group except in the basin axis and south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure where deposition may have been continuous. Transgression by Eagle Ford seas closed the Woodbine deposition. Structural features in Freestone County include the East Texas basin, the Sabine uplift, the Mexia-Talco fault zone, and the East Texas salt province. Isopach thicknesses of the Woodbine range from 375 ft in the west to more than 900 ft in the east (basinward). Thickening on the downthrown side of the Mexia-Talco faults indicates syndepositional faulting, related to allochthonous rocks sliding over the Jurassic Louann Salt. Structural accumulations of petroleum have been discovered against faults and salt domes, but stratigraphic pinch-outs of the Woodbine's discontinuous lenticular sand bodies remain as excellent exploration opportunities.

Carden, M.

1986-05-01

23

(CO sub 2 uptake in an Ocean Circulation Model)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler collaborated with Drs. J. L. Sarmiento and J. C. Orr of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences at Princeton University to finish the article A Perturbation Simulation of CO{sub 2} Uptake in an Ocean Circulation Model,'' which has been submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research for publication. With F. Joos, a graduate student from the University of Bern, the traveler started writing a journal article describing a box model of the global carbon cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler further collaborated with F. Joos and Dr. J. L. Sarmiento on modeling the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. A letter describing the results is currently being written for the journal Nature.

Siegenthaler, U.C.

1990-11-06

24

Paradoxical Kinematic Acausality in WEINBERG’S Equations for Massless Particles of Arbitrary Spin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weinberg’s equations for massless free particles of arbitrary spin are found to have acausal solutions. On the other hand, the m?0 limit of Joos-Weinberg’s finite-mass wave equations satisfied by (j, 0)?(0, j) j) covariant spinors are free from all kinematic acausality. This paradoxical situation is resolved and corrected by carefully studying the transition from the classical group theoretical arguments to quantum mechanically interpreted equations.

Ahluwalia, D. V.; Ernst, D. J.

25

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, Central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7,000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7,000 to 9,000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9,000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny.

Reid, W.M.

1988-01-01

26

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

Reid, W.M.

1988-02-01

27

Redetermination of hepta-potassium nona-hydrogen bis-[?-hexa-molybdoplatinate(IV)] undeca-hydrate  

PubMed Central

Previously reported at a temperature of 298?(2)?K [Lee & Joo (2007 ?). Acta Cryst. E63, i11–i13], the title compound, K7[H9?-Pt2Mo12O48]·11H2O or K7[H4.5?-PtMo6O24]2·11H2O, was redetermined at 146?(2)?K in order to determine whether the H atom in the hydrogen bond that crosses the center of symmetry was located at the center of symmetry or disordered around it as assumed in the previous study. During the present low-temperature study it was found on the center of symmetry. One water molecule shows half-occupancy.

Lee, Uk; Joo, Hea-Chung; Park, Ki-Min

2010-01-01

28

Does Magnetic-field-Rotation Misalignment Solve the Magnetic Braking Catastrophe in Protostellar Disk Formation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. In the simplest case of a laminar (non-turbulent) core with the magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis, both analytic considerations and numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a large, 102 AU scale, rotationally supported protostellar disk is suppressed by magnetic braking in the ideal MHD limit for a realistic level of core magnetization. This theoretical difficulty in forming protostellar disks is termed the "magnetic braking catastrophe." A possible resolution to this problem, proposed by Hennebelle & Ciardi and Joos et al., is that misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis may weaken the magnetic braking enough to enable disk formation. We evaluate this possibility quantitatively through numerical simulations. We confirm the basic result of Joos et al. that the misalignment is indeed conducive to disk formation. In relatively weakly magnetized cores with dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio >~ 4, it enabled the formation of rotationally supported disks that would otherwise be suppressed if the magnetic field and rotation axis are aligned. For more strongly magnetized cores, disk formation remains suppressed, however, even for the maximum tilt angle of 90°. If dense cores are as strongly magnetized as indicated by OH Zeeman observations (with a mean dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio ~2), it would be difficult for the misalignment alone to enable disk formation in the majority of them. We conclude that, while beneficial to disk formation, especially for the relatively weak field case, misalignment does not completely solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking in general.

Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien

2013-09-01

29

Environmental Assessment: geothermal direct heat project, Marlin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Federal action addressed by this Environmental Assessment (EA) is joint funding the retrofitting of a heating and hot water system in a hospital at Marlin, Texas, with a geothermal preheat system. The project will be located within the existing hospital boiler room. One supply well was drilled in an existing adjacent parking lot. It was necessary to drill the well prior to completion of this environmental assessment in order to confirm the reservoir and to obtain fluids for analysis in order to assess the environmental effects of fluid disposal. Fluid from operation will be disposed of by discharging it directly into existing street drains, which will carry the fluid to Park Lake and eventually the Brazos River. Fluid disposal activities are regulated by the Texas Railroad Commission. The local geology is determined by past displacements in the East Texas Basin. Boundaries are marked by the Balcones and the Mexia-Talco fault systems. All important water-bearing formations are in the cretaceous sedimentary rocks and are slightly to highly saline. Geothermal fluids are produced from the Trinity Group; they range from approximately 3600 to 4000 ppM TDS. Temperatures are expected to be above 64/sup 0/C (147/sup 0/F). Surface water flows southeastward as a part of the Brazos River Basin. The nearest perennial stream is the Brazos River 5.6 km (3.5 miles) away, to which surface fluids will eventually discharge. Environmental impacts of construction were small because of the existing structures and paved areas. Construction run-off and geothermal flow-test fluid passed through a small pond in the city park, lowering its water quality, at least temporarily. Construction noise was not out of character with existing noises around the hospital.

Not Available

1980-08-01

30

BOOK REVIEW: Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade decoherence has become a very popular topic mainly due to the progress in experimental techniques which allow monitoring of the process of decoherence for single microscopic or mesoscopic systems. The other motivation is the rapid development of quantum information and quantum computation theory where decoherence is the main obstacle in the implementation of bold theoretical ideas. All that makes the second improved and extended edition of this book very timely. Despite the enormous efforts of many authors decoherence with its consequences still remains a rather controversial subject. It touches on, namely, the notoriously confusing issues of quantum measurement theory and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The existence of different points of view is reflected by the structure and content of the book. The first three authors (Joos, Zeh and Kiefer) accept the standard formalism of quantum mechanics but seem to reject orthodox Copenhagen interpretation, Giulini and Kupsch stick to both while Stamatescu discusses models which go beyond the standard quantum theory. Fortunately, most of the presented results are independent of the interpretation and the mathematical formalism is common for the (meta)physically different approaches. After a short introduction by Joos followed by a more detailed review of the basic concepts by Zeh, chapter 3 (the longest chapter) by Joos is devoted to the environmental decoherence. Here the author considers mostly rather `down to earth' and well-motivated mechanisms of decoherence through collisions with atoms or molecules and the processes of emission, absorption and scattering of photons. The issues of decoherence induced superselection rules and localization of objects including the possible explanation of the molecular structure are discussed in details. Many other topics are also reviewed in this chapter, e.g., the so-called Zeno effect, relationships between quantum chaos and decoherence, the role of decoherence in quantum information processing and even decoherence in the brain. The next chapter, written by Kiefer, is devoted to decoherence in quantum field theory and quantum gravity which is a much more speculative and less explored topic. Two complementary aspects are studied in this approach: decoherence of particle states by the quantum fields and decoherence of field states by the particles. Cosmological issues related to decoherence are discussed, not only within the standard Friedmann cosmology, but also using the elements of the theory of black holes, wormholes and strings. The relations between the formalism of consistent histories defined in terms of decoherence functionals and the environmental decoherence are discussed in chapter 5, also written by Kiefer. The Feynman--Vernon influence functional for the quantum open system is presented in detail as the first example of decoherence functional. Then the general theory is outlined together with possible interpretations including cosmological aspects. The next chapter by Giulini presents an overview of the superselection rules arising from physical symmetries and gauge transformations both for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Critical discussion of kinematical superselection rules versus dynamical ones is illustrated by numerous examples like Galilei invariant quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and quantum gravity. The introduction to the theory of quantum open systems and its applications to decoherence models is given in chapter 7 by Kupsch. Generalized master equations, Markovian approximation and a few Hamiltonian models relevant for decoherence are discussed. Some mathematical tools, e.g., complete positivity and entropy inequalities are also presented. The last chapter by Stamatescu is devoted to stochastic collapse models which can be interpreted either as certain representations of the dynamics of open quantum systems or as fundamental modifications of the Schr\\"odinger equation. The final part of the book consists of remarks by Zeh on related concepts and met

Alicki, R.

2004-02-01

31

Land biosphere dynamics during the present and the last interglacials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last eight glacial-interglacial cycles, the atmospheric CO2 concentration has fluctuated between glacial levels of about 180 ppm and interglacial levels of up to about 300 ppm. These CO2 concentra¬tion changes appear to be closely linked to Antarctic surface temperature as inferred from ice cores (e.g. Luethi et al. 2008). Several physical and biogeochemical mechanisms responsible for this strong coupling between the Antarctic surface temperature and the CO2 concentration have been identified (e.g. changes in sea surface temperatures and deep water formation, marine productivity, CaCO3 accumulation, terrestrial productivity and weathering), and quantification of their relative roles is under active investigation (e.g. Brovkin et al. 2012). Recently, focus in the paleo-carbon research community has shifted towards the link between surface temperature and CO2 concentration during warm periods, including Quaternary interglacial periods. To date it is unclear what mechanisms drive the atmospheric CO2 concentration trends during interglacial periods. While the majority of climate-carbon cycle model simulations (e.g. Elsig et al. 2009; Joos et al. 2004; Kleinen et al. 2010; Menviel and Joos 2012; Ridgwell et al. 2003) agree that the ocean was the main source of carbon to the atmo¬sphere, the impact of land carbon changes on atmospheric CO2 concentration is less clear. To understand the role of the land biosphere on atmospheric CO2 concentration changes during the present and the last interglacials, we have used a new climate-carbon cycle model CLIMBER-JSBACH, which is the asynchronously coupled EMIC (Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity) CLIMBER-2 (Ganopolski et al. 2001) and the land component JSBACH of the Max-Planck Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) described by Raddatz et al. (2007). We will present a model study focusing on vegetation dynamics and carbon storage on land during warm climates (primarily Holocene) and their variability. Using a factor separation method, an ensemble of transient simulations including / excluding (i) different land use changes, (ii) orbit forcing, and (iii) peat accumulation will be analyzed to disentangle the overall change in the land carbon by including all drivers. The new developed model gives a reasonable timeframe for the ensemble of these 8000yrs spanning transient experiments.

Bruecher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Gayler, Veronika

2013-04-01

32

Inertial and Purely Elastic Instabilities in Periodically Constricted Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the stability of two periodically constricted viscoelastic flows: pressure driven flow in the gap between two eccentric cylinders (Eccentric Dean Flow) and pressure driven flow in a periodically constricted channel (PCC Flow). Both inertial (Re>>1, O(1): De) and purely elastic (Re? 0, O(1): De) instabilities are investigated using local and/or global linear stability analysis and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV). In the inertial regime, results will be presented to elucidate the influence of geometric modulation on the stability and (Orr-Sommerfeld) eigenspectrum of plane Poiseuille flow. Subsequently, the influence of elastic effects on the inertial transitions will be discussed. For Re? 0, viscoelastic plane Poiseuille flow is linearly stable since the real parts of the most dangerous eigenvalues approach 0 as -1/De. (Gorodtsov and Leonov 1967; Renardy 1986; Sureshkumar and Beris 1995). On the other hand, the interplay between streamline curvature and normal stress distribution leads to a purely elastic instability in the Dean flow for O(1) Deborah number (Joo and Shaqfeh 1992). Our results will show how the stability characteristics of these flows are influenced by periodic geometric modulation.

Sureshkumar, R.; Liu, J.; Avgousti, M.

1998-11-01

33

Thermal transport in Si-based disordered systems: amorphous silicon and silicon germanium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and modeling heat transport in structurally and mass disordered semiconductors (e.g. amorphous silicon--a-Si and SiGe alloys) have long been a challenging problem in solid state physics. Using a combination of techniques (equilibrium and non- equilibrium molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics), we analyze the nature of vibrations and compute the thermal conductivities (k) of a-Si, bulk and nanoporous SiGe. We find that in amorphous and mass disordered systems, two types of modes are present, phonons and diffusive modes. In a-Si, phonons ( who are only 3 % of the total vibrations) contribute to approximately half of k [1]. The value of k critically depends on the morphology of the system [2], for example it considerably dereases if thin films or samples with nano-holes are considered. A discussion of how mean free paths and lifetimes change as a function of morphology and disorder will be presented, together with results showing the effect,on k, of disorder at pores or film surfaces.Work supported by grant DOE DE-FC02-06ER25777.[4pt] [1] Y.He, D.Donadio and G.Galli (submitted, 2010).[0pt] [2] Y. He, D. Donadio, Joo-H. Lee, J. C. Grossman and G. Galli (submitted, 2010)

He, Yuping; Savic, Ivana; Galli, Giulia; Donadio, Davide

2011-03-01

34

The effect of Al3Ti capping layers on electromigration in single-crystal aluminum interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of accelerated electromigration were conducted on passivated Al single-crystal interconnects fabricated on oxidized Si, and capped with Al3Ti overlayers. The capping layers were formed by the reaction of the single-crystal Al films with Ti overlayers. The activation energy for electromigration-induced failure was determined to be 0.94+/-0.05 eV. Previous work on Al single-crystal interconnects without Al3Ti overlayers gave an activation energy of 0.98+/-0.2 eV and lifetimes of similar magnitude [Y.-C. Joo and C. V. Thompson, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6062 (1997)]. The similarity of these results suggests that either the rate-limiting mechanism for electromigration-induced failure of single-crystal Al interconnects is not diffusion along the interface of the Al with the surrounding oxide and overlayer, or that, surprisingly, the diffusivity of Al along the Al/Al3Ti interface is approximately the same as, or lower than, the diffusivity of Al along the Al/AlOx interface.

Srikar, V. T.; Thompson, C. V.

1998-05-01

35

The Zimba, the Portuguese, and other cannibals in late sixteenth-century Southeast Africa.  

PubMed

This article argues that Portuguese accounts of cannibalism in sixteenth-century southeast Africa reflect important but mostly unrecognised elements of the region's political and cultural history. The article analyses descriptions of the Zimba cannibals in Ethiopia Oriental, written by the Portuguese priest Joo dos Santos. Dos Santos's evidence figures significantly in scholarship for this period, and while many historians include his colourful descriptions of cannibalism, none has taken them seriously, largely dismissing them as a product of European myth-making. In focusing on the question of cannibalism, the article asks not whether the Zimba ate human flesh, nor why they might have, but how dos Santos came to believe that they did. Early modern European cultural outlooks had a role in producing such accounts, but the argument here focuses on how claims of cannibalism reflected African, rather than European, perspectives. Such claims were a vernacular expression of beliefs about, and critiques of, political power in the threatening and unsettled political environment of the time. In transmitting descriptions of cannibalism from African informants, dos Santos acted as an unwitting vehicle for this vernacular critique, conveying its meaning quite imperfectly to his readers. PMID:22026025

Allina, Eric

2011-01-01

36

Discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions in a nonlinearly pulse-coupled excitable lattice model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a modified version of the stochastic susceptible-infected-refractory-susceptible (SIRS) model by employing a nonlinear (exponential) reinforcement in the contagion rate and no diffusion. We run simulations for complete and random graphs as well as d -dimensional hypercubic lattices (for d=3,2,1 ). For weak nonlinearity, a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition between an absorbing and an active phase is obtained, such as in the usual stochastic SIRS model [Joo and Lebowitz, Phys. Rev. E 70, 036114 (2004)]. However, for strong nonlinearity, the nonequilibrium transition between the two phases can be discontinuous for d?2 , which is confirmed by well-characterized hysteresis cycles and bistability. Analytical mean-field results correctly predict the overall structure of the phase diagram. Furthermore, contrary to what was observed in a model of phase-coupled stochastic oscillators with a similar nonlinearity in the coupling [Wood , Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 145701 (2006)], we did not find a transition to a stable (partially) synchronized state in our nonlinearly pulse-coupled excitable elements. For long enough refractory times and high enough nonlinearity, however, the system can exhibit collective excitability and unstable stochastic oscillations.

Assis, Vladimir R. V.; Copelli, Mauro

2009-12-01

37

Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

Stevens, Kenneth N.

2004-10-01

38

Device performance of in situ steam generated gate dielectric nitrided by remote plasma nitridation  

SciTech Connect

In situ steam generated (ISSG) oxides have recently attracted interest for use as gate dielectrics because of their demonstrated reliability improvement over oxides formed by dry oxidation. [G. Minor, G. Xing, H. S. Joo, E. Sanchez, Y. Yokota, C. Chen, D. Lopes, and A. Balakrishna, Electrochem. Soc. Symp. Proc. 99-10, 3 (1999); T. Y. Luo, H. N. Al-Shareef, G. A. Brown, M. Laughery, V. Watt, A. Karamcheti, M. D. Jackson, and H. R. Huff, Proc. SPIE 4181, 220 (2000).] We show in this letter that nitridation of ISSG oxide using a remote plasma decreases the gate leakage current of ISSG oxide by an order of magnitude without significantly degrading transistor performance. In particular, it is shown that the peak normalized transconductance of n-channel devices with an ISSG oxide gate dielectric decreases by only 4% and the normalized drive current by only 3% after remote plasma nitridation (RPN). In addition, it is shown that the reliability of the ISSG oxide exhibits only a small degradation after RPN. These observations suggest that the ISSG/RPN process holds promise for gate dielectric applications. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Al-Shareef, H. N.; Karamcheti, A.; Luo, T. Y.; Bersuker, G.; Brown, G. A.; Murto, R. W.; Jackson, M. D.; Huff, H. R.; Kraus, P.; Lopes, D. (and others)

2001-06-11

39

Miscibility behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine with a single-chain partially fluorinated amphiphile in Langmuir monolayers.  

PubMed

Surface pressure-area, surface potential-area, and dipole moment-area isotherms were obtained for monolayers made from a partially fluorinated surfactant, (perfluorooctyl)undecyldimorpholinophosphate (F8H11DMP), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and their combinations. Monolayers, spread on a 0.15 M NaCl subphase, were investigated at the air/water interface by the Wilhelmy method, ionizing electrode method, and fluorescence microscopy. Surface potentials were analyzed using the three-layer model proposed by Demchak and Fort. The contribution of the dimorpholinophosphate polar head group of F8H11DMP to the vertical component of the dipole moment was estimated to be 4.99 D. The linear variation of the phase transition pressure as a function of F8H11DMP molar fraction (X(F8H11DMP)) demonstrated that DPPC and F8H11DMP are miscible in the monolayer. This result was confirmed by deviations from the additivity rule observed when plotting the molecular areas and the surface potentials as a function of X(F8H11DMP) over the whole range of surface pressures investigated. Assuming a regular surface mixture, the Joos equation, which was used for the analysis of the collapse pressure of mixed monolayers, allowed calculation of the interaction parameter (xi=-1.3) and the energy of interaction (Delta epsilon =537 Jmol(-1)) between DPPC and F8H11DMP. The miscibility of DPPC and F8H11DMP within the monolayer was also supported by fluorescence microscopy. Examination of the observed flower-like patterns showed that F8H11DMP favors dissolution of the ordered LC phase domains of DPPC, a feature that may be key to the use of phospholipid preparations as lung surfactants. PMID:12927168

Hiranita, Takato; Nakamura, Shohei; Kawachi, Masaki; Courrier, Hélène M; Vandamme, Thierry F; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Shibata, Osamu

2003-09-01

40

Reduced Brain Gray Matter Concentration in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate differences in brain gray matter concentrations or volumes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and healthy volunteers. Designs: Optimized voxel-based morphometry, an automated processing technique for MRI, was used to characterize structural differences in gray matter in newly diagnosed male patients. Setting: University hospital Patients and Participants: The study consisted of 36 male OSA and 31 non-apneic male healthy volunteers matched for age (mean age, 44.8 years). Interventions: Using the t-test, gray matter differences were identified. The statistical significance level was set to a false discovery rate P < 0.05 with an extent threshold of kE > 200 voxels. Measurements and Results: The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of patients was 52.5/ h. On visual inspection of MRI, no structural abnormalities were observed. Compared to healthy volunteers, the gray matter concentrations of OSA patients were significantly decreased in the left gyrus rectus, bilateral superior frontal gyri, left precentral gyrus, bilateral frontomarginal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate gyri, right insular gyrus, bilateral caudate nuclei, bilateral thalami, bilateral amygdalo-hippocampi, bilateral inferior temporal gyri, and bilateral quadrangular and biventer lobules in the cerebellum (false discovery rate P < 0.05). Gray matter volume was not different between OSA patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions: The brain gray matter deficits may suggest that memory impairment, affective and cardiovascular disturbances, executive dysfunctions, and dysregulation of autonomic and respiratory control frequently found in OSA patients might be related to morphological differences in the brain gray matter areas. Citation: Joo EY; Tae WS; Lee MJ; Kang JW; Park HS; Lee JY; Suh M; Hong SB. Reduced brain gray matter concentration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2010;33(2):235-241.

Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Lee, Min Joo; Kang, Jung Woo; Park, Hwan Seok; Lee, Jun Young; Suh, Minah; Hong, Seung Bong

2010-01-01

41

Effect of Modafinil on Cerebral Blood Flow in Narcolepsy Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: To investigate the effects of modafinil on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in narcolepsy, we performed 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and after modafinil or placebo medication. Methods: Brain SPECT was performed twice during the awake state before and after modafinil or placebo administration for 4 weeks in 43 drug-naïive narcoleptics with cataplexy (M/F = 23/20, 29.5 ± 5.8 years). For SPM analysis, all SPECT images were spatially normalized to the standard SPECT template and then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half-maximum Gaussian kernel. The paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-modafinil or placebo SPECT images. Results: The mean modafinil dose used was 207.8 ± 62.3 mg/day. Modafinil significantly reduced Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores from 20.3 ± 2.1 to 5.2 ± 3.1 (P < 0.01), while placebo did not. Compared to the off-modafinil condition, the on-modafinil condition showed significantly increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral and bilateral medial prefrontal cortices. Conversely, after modafinil administration, rCBF was decreased in bilateral precentral gyri, left hippocampus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral lingual gyri, and cerebellum. There was no significant rCBF change after placebo administration. Conclusion: By a chronic administration of modafinil in narcoleptic patients, rCBF increased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices, whereas it decreased in left mesio/basal, temporal, bilateral occipital areas, and cerebellum. Citation: Joo EY; Seo DW; Tae WS; Hong SB. Effect of modafinil on cerebral blood flow in narcolepsy patients. SLEEP 2008;31(6):868-873.

Joo, Eun Yeon; Seo, Dae Won; Tae, Woo Suk; Hong, Seung Bong

2008-01-01

42

Effects of Watershed Best Management Practices on Habitat and Fish in Wisconsin's Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the effectiveness of watershed-scale implementations of best-management practices (BMPs) for improving habitat and fish attributes in two coldwater stream systems in Wisconsin. We sampled physical habitat, water temperature, and fish communities in multiple paired treatment and reference streams before and after upland (barnyard runoff controls, manure storage, contour plowing, reduced tillage) and riparian (stream bank fencing, sloping, limited rip-rapping) BMP installation in the treatment subwatersheds. In Spring Creek, BMPs significantly improved overall stream habitat quality, bank stability, instream cover for fish, abundance of cool- and coldwater fishes, and abundance of all fishes. Improvements were most pronounced at sites with riparian BMPs. Water temperatures were consistently cold enough to support coldwater fishes such as trout (Salmonidae) and sculpins (Cottidae) even before BMP installation. We observed the first-time occurrence of naturally reproduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spring Creek, indicating that the stream condition had been improved to be able to partially sustain a trout population. In Eagle Creek and its tributary Joos Creek, limited riparian BMPs led to localized gains in overall habitat quality, bank stability, and water depth. However, because few upland BMPs were installed in the subwatershed there were no improvements in water temperature or the quality of the fish community. Temperatures remained marginal for coldwater fish throughout the study. Our results demonstrate that riparian BMPs can improve habitat conditions in Wisconsin streams, but cannot restore coldwater fish communities if there is insufficient upland BMP implementation. Our approach of studying multiple paired treatment and reference streams before and after BMP implementation proved effective in detecting the response of stream ecosystems to watershed management activities.

Wang, Lizhu; Lyons, John; Kanehl, Paul

2002-06-01

43

In Vivo and In Vitro Escape from Neutralizing Antibodies 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10?  

PubMed Central

Recently, passive immunization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10 provided evidence of the in vivo activity of 2G12 but raised concerns about the function of the two membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific MAbs (A. Trkola, H. Kuster, P. Rusert, B. Joos, M. Fischer, C. Leemann, A. Manrique, M. Huber, M. Rehr, A. Oxenius, R. Weber, G. Stiegler, B. Vcelar, H. Katinger, L. Aceto, and H. F. Gunthard, Nat. Med. 11:615-622, 2005). In the light of MPER-targeting vaccines under development, we performed an in-depth analysis of the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to these three MAbs to further elucidate their activity. Clonal analysis of the MPER of plasma virus samples derived during antibody treatment confirmed that no changes in this region had occurred in vivo. Sequence analysis of the 2G12 epitope relevant N-glycosylation sites of viruses derived from 13 patients during the trial supported the phenotypic evaluation, demonstrating that mutations in these sites are associated with resistance. In vitro selection experiments with isolates of four of these individuals corroborated the in vivo finding that virus strains rapidly escape 2G12 pressure. Notably, in vitro resistance mutations differed, in most cases, from those found in vivo. Importantly, in vitro selection with 2F5 and 4E10 demonstrated that resistance to these MAbs can be difficult to achieve and can lead to selection of variants with impaired infectivity. This remarkable vulnerability of the virus to interference within the MPER calls for a further evaluation of the safety and efficacy of MPER-targeting therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

Manrique, Amapola; Rusert, Peter; Joos, Beda; Fischer, Marek; Kuster, Herbert; Leemann, Christine; Niederost, Barbara; Weber, Rainer; Stiegler, Gabriela; Katinger, Hermann; Gunthard, Huldrych F.; Trkola, Alexandra

2007-01-01

44

Peer review statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All papers published in this Volume 12 of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the editors of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems proceedings, Professor Romeo Susan-Resiga, Dr Sebastian Muntean and Dr Sandor Bernad. Reviews were conducted by expert referees from the Scientific Committee to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The members of the Scientific Committee who selected and reviewed the papers included in the Proceedings of the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are: Anton ANTONTechnical University of Civil Engineering, BucharestRomania François AVELLANEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland Fidel ARZOLAEDELCAVenezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNERVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Anton BERGANTLitostroj Power d.o.o., LjubljanaSlovenia Gerard BOISENSAM, LilleFrance Hermod BREKKENTNU, TrondheimNorway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc., YorkUSA Eduard EGUSQUIZAPolytechnical University Catalonia BarcelonaSpain Arpad FAYUniversity of MiskolczHungary Richard FISHERVoith Hydro Inc., York USA Regiane FORTES-PATELLAInstitut Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance Aleksandar GAJICUniversity of BelgradeSerbia Arno GEHRERAndritz Hydro GrazAustria José GONZÁLEZUniversidad de OviedoSpain François GUIBAULTEcole Polytechnique de MontrealCanada Chisachi KATOUniversity of TokyoJapan Kwang-Yong KIMInha University, IncheonKorea Jiri KOUTNIKVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Adrian LUNGUDunarea de Jos University of GalatiRomania Christophe NICOLETPower Vision Engineering Sàrl, LausanneSwitzerland Torbjøm K. NIELSENNTNU, TrodheimNorway Michihiro NISHIKyushu Institute of TechnologyJapan Maryse PAGEHydro Quebec IREQ, VarennesCanada Etienne PARKINSONAndritz Hydro LtdSwitzerland František POCHYLYBrno UniversityCzech Republic Stefan RIEDELBAUCHVoith Hydro Gmb H & Co. KG, HeidenheimGermany Albert RUPRECHTUniversity of StuttgartGermany Michel SABOURINAlstom Hydro Canada Inc.Canada Rudolf SCHILLINGTechnische Universität MünchenGermany Qing-Hua SHIDong Fang Electrical Machinery Co.China Aleš SKOTAKCKD Blansko Engineering, a. s.Czech Republic Romeo F. SUSAN-RESIGAPolitehnica University of TimisoaraRomania Geraldo TIAGO FILHOUniversidade Federal de ItajubaBrazil Yoshinobu TSUJIMOTOOsaka UniversityJapan Bart van ESCHTechnische Universiteit EindhovenNetherland Thi C. VUAndritz Hydro Ltd, QuebecCanada Satoshi WATANABEKyushu University, FukuokaJapan Yulin WUTsinghua University, BeijingChina The reviewing process was organized in several steps. First, the 238 abstracts submitted for the symposium were reviewed, and 197 were accepted, with 30 abstracts having recommendations. Second, the authors have submitted 152 full-length papers, and each paper has been reviewed by two referees. The recommendations have been sent back to the authors, in order to prepare the final form or the paper. Third, 118 papers have been received in final form, accounting for the referees recommendations, to be included in the proceedings and to be presented at the symposium.

2010-08-01

45

EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control of quantum phenomena has grown from a dream to a burgeoning field encompassing wide-ranging experimental and theoretical activities. Theoretical research in this area primarily concerns identification of the principles for controlling quantum phenomena, the exploration of new experimental applications and the development of associated operational algorithms to guide such experiments. Recent experiments with adaptive feedback control span many applications including selective excitation, wave packet engineering and control in the presence of complex environments. Practical procedures are also being developed to execute real-time feedback control considering the resultant back action on the quantum system. This focus issue includes papers covering many of the latest advances in the field. Focus on Quantum Control Contents Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti and Herschel Rabitz Biologically inspired molecular machines driven by light. Optimal control of a unidirectional rotor Guillermo Pérez-Hernández, Adam Pelzer, Leticia González and Tamar Seideman Simulating quantum search algorithm using vibronic states of I2 manipulated by optimally designed gate pulses Yukiyoshi Ohtsuki Efficient coherent control by sequences of pulses of finite duration Götz S Uhrig and Stefano Pasini Control by decoherence: weak field control of an excited state objective Gil Katz, Mark A Ratner and Ronnie Kosloff Multi-qubit compensation sequences Y Tomita, J T Merrill and K R Brown Environment-invariant measure of distance between evolutions of an open quantum system Matthew D Grace, Jason Dominy, Robert L Kosut, Constantin Brif and Herschel Rabitz Simplified quantum process tomography M P A Branderhorst, J Nunn, I A Walmsley and R L Kosut Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent control and stimulated emission Stephen D Clow, Uvo C Holscher and Thomas C Weinacht A convenient method to simulate and visually represent two-photon power spectra of arbitrarily and adaptively shaped broadband laser pulses M A Montgomery and N H Damrauer Accurate and efficient implementation of the von Neumann representation for laser pulses with discrete and finite spectra Frank Dimler, Susanne Fechner, Alexander Rodenberg, Tobias Brixner and David J Tannor Coherent strong-field control of multiple states by a single chirped femtosecond laser pulse M Krug, T Bayer, M Wollenhaupt, C Sarpe-Tudoran, T Baumert, S S Ivanov and N V Vitanov Quantum-state measurement of ionic Rydberg wavepackets X Zhang and R R Jones On the paradigm of coherent control: the phase-dependent light-matter interaction in the shaping window Tiago Buckup, Jurgen Hauer and Marcus Motzkus Use of the spatial phase of a focused laser beam to yield mechanistic information about photo-induced chemical reactions V J Barge, Z Hu and R J Gordon Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection S D McGrane, R J Scharff, M Greenfield and D S Moore Mode selectivity with polarization shaping in the mid-IR David B Strasfeld, Chris T Middleton and Martin T Zanni Laser-guided relativistic quantum dynamics Chengpu Liu, Markus C Kohler, Karen Z Hatsagortsyan, Carsten Muller and Christoph H Keitel Continuous quantum error correction as classical hybrid control Hideo Mabuchi Quantum filter reduction for measurement-feedback control via unsupervised manifold learning Anne E B Nielsen, Asa S Hopkins and Hideo Mabuchi Control of the temporal profile of the local electromagnetic field near metallic nanostructures Ilya Grigorenko and Anatoly Efimov Laser-assisted molecular orientation in gaseous media: new possibilities and applications Dmitry V Zhdanov and Victor N Zadkov Optimization of laser field-free orientation of a state-selected NO molecular sample Arnaud Rouzee, Arjan Gijsbertsen, Omair Ghafur, Ofer M Shir, Thomas Back, Steven Stolte and Marc J J Vrakking Controlling the sense of molecular rotation Sharly Fleischer, Yuri Khodorkovsky, Yehiam Prior and Ilya Sh Averbukh Optimal control of interacting particles: a

Rabitz, Herschel

2009-10-01

46

Application of multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and probability calculations to Paleoproterozoic acid rocks from Brazilian cratons and provinces to infer tectonic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present work, we applied two sets of new multi-dimensional geochemical diagrams (Verma et al., 2013) obtained from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of natural logarithm-transformed ratios of major elements and immobile major and trace elements in acid magmas to decipher plate tectonic settings and corresponding probability estimates for Paleoproterozoic rocks from Amazonian craton, São Francisco craton, São Luís craton, and Borborema province of Brazil. The robustness of LDA minimizes the effects of petrogenetic processes and maximizes the separation among the different tectonic groups. The probability based boundaries further provide a better objective statistical method in comparison to the commonly used subjective method of determining the boundaries by eye judgment. The use of readjusted major element data to 100% on an anhydrous basis from SINCLAS computer program, also helps to minimize the effects of post-emplacement compositional changes and analytical errors on these tectonic discrimination diagrams. Fifteen case studies of acid suites highlighted the application of these diagrams and probability calculations. The first case study on Jamon and Musa granites, Carajás area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) shows a collision setting (previously thought anorogenic). A collision setting was clearly inferred for Bom Jardim granite, Xingú area (Central Amazonian Province, Amazonian craton) The third case study on Older São Jorge, Younger São Jorge and Maloquinha granites Tapajós area (Ventuari-Tapajós Province, Amazonian craton) indicated a within-plate setting (previously transitional between volcanic arc and within-plate). We also recognized a within-plate setting for the next three case studies on Aripuanã and Teles Pires granites (SW Amazonian craton), and Pitinga area granites (Mapuera Suite, NW Amazonian craton), which were all previously suggested to have been emplaced in post-collision to within-plate settings. The seventh case studies on Cassiterita-Tabuões, Ritápolis, São Tiago-Rezende Costa (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais) showed a collision setting, which agrees fairly reasonably with a syn-collision tectonic setting indicated in the literature. A within-plate setting is suggested for the Serrinha magmatic suite, Mineiro belt (south of São Francisco craton, Minas Gerais), contrasting markedly with the arc setting suggested in the literature. The ninth case study on Rio Itapicuru granites and Rio Capim dacites (north of São Francisco craton, Serrinha block, Bahia) showed a continental arc setting. The tenth case study indicated within-plate setting for Rio dos Remédios volcanic rocks (São Francisco craton, Bahia), which is compatible with these rocks being the initial, rift-related igneous activity associated with the Chapada Diamantina cratonic cover. The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth case studies on Bom Jesus-Areal granites, Rio Diamante-Rosilha dacite-rhyolite and Timbozal-Cantão granites (São Luís craton) showed continental arc, within-plate and collision settings, respectively. Finally, the last two case studies, fourteenth and fifteenth showed a collision setting for Caicó Complex and continental arc setting for Algodões (Borborema province).

Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.

2013-08-01

47

PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Ja

Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

2011-03-01

48

Adjoint sensitivity structures of typhoon DIANMU (2010) based on a global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sung-Min Kim1, Hyun Mee Kim1, Sang-Won Joo2, Hyun-Cheol Shin2, DukJin Won2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea1 Korea Meteorological Administration2 Submitted to AGU 2010 Fall Meeting 13-17 December 2010, San Francisco, CA The path and intensity forecast of typhoons (TYs) depend on the initial condition of the TY itself and surrounding background fields. Because TYs are evolved on the ocean, there are not many observational data available. In this sense, additional observations on the western North Pacific are necessary to get the proper initial condition of TYs. Due to the limited resource of observing facilities, identifying the sensitive regions for the specific forecast aspect in the forecast region of interest will be very beneficial to decide where to deploy additional observations. The additional observations deployed in those sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observations, and the strategies to decide the sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observation strategies. Among the adaptive observation strategies, the adjoint sensitivity represents the gradient of some forecast aspects with respect to the control variables of the model (i.e., initial conditions, boundary conditions, and parameters) (Errico 1997). According to a recent research on the adjoint sensitivity of a TY based on a regional model, the sensitive regions are located horizontally in the right half circle of the TY, and vertically in the lower and upper troposphere near the TY (Kim and Jung 2006). Because the adjoint sensitivity based on a regional model is calculated in a relatively small domain, the adjoint sensitivity structures may be affected by the size and location of the domain. In this study, the adjoint sensitivity distributions for TY DIANMU (2010) based on a global model are investigated. The adjoint sensitivity based on a global model is calculated by using the perturbation forecast (PF) and adjoint PF model of the Unified Model at KMA originated from UK Met Office. Results of the adjoint sensitivity structure will be presented in the conference.

Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Joo, S.; Shin, H.; Won, D.

2010-12-01

49

NMR spectroscopic parameters of molecular systems with strong hydrogen bonds.  

PubMed

A series of closed H-bonded molecules that have (or not) delocalized bonds were studied. The dependence of both NMR spectroscopic parameters sigma and J-couplings, and also the energy stability of such molecules with H-bond strength, were analyzed. The selected basic geometrical structure was that of malonaldehyde. From its full optimized geometry, the corresponding geometry of 3-OH propanal was obtained, fixing either the d(O-O) distance or a more extended local geometry and then optimizing the other part of the whole structure. Nitromalonaldehyde and nitromalonamide were also studied because they should have stronger H-bonds and their basic structure is also malonaldehyde. The last one also has electronic effects that may be varied by rotating the amino groups. By doing this it is possible to show that the effects on acidity of donors are more important than the equivalent effects on the basicity of acceptors. It is also shown that J-couplings that involve atoms close to the H-bond have important noncontact contributions that must be included in order to reproduce total J values. Noncontact contributions are more important than the Fermi contact (FC) one for J(O-O) in malonaldehyde. In nitromalonamide all three terms, FC, paramagnetic spin-orbital, and spin-dipolar are of the same order of magnitude when both amino groups are rotated. This does not happen for its planar configuration. Nuclear magnetic shielding of the hydrogen belonging to the H-bond is quite sensitive to it. The magnetic behavior of such hydrogen atom is modified when it is part of a closed H-bonded molecule. Then a relationship between the H-bond strength with the paramagnetic contributions of the shieldings of both atoms, C and O of the donor substructure, was obtained. We have found a cubic correlation between sigma(p) (C) of the C-O donor bond with sigma (H) of the H-bonded hydrogen. It is observed that both the noncontact J-coupling contributions and shieldings on atoms belonging to the donor substructure, give a clear evidence about the presence of the resonance phenomenon in the model compounds that have been studied, malonaldehyde, nitromalonaldehyde, and nitromalonamide. PMID:20553037

Zarycz, Natalia; Aucar, Gustavo A; Della Védova, Carlos O

2010-07-01

50

Langmuir monolayers of cerebroside originated from Linckia laevigata: binary systems of cerebrosides and phospholipid.  

PubMed

The surface pressure (pi)-area (A), the surface potential (DeltaV)-A and the dipole moment (mu( perpendicular))-A isotherms were obtained for six cerebrosides of LLC-2, LLC-2-1, LLC-2-8, LLC-2-10, LLC-2-12, and LLC-2-15, which were isolated from Linckia laevigata, and two-component monolayers of two different cerebrosides (LLC-2 and LLC-2-8) with phospholipid of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on a subphase of 0.15 M sodium chloride solution as a function of cerebroside compositions in the two-component systems by employing the Wilhelmy method, the ionizing electrode method, and the fluorescence microscopy. The new finding was that LLC-2 showed a stable and liquid expanded type film. Four of them (LLC-2-8, -10, -12, and -15) had the phase transition from the liquid-expanded (LE) to the liquid-condensed (LC) states at 298.2 K. The apparent molar quantity changes (Deltas(gamma), Deltah(gamma), and Deltau(gamma)) on their phase transition on 0.15M at 298.2 K were calculated. The miscibility of cerebroside and phospholipid in the two-component monolayers was examined by plotting the variation of the molecular area and the surface potential as a function of the cerebroside molar fraction (X(cerebroside)), using the additivity rule. From the A-X(cerebroside) and DeltaV(m)-X(phospholipid) plots, a partial molecular surface area (PMA) and an apparent partial molecular surface potential (APSP) were determined at the discrete surface pressure. The PMA and APSP with the mole fraction were extensively discussed for the miscible systems. Judging from the two-dimensional phase diagrams, these were found to be one type, a positive azeotropic type; all the cerebrosides were miscible with DPPC. Furthermore, assuming a regular surface mixture, the Joos equation for the analysis of the collapse pressure of two-component monolayers allowed calculation of the interaction parameter (xi) and the interaction energy (-Deltavarepsilon) between the cerebrosides and DPPC. The miscibility of cerebroside and phospholipid components in the monolayer state was also supported by fluorescence microscopy. PMID:16051475

Maruta, Tomoki; Hoda, Kazuki; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi; Shibata, Osamu

2005-08-01

51

EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1 January 2012 I will be assuming the position of Editor-in-Chief of the journal Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST). I am flattered by the confidence expressed in my ability to carry out this challenging job and I will try hard to justify this confidence. The previous Editor-in-Chief, Laurens Molenkamp, University of Würzburg, Germany, has worked tirelessly for the last ten years and has done an excellent job for the journal. Everyone at the journal is profoundly grateful for his leadership and for his achievements In 2012 several new members will join the Editorial Board: Professor Deli Wang (University of California, San Diego) with considerable expertise in semiconductor nanowires, Professor Saskia Fischer (Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany) with a background in semiconductor quantum devices, and Professor Erwin Kessels (Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands) with extensive experience in plasma processing of thin films and gate oxides. In particular, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Israel Bar-Joseph (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel) and Professor Maria Tamargo (The City College of New York, USA), who will leave next year and who have vigorously served the Editorial Board for years. The journal has recently introduced a fast-track option for manuscripts. This option is a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research across all areas of semiconductor research. Authors can expect to receive referee reports in less than 20 days from submission. Once accepted, you can expect the articles to be online within two or three weeks from acceptance and to be published in print in less than a month. Furthermore, all fast-track communications published in 2011 will be free to read for ten years. More detailed information on fast-track publication can be found on the following webpage: http://iopscience.iop.org/0268-1242/page/Fast track communications It is encouraging to see that since the journal introduced pre-review, with the aim to raise the quality of our content, three years later the number of published articles has remained stable at around 220 per year, whilst the number of downloads and citations to the journal has grown. In 2011, three topical issues have been published, on: (Nano)characterization of semiconductor materials and structures (Guest Editor: Alberta Bonanni, University of Linz, Austria) Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics (Guest Editors: Jang-Joo Kim, Min-Koo Han, Cambridge University, UK, and Yong-Young Noh, Seoul National University, Korea) From heterostructures to nanostructures: an 80th birthday tribute to Zhores Alferov (Guest Editor: Dieter Bimberg, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) For the coming years, I will strongly support that the number of published topical issues will continue on the same level or slightly rise. SST has planned the publication of the following topical issues for 2012: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors (Guest Editors: Jung Han, Yale University, USA, and Michael Kneissl, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) Topological insulators (Guest Editors: Alberto Morpurgo, Université de Genève, Switzerland and Björn Trauzettel, Universität Basel, Switzerland) Atomic layer deposition (Guest Editor: Marek Godlewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland) 50th Anniversary of the laser diode (Guest Editors: Mike Adams, Univeristy of Essex, UK and Stephane Calvez, University of Strathclyde, UK) In addition to the traditional topics of SST, I as Editor-in-chief, strongly support and welcome the submission of manuscripts on organic semiconductors, topological insulators, semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic, solid-state lighting and energy harvesting, IC application beyond Moore's law and fundamental works on semiconductors based on abundant materials. I am extremely optimistic about the future of SST. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to first decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers pu

Nielsch, Kornelius

2012-01-01

52

Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-04-01

53

Quantitative multiplex detection of biomarkers on a waveguide-based biosensor using quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

The quantitative, simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical for biomedical diagnostics, drug discovery and biomarker characterization [Wilson 2006, Tok 2006, Straub 2005, Joos 2002, Jani 2000]. Detection systems relying on optical signal transduction are, in general, advantageous because they are fast, portable, inexpensive, sensitive, and have the potential for multiplex detection of analytes of interest. However, conventional immunoassays for the detection of biomarkers, such as the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assays (ELISAs) are semi-quantitative, time consuming and insensitive. ELISA assays are also limited by high non-specific binding, especially when used with complex biological samples such as serum and urine (REF). Organic fluorophores that are commonly used in such applications lack photostability and possess a narrow Stoke's shift that makes simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores with a single excitation source difficult, thereby restricting their use in multiplex assays. The above limitations with traditional assay platforms have resulted in the increased use of nanotechnology-based tools and techniques in the fields of medical imaging [ref], targeted drug delivery [Caruthers 2007, Liu 2007], and sensing [ref]. One such area of increasing interest is the use of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical research and diagnostics [Gao and Cui 2004, Voura 2004, Michalet 2005, Chan 2002, Jaiswal 2004, Gao 2005, Medintz 2005, So 2006 2006, Wu 2003]. Compared to organic dyes, QDs provide several advantages for use in immunoassay platforms, including broad absorption bands with high extinction coefficients, narrow and symmetric emission bands with high quantum yields, high photostablility, and a large Stokes shift [Michalet 2005, Gu 2002]. These features prompted the use of QDs as probes in biodetection [Michalet 2005, Medintz 2005]. For example, Jaiswal et al. reported long term multiple color imaging of live cells using QD-bioconjugates [Jaiswal 2003]. Gao [Gao 2004] and So [So 2006] have used QDs as probes for in-vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Medintz et al. reported self-assembled QD-based biosensors for detection of analytes based on energy transfer [Medintz 2003]. Others have developed an approach for multiplex optical encoding of biomolecules using QDs [Han 2001]. Immunoassays have also benefited from the advantages of QDs. Recently, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped-QDs have been attached to antibodies and used as fluorescence reporters in plate-based multiplex immunoassays [Goodman 2004]. However, DHLA-QDs are associated with low quantum efficiency and are unstable at neutral pH. These problems limit the application of this technology to the sensitive detection of biomolecules, especially in complex biological samples. Thus, the development of a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and specific multiplex platform for the detection of biomarkers in difficult samples remains an elusive target. The goal stated above has applications in many fields including medical diagnostics, biological research, and threat reduction. The current decade alone has seen the development of a need to rapidly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents. For example, current methods for the detection of anthrax are grossly inadequate for a variety of reasons including long incubation time (5 days from time of exposure to onset of symptoms) and non-specific ('flu-like') symptoms. When five employees of the United State Senate were exposed to B. anthracis in the mail (2001), only one patient had a confirmed diagnosis before death. Since then, sandwich immunoassays using both colorimetric and fluorescence detectors have been developed for key components of the anthrax lethal toxin, namely protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and the edema factor [Mourez 2001]. While these platforms were successful in assays against anthrax toxins, the sensitivity was poor. Furthermore, no single platform exists for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of mul

Xie, Hongzhi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

54

EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are within the THz spectral region providing an additional benefit. His review describes the principle, characteristics, and applications of terahertz molecular imaging, where the use of nanoparticle probes allows dramatically enhanced sensitivity. Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang and colleagues in China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and the US report exciting developments for optoelectronics [11]. They describe work on plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) where interference leads to a sharp transparency window that may be useful for nonlinear and slow-light devices, optical switching, pulse delay, and storage for optical information processing. While PIT has advantages over the cumbersome experimental systems required for EIT, it has so far been constrained to very narrow band operation. Now Zhang and colleagues present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz in the terahertz regime. 'We can foresee a historic breakthrough for science and technology through terahertz research,' concluded Masayoshi Tonouchi in his review over five years ago as momentum in the field was mounting [12]. He added, 'It is also noteworthy that THz research is built on many areas of science and the coordination of a range of disciplines is giving birth to a new science.' With the inherently multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology research it is not so strange to see the marriage of the two fields form such a fruitful partnership, as this special section highlights. References [1] Williams B S, Kumar S, Hu Q and Reno J L 2006 High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers Electron. Lett. 42 89-91 [2] Köhler R et al 2002 Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser Nature 417 156-9 [3] Mittendorff M, Xu M, Dietz R J B, K¨unzel H, Sartorius B, Schneider H, Helm M and Winnerl S 2013 Large area photoconductive THz emitter for 1.55 ?m excitation based on an InGaAs heterostructure Nanotechnology 24 214007 [4] Chen H-T, Padilla W J, Zide J M O, Gossa

Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

2013-05-01

55

Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods of climate field reconstructions (CFRs) have been introduced in the past few years to estimate past climate variability from proxy data over the Common Era. The pseudoproxy framework has become a tool of choice for assessing the relative merits of such methods. Here we compare four variants of the RegEM algorithm [Schneider, 2001], using a pseudoproxy network mimicking the key spatio-temporal characteristics of the network of Mann et al., 2008 (hereinafter M08); the methods are (1) RegEM TTLS (2) RegEM iTTLS (3) GraphEM and (4) RegEM iRIDGE. To ensure continuity with previous work [Smerdon et al. 2011], pseudoproxy series are designed as a white-noise degraded version of the simulated temperature field [Amman et al. 2007] over 850-1980 C.E. colocated with 1138 M08 proxies. We use signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of: ? (no noise), 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25, to simulate differences in proxy quality. Two novelties in pseudoproxy design are introduced here: (1) the decrease in proxy availability over time follows that found in M08, (2) a realistic case where the SNR is empirically derived from correlations between each M08 proxy and the HadCRUT3v temperature field. It is found that this realistic SNR is clustered around 0.3, but ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. Verification statistics such as RE, CE, r2, bias, standard deviation ratio and RMSE are presented for each method at each SNR level. The results show that all methods perform relatively well at SNR levels higher than 0.5, but display drastically different performances at lower SNR levels. Compared with results using pseudoproxy network of Mann et al., 1998, (hereinafter MBH98), the reconstruction skill of the M08 network is relatively improved, in line with the findings of Smerdon et al., 2011. Overall, we find that GraphEM and iTTLS tend to produce more robust estimates of the temperature field at low SNR levels than other schemes, while preserving a higher amount of variance in the target field. Ammann, C. M., F. Joos, D. S. Schimel, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, and R. A. Tomas (2007), Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, 3713-3718, doi:10.1073/pnas.0605064103. Mann, M. E., R. S. Bradley, and M. K. Hughes (1998), Global-scale temperaturepatterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries, Nature, 392, 779-787, doi:10.1038/33859. Mann, M. E., S. Rutherford, E. Wahl, and C. Ammann (2007), Robustness of proxy-based climate field reconstruction methods, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12109, doi:10.1029/2006JD008272. Mann, M. E., et al. (2008), Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 105, 13,252-13,257, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105. Schneider, T. (2001), Analysis of incomplete climate data: Estimation of mean values and covariance matrices and imputation of missing values, J. Clim., 14, 853-871, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0853: AOICDE>2.0.CO;2. Smerdon, J. E., A. Kaplan, E. Zorita, J. F. González-Rouco, and M. N. Evans (2011), Spatial performance of four climate field reconstruction methods targeting the Common Era, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11705, doi:10.1029/2011GL047372.

Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

2011-12-01

56

Interglacial climate dynamics and advanced time series analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the climate dynamics of past interglacials (IGs) helps to better assess the anthropogenically influenced dynamics of the current IG, the Holocene. We select the IG portions from the EPICA Dome C ice core archive, which covers the past 800 ka, to apply methods of statistical time series analysis (Mudelsee 2010). The analysed variables are deuterium/H (indicating temperature) (Jouzel et al. 2007), greenhouse gases (Siegenthaler et al. 2005, Loulergue et al. 2008, L¨ü thi et al. 2008) and a model-co-derived climate radiative forcing (Köhler et al. 2010). We select additionally high-resolution sea-surface-temperature records from the marine sedimentary archive. The first statistical method, persistence time estimation (Mudelsee 2002) lets us infer the 'climate memory' property of IGs. Second, linear regression informs about long-term climate trends during IGs. Third, ramp function regression (Mudelsee 2000) is adapted to look on abrupt climate changes during IGs. We compare the Holocene with previous IGs in terms of these mathematical approaches, interprete results in a climate context, assess uncertainties and the requirements to data from old IGs for yielding results of 'acceptable' accuracy. This work receives financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Project ClimSens within the DFG Research Priority Program INTERDYNAMIK) and the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme). References Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Cattani O, Dreyfus G, Falourd S, Hoffmann G, Minster B, Nouet J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Fischer H, Gallet JC, Johnsen S, Leuenberger M, Loulergue L, Luethi D, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Raisbeck G, Raynaud D, Schilt A, Schwander J, Selmo E, Souchez R, Spahni R, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP, Stenni B, Stocker TF, Tison JL, Werner M, Wolff EW (2007) Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317:793. Köhler P, Bintanja R, Fischer H, Joos F, Knutti R, Lohmann G, Masson-Delmotte V (2010) What caused Earth's temperature variations during the last 800,000 years? Data-based evidence on radiative forcing and constraints on climate sensitivity. Quaternary Science Reviews 29:129. Loulergue L, Schilt A, Spahni R, Masson-Delmotte V, Blunier T, Lemieux B, Barnola J-M, Raynaud D, Stocker TF, Chappellaz J (2008) Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453:383. L¨ü thi D, Le Floch M, Bereiter B, Blunier T, Barnola J-M, Siegenthaler U, Raynaud D, Jouzel J, Fischer H, Kawamura K, Stocker TF (2008) High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present. Nature 453:379. Mudelsee M (2000) Ramp function regression: A tool for quantifying climate transitions. Computers and Geosciences 26:293. Mudelsee M (2002) TAUEST: A computer program for estimating persistence in unevenly spaced weather/climate time series. Computers and Geosciences 28:69. Mudelsee M (2010) Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Springer, Dordrecht, 474 pp. [www.manfredmudelsee.com/book] Siegenthaler U, Stocker TF, Monnin E, L¨ü thi D, Schwander J, Stauffer B, Raynaud D, Barnola J-M, Fischer H, Masson-Delmotte V, Jouzel J (2005) Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310:1313.

Mudelsee, Manfred; Bermejo, Miguel; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

2013-04-01

57

On the linkages between the global carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art earth system models used for long-term climate projections are becoming ever more complex in terms of not only spatial resolution but also the number of processes. Biogeochemical processes are beginning to be incorporated into these models. The motivation of this study is to quantify how climate projections are influenced by biogeochemical feedbacks. In the climate modeling community, it is virtually accepted that climate-Carbon (C) cycle feedbacks accelerate the future warming (Cox et al. 2000; Friedlingstein et al. 2006). It has been demonstrated that the Nitrogen (N) cycle suppresses climate-C cycle feedbacks (Thornton et al. 2009). On the contrary, biogeochemical studies show that the coupled C-N-Phosphorus (P) cycles are intimately interlinked via biosphere and the N-P cycles amplify C cycle feedbacks (Ver et al. 1999). The question as to whether the N-P cycles enhance or attenuate C cycle feedbacks is debated and has a significant implication for projections of future climate. We delve into this problem by using the Terrestrial-Ocean-aTmosphere Ecosystem Model 3 (TOTEM3), a globally-aggregated C-N-P cycle box model. TOTEM3 is a process-based model that describes the biogeochemical reactions and physical transports involving these elements in the four domains of the Earth system: land, atmosphere, coastal ocean, and open ocean. TOTEM3 is a successor of earlier TOTEM models (Ver et al. 1999; Mackenzie et al. 2011). In our presentation, we provide an overview of fundamental features and behaviors of TOTEM3 such as the mass balance at the steady state and the relaxation time scales to various types of perturbation. We also show preliminary results to investigate how the N-P cycles influence the behavior of the C cycle. References Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ (2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184-187. Friedlingstein P, Cox P, Betts R, Bopp L, von Bloh W, Brovkin V, Cadule P, Doney S, Eby M, Fung I, Bala G, John J, Jones C, Joos F, Kato T, Kawamiya M, Knorr W, Lindsay K, Matthews HD, Raddatz T, Rayner P, Reick C, Roeckner E, Schnitzler KG, Schnur R, Strassmann K, Weaver AJ, Yoshikawa C, Zeng N (2006) Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 19, 3337-3353. Mackenzie FT, De Carlo EH, Lerman A (2011) Coupled C, N, P, and O biogeochemical cycling at the land-ocean interface. In: Wolanski E, McLusky DS (eds) Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, vol 5. Academic Press, Waltham, pp 317-342. Thornton PE, Doney SC, Lindsay K, Moore JK, Mahowald N, Randerson JT, Fung I, Lamarque JF, Feddema JJ, Lee YH (2009) Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Biogeosciences, 6, 2099-2120. Ver LMB, Mackenzie FT, Lerman A (1999) Biogeochemical responses of the carbon cycle to natural and human perturbations: Past, present, and future. American Journal of Science, 299, 762-801.

Tanaka, Katsumasa; Mackenzie, Fred; Bouchez, Julien; Knutti, Reto

2013-04-01

58

A new graphical version of STROTAB: The analysis and fitting of singlet triplet spectra of asymmetric top molecules in the prolate or oblate limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original version of STROTAB has been modified to run under Microsoft Windows using the C++ programming language. The new version takes full advantage of the Microsoft Foundation Classes available within the Microsoft Visual C++ Version 6 development environment. Specifically, windows can be created that edit the input file, summarize the results of the least-squares fit, display the calculated and observed spectra, display whole or partial sections of the calculated spectra as a stick or Gaussian de-convoluted spectrum. A listing of the rotational quantum numbers in the cases (a) and (b) limits for each of the displayed lines is provided. A branch annotating routine provides a quick visual guide to the assignment of the spectrum. A new eigenvalue sorting method has been added as an option that complements the existing method based on the eigenvector coefficients. The new sorting method has eliminated some difficulties that may arise using the existing “Least Ambiguous Method”. The program has been extended to handle near-oblate asymmetric tops using a type IIIr representation.New version summaryTitle of program: STROTAB Version number: 2 Catalogue identifier:ADCA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADCA_v2_0 Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Reference in CPC to previous version: 93 (1996) 241 264 Catalog identifier of previous version: ADCA Authors of previous version: R.H. Judge, E.D. Womeldorf, R.A. Morris, D.E. Shimp, D.J. Clouthier, D.L. Joo, D.C. Moule Does the new version supersede the original program: Yes Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Pentium Xenon, Pentium Pro and Later Operating systems or monitors under which program has been tested: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP Programming language used in the new version: ANSI C, C++, Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:11?913 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2?816?652 Memory required to execute with typical data: 7 Meg No of bits in a word: 16 No of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: ˜3.2 MB (compressed) Distribution format: zip file Additional keywords:near oblate top, bootstrap eigenvalue sorting, graphical environment, band contour Nature of physical problem: The least-squares/band contour fitting of the singlet triplet spectra of asymmetric tops of orthorhombic symmetry using a basis set appropriate to the symmetric top limit (prolate or oblate) of the molecule in either Hund's case (a) or case (b) coupling situations. Method of solution: The calculation of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues remains unchanged from the earlier version. An option to sort the eigenvalues of the current J by fitting them to regular progressions formed from earlier J values (bootstrap method) can be used as an option in place of the existing method based on eigenvector coefficients. Reasons for the new version: The earlier version can only handle oblate tops by diagonalizing using the prolate limit. This has turned out to be unacceptable. An improved method of sorting eigenvalues under certain conditions is also needed. A graphical interface has been added to ease the use of the program. Summary of revisions: The Hamiltonian can now be constructed in a limit appropriate the representation for of the molecule. Sorting by an alternate method is now offered. Numerous graphical features have been added. Restrictions on complexity of the problem: The rotational quantum number restrictions are J?255 and K (or P) ?127. The allowed transition frequency minus the band origin frequency must be in the range of ±10?000 cm-1. Up to five decimal places may be reported. The number of observed lines is limited by the dynamic memory and the amount of disk space available. Only molecules of symmetry D2h, D2 and C2v can be accommodated in this version. Only constants of

Kodet, John; Judge, Richard H.

2007-05-01

59

EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two-dimensional cold atmospheric plasma jet array for uniform treatment of large-area

Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

2009-11-01